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1. Minimal Techno remix #1[click "buy" for free download full 320kb]

Minimal Techno remix #1[click

minimal techno track free 01. Jack Back Feat. David Guetta, Nicky Romero, Sia - Wild One Two (Original Mix) 02. Ivan Gough & Feenixpawl feat. Georgi Kay - In My Mind (Axwell Mix) 03. Nicky Romero - Generation 303 (Original Mix) 04. Madeon - Icarus (Original Mix) 05. Bingo Players - L'Amour (Original Mix) 06. Claptone - Cream (Original Mix) 07. Qulinez - Troll (Original Mix) 08. TJR - Funky Vodka (Original Mix) 09. Skrillex & The Doors - Breakn' A Sweat (Zedd Remix) 10. Sander Van Doorn - Chasin' (Original Mix) 11. David Jones - E Samba (Club Mix) 12. David Jones - Heya (Original Mix) 13. Larry Gee - Yo Mamma (Original Mix) (Cut) 14. Starkillers & Dmitry KO - Don't Hold Back (Original Mix) 15. Zenbi - Double Trouble (Stefano Noferini Remix) 16. Hard Rock Sofa - Quasar (Original Mix) 17. Datsik, Kill The Noise - Lightspeed (Original Mix) 18. Otto Knows - Million Voices (Original Mix) 19. Afrojack, Shermanology - Can't Stop Me (Club Mix) 20. Antillas feat. Fiora - Damaged (Main Mix) 21. Wolfgang Gartner - There And Back (Original Mix) 22. Seamus Haji, Cevin Fisher - I Love The Music (Manuel De La Mare, Alex Kenji Remix) 23. Laidback Luke, Arno Cost & Norman Doray – Trilogy (Original Mix) 24. Adam Port - Someone To Love (Original Mix) 25. Nari & Milani vs Maurizio Gubellini - Up (Instrumental) 26. Adana Twins - Everyday (Original Mix) 27. Joe Garston - That's What She Said (Original Mix) 28. Huxley - Let It Go (Original Mix) 29. Coldplay - Charlie Brown (Dave Aude Remix) 30. Tuccillo & Kiki Navarro feat. Amor - Lovery (Original Mix) 31. Mat's Mattara feat Rockman - Let's Party (Instrumental Mix) 32. Lifelike & Kris Menace - Discopolis (David Jones Remix) 33. Mario Ochoa - The Indian Express (Original Mix) 34. DubVision - All By Myself (Original Mix) 35. Disco Stu & John Monkman - Don't Have To Be Beautiful (Original Mix) 36. Gel Abril & Andrea Oliva - Scene (Original Mix) 37. Pirupa - Party Non Stop (Vocal) 38. Sebastien Drums, Niles Mason - French Rules (Muzzaik Remix) 39. Btsound - Sunshine (Federico Scavo Remix) 40. Peruz, Mat's Mattara - Mono (Mat's Mattara, Peruz Mix) 41. Tommy Trash - Cascade (Original Mix) 42. Richard Grey - Lady (Federico Scavo Remix) 43. Luigi Rocca & Manuel De La Mare - Opa-Locka (Original Club Mix) 44. Pavel Petrov - Koral (Metodi Hristov Remix) 45. Mowgli Feat. Amber Jolene - Back In The Day (Original Mix) 46. Noisia - Diplodocus (Kill The Noise Remix) 47. Feed Me - One Click Headshot (Original Mix) 48. Sian, Mladen Tomic - Front Pocket (Nicole Moudaber Remix) 49. DJ PP, Silversix - Fucking Amazing (Original Mix) 50. John Dahlback - Life (Original Mix) 51. Nari & Milani vs. Maurizio Gubellini - Slash (Original Mix) 52. Kellerkind - Backflash (Original Mix) 53. Crazibiza - Hard (Original Mix) 54. Zedd - Stars Come Out (Datsik Remix) 55. Claptone - Good To You (Original Mix) 56. Claude VonStroke, Jaw - Le Fantome (Original Mix) 57. Addy Van Der Zwan, Hithouse, Jerry Beke - Jack To The Sound Of The Underground 2012 (Addy van der Zwan, Jerry Beke Mix) 58. Nicky Romero - Toulouse (Original Mix) 59. Maetrik - The Reason (Original Mix) 60. Jay Lumen - The Drummer (Original Mix) 61. Stefano Noferini - Airscape (Original Mix) 62. Macromism - Rave nu world (Original Mix) 63. Gareth Emery Feat. Christina Novelli - Concrete Angel (Original Mix) 64. Todd Terje - Inspector Norse (Original Mix) 65. Trent Cantrelle - Night Like This (Original Mix) 66. Elef - Tales Of 88 (Huxley Remix) 67. Adana Twins - Strange (Original Mix) 68. Laura Jones - Inner Place (Original Mix) 69. Pan-Pot & G-Tech - Gravity (Original Mix) 70. David Jones - Gigolo (Les Bijoux Remix) 71. Coldplay - Paradise (Fedde Le Grand Remix) 72. Thugfucker, Tale Of Us, Life And Death - Morgana (Original Mix) 73. Rene Amesz & Ruell - Hope (Original Club Mix) 74. Firebeatz - Where's Your Head At (Original Mix 75. Dani Casarano, Felipe Valenzuela, Demian Muller - Hole In The Middle (Original Mix) 76. Hardwell - Spaceman (Original Version) 77. Rebel - Hearing Voices (Original Mix) 78. Mousse T - Horny (Radio Slave, Thomas Gandey Just 17 Mix) 79. Mr Bizz - Bamboo (Original Mix) 80. Louie FRESCO - So Good (Original Mix) 81. Uner - Cocoua (Original Mix) 82. Knife Party - Internet Friends (Original Mix) 83. Jay Lumen - Whatever You Want (Original Mix) 84. Mat Zo - Bipolar (Original Mix) 85. Roger Sanchez, Sidney Samson - Flashing Lights (Kid Massive Remix) 86. 501 - Headrush feat. Belle Humble (Original Mix) 87. Mark Fanciulli - Sacrifice (Original Mix) 88. Robbie Rivera (feat. JES) – Turn It Around (Robbie Rivera's Juicy Beach Mix) 89. Die & Break - Grand Funk Hustle (Original Mix) 90. Gavin Herlihy - Witching Hour (Original Mix) 91. Avesta - Arena (Original Mix) 92. Zedd - Slam The Door (Original Mix) 93. Lucky Date - I Want You (Original Mix) 94. Umek - Sunday at El Row (Original Mix) 95. Stereo Express - Shadoorack (Original Mix) 96. Paul Thomas & Weekend Heroes - Morena (Original Mix) 97. Neuroxyde & Sisko Electrofanatik - Funkalistic (Original Mix) (Cut) 98. Unknown Artist - What You Need (Coat Of Arms Mix) 99. Chuckie - Together (Original Club Mix) 100. Pachanga Boys - Time (Orginal Mix) 1. Nico Dacido & Chrome - Propan (Original Mix) [7:33] 2. Makarov - Give It A Beat [4:7] 3. Spark Taberner & Oliver Kucera - Anoxic Zone [6:13] 4. Perr0 - L!ke That [11:33] 5. Popperman - Enola Gay [5:3] 6. Minitronix & Funky Brize - Out Of Space (Original Mix) [6:52] 7. Alex Brick - Cricis [4:18] 8. Vincent Dacosta - Atmosphere [5:24] 9. Eugene Navatta - Devil Inside (Original Mix) [10:30] 10. Pasquale Maassen - Zypameth [6:45] 11. Alexander Kvitta - Annunaki [6:18] 12. Onassis - At War (Dj T. A. G. Remix) [5:43] 13. Basscraft - Night Rush 2.0 [6:6] 14. Aston Martinez - Seduction (Mixx Labs Remix) [6:5] 15. Dj Emeriq - She Likes It [8:15] 16. Zippie - The Other Face [8:56] 17. Patrice W. - Stop Talking (Teequ Remix) [6:23] 18. Schrei Leben - Looking Monsters (Original Mix) [6:36] 19. Richard Hanno - Land Of The Free (Original Mix) [8:8] 20. Jmix - White Widow [8:16] 21. Benny Lehmann - Booster (Original Mix) [4:37] 22. Slavo Mir - Cultum Deum (Original Mix) [8:32] 23. Freshbass - Rainbow Fixing (Original) [8:56] 24. Ziv Avriel & Diablo - Tired Awake (Original Mix) [7:10] 25. Oleg Shumand - Techno Kolt (Original) [7:58] 26. Pete Van Payne - Pyramids [6:20] 27. Pete Van Payne - Circularism [7:51] 28. Ben Quarman - Alpha 16 [6:53] 29. D-Noise - Last Legs (Original Mix) [6:42] 30. Stana & Qbass - Purple Shit (Johann Stone Remix) [6:49] 31. Ground Spain - Techno Love (Original Mix) [7:12] 32. Brog Dah - Farrow [7:5] 33. Romanolito - Ambush (Original Mix) [5:55] 34. Whilo - Holy Shit (Original Mix) [9:10] 35. Steve Haze - Allright Sex (Trs Remix) [7:55] 1. Adapter - Another Day (Original Mix) underground (6:45) 2. Adapter - Coincidence (Original Mix) underground (8:30) 3. Adapter - Ussio (Original Mix) underground (8:18) 4. Afrobeat Aka Massa - Green Days (Alex Costa Remix) Formula Recs Digital Factomania (7:39) 5. Alessan Main - Tesitura (Original Mix) Station Group Records (6:47) 6. Alessan Main - Voces y Cristales (Original Mix) Station Group Records (6:54) 7. Alex Celler - Sourire Du Sphinx (Original Mix) Leftroom Limited (10:18) 8. Alex Mine - Me & My Soul (Original Mix) Musex Industries (6:32) 9. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Original Mix) Musex Industries (7:01) 10. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Supersobresaturado Remix) Musex Industries (5:14) 11. Alex Tepper, Min, Chriss Vogt - Bourbon Street Swing (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:58) 12. Alexander Gallomoretti - Under The Skin & Over The Head (Original Mix) SDK Klub (6:33) 13. Artful Dice - Early Night (Original Mix) Zelos Deep (6:25) 14. Bas Struik - BM12 (Original Mix) Nightworx (7:23) 15. Bunte Bummler - I Cant Tell You (Original Mix) Mono Recordings (6:59) 16. Bunte Bummler - Mama Said Its Right (Original Mix) Mono Recordings (6:36) 17. Cala Vega - Viva Castro (Nico Camargo Remix) Revenge Records (8:07) 18. Carlo Cavalli, Eros Locatelli - Mexico (Dany Cohiba Remix) Carlo Cavalli Music Group (6:55) 19. Carlo Cavalli, Roby Star - Marimba (Club Mix) Carlo Cavalli Music Group (6:45) 20. Catz 'n Dogz - Mass Confusion (Original Mix) Pets Recordings (5:23) 21. Chapeau Claque - Last Dance (Enliven Deep Acoustics & Kenny Leaven Remix) UNA Music (8:49) 22. Chapeau Claque - Last Dance (Mathias Kaden What Do You Feel Remix) UNA Music (7:54) 23. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Alexis Valencia Remix) LED Records (7:10) 24. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Andres Blows Remix) LED Records (6:17) 25. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Jairo Delli Remix) LED Records (7:37) 26. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Joan Ibanez & Tony Roguez Remix) LED Records (6:16) 27. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Luigi Laner Remix) LED Records (6:12) 28. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Original Mix) LED Records (6:45) 29. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Santi Lafonte Remix) LED Records (8:20) 30. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Crystal Meth Barbie (Original Mix) Highgrade Records Germany (6:59) 31. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Original Mix) Highgrade Records Germany (7:45) 32. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Todd Bodines Bass Edit) Highgrade Records Germany (7:11) 33. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Tom Clark Remix) Highgrade Records Germany (8:29) 34. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Dirty Money Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (7:19) 35. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Illusions Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (7:13) 36. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Lacusta Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (8:42) 37. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - You Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (6:24) 38. Dave Angel & Ken Ishii - Type E (Temma-Teje Remix) Plaza In Crowd (6:56) 39. Dave Angel - Counter Wave (Jamie Anderson Remix V1) Plaza In Crowd (9:13) 40. Dave Angel - Counter Wave (Jamie Anderson Remix V2) Plaza In Crowd (7:06) 41. Dave Angel - On Point (Marco Bailey Remix) Plaza In Crowd (5:48) 42. Dave Angel - Zulu (Satoshi Fumi Remix) Plaza In Crowd (7:36) 43. Dennis Reich - People Run (Original Mix) Simple As That Records (7:07) 44. Dennis Reich - People Run (Sven Tasnadi Remix) Simple As That Records (8:24) 45. Dennis Reich - Queen Jacobi (Kollektiv Ost Remix) Simple As That Records (8:20) 46. Dennis Reich - Queen Jacobi (Original Mix) Simple As That Records (7:00) 47. DFlame - Black Musique (Angel Navarro Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:12) 48. DFlame - Black Musique (Ovidi Adlert Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:11) 49. DFlame - Black Musique (Rob Lamberti Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:44) 50. DJ Simi - Big Rip (Matt Star Remix) Kling Klong (7:06) 51. DJ Simi - Big Rip (Original Mix) Kling Klong (7:55) 52. Dosem - Replicants (Edu Imbernon and Coyu Remix) Suara (7:40) 53. Dosem - Replicants (Johannes Heil Barefoot Remix) Suara (8:39) 54. Dosem - Replicants (Original Mix) Suara (6:39) 55. DrBerger - Housekeeping (Rich Vom Dorf Remix) Tanzbar digital (6:37) 56. El Coyote - Santisimo (Instrumental) Ican Productions (5:26) 57. El Coyote - Santisimo featuring Iris Cepeda (Vocal Mix) Ican Productions (7:10) 58. GgDeX - Disco Wombat (Mario Piu Revisited) Kling Klong (7:27) 59. Gianni Ruocco - Medejean (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (7:10) 60. Gina, Bas Amro - Everywhere - Chris Lattner Remix Katchuli (6:13) 61. Grafiti - Fascination (Dance Disorder Remix) Armada Music (8:20) 62. Guille Placencia, DartDaKman - Tour of London (Original Mix) Looping Records (6:46) 63. House Head - Pacha Desert (Original Mix) Subtone Records (7:52) 64. Ian Dunlop - Vier (Original Mix) Diva Records Italy (6:52) 65. Ian Dunlop - Vier (Ronan Teague Remix) Diva Records Italy (7:30) 66. iMotion - Red Sponge (Original Mix) Soul Industries (6:56) 67. Javi Rodenas, Harry Jason - Bitch Up (Original Mix) Micronecta Records (8:07) 68. Javi Rodenas, Harry Jason - Bitch Up (Original Non Guitar Mix) Micronecta Records (16:49) 69. Jesse Voorn & Pink Fluid - Simply Magic (Fine Touch Remix) Sound Division (5:53) 70. John Lagora - Dink (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (7:20) 71. Jon Rundell - Dubno (Cristian Varela Remix) Pornographic Recordings (5:39) 72. Jon Rundell - Tom Foolery (Original Mix) Pornographic Recordings (7:12) 73. JR Disco - Streets (Banana Groovz Funky Tek Streetz Remix) 4Disco Records (6:08) 74. JUST2 - Fuck Spresso (Original Mix) Trebol Records (7:17) 75. JUST2 - Peace And Quiet (Original Mix) Trebol Records (8:43) 76. Kaum - Manhattan Party (Ahautzab Remix) Music Things (8:11) 77. Marc Rempel - Voices In My Head (Original Mix) Kuess Mich Vinyl (7:47) 78. Marc Romboy - Feelin' (Christian Smith Remix) Tronic (7:20) 79. Marc Romboy - Feelin' (Original Mix) Tronic (7:09) 80. Marcio Kantana - Trenceologie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (8:12) 81. Marcisco, Mikel B - Some (Original Mix) Twisted Shuffle (6:19) 82. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Shakey Solar (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (5:13) 83. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Stars & Shines (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (7:04) 84. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Why Don't You Answer (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (6:44) 85. Marty Lightbody - Only Dancin (Original Mix) Audiablo Records Ltd (7:22) 86. Min, Chriss Vogt - A Matter Of Taste (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:51) 87. Min, Chriss Vogt - All People (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:10) 88. Min, Chriss Vogt - Barcelona City Hop (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (3:56) 89. Min, Chriss Vogt - Comfort Me (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:06) 90. Min, Chriss Vogt - Lazy Floozies SmokinPot (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:37) 91. Min, Chriss Vogt - T Raumstation (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:45) 92. Min, Chriss Vogt - Walkin Away (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:10) 93. Min, Chriss Vogt - With N Egg Feat Wipa (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:49) 94. Min, Ehyun, Chriss Vogt - The Revenge Of The Phunky Ho (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:32) 95. Min, Thorsten Graeber - Open Mind (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:39) 96. Mr Fluff - Chasing Love (Original Mix) Pixelated Waves (6:08) 97. NDKj - Step Back (Original Mix) 303Lovers (6:34) 98. Nick Shepherd - Romantische Strasse (Original Mix) Undeliving Recordings (7:06) 99. Nora En Pure - Pasadena (Original Mix) Enormous Tunes (6:50) 100. NotoMash - Moon Dancer (Original Mix) Unt Records (8:43) 101. Ovr Kill - Ink On My Arm (Douglas Greed Remix) Kling Klong (6:51) 102. Ovr Kill - Ink On My Arm (Original) Kling Klong (7:18) 103. Paul Loraine - Wish You Were (Original Mix) Vitalik Recordings (6:57) 104. Paul Loraine - Wish You Were (Soulade Reconstruction) Vitalik Recordings (7:04) 105. Rhomtec - Umbra (Original Mix) ToolBox House (7:13) 106. Robbert Mendez - You Are DJ (Instrumental) We Love Sounds (7:15) 107. Robbert Mendez - You Are DJ (Vocal) We Love Sounds (7:15) 108. Room 202 - Ghana (Ant Brooks Remix) Redbox Records (7:17) 109. Room 202 - Ghana (Original Mix) Redbox Records (7:40) 110. Sanya Shelest, EscApe - Crazy Town (Original Mix) Skilled Records (6:56) 111. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Analogue System (Abby J Remix) Pild Records (7:39) 112. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Analogue System (Original Mix) Pild Records (7:41) 113. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Funky Peolple (Original Mix) Pild Records (8:36) 114. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Funky Peolple (Ugur Project Remix) Pild Records (7:13) 115. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Hunting Party (Original Mix) Pild Records (9:20) 116. Sebastien Leger - Wesh Wesh Wesh (FormatB Remix) Mistakes Music (6:52) 117. Sebastien Leger - Wesh Wesh Wesh (Original Mix) Mistakes Music (7:24) 118. Sergio Pardo - Lucian Night (Original Mix) Rene Records (7:39) 119. Sergio Pardo - Tribal Party (Original Mix) Rene Records (7:12) 120. Simone Marmellosi - Passion Before Money (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (7:48) 121. Simone Marmellosi - Wearing Black (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (8:24) 122. Smoke Sykes - Pumpin Jumpin (Dandy Hungary & Invoice Remix) Yoruba Grooves (6:50) 123. Smoke Sykes - Pumpin Jumpin (Original Mix) Yoruba Grooves (7:41) 124. Smoke Sykes - Snatch (Dandy Hungary & Invoice Remix) Yoruba Grooves (7:16) 125. Smoke Sykes - Snatch (Original Mix) Yoruba Grooves (7:29) 126. Sofa Tunes - Try (Original Mix) Wanda Recordings (4:59) 127. Solunamanalia - Salvadore (Original Mix) Dutchie Music (5:59) 128. Soulade - On The Side (Paul Loraine Remix) Vitalik Recordings (5:09) 129. Stefano Tropeano - Betty Blue (Original Mix) Rococo Records (7:34) 130. Stefano Tropeano - Flash Mob (Original Mix) Rococo Records (7:52) 131. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Alex Roque & Marcelo Vak Remix) Deep Xperience (7:17) 132. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Original Mix) Deep Xperience (7:56) 133. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Pille & Lushi Remix) Deep Xperience (7:18) 134. UMEK, Olivier Giacomotto - This Sound (Original Mix) 1605 (7:19) 135. Vlada Asanin - Manos Arriba (Original Mix) Definitive Recordings (7:08) 136. Yuman Grogorov - Dorothea (Original Mix) Code2 Records (6:11) 137. Yuman Grogorov - Tempelhofer Damm (Original Mix) Code2 Records (6:23) Techno 1. Alan Live - Intro of Dawn Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (4:48) 2. Alan Live - Post Mortem Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (5:58) 3. Alan Live - Traum Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (7:19) 4. Alex DElia, Nihil Young - Techno Is Ft ANNA (Alex Di Stefano Remix) Frequenza (7:11) 5. Alex DElia, Nihil Young - Techno Is Ft ANNA (Norbert Davenport & MGJ Remix) Frequenza (7:44) 6. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Fat Cat Ilogical Remix) Musex Industries (8:47) 7. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Inaki Kreator Remix) Musex Industries (7:01) 8. Alexey Kuznetsov - Positive (Original Mix) MK60 Records (7:10) 9. Andreas Bergmann - Undo (Original Mix) Moral Fiber (8:04) 10. Andreas Bergmann - Undo (Petar Cvetkovic Remix) Moral Fiber (7:31) 11. Andy P - Vault (Original Mix) Subwoofer Records (7:31) 12. Bas Thomas - Monster In My Closet (Original Mix) Naked Lunch (6:00) 13. Ben Hills - Moog Vs Strat (Berger Mix) Nachtexpress Records (6:44) 14. Ben Hills - Most Wanted (Klingberger Mix) Nachtexpress Records (8:26) 15. Big Show - Here I Am (Dich Remix) Raccoon Records (6:41) 16. Big Show - Here I Am (Micube Remix) Raccoon Records (7:33) 17. Big Show - Here I Am (Original Mix) Raccoon Records (7:56) 18. Big Show - Here I Am (UniTeQ Remix) Raccoon Records (7:22) 19. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Kasey Remix) Harthouse (6:54) 20. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Mazel Source Remix) Harthouse (6:44) 21. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Reblok Acid Remix) Harthouse (6:36) 22. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Tim Engelhardt Nachtglanz Remix) Harthouse (5:51) 23. Carlo Whale - Obvious (Original) Kan Records (8:22) 24. Carlo Whale - Pluck (Original) Kan Records (7:00) 25. Clouds - Optic (Jesper Dahlback Remix) Turbo Recordings (6:16) 26. Clouds - Optic (Original Mix) Turbo Recordings (5:47) 27. David Prap, Willy Real - Lost In Space (Dehix Remix) Inlab Recordings (7:50) 28. David Prap, Willy Real - Lost In Space (Original Mix) Inlab Recordings (6:55) 29. DavidChristoph - Summertime (Original Mix) Nachtstrom Schallplatten (7:56) 30. Deface - Droid (Original Mix) CRUX (6:32) 31. Deface - FAH Q (Original Mix) CRUX (5:20) 32. DKuhl - Sahara (Original Mix) Varianz Records (8:25) 33. DKuhl - Weltenbummler (Original Mix) Varianz Records (7:45) 34. Doctor Trash - Thats The K (Original) Klender Limited (8:07) 35. Ferhat Albayrak - Requiem (Lance Blaise Remix) Jeton Records (8:11) 36. Ferhat Albayrak - Requiem (Original Mix) Jeton Records (5:47) 37. IDigger - Tripping (Original Mix) Eastar Records (6:44) 38. Ivano Bellini, Gianni Ruocco - Rodadero (Original Mix) Black & Purple Recordings (7:43) 39. Jens Guetschow - Unforgotten (Deep Version) KW Music (5:39) 40. Jericho Knox - The Way I Am (Original Mix) Crossing Over Records (7:40) 41. Jim Rivers - Airport Vultures (Original Mix) Intec (7:13) 42. Jim Rivers - Bells Feat Joash (Original Mix) Intec (4:29) 43. Jim Rivers - Miles Away (Original Mix) Intec (3:21) 44. Jim Rivers - Nearly There (Original Mix) Intec (2:57) 45. Jim Rivers - On The Line (Original Mix) Intec (6:53) 46. Jim Rivers - Phoenix (Original Mix) Intec (5:55) 47. Jim Rivers - Product (Original Mix) Intec (3:11) 48. Jim Rivers - Sleepless In Detroit (Original Mix) Intec (5:52) 49. Jim Rivers - Tangent (Original Mix) Intec (6:22) 50. Jim Rivers - The Seventh Degree (Original Mix) Intec (5:44) 51. Jim Rivers - We Can Do This All Night (Original Mix) Intec (8:02) 52. Jim Rivers - When I Needed You Feat Mark Underdown (Original Mix) Intec (6:50) 53. Jim Rivers - Your Love (Original Mix) Intec (6:32) 54. John Lagora - Down (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (8:54) 55. John Lagora - Down (Ramon Tapia Remix) Mindshake Records (8:08) 56. John Lagora - Maersk (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (8:14) 57. Jon Rundell - Dubno (Original Mix) Pornographic Recordings (8:15) 58. Julian Brand - Paranormal (Original Mix) Analogeffekt Records (6:48) 59. Juno 6 - chain (Original Mix) Broque (3:55) 60. Juno 6 - darkonia (Original Mix) Broque (9:04) 61. Juno 6 - deadlock (Original Mix) Broque (8:07) 62. Juno 6 - state of flux (Original Mix) Broque (6:41) 63. Juno 6 - sub rosa (Original Mix) Broque (7:46) 64. Kardinal, Lowkey - Acid Slug (Original Mix) AFULAB (8:18) 65. Kardinal, Lowkey - Purple Wave (Exclusive Track) AFULAB (8:35) 66. Kardinal, Lowkey - Spangle (Original Mix) AFULAB (8:43) 67. Marcio Kantana - Dialogie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (6:34) 68. Mark Dekoda - Music For The People (Original Mix) Bosphorus Underground Recordings (6:35) 69. Milto Serano - Benoized (Thorsten Heiser Remix) Free Spirit Records (8:19) 70. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Antoni Bios Remix) VOL0101 Records (7:18) 71. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Fuskys Dark Tribe Tool) VOL0101 Records (5:58) 72. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Original Mix) VOL0101 Records (6:49) 73. MILU - Marijuana (Original Mix) Chocolate Dealer Records (5:00) 74. NDKj - Step Back (Luigi Rocca Edit) 303Lovers (6:35) 75. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (bandpass Remix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:06) 76. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (Original Mix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:16) 77. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (Smallrice Remix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:00) 78. Oleg Mass - Fragment Scrap (Original Mix) Einwanderer Records (7:05) 79. Ormatie - Only (Original Mix) Hope Recordings (5:27) 80. Perc - Gonkle (Bitten By The Black Dog) Perc Trax (6:22) 81. Perc - My Head Is Slowly Exploding (Ancient Methods Remix) Perc Trax (7:03) 82. Perc - Start Chopping (Tommy Four Seven Remix) Perc Trax (5:53) 83. Perc - You Saw Me (Sigha & Truss Remix) Perc Trax (7:46) 84. Pete Lopez, Marlon D - Shes Obsessed (Antranigs Ocd Instrumental) Lost In House (8:07) 85. Psyk - Second Trail (Original Mix) Figure (6:19) 86. Psyk - Third Trail (Original Mix) Figure (6:19) 87. Reagen - Synthtetic (Original) Microfreak Records (7:27) 88. Rob Belleville - Close The Distance (Original Mix) purebox (6:11) 89. Rob Belleville - From Midnight til Daylight (Original Mix) purebox (6:03) 90. Rob Belleville - Massive Melting (Original Mix) purebox (6:11) 91. Rob Belleville - Massive Melting (Ryogo Yamamoris Purebox Mix) purebox (6:16) 92. Simon Wish - Dreams (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:46) 93. Simon Wish - Over This Lay feat Jesse Michael (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:14) 94. Simon Wish - Passion (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:05) 95. Slad - Notch (Original Mix) Technoland (7:03) 96. Slad - Third Cabinet (Original Mix) Technoland (6:25) 97. Soundmanipulator - Una Preva (Bruno Ledesma & Lucas Ezequiel) NuLabel (9:01) 98. Soundmanipulator - Una Preva (Original Mix) NuLabel (6:03) 99. Soundmanipulator - Want To Play A Game (Original Mix) NuLabel (6:24) 100. Takuya Yamashita - Mars (Original Mix) Outpost Recordings (7:15) 101. Tebler - Komputaa (Original) FIR Records (5:34) 102. The Micronaut - Schleie (MollonoBass Remix) Acker Records (4:49) 103. UMEK, Olivier Giacomotto - This Sound (Sasha Carassi Phobiq Remix) 1605 (6:40) 104. Vince Noog - Vision (Original Mix) purebox (6:48) 105. Vince Noog - Vision (Ryogo Yamamoris Mix) purebox (7:25) 106. Vlada Asanin - Monkey Business (Original Mix) Definitive Recordings (6:06 Minimal 1. Acetato 3, Diezzera - Im Loco (Original Mix) Attary Records (7:39) 2. Acetato 3, Lado B - Minimalna (Original Mix) Attary Records (5:57) 3. Acetato 3, Lado B - Start Game (Original Mix) Attary Records (7:00) 4. Alberto la Torre - First Pop (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:27) 5. Alberto la Torre - Invisible (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:04) 6. Alberto la Torre - Wilderness (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (7:21) 7. Bjoern Efinger - Tropical Drums (Jule Grasz Remix) Starcake Records (6:14) 8. Bjoern Efinger - Tropical Drums (Original Mix) Starcake Records (7:39) 9. Cmore Trix - The Wiggler (Glitter Remix) 4slash4 (6:01) 10. Cmore Trix - The Wiggler (Original Mix) 4slash4 (5:09) 11. Dago DJ - Black Jungle (Endy DJ) Drugstore Records (5:40) 12. Dave Angel & Ken Ishii - Type E (Shin Nishimura Remix) Plaza In Crowd (7:18) 13. Dirt, Nail - Bishop (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:07) 14. Dirt, Nail - Pleasing Plow (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:43) 15. Dirt, Nail - Radio (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:35) 16. Djafar - Rich And Rush (Original) Wald Und Wiese (6:12) 17. Djafar - Saw Dark (Original) Wald Und Wiese (5:42) 18. Dog, off - Star Eksho (Original Mix) Digital Music Labels (6:49) 19. Dog, off - Trill Cat (Randoom Remix) Digital Music Labels (8:17) 20. Double M - Andive (Original Mix) MFR (6:28) 21. Falke, Vogelbein - Papa (Orginal) Get Minimal Music (6:37) 22. Falke, Vogelbein - Smokers (Original) Get Minimal Music (7:06) 23. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Brojanowski Daddy Remix) Der Hut (6:06) 24. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Felix Lorussos Flat Broke Remix) Der Hut (6:58) 25. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Kamika Remix) Der Hut (6:56) 26. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Original Mix) Der Hut (6:26) 27. Joe Dominguez - Boombox (Original Mix) Digital Music Labels (6:44) 28. Juan Ddd, Bedoya - Relik (Original Mix) Starten Music (7:15) 29. Luca Aversano - The Beating of Wings a Butterfly (Original Mix) Unistory Music (7:18) 30. Lyr - Kepler 9b (Original Mix) From A Tree (5:36) 31. Mac Vaughn - Funnel Cloud (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:03) 32. Mac Vaughn - This Is Just A Test Mas (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:20) 33. Marcio Kantana - Analogie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (6:31) 34. Marco Furnari - Nightmare (Original Mix) Infernal Poison Publisher (7:30) 35. Marco Furnari - Rabbithole (Original Mix) Infernal Poison Publisher (6:30) 36. Marco Sapiens - Body 2 Body (Nitro Mix) Groove On (7:29) 37. Marco Sapiens - Body 2 Body (Original Mix) Groove On (7:25) 38. Mark Dekoda - Why Dont You (Original Mix) Bosphorus Underground Recordings (6:02) 39. Matt Funkk - Elephant (Original Mix) Consumed Records (8:19) 40. Matt Funkk - Evolve (Original Mix) Consumed Records (7:42) 41. Michael Lovatt - Howler (Damolh33 Remix) Melonsound (6:30) 42. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Original Mix) Sound Lab (5:46) 43. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Weskors Dream Remix) Sound Lab (5:56) 44. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Wocky Remix) Sound Lab (4:25) 45. Mounsie - Are U Scared (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:46) 46. Mounsie - Black Russian (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:31) 47. Mounsie - Made In Turkey (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:28) 48. Oleg Mass - Interpretation (Original Mix) Einwanderer Records (6:48) 49. Ozen Nouse aka Enzo Porrino - Paper Heart (Original Mix) CibiCaldi Records (6:33) 50. Ozen Nouse aka Enzo Porrino - Sintetic Sky (Original Mix) CibiCaldi Records (7:23) 51. Paul Parsons - Peepin (Jamore Landson Remix) Tall House Digital (8:38) 52. Sadder - Dark Smile (Original Mix) Dser Records (6:52) 53. Sadder - Insane Friend (Original Mix) Dser Records (7:29) 54. Samuele Buselli - Jumping (Original Mix) Milk (5:05) 55. Samuele Buselli - Running (Original Mix) Milk (5:19) 56. Samuele Buselli - Wake Up (Original Mix) Milk (5:09) 57. Steve Fourez, Jason Kebble - Limestone (Original Mix) Syncope Recordz (6:17) 58. The Forest, Stimmhalt - Sunflower (Nemaier Remix) DLab Records (5:58) 59. The Forest, Stimmhalt - Sunflower (Original Mix) DLab Records (7:32) 1. Kamika - Conform [6:18] 2. Heinrichs & Hirtenfellner - Cut Bread [7:9] 3. RenГЁ Bourgeois - Mama San [7:34] 4. Maksim Dark - Die Intellektuelle Idee (Mike Wall Remix) [7:25] 5. Brojanowski - Let Me Be Your Lover [7:10] 6. Urla Ender - 13.0 (Gabriel Le Mar Remix) [6:53] 7. Roberto Mozza - One Night In Palais (Toubi Mcweird Remix) [6:24] 8. Leenn'y - Mr. Orange [6:23] 9. Nadja Lind - Aggregat No.5 [6:36] 10. Miro Pajic - Inter Fear [7:5] 11. Oliver Ton - The Whupp (Rene Bourgeois Whupp Dat Ass Remix) [7:29] 12. SoundApotheke - De De Puuh [4:50] 13. Olaf Over - Psycho Kit [4:48] 14. Norman - Zugang Voll Integriert (Syntax Error Remix) [5:44] 15. Baby Chris - Lesson In Live (Bonus Mix) [7:54] 16. Fallhead - Unten Der HГјgel (Esspapier Special Edit) [6:1] 17. Lampenfieber - The Balls [6:38] 18. f.i.e.l.d.y - High [7:8] 19. Trotzkopf - Monuciani (Nutmann Remix) [6:21] 20. Unknown Option - Once Upon A Time [5:44] 21. Monkeylovers - Hear No Evil [7:25] 22. Flea - Minx [7:38] 23. Demas - Bohnen Herbert (Sebastian Koch's Schoten Remix) [6:14] 24. Michael Burkat & Lars Klein - Das Rockt Auch! [7:3] 25. Aemkay - Hunter [8:7] minimal techno 1. Andy Martin - Ataraxia (Original Mix) (7:03) 2. Andy Martin - Human Circuit (Original Mix) (7:02) 3. Andy Martin - Popol Vuh (Original Mix) (8:18) 4. Andy Martin - Telekinesis (Original Mix) (7:47) 5. Damolh33, Hertzman - Concept (Original Mix) (6:07) 6. Damolh33, Hertzman - Moisture (Original Mix) (6:36) 7. Damolh33, Hertzman - Nimbus (Original Mix) (6:14) 8. Damolh33, Hertzman - Skill (Original Mix) (6:10) 9. Dani Sbert - Moon (Original Mix) (7:29) 10. Dani Sbert - Sun (Original Mix) (7:29) 11. Hertzman - Aeon (Original Mix) (6:07) 12. Hertzman - Fortress (Original Mix) (6:10) 13. Hertzman - Story (Original Mix) (6:13) 14. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Chris Fortier 40oz Drum Dub Tool) (3:25) 15. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Chris Fortier Remix) (7:06) 16. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Hair Band DropOut Remix) (8:39) 17. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Heat Merchantz Remix) (10:28) 18. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Joint Custody Remix) (8:57) 19. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (No Soul To Sell Remix) (8:11) 20. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Original Mix) (8:59) 21. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Alex Young Y2K Remix) (6:48) 22. Marco P - Numb (Landmark Remix) (7:25) 23. Mark Denken - Ducks & (Original Mix) (5:39) 24. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Francesco Bergomi May Go On To Ecuador Remix) (7:03) 25. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Andy Martin Remix) (6:42) 26. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Original Mix) (7:59) 27. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Tomas More Kepler 22b Remix) (7:52) 28. Swallen - OMG (Min & Mal & Doublewave Remix) (8:07) 29. Swallen - OMG (Original Mix) (6:55) 30. Swallen - OMG (Skate Remix) (6:17) 31. Tony Kauffmann, Tinney M - Alien X (Original Mix) (7:52) 32. Tony Kauffmann, Tinney M - Reconstruction (Original Mix) (7:21) 1. Alex Di Stefano - Phase One (Koen Groeneveld Remix) (6:40) 2. Alex Di Stefano - Phase One (Original Mix) (6:38) 3. Alex Villanueva - GoodFellas (Damasko Remix) (6:12) 4. AMochi - Black Reigns (Original Mix) (7:31) 5. AMochi - Phantom (Original Mix) (6:20) 6. AMochi - Stray (Original Mix) (6:05) 7. Bart Skils - Burnin (Nicole Moudaber Remix) (7:41) 8. Bart Skils - Burnin (Original Mix) (7:06) 9. D-Nox & Beckers - Sunner (Dustin Zahn Dub) (6:46) 10. D-Nox & Beckers - You Are (Bushwackas Just Be Remix) (9:13) 11. Ensaime, Alex Guesta - Hands Up (Club Mix) (8:11) 12. Funk D'Void - Counter Cat (Original Mix) (6:14) 13. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Andre Luki Remix) (6:07) 14. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Degasperi Remix) (6:55) 15. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Gabriel Noise Remix) (7:19) 16. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (LSotnas Remix) (4:16) 17. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Mendhelson Remix) (7:10) 18. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Original Mix) (7:19) 19. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Original Mix) (6:20) 20. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Paride Saraceni & Demas Hypnodeep Remix) (7:44) 21. Margot - Liuff Settanta (Florian Meindl Remix) (7:36) 22. MiniCoolBoyz - Excuse Me (Alberto Pascual Remix) (6:24) 23. MiniCoolBoyz - Excuse Me (Marka T Remix) (6:46) 24. MiniCoolBoyz - Feel My Drums (Mladen Tomic Remix) (7:38) 25. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Luigi Madonna Remix) (6:38) 26. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Marka T Remix) (6:55) 27. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Piig & Dan Remix) (7:45) 28. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Sam Paganini Remix) (7:25) 29. MiniCoolBoyz - This Is My Acid House (Black Abstract Acid House Remix) (6:39) 30. Nick Daring - Alliance (Original Mix) (7:20) 31. Paul Mac - The Process (Original Mix) (5:12) 32. Paul Mac - The Process (Paul Mac Stimulus Dub) (6:05) 33. Paul Mac - The Process (Takashi Watanabe After Hours Mix) (8:19) 34. Paul Mac - The Process (Takashi Watanabe Remix) (8:13) 35. Spada - Banga (Original Mix) (7:08) 36. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (ABrothers Remix) (7:15) 37. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Dave The Drummer Remix) (6:54) 38. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Knobs Drill Remix) (7:30) 39. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Original Mix) (5:48) 40. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Spiriakos & Steen Remix) (5:37) 41. Stefanowitz - Atma (Original Mix) (7:17) 42. Stefanowitz - Pfhrwhapp (Original Mix) (6:43) 43. Stefanowitz - Psyche (Original Mix) (6:48) 44. Tintin - Render In (Original Mix) (7:42) A Hvich ?– Survival (Moldavius Remix) A Hvich ?– Survival (Original Mix) A Hvich ?– Survival (Stevie Wilson Remix) Aaron Santos & James Teej ?– Sorry Soul (Nhar Remix) Acidia ?– Street (Acidia Club Mix) Alberto Santana ?– Minus One (Original Mix) Alberto Santana ?– Overload (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez ?– Ghost in the Machine (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez ?– Walkfunk (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– It?’s A Groove (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– Was Great (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– Was Up (Original Mix) Alex D?’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A ?– Techno is (D-Unity Remix) Alex D?’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A ?– Techno is (Gabriel D?’or & Bordoy Remix) Boris Brejcha ?– Picolomini (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha ?– Ruhrschussel (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha ?– We Are Looking For (Original Mix) Chris Lo ?– All Sistem (Original Mix) Chris Lo ?– Bronx Brothers (Original Mix) Chris Majcen ?– Time Spiral (Original Mix) Coma ?– Fiction (Original Mix) Coma ?– Gravity (Original Mix) Coma ?– Total DLY (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton ?– Feng Shui Theory 1 (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton ?– Feng Shui Theory 2 (Original Mix)..... 4 Souls ?– Swing Ya Thing (Original Mix) Affkt, Darlyn Vlys, One Hand aka Darlyn Vlys AFFKT ?– Kohu (Original Mix) Alessio Mereu ?– Hypochondriac (Original Mix) Animal Trainer ?– Alive (Original Mix) Aquarium Punks ?– African Man With A Piano (Original Mix) Beat ?– For The Masses (Original Mix) Brisboys ?– Mercury Groove (Original Mix) Charles Ramierz ?– Heavens Groove (Kabuto Koji Remix) Christian Smith, Florian Meindl ?– Desire (Original Mix) Cristhian Hoffmann ?– Restart The Music (Original Mix) Dave Garcia, Eric Ortega ?– El Pirata (Danny LeBlack Remix) Deep Sound ?– Tech (Original Mix) Dema, Paride Saraceni ?– Semafor (Piatto Remix) DFormation ?– Dont Stop (Julian Poker Remix) DFormation, Oscar L ?– MAD (D-Unity Remix) DFormation,Simon Shaker ?– Get Excited (Javi Colors DJ Garces Remix) Dirtyworx ?– Berliner (Original Mix) DJ Kay ?– Waterfall (Autophase Remix) Dzeko Torres ?– Self Explanatory (Original Mix) Falke, Vogelbein ?– Minimal Smoke (Original) Gino Patricio ?– No Diggity (Original) Groove Man ?– Back In The Game (Original Mix) Isabelle ?– Breakup Jewelry (Original) Ismael Rivas aka Riva ?– El Farol (Original Mix) Jalebee Cartel ?– Funda (Original Mix) Jamie Anderson, Deepgroove ?– Freya (Daniel Steinberg Remix) JDG_Meltek ?– Retrigger (Original Mix) Jhoan Sanchez ?– En Las Alturas (Moizez Ohr Remix) Jochen Pash ?– Voyage (Dj PP Remix) Julian Poker ?– Fever (Original Mix) Libex, Paolo Pellegrino ?– Prika (Original Mix) Marco Lys, Alex Kenji ?– Manaus (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa ?– Athens (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa, Luigi Rocca ?– The Passenger (Original Mix) Mark Diablo ?– 365 (Original Mix) Mark Wheels ?– Theory Of Relativity (Original Mix) Marvell, Too Fresh ?– Hotel Party feat Marvell (Bass Kleph Remix) Maxikool ?– Click (Original Mix) Milton Channels ?– I Want It (Original Mix) Ned Rise ?– Magic Fly (Original Mix) Neverdogs, Brusca ?– Podenco (Original Mix) Nikola Gala ?– A Voice From Outer Space (Original Mix) Nino Bua ?– The Beat Within (Original Mix) Oliver Klein, Kolombo ?– Espionnage (Fusty Delights Remix) Peeta ?– Gandhis Flip Flop (Original Mix) Pizeta ?– Ocra (Original Mix) Ron Carroll, Superfunk ?– Lucky Star (Kolombo 303 Dub) RPO ?– The First Time In My Life (Joy Marquez Remix) Sharam Jey ?– Attention (Eats Everything Jay Robinsons Remix) Sharam Jey, Deadbots ?– Obey (Polymath Remix) Stan Kolev ?– Rescue Me (Original Mix) Sweet N Candy ?– Deep Water (Florian Meindl Edit) System F, Marc Almond ?– Soul On Soul (Elektrochemie LK Mix) Tamer Fouda ?– Bitch (Minimal Bitch Mix) The Selph ?– An Anxious Friend (Original Mix) Thomas Schumacher, Florian Meindl ?– Satisfaction (Original Mix) Vlada Asanin, Cuartero ?– Pincel (Original Mix) Xar Lee ?– Te Da Igual (Tony Dee Remix) Yan Oxygen ?– Ghost (Original Mix) Agaric ?– Run. Ostern Jam Beatfunk ?– Pump (Original Mix) BNZO-El Chupacabra Original Mix Hollen ?– Mamy Groovy (Tony Dee Remix) Lewis Ryder ?– Kaffee-Monster Schief Gegangen (Nathan Coles & David Cokers Spanish Fly Mix) Mark Reeve-Lichtkleid Original Mix Maximan ?– Jail View (Scan Mode Remix) Rohrer & Siegel ?– BigBertha The Martinez Brothers ?– Issshhh (Beats) Alberto Pascual ?– Drive (Original Mix) Dektend & Dfndr ?– Rococco Cake Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris Altogether Lost Ben Klock S Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jon Reynolds & Tomas Rubeck ?– Union Street Car Park (Original Mix) Markantonio, Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati ?– My Tisana (Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati Remix) Patrick Kunkel and M.in ?– I Know feat. Harold Todd (Original Mix) VA-Maximan Jail View Scan Mode Remix Flug -13c Tool Mix Glimpse ?– Work That Body (Kehakuma Remix) Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jeff Mills ?– Gadd Luigi Madonna-Enigma Four mike parker ?– ringing bass Paul Ritch ?– Shake It (Original Mix) Timmo Comb Of Mermaid ?– Original Mix Tom Flynn ?– Budgie Smuggler (Original Mix) Atesh K. ?– Simple Trap Avilo-Missio Daniele Papini ?– Astanti Titta Remix David Phillips ?– The Batch Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris-Altogether Lost Ben Klock s Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Roland M. Dill ?– I?’ll be There (Sam Ball Remix) TechGroup Maurizio Vitiello-MusicOn Original Mix Aquarius Heaven-Universe Drumfunk (Original Mix) Hollen ?– Alfio (Original Mix) Javier Carballo ?– Islands (Djohnny Remix) Javier Carballo ?– Low (Original Mix) Jon Gurd and Dave Robertson-Never Do That (Original Mix) Luca Lozano ?– Heaven & Hell (Penner & Muder Remix LuLu Rouge ?– Bless You (Minilogue rmx) RAY OKPARA- MODERN DANCE (Original mix) agaric-drifter Agaric-Who Made Up The Rules Original Mix Benny Royal ?– Go Bump (Original Mix) Daelo ?– Move On (Zack Marullo Remix) Djulz ?– Da Madness (Original Mix) Kaiserdisco ?– Amalfino (2000 And One & DJ Madskillz Remix) Kernel Key ?– Pallets (Original Mix) leonardo_gonnelli-not_again_(sammy_remix) Mihalis Safras ?– San trope (Oxia remix) Yoshitaca And Ittetsu And Jun Akimoto ?– Just Lay Back (Ittetsu And Jun Akimoto Remix) Alberto Pascual ?– Drive (Original Mix) Dektend & Dfndr ?– Rococco Cake Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris Altogether Lost Ben Klock S Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jon Reynolds & Tomas Rubeck ?– Union Street Car Park (Original Mix) Markantonio, Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati ?– My Tisana (Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati Remix) Patrick Kunkel and M.in ?– I Know feat. Harold Todd (Original Mix) VA-Maximan Jail View Scan Mode Remix Flug -13c Tool Mix Glimpse ?– Work That Body (Kehakuma Remix) Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jeff Mills ?– Gadd Luigi Madonna-Enigma Four mike parker ?– ringing bass Paul Ritch ?– Shake It (Original Mix) Timmo Comb Of Mermaid ?– Original Mix Tom Flynn ?– Budgie Smuggler (Original Mix) Alex DElia -Moogerfooger Mladen Tomic Remix Bryan Zentz ?– Double R (Original Mix) Daniel Dubb ?– Wound Up (Original Mix) Lazy M ?– Ready To Rock (Marco Lansi Remix) Mooryc ?– Turn Left (Douglas Greeds ?– from here to poznan rmx) Timmo ?– Locust (Alex Di Stefano Remix) Victor Calderone ?– Pleasure Grip (Original Mix) Vogue. Victor Ruiz. Barudi ?– Playboy (Dub Mix) Xircus ?– Rolf Harris (Ronan Portela Remix) Aquarius_Heaven_-_Universe_(Original_Mix) Bruch & Junior ?– Seat No Fastbelt (Original Mix) Frann delice & Xuzav ?– Run Ran Run (Original mix) Kernel Key ?– Pallets (Original Mix) Smart Wave ?– Mind mazes(DJ Raid detroits dub mix) The Evil Amigos ?– Playa Bossa Veerus & Maxie Devine ?– 1976 (Original Mix) Xircus ?– Rolf Harris (Ronan Portela Remix) Broombeck ?– Wtfai (Wehbba Remix) Bryan Zentz ?– Double R (Original Mix) D Julz-Da Madness Daniel Dubb ?– Wound Up (Original Mix) Electric Indigo & Irradiation ?– Phytoplankton NiCe7 ?– In Between (Supernova Remix) Yoshitaca ?– Just Lay Back (Jun Akimoto & Ittetsu Remix) 01. Piatto - Saturn 8 (Original Mix) 02. Paul Nazca - Scale Of Sky (Original Mix) 03. Ant Brooks - What's Mine (Original Mix) 04. Whitenoize - The Underground (TJR Remix) 05. Roy RosenfelD - Coin Flip (Original Mix) 06. PHNTM - Flash Dance (Original Mix) 07. Ahmet Sendil - I Still Have A Dream (Original Mix) 08. Balthazar, Jackrock - Puerto Rico (Alex Di Stefano Remix) 09. Andre Walter, Chris Hope - Mania (Original Mix) 10. Andrea Roma - Just A Loop (Original Mix) 11. Vladimir Acic - Mr. Joe Gideon (Original Mix) 12. 777 Systems - Noms (Original Mix) 13. Rub A Dub - TM (Original Mix) 14. Dualfunk - Rolling (Original Mix) 15. A.K.O. - Say Hello (Original Mix) 16. Alex Long - Magenta (Original Mix) 17. Mario Ochoa - La Noche (Original Mix) 18. Frank Sonic, Mike Maass - Butan (Original Mix) 19. Juan Ddd - Mad Dog (Original Mix) 20. The Scumfrog - In Love (Original Mix) 21. Juan Ddd, Johan Dresser, Stereomono - Ant Man (Original Mix) 22. SoNa, Simia - Dimply (Original Mix) 23. Hellomonkey - My Seven Favorite Sharpshooters (Original Mix) 24. Dima German - Physical Reaction (Original Mix) 25. Darryl Green - Warning (Original Mix) 26. W10 - Five O'Clock Love (Original Mix) 27. Montblank - Shuffle (Original Mix) 28. Denis Underground - Feel Free (Original Mix) 29. Kyfu - Trop Cale (Original Mix) 30. Miguel Bastida - Rezolution (Original Mix) 31. Daniel Kaufman - Stalled (Original Mix) Alex Mine – Don’t Look Back (Original Mix) Alex Mine – Teraphy (Original Mix) Aumrec – Anouka (Original Mix) Aumrec – Aumrec (Original Mix) Aumrec – Lapislazul (Ninth Camomile Remix) Catatonic Overload – Death Before Disco (Original Mix) Catatonic Overload – Environment (Delete Remix) Catatonic Overload – Environment (Original Mix) Dani Sbert – Otherside (Original Mix) Dani Sbert – Ready (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – Moonflower (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – Smoker (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – When the Sunshine Goes Down (Original Mix) Daniele Kama – Last Request (Original Mix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (German Valley Remix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (Gion Remix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (Original Mix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Cristiano Casiraghi Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Loko Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Original Mix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Ricardo Espino Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Sotisfaction Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Ferdi L Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Giuseppe Antonino Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Joe Kendut Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Original Mix) Ian O’Donovan – Redemption (Original Mix) Ian O’Donovan – Relieve (Original Mix) Jacob Dannyl – Where Is My Mind (Killer Session) Leechi Alexej – Hubbub (Original Mix) Leechi Alexej – Turk Kizi (Original Mix) Leo R – Amber Light (Original Mix) Leo R – Drill Bit (Original Mix) Leo R – Room 237 (Original Mix) Loud Noize – Dark Distortion (Original Mix) Loud Noize – Distorted Reality (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Hidden Empire (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Knavish (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Sphinx (Original Mix) Marco Lys – Kama (Original) Marco Lys – Kama (Solo Remix) Mario Ochoa – Take A Look (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa – The Rooster (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Promzona (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Regroover (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Wave Of Resonance Timework (Original Mix) Mike Huckaby – The Tresor Track (Original Mix) NHB & Fabrizio Pettorelli – Bad Habits (Original Mix) Nice Deejay – Miss Nice (Original Mix) Nice Deejay – Ndrom (Original Mix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Mike Ban & Dietmar Wohl Remix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Original Mix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Torsten Kanzler Remix) Oliver Kucera – Lightning Bolt (Spark Taberner Remix) Oliver Kucera – Stop Sequencer (Original Mix) Oliver Kucera & Souris – Lightning Bolt (Original Mix) People Get Real – Bleep Spectro (Original Mix) People Get Real – Pachino (Original Mix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Ditto Remix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Don Ruijgrok Remix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Original Mix) Psyk – Lowdown (Original Mix) Psyk – Repeat (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Inertia (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Mobility (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Rhythm (Original Mix) Ramon Zenker & Harada – Rappelkiste (Original Mix) Repton – I Was Here (Nikkolas Research Remix) Repton – I Was Here (Original) Repton – I Was Here (Simon Firth Remix) Sasha Carassi – Lateral Pressure (Original Mix) Sintex Music – Bangkok (Original Mix) Sintex Music – Diffuse (Original Mix) Spoiled Kid – The ONE! (Original Mix) Spoiled Kid – You Can Take It (Original Mix) Synthetic Technology – Fatal Error (Original Mix) Synthetic Technology – Placenta (Original Mix) The Abductors – Stevige Track (Original Mix) The Advent – Distract (Original Mix) The Advent – Higher Learning (Original Mix) The Advent – Nexus 22 (Original Mix) The Collectorz – Blood (Original Mix) The Collectorz – Blood (Raw Mix) Tomas More – Flesh (Original Mix) Tomas More – Persona (Original Mix) Tomas More – The Kiss (Original Mix) Tomas More – The Unknown Word (Original Mix) Tony Kairom – Popeye (Original Mix) Tony Kairom – The Addams Family (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Atom (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Flux (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Kaleidoscope (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Changes (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Changes (Romar Remix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Make You Wet (Karim Rajhi Remix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Make You Wet (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Underground (Micro on Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Underground (Original Mix) Zenbi – Gezuar (Original Mix) Zenbi – Minimalistic (Original Mix) A Hvich – Survival (Moldavius Remix) A Hvich – Survival (Original Mix) A Hvich – Survival (Stevie Wilson Remix) Aaron Santos & James Teej – Sorry Soul (Nhar Remix) Acidia – Street (Acidia Club Mix) Alberto Santana – Minus One (Original Mix) Alberto Santana – Overload (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez – Ghost in the Machine (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez – Walkfunk (Original Mix) Alex Costa – It’s A Groove (Original Mix) Alex Costa – Was Great (Original Mix) Alex Costa – Was Up (Original Mix) Alex D’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A – Techno is (D-Unity Remix) Alex D’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A – Techno is (Gabriel D’or & Bordoy Remix) Boris Brejcha – Picolomini (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha – Ruhrschussel (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha – We Are Looking For (Original Mix) Chris Lo – All Sistem (Original Mix) Chris Lo – Bronx Brothers (Original Mix) Chris Majcen – Time Spiral (Original Mix) Coma – Fiction (Original Mix) Coma – Gravity (Original Mix) Coma – Total DLY (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton – Feng Shui Theory 1 (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton – Feng Shui Theory 2 (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Eta Carinae (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Husaria (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Magma (Original Mix) Dave Spritz – Salvia (Original Mix) David Temessi & Hiab – Imotape (Original Mix) David Temessi & Hiab – Powertape (Original Mix) Davidchristoph – Fear Frequency (Bodyscrub Remix) Davidchristoph – Fear Frequency (Original Mix) Davidchristoph – Ghost Raider (Loco & Jam Remix) Davidchristoph – Ghost Raider (Original Mix) Deep Future – Do it All Night (Hugo Remix) Deep Future – Do it All Night (Original Mix) Deep Future – Flying Colours (Lazaro Casanova Miami Vice Refix) Deep Future – Flying Colours (Original Mix) DJ Milectro & Jonny Calypso – Direction (Original Mix) DJ Milectro & Jonny Calypso – Rise & Fall (Original Mix) Dorian Chavez & Mobius Strum – MAE (Original Mix) Dorian Chavez & Mobius Strum – Rainforest (Original Mix) Franck Valat – Landscape 010 (Original Mix) Franck Valat – Mindie (Original Mix) Gepy – Baby Dinosaur (Original Mix) Gepy – Pippo (Original Mix) Glitter, Nytron – Freak Chick (Original Mix) Johnny Kaos & Hunzed – Emociones De La Vida (Original Mix) Koer – Fobos (Original Mix) Koer – Moonlight (Original Mix) Luthier – Prevent Hearing (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – Infinity (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – Roundabout (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – You Know (Original Mix) Maximiljan – Backlash (Egal 3 Remix) Maximiljan – Backlash (Original Mix) Maximiljan – Funky Mary (Original Mix) Mechanique – Island Of Stability – (Original Mix) Mechanique – Karoshi – (Original Mix) Mendo & Yvan Genkins – Capture (Original Mix) Mendo & Yvan Genkins – Witness (Original Mix) Mike Spaccavento – Game Over (Original Mix) Mike Spaccavento – Vocal Round (Original Mix) Morry – Minimal Baby (Original Mix) Morry – Shit Happiness (Original Mix) Nytron – House You (Original Mix) Oliver Schories – The Deal (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Bitter Rucker (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Dumb House (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Timeline (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Zulu (Original Mix) Paolo Driver – Good Afternoon (Los Suruba 90′s Remix) Paolo Driver – Good Afternoon (Original Mix) Paolo Driver & Roby J – Fusion (Original Mix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Funk D’void Remix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Lewis Ryder Remix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Original Mix) Paul Loraine – Once Again (Original Mix) Phonokemi – 2000 Eyes (Original Mix) Phonokemi – Black Comes the Day (Original Mix) Phonokemi – Smile (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Babylon (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Bumbaclat (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Got Me Down (Original Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Alexander Kowalski Remix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Benny Grauer Remix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Digital Bonus Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Original Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Skai & Joel Armstrong Remix) SIS – Aires (Original Mix) SIS – Boogie Nights (Original Mix) Sivesgaard – Unorthodox (Ricardo Tobar Remix) Solee & Joxe – Abundance (Original Mix) Sven Jaeger – Casta Uela (Original Mix) Sven Jaeger – Cicilon (Original Mix) Ted Dettman – Normal Life (Original Mix) Tim J – 7 Faktors of Awakenings (Original Mix) Tim J – Beat Down (Original Mix) Tim J – Tresor (Original Mix) Tom Hades – Pitched to the Max (Original Mix) Tom Hades – Pitched to the Max (Sasha Carassi Remix) Tom Hades – React (Original Mix) Tomas More – Scopic Drive (Original Mix) Tomas More – Scopic Drive (Roman Fluegel Remix) Tomas More – That Thing (Original Mix) Wally Stryk – Mon Amour (Max Jacobson & Jason Patrick Remix) Wally Stryk – Mon Amour (Original Mix) Wally Stryk – Palermo Soho (Do Santos Remix) Wally Stryk – Palermo Soho (Original Mix) 01. Robert Noise & Ploughman – Chennai (Original Mix) (7:07) 02. Glen & Adrian – Microchip (Original Mix) (7:05) 03. Ray Valentine – Turkey Turist (Original Mix) (6:11) 04. Ruiz Sierra – Turn Off The Lights (Original Mix) (7:01) 05. Emanuele Sorgato – Go (Original Mix) (5:11) 06. BenyOne – Machine (Original Mix) (6:37) 07. Secret Groovers – Inversion (Original Mix) (9:12) 08. Cristian Glitch – Dispersion (Original Mix) (6:36) 09. Rodrigo Diaz – Sexstars (Original Mix) (7:24) 10. Stephen Advance & Roland Weber – Instant Reaction (Original Mix) (6:15) 11. Italianbeat Guys – Thunderstorm (Original Mix) (9:05) 12. Stephen Advance & Droplex – Predator (Original Mix) (6:00) 13. Luix Spectrum – Define (Original Mix) (7:07) 14. Miniroom & Red Pig Flower – Red [email protected] (Original Mix) (6:20) 01. London Exchange – Forever (Dura Remix) (6:36) 02. Dura – Anti Pink (Original Mix) (6:36) 03. Azzimov – Penetrator (Oziriz Remix) (6:02) 04. Jackson White – Back (Original Mix) (6:28) 05. Jackson White – Wrong Out (Original Mix) (6:13) 06. Dura – Outswise (Original Mix) (5:50) 07. Dura – Eyes On The Prize (Brutal Kids Remix) (6:06) 08. Dura, Sasha Check – Ritas Groove (Original Mix) (6:55) 09. Twist – Rockfeller Fcuk (Original Mix) (7:05) 10. Jackson White – Beat In Beat (Original Mix) (5:36) 11. Lee Poulson – For A Kiss Or Two (Original Mix) (6:37) 12. Lee Poulson – Kuka (Original Mix) (6:21) 13. Oziriz, Jackson White – Back To Cube (Original Mix) (6:28) 14. Oziriz – Motions (Original Mix) (8:05) 15. Twist – Hidden Place (Original Mix) (8:19) 16. Oziriz – Saxy Waxy (Original Mix) (7:09) 17. Oziriz – Strings As The Ropes (Original Mix) (6:06) 18. Dura – Get Smart (Original Mix) (6:54) 19. Oleg Kostrow – Nemo’s Song (Dura Remix) (3:46) 20. London Exchange – We Are Not Together (Azzimov Remix) (7:13) A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Accapella).mp3 A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Instrumental).mp3 A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Original Mix).mp3 Aeon Flux – We Will Be Free – Original Mix).mp3 Airwolf – Rebels – Original Mix).mp3 Alessio Arcangeli – 1000 Miles – Original Mix).mp3 Alessio Arcangeli – Honefoss – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Life S. – Fuck Off – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Shaje – Bourre – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Shaje – Bourre – Sums 4 Am Remix).mp3 Alex Vandoff – Casino Flamingo – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Verano, Jim Marlaud – Make Me Real – Radio Edit).mp3 Alex Xela – Are You Ready – Original Mix).mp3 Alexander Seretti – Broken – Original Mix).mp3 Alive Me – Something Wrong In The System Control – Original Mix).mp3 Almaru – One Step – Original Mix).mp3 Alvin Tech – Hey – Original Mix).mp3 Alvin Tech – Rhythm Of The Night – Original Mix).mp3 Amadeo, Process P – Agua Fresca – Original Mix).mp3 Ambient P – Music Keeps Me Dancing – Original Mix).mp3 Andhim – Afrikadelle – Original Mix).mp3 Andlee – Trackformers – Original Mix).mp3 Andre Slater – Metamorfosis – Original Mix).mp3 Andrea Pisapia – Scala Reale – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Jupiter Planet – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Mercury Planet – 4ndr375-73k Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Planet Neptune – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Uranus Planet – 4ndr375-73k Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Assembled In – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Audio Delta – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Apartamento – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Casa – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Finca – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – My Fly Mind – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Santana – Trafalgar – Original Mix).mp3 Andrew Phillips – The Saxophonist – Criminal Vibes Remix).mp3 Anthony Grant – 1-2-3-4 – Original Mix).mp3 Anthonydee – Annoyed – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Becouse – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Fantastic – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – God’s Grace – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Kick – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Rhodet – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – This Is The Beat – Original).mp3 Arc, Kalls – U Got It – Radio Edit).mp3 Art Pleasure – You Feat. Jessy Howe – Original Mix).mp3 Arts, Leni – One Pub One Tony – Original.mp3 Arts, Leni – One Pub One Tony – Original).mp3 Audiosweep – Cell Up – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Debug – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Five – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Four – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall One – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Three – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Two – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Room – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Touch – Original Mix).mp3 Aumrec – Apregunno – Mogahertz Remix).mp3 Aumrec – Apregunno – Original Mix).mp3 Aumrec – Rumade – Alfred Mc Remix).mp3 Aumrec – Rumade – Original Mix).mp3 Autarc – Toolfunk013-1 – Original).mp3 B. Vivant – House Muzik – Original Mix).mp3 B.B Project – Big Party – Original Mix).mp3 Balthazar, Deepzone – Dj, Take Me Away – Radio Club Mix).mp3 Basilica – Somebody Calling You – Original Mix).mp3 Bassbeatz – I Love This Beat – Original Mix).mp3 Bastique, Romee – The Godfather – Original Mix).mp3 Beat Syndrome – Salasa Jar – Original Mix).mp3 Beatjunk – Grinning Bass – Original Mix).mp3 Ben Murray – Next Level – Original Mix).mp3 Benhams – Psychosis In A Dream – Original Mix).mp3 Benn Lian – Because I Called Her – Original Mix).mp3 Bifath – Natural Part 2 – Magru Remix).mp3 Blacksoul – Dancin Feat. Marcya – Joey Aka Jozsef Keller & Pete-R Instrumental).mp3 Bollen, Fichtner – Osama’s Groove – Original Mix).mp3 1. Adam Jace – Deepfusion (7:52) 2. Aki Bergen – M.u.s.i.c. (7:42) 3. Alexander Fog – Black Carnival (6:58) 4. Babak Shayan – Azadi Nist (5:54) 5. Basti Pieper – Orient (12:33) 6. Bucher & Kessidis – Live On (7:47) 7. Coskun & Ak – Take Me (7:45) 8. Deepgroove & Jamie Anderson – Voix (Minicoolboys Remix) (7:41) 9. Dzeta N Basile – One Of A Kind (8:48) 10. Freaks – 2 Please U (Losoul’s Surreal Visits Dub) (6:57) 11. Green Rabbit – Primal Self (4:18) 12. Hardy Heller & Alex Connors – Fred, The Pink Elephant (C-rock Wild Pitch Mix) (7:11) 13. Jerome Noak – I love L.A. (Sasha Kaktus Remix) (6:28) 14. Junior Gee – On The Floor (6:23) 15. Lazo – Caroussell (Lukas Greenberg Mix) (7:42) 16. Lukas Greenberg – The Flash (Jimmy & Fer Ferrari Mix) (8:35) 17. Markus Wesen – Soulful House Music (Original) (9:10) 18. Minoru – 68.71 Per Cent (8:35) 19. Nick Curly – Deep Breath (6:56) 20. Nicole Moudaber – Dilemma (7:36) 21. Nikola Gala – Bring In ‘da Funk (6:08) 22. Nikola Gala – Timeless City (6:41) 23. Pelle Buys – Kiss The Ground (6:37) 24. Roberto Rodriguez – Whisper (7:58) 25. Sebastian Porter – Labamba (Original) (8:04) 26. Sven Kegel & Heino Helck – Wellenbrecher (8:11) 27. The Timewriter – HERE COMES THE SUN (Stryke’s Sunshine State of Mind Remix) (8:16)1. Carl Cox – Nexus (Original Mix) (6:14) 2. Carl Cox – Nexus (Foamo Mix) (6:15) 3. Carl Cox – Nexus (Foamo Dub Mix) (6:15) 4. Carl Cox – Nexus (Tomy De Clerque Mix) (7:52) Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Kronic Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Mobin Master & Tate Strauss Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Rave Radio Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Rocket Pimp Remix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Bass Threat – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Call To 911 – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Deadly Crash – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Fashion Factory – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Get Down Low – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Glance In The Future – Original Mix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Digital Department Remix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Erdi Irmak Remix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Original Mix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Reelaux Not So Dirty Remix).mp3 Brian Bloom, Franky Malloy, Mc G – We Live 4 The Weekend – Original Mix).mp3 Bruno Nasty – Ablana – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt – Get Told – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt – Locked In Trip – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt, Yemi – Music Takes Me Higher – Original Mix).mp3 Camilo Picon – Isotonico – Original Mix).mp3 Chirik Burnlive, Fenix Modest – Acid Smith – Original Mix).mp3 Chris Blum – Extrascharf – Patrick Arbez Remix).mp3 Chris Blum – Josephine – Original).mp3 Chris Blum – Knock Out – Original).mp3 Chris Blum – Sonnenwende – Original).mp3 Chriss Ortega, Christian Hinzer – The Groove – Nicola Fasano, Steve Forest Mix).mp3 City Capture – Any Kind Of Season – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Collide – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Crossfire – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Mirror Surface – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – The Cube – Original Mix).mp3 Coming Out – Start Again – Datamotion Edit Remix).mp3 Coopa – Stutter – 1 Fish, Two Fish Remix).mp3 Coopa – Stutter – Original Mix).mp3 Crazy House Dj’s, Joseph One – Supulo – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Exploited, Alan Lockwood – On Road – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Vecchi – Chinatown – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Vecchi – Confusion – Original Mix).mp3 Da Groovemakers – On The Road Again – Original Mix) – 1).mp3 Da Groovemakers – On The Road Again – Original Mix).mp3 Daily – Kalavalier – Original Mix).mp3 Damian William – Qulove – Original Mix).mp3 Damien J. Carter, Matt Devereaux, Michael Maze – Ticket To Somewhere Feat. Andy P – Claudio Lari Remix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Around Of Consciousness – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Dark Room Of The Earth – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Minimal Injection – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Underwater – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti & Stenli Tong – Impulse Of Sound – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Steinberg – Tansania – Original Mix).mp3 Danny Darko, Toni Lewis – Full Moon – Original Mix).mp3 Dapayk & Padberg – Island Feat. Caro – Florian Meindl Remix).mp3 Dapayk Solo – Child Of The Night – Formatb Remix).mp3 Dario Ruzzier – Commit – Original Mix).mp3 Darwin & Backwall – Ask For More – Maxime Zarcone Remix).mp3 Data Mc – Fever – K-Paul Remix).mp3 Dave Copp, Tommy Mckinley – Coca – Original Mix).mp3 Dave Dumper, Sim Wiener – P.B.S. – Original Mix).mp3 Dave Rose, Alexei & Carlos Kinn – Get The Funky – Original Mix).mp3 David Costa – Lost In The Space – Original Mix).mp3 David Del Olmo, Christian Hard, Andy Cardenas – Take Me Higher – Original).mp3 David Hopperman, Automann – Crytical Feat. Ollie James – Nick Waters & Stephane Karl Remix).mp3 David Kriss – Break Tha Da – Radio Edit).mp3 Davizzino Barretti – Tiro Al Gato – Adi Granth Remix).mp3 Davizzino Barretti – Tiro Al Gato – Alejandro Fernandez Remix).mp3 Davizzino Barretti – Tiro Al Gato – Original Mix).mp3 Davizzino Barretti – Tiro Al Gato – Samuel Plasencia Remix).mp3 D-Becker – Hasten – Vlad Saber Remix).mp3 Deenos B. – Moonpol – Original Mix).mp3 Deenos B. – Panktak – Original Mix).mp3 Deenos B. – Sol – Original Mix).mp3 Denis Underground – I Am Alien Composer – Original Mix).mp3 Denis Underground – Ufo Electro Club – Original Mix).mp3 Deprogres, Droplex – We Return From Physical – Original Mix).mp3 Deprogres, Droplex – We Return From Physical – Stephen Advance Remix).mp3 Diego Quintero – Ficken Herz – Original Mix).mp3 Dietrich, Strolch – Dismission – Canson Remix).mp3 Dirk Dreyer –

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Techno track #6 [click

techno track free 01. Jack Back Feat. David Guetta, Nicky Romero, Sia - Wild One Two (Original Mix) 02. Ivan Gough & Feenixpawl feat. Georgi Kay - In My Mind (Axwell Mix) 03. Nicky Romero - Generation 303 (Original Mix) 04. Madeon - Icarus (Original Mix) 05. Bingo Players - L'Amour (Original Mix) 06. Claptone - Cream (Original Mix) 07. Qulinez - Troll (Original Mix) 08. TJR - Funky Vodka (Original Mix) 09. Skrillex & The Doors - Breakn' A Sweat (Zedd Remix) 10. Sander Van Doorn - Chasin' (Original Mix) 11. David Jones - E Samba (Club Mix) 12. David Jones - Heya (Original Mix) 13. Larry Gee - Yo Mamma (Original Mix) (Cut) 14. Starkillers & Dmitry KO - Don't Hold Back (Original Mix) 15. Zenbi - Double Trouble (Stefano Noferini Remix) 16. Hard Rock Sofa - Quasar (Original Mix) 17. Datsik, Kill The Noise - Lightspeed (Original Mix) 18. Otto Knows - Million Voices (Original Mix) 19. Afrojack, Shermanology - Can't Stop Me (Club Mix) 20. Antillas feat. Fiora - Damaged (Main Mix) 21. Wolfgang Gartner - There And Back (Original Mix) 22. Seamus Haji, Cevin Fisher - I Love The Music (Manuel De La Mare, Alex Kenji Remix) 23. Laidback Luke, Arno Cost & Norman Doray – Trilogy (Original Mix) 24. Adam Port - Someone To Love (Original Mix) 25. Nari & Milani vs Maurizio Gubellini - Up (Instrumental) 26. Adana Twins - Everyday (Original Mix) 27. Joe Garston - That's What She Said (Original Mix) 28. Huxley - Let It Go (Original Mix) 29. Coldplay - Charlie Brown (Dave Aude Remix) 30. Tuccillo & Kiki Navarro feat. Amor - Lovery (Original Mix) 31. Mat's Mattara feat Rockman - Let's Party (Instrumental Mix) 32. Lifelike & Kris Menace - Discopolis (David Jones Remix) 33. Mario Ochoa - The Indian Express (Original Mix) 34. DubVision - All By Myself (Original Mix) 35. Disco Stu & John Monkman - Don't Have To Be Beautiful (Original Mix) 36. Gel Abril & Andrea Oliva - Scene (Original Mix) 37. Pirupa - Party Non Stop (Vocal) 38. Sebastien Drums, Niles Mason - French Rules (Muzzaik Remix) 39. Btsound - Sunshine (Federico Scavo Remix) 40. Peruz, Mat's Mattara - Mono (Mat's Mattara, Peruz Mix) 41. Tommy Trash - Cascade (Original Mix) 42. Richard Grey - Lady (Federico Scavo Remix) 43. Luigi Rocca & Manuel De La Mare - Opa-Locka (Original Club Mix) 44. Pavel Petrov - Koral (Metodi Hristov Remix) 45. Mowgli Feat. Amber Jolene - Back In The Day (Original Mix) 46. Noisia - Diplodocus (Kill The Noise Remix) 47. Feed Me - One Click Headshot (Original Mix) 48. Sian, Mladen Tomic - Front Pocket (Nicole Moudaber Remix) 49. DJ PP, Silversix - Fucking Amazing (Original Mix) 50. John Dahlback - Life (Original Mix) 51. Nari & Milani vs. Maurizio Gubellini - Slash (Original Mix) 52. Kellerkind - Backflash (Original Mix) 53. Crazibiza - Hard (Original Mix) 54. Zedd - Stars Come Out (Datsik Remix) 55. Claptone - Good To You (Original Mix) 56. Claude VonStroke, Jaw - Le Fantome (Original Mix) 57. Addy Van Der Zwan, Hithouse, Jerry Beke - Jack To The Sound Of The Underground 2012 (Addy van der Zwan, Jerry Beke Mix) 58. Nicky Romero - Toulouse (Original Mix) 59. Maetrik - The Reason (Original Mix) 60. Jay Lumen - The Drummer (Original Mix) 61. Stefano Noferini - Airscape (Original Mix) 62. Macromism - Rave nu world (Original Mix) 63. Gareth Emery Feat. Christina Novelli - Concrete Angel (Original Mix) 64. Todd Terje - Inspector Norse (Original Mix) 65. Trent Cantrelle - Night Like This (Original Mix) 66. Elef - Tales Of 88 (Huxley Remix) 67. Adana Twins - Strange (Original Mix) 68. Laura Jones - Inner Place (Original Mix) 69. Pan-Pot & G-Tech - Gravity (Original Mix) 70. David Jones - Gigolo (Les Bijoux Remix) 71. Coldplay - Paradise (Fedde Le Grand Remix) 72. Thugfucker, Tale Of Us, Life And Death - Morgana (Original Mix) 73. Rene Amesz & Ruell - Hope (Original Club Mix) 74. Firebeatz - Where's Your Head At (Original Mix 75. Dani Casarano, Felipe Valenzuela, Demian Muller - Hole In The Middle (Original Mix) 76. Hardwell - Spaceman (Original Version) 77. Rebel - Hearing Voices (Original Mix) 78. Mousse T - Horny (Radio Slave, Thomas Gandey Just 17 Mix) 79. Mr Bizz - Bamboo (Original Mix) 80. Louie FRESCO - So Good (Original Mix) 81. Uner - Cocoua (Original Mix) 82. Knife Party - Internet Friends (Original Mix) 83. Jay Lumen - Whatever You Want (Original Mix) 84. Mat Zo - Bipolar (Original Mix) 85. Roger Sanchez, Sidney Samson - Flashing Lights (Kid Massive Remix) 86. 501 - Headrush feat. Belle Humble (Original Mix) 87. Mark Fanciulli - Sacrifice (Original Mix) 88. Robbie Rivera (feat. JES) – Turn It Around (Robbie Rivera's Juicy Beach Mix) 89. Die & Break - Grand Funk Hustle (Original Mix) 90. Gavin Herlihy - Witching Hour (Original Mix) 91. Avesta - Arena (Original Mix) 92. Zedd - Slam The Door (Original Mix) 93. Lucky Date - I Want You (Original Mix) 94. Umek - Sunday at El Row (Original Mix) 95. Stereo Express - Shadoorack (Original Mix) 96. Paul Thomas & Weekend Heroes - Morena (Original Mix) 97. Neuroxyde & Sisko Electrofanatik - Funkalistic (Original Mix) (Cut) 98. Unknown Artist - What You Need (Coat Of Arms Mix) 99. Chuckie - Together (Original Club Mix) 100. Pachanga Boys - Time (Orginal Mix) 1. Nico Dacido & Chrome - Propan (Original Mix) [7:33] 2. Makarov - Give It A Beat [4:7] 3. Spark Taberner & Oliver Kucera - Anoxic Zone [6:13] 4. Perr0 - L!ke That [11:33] 5. Popperman - Enola Gay [5:3] 6. Minitronix & Funky Brize - Out Of Space (Original Mix) [6:52] 7. Alex Brick - Cricis [4:18] 8. Vincent Dacosta - Atmosphere [5:24] 9. Eugene Navatta - Devil Inside (Original Mix) [10:30] 10. Pasquale Maassen - Zypameth [6:45] 11. Alexander Kvitta - Annunaki [6:18] 12. Onassis - At War (Dj T. A. G. Remix) [5:43] 13. Basscraft - Night Rush 2.0 [6:6] 14. Aston Martinez - Seduction (Mixx Labs Remix) [6:5] 15. Dj Emeriq - She Likes It [8:15] 16. Zippie - The Other Face [8:56] 17. Patrice W. - Stop Talking (Teequ Remix) [6:23] 18. Schrei Leben - Looking Monsters (Original Mix) [6:36] 19. Richard Hanno - Land Of The Free (Original Mix) [8:8] 20. Jmix - White Widow [8:16] 21. Benny Lehmann - Booster (Original Mix) [4:37] 22. Slavo Mir - Cultum Deum (Original Mix) [8:32] 23. Freshbass - Rainbow Fixing (Original) [8:56] 24. Ziv Avriel & Diablo - Tired Awake (Original Mix) [7:10] 25. Oleg Shumand - Techno Kolt (Original) [7:58] 26. Pete Van Payne - Pyramids [6:20] 27. Pete Van Payne - Circularism [7:51] 28. Ben Quarman - Alpha 16 [6:53] 29. D-Noise - Last Legs (Original Mix) [6:42] 30. Stana & Qbass - Purple Shit (Johann Stone Remix) [6:49] 31. Ground Spain - Techno Love (Original Mix) [7:12] 32. Brog Dah - Farrow [7:5] 33. Romanolito - Ambush (Original Mix) [5:55] 34. Whilo - Holy Shit (Original Mix) [9:10] 35. Steve Haze - Allright Sex (Trs Remix) [7:55] 1. Adapter - Another Day (Original Mix) underground (6:45) 2. Adapter - Coincidence (Original Mix) underground (8:30) 3. Adapter - Ussio (Original Mix) underground (8:18) 4. Afrobeat Aka Massa - Green Days (Alex Costa Remix) Formula Recs Digital Factomania (7:39) 5. Alessan Main - Tesitura (Original Mix) Station Group Records (6:47) 6. Alessan Main - Voces y Cristales (Original Mix) Station Group Records (6:54) 7. Alex Celler - Sourire Du Sphinx (Original Mix) Leftroom Limited (10:18) 8. Alex Mine - Me & My Soul (Original Mix) Musex Industries (6:32) 9. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Original Mix) Musex Industries (7:01) 10. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Supersobresaturado Remix) Musex Industries (5:14) 11. Alex Tepper, Min, Chriss Vogt - Bourbon Street Swing (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:58) 12. Alexander Gallomoretti - Under The Skin & Over The Head (Original Mix) SDK Klub (6:33) 13. Artful Dice - Early Night (Original Mix) Zelos Deep (6:25) 14. Bas Struik - BM12 (Original Mix) Nightworx (7:23) 15. Bunte Bummler - I Cant Tell You (Original Mix) Mono Recordings (6:59) 16. Bunte Bummler - Mama Said Its Right (Original Mix) Mono Recordings (6:36) 17. Cala Vega - Viva Castro (Nico Camargo Remix) Revenge Records (8:07) 18. Carlo Cavalli, Eros Locatelli - Mexico (Dany Cohiba Remix) Carlo Cavalli Music Group (6:55) 19. Carlo Cavalli, Roby Star - Marimba (Club Mix) Carlo Cavalli Music Group (6:45) 20. Catz 'n Dogz - Mass Confusion (Original Mix) Pets Recordings (5:23) 21. Chapeau Claque - Last Dance (Enliven Deep Acoustics & Kenny Leaven Remix) UNA Music (8:49) 22. Chapeau Claque - Last Dance (Mathias Kaden What Do You Feel Remix) UNA Music (7:54) 23. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Alexis Valencia Remix) LED Records (7:10) 24. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Andres Blows Remix) LED Records (6:17) 25. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Jairo Delli Remix) LED Records (7:37) 26. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Joan Ibanez & Tony Roguez Remix) LED Records (6:16) 27. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Luigi Laner Remix) LED Records (6:12) 28. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Original Mix) LED Records (6:45) 29. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Santi Lafonte Remix) LED Records (8:20) 30. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Crystal Meth Barbie (Original Mix) Highgrade Records Germany (6:59) 31. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Original Mix) Highgrade Records Germany (7:45) 32. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Todd Bodines Bass Edit) Highgrade Records Germany (7:11) 33. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Tom Clark Remix) Highgrade Records Germany (8:29) 34. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Dirty Money Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (7:19) 35. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Illusions Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (7:13) 36. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Lacusta Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (8:42) 37. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - You Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (6:24) 38. Dave Angel & Ken Ishii - Type E (Temma-Teje Remix) Plaza In Crowd (6:56) 39. Dave Angel - Counter Wave (Jamie Anderson Remix V1) Plaza In Crowd (9:13) 40. Dave Angel - Counter Wave (Jamie Anderson Remix V2) Plaza In Crowd (7:06) 41. Dave Angel - On Point (Marco Bailey Remix) Plaza In Crowd (5:48) 42. Dave Angel - Zulu (Satoshi Fumi Remix) Plaza In Crowd (7:36) 43. Dennis Reich - People Run (Original Mix) Simple As That Records (7:07) 44. Dennis Reich - People Run (Sven Tasnadi Remix) Simple As That Records (8:24) 45. Dennis Reich - Queen Jacobi (Kollektiv Ost Remix) Simple As That Records (8:20) 46. Dennis Reich - Queen Jacobi (Original Mix) Simple As That Records (7:00) 47. DFlame - Black Musique (Angel Navarro Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:12) 48. DFlame - Black Musique (Ovidi Adlert Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:11) 49. DFlame - Black Musique (Rob Lamberti Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:44) 50. DJ Simi - Big Rip (Matt Star Remix) Kling Klong (7:06) 51. DJ Simi - Big Rip (Original Mix) Kling Klong (7:55) 52. Dosem - Replicants (Edu Imbernon and Coyu Remix) Suara (7:40) 53. Dosem - Replicants (Johannes Heil Barefoot Remix) Suara (8:39) 54. Dosem - Replicants (Original Mix) Suara (6:39) 55. DrBerger - Housekeeping (Rich Vom Dorf Remix) Tanzbar digital (6:37) 56. El Coyote - Santisimo (Instrumental) Ican Productions (5:26) 57. El Coyote - Santisimo featuring Iris Cepeda (Vocal Mix) Ican Productions (7:10) 58. GgDeX - Disco Wombat (Mario Piu Revisited) Kling Klong (7:27) 59. Gianni Ruocco - Medejean (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (7:10) 60. Gina, Bas Amro - Everywhere - Chris Lattner Remix Katchuli (6:13) 61. Grafiti - Fascination (Dance Disorder Remix) Armada Music (8:20) 62. Guille Placencia, DartDaKman - Tour of London (Original Mix) Looping Records (6:46) 63. House Head - Pacha Desert (Original Mix) Subtone Records (7:52) 64. Ian Dunlop - Vier (Original Mix) Diva Records Italy (6:52) 65. Ian Dunlop - Vier (Ronan Teague Remix) Diva Records Italy (7:30) 66. iMotion - Red Sponge (Original Mix) Soul Industries (6:56) 67. Javi Rodenas, Harry Jason - Bitch Up (Original Mix) Micronecta Records (8:07) 68. Javi Rodenas, Harry Jason - Bitch Up (Original Non Guitar Mix) Micronecta Records (16:49) 69. Jesse Voorn & Pink Fluid - Simply Magic (Fine Touch Remix) Sound Division (5:53) 70. John Lagora - Dink (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (7:20) 71. Jon Rundell - Dubno (Cristian Varela Remix) Pornographic Recordings (5:39) 72. Jon Rundell - Tom Foolery (Original Mix) Pornographic Recordings (7:12) 73. JR Disco - Streets (Banana Groovz Funky Tek Streetz Remix) 4Disco Records (6:08) 74. JUST2 - Fuck Spresso (Original Mix) Trebol Records (7:17) 75. JUST2 - Peace And Quiet (Original Mix) Trebol Records (8:43) 76. Kaum - Manhattan Party (Ahautzab Remix) Music Things (8:11) 77. Marc Rempel - Voices In My Head (Original Mix) Kuess Mich Vinyl (7:47) 78. Marc Romboy - Feelin' (Christian Smith Remix) Tronic (7:20) 79. Marc Romboy - Feelin' (Original Mix) Tronic (7:09) 80. Marcio Kantana - Trenceologie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (8:12) 81. Marcisco, Mikel B - Some (Original Mix) Twisted Shuffle (6:19) 82. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Shakey Solar (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (5:13) 83. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Stars & Shines (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (7:04) 84. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Why Don't You Answer (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (6:44) 85. Marty Lightbody - Only Dancin (Original Mix) Audiablo Records Ltd (7:22) 86. Min, Chriss Vogt - A Matter Of Taste (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:51) 87. Min, Chriss Vogt - All People (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:10) 88. Min, Chriss Vogt - Barcelona City Hop (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (3:56) 89. Min, Chriss Vogt - Comfort Me (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:06) 90. Min, Chriss Vogt - Lazy Floozies SmokinPot (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:37) 91. Min, Chriss Vogt - T Raumstation (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:45) 92. Min, Chriss Vogt - Walkin Away (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:10) 93. Min, Chriss Vogt - With N Egg Feat Wipa (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:49) 94. Min, Ehyun, Chriss Vogt - The Revenge Of The Phunky Ho (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:32) 95. Min, Thorsten Graeber - Open Mind (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:39) 96. Mr Fluff - Chasing Love (Original Mix) Pixelated Waves (6:08) 97. NDKj - Step Back (Original Mix) 303Lovers (6:34) 98. Nick Shepherd - Romantische Strasse (Original Mix) Undeliving Recordings (7:06) 99. Nora En Pure - Pasadena (Original Mix) Enormous Tunes (6:50) 100. NotoMash - Moon Dancer (Original Mix) Unt Records (8:43) 101. Ovr Kill - Ink On My Arm (Douglas Greed Remix) Kling Klong (6:51) 102. Ovr Kill - Ink On My Arm (Original) Kling Klong (7:18) 103. Paul Loraine - Wish You Were (Original Mix) Vitalik Recordings (6:57) 104. Paul Loraine - Wish You Were (Soulade Reconstruction) Vitalik Recordings (7:04) 105. Rhomtec - Umbra (Original Mix) ToolBox House (7:13) 106. Robbert Mendez - You Are DJ (Instrumental) We Love Sounds (7:15) 107. Robbert Mendez - You Are DJ (Vocal) We Love Sounds (7:15) 108. Room 202 - Ghana (Ant Brooks Remix) Redbox Records (7:17) 109. Room 202 - Ghana (Original Mix) Redbox Records (7:40) 110. Sanya Shelest, EscApe - Crazy Town (Original Mix) Skilled Records (6:56) 111. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Analogue System (Abby J Remix) Pild Records (7:39) 112. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Analogue System (Original Mix) Pild Records (7:41) 113. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Funky Peolple (Original Mix) Pild Records (8:36) 114. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Funky Peolple (Ugur Project Remix) Pild Records (7:13) 115. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Hunting Party (Original Mix) Pild Records (9:20) 116. Sebastien Leger - Wesh Wesh Wesh (FormatB Remix) Mistakes Music (6:52) 117. Sebastien Leger - Wesh Wesh Wesh (Original Mix) Mistakes Music (7:24) 118. Sergio Pardo - Lucian Night (Original Mix) Rene Records (7:39) 119. Sergio Pardo - Tribal Party (Original Mix) Rene Records (7:12) 120. Simone Marmellosi - Passion Before Money (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (7:48) 121. Simone Marmellosi - Wearing Black (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (8:24) 122. Smoke Sykes - Pumpin Jumpin (Dandy Hungary & Invoice Remix) Yoruba Grooves (6:50) 123. Smoke Sykes - Pumpin Jumpin (Original Mix) Yoruba Grooves (7:41) 124. Smoke Sykes - Snatch (Dandy Hungary & Invoice Remix) Yoruba Grooves (7:16) 125. Smoke Sykes - Snatch (Original Mix) Yoruba Grooves (7:29) 126. Sofa Tunes - Try (Original Mix) Wanda Recordings (4:59) 127. Solunamanalia - Salvadore (Original Mix) Dutchie Music (5:59) 128. Soulade - On The Side (Paul Loraine Remix) Vitalik Recordings (5:09) 129. Stefano Tropeano - Betty Blue (Original Mix) Rococo Records (7:34) 130. Stefano Tropeano - Flash Mob (Original Mix) Rococo Records (7:52) 131. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Alex Roque & Marcelo Vak Remix) Deep Xperience (7:17) 132. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Original Mix) Deep Xperience (7:56) 133. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Pille & Lushi Remix) Deep Xperience (7:18) 134. UMEK, Olivier Giacomotto - This Sound (Original Mix) 1605 (7:19) 135. Vlada Asanin - Manos Arriba (Original Mix) Definitive Recordings (7:08) 136. Yuman Grogorov - Dorothea (Original Mix) Code2 Records (6:11) 137. Yuman Grogorov - Tempelhofer Damm (Original Mix) Code2 Records (6:23) Techno 1. Alan Live - Intro of Dawn Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (4:48) 2. Alan Live - Post Mortem Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (5:58) 3. Alan Live - Traum Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (7:19) 4. Alex DElia, Nihil Young - Techno Is Ft ANNA (Alex Di Stefano Remix) Frequenza (7:11) 5. Alex DElia, Nihil Young - Techno Is Ft ANNA (Norbert Davenport & MGJ Remix) Frequenza (7:44) 6. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Fat Cat Ilogical Remix) Musex Industries (8:47) 7. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Inaki Kreator Remix) Musex Industries (7:01) 8. Alexey Kuznetsov - Positive (Original Mix) MK60 Records (7:10) 9. Andreas Bergmann - Undo (Original Mix) Moral Fiber (8:04) 10. Andreas Bergmann - Undo (Petar Cvetkovic Remix) Moral Fiber (7:31) 11. Andy P - Vault (Original Mix) Subwoofer Records (7:31) 12. Bas Thomas - Monster In My Closet (Original Mix) Naked Lunch (6:00) 13. Ben Hills - Moog Vs Strat (Berger Mix) Nachtexpress Records (6:44) 14. Ben Hills - Most Wanted (Klingberger Mix) Nachtexpress Records (8:26) 15. Big Show - Here I Am (Dich Remix) Raccoon Records (6:41) 16. Big Show - Here I Am (Micube Remix) Raccoon Records (7:33) 17. Big Show - Here I Am (Original Mix) Raccoon Records (7:56) 18. Big Show - Here I Am (UniTeQ Remix) Raccoon Records (7:22) 19. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Kasey Remix) Harthouse (6:54) 20. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Mazel Source Remix) Harthouse (6:44) 21. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Reblok Acid Remix) Harthouse (6:36) 22. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Tim Engelhardt Nachtglanz Remix) Harthouse (5:51) 23. Carlo Whale - Obvious (Original) Kan Records (8:22) 24. Carlo Whale - Pluck (Original) Kan Records (7:00) 25. Clouds - Optic (Jesper Dahlback Remix) Turbo Recordings (6:16) 26. Clouds - Optic (Original Mix) Turbo Recordings (5:47) 27. David Prap, Willy Real - Lost In Space (Dehix Remix) Inlab Recordings (7:50) 28. David Prap, Willy Real - Lost In Space (Original Mix) Inlab Recordings (6:55) 29. DavidChristoph - Summertime (Original Mix) Nachtstrom Schallplatten (7:56) 30. Deface - Droid (Original Mix) CRUX (6:32) 31. Deface - FAH Q (Original Mix) CRUX (5:20) 32. DKuhl - Sahara (Original Mix) Varianz Records (8:25) 33. DKuhl - Weltenbummler (Original Mix) Varianz Records (7:45) 34. Doctor Trash - Thats The K (Original) Klender Limited (8:07) 35. Ferhat Albayrak - Requiem (Lance Blaise Remix) Jeton Records (8:11) 36. Ferhat Albayrak - Requiem (Original Mix) Jeton Records (5:47) 37. IDigger - Tripping (Original Mix) Eastar Records (6:44) 38. Ivano Bellini, Gianni Ruocco - Rodadero (Original Mix) Black & Purple Recordings (7:43) 39. Jens Guetschow - Unforgotten (Deep Version) KW Music (5:39) 40. Jericho Knox - The Way I Am (Original Mix) Crossing Over Records (7:40) 41. Jim Rivers - Airport Vultures (Original Mix) Intec (7:13) 42. Jim Rivers - Bells Feat Joash (Original Mix) Intec (4:29) 43. Jim Rivers - Miles Away (Original Mix) Intec (3:21) 44. Jim Rivers - Nearly There (Original Mix) Intec (2:57) 45. Jim Rivers - On The Line (Original Mix) Intec (6:53) 46. Jim Rivers - Phoenix (Original Mix) Intec (5:55) 47. Jim Rivers - Product (Original Mix) Intec (3:11) 48. Jim Rivers - Sleepless In Detroit (Original Mix) Intec (5:52) 49. Jim Rivers - Tangent (Original Mix) Intec (6:22) 50. Jim Rivers - The Seventh Degree (Original Mix) Intec (5:44) 51. Jim Rivers - We Can Do This All Night (Original Mix) Intec (8:02) 52. Jim Rivers - When I Needed You Feat Mark Underdown (Original Mix) Intec (6:50) 53. Jim Rivers - Your Love (Original Mix) Intec (6:32) 54. John Lagora - Down (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (8:54) 55. John Lagora - Down (Ramon Tapia Remix) Mindshake Records (8:08) 56. John Lagora - Maersk (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (8:14) 57. Jon Rundell - Dubno (Original Mix) Pornographic Recordings (8:15) 58. Julian Brand - Paranormal (Original Mix) Analogeffekt Records (6:48) 59. Juno 6 - chain (Original Mix) Broque (3:55) 60. Juno 6 - darkonia (Original Mix) Broque (9:04) 61. Juno 6 - deadlock (Original Mix) Broque (8:07) 62. Juno 6 - state of flux (Original Mix) Broque (6:41) 63. Juno 6 - sub rosa (Original Mix) Broque (7:46) 64. Kardinal, Lowkey - Acid Slug (Original Mix) AFULAB (8:18) 65. Kardinal, Lowkey - Purple Wave (Exclusive Track) AFULAB (8:35) 66. Kardinal, Lowkey - Spangle (Original Mix) AFULAB (8:43) 67. Marcio Kantana - Dialogie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (6:34) 68. Mark Dekoda - Music For The People (Original Mix) Bosphorus Underground Recordings (6:35) 69. Milto Serano - Benoized (Thorsten Heiser Remix) Free Spirit Records (8:19) 70. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Antoni Bios Remix) VOL0101 Records (7:18) 71. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Fuskys Dark Tribe Tool) VOL0101 Records (5:58) 72. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Original Mix) VOL0101 Records (6:49) 73. MILU - Marijuana (Original Mix) Chocolate Dealer Records (5:00) 74. NDKj - Step Back (Luigi Rocca Edit) 303Lovers (6:35) 75. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (bandpass Remix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:06) 76. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (Original Mix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:16) 77. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (Smallrice Remix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:00) 78. Oleg Mass - Fragment Scrap (Original Mix) Einwanderer Records (7:05) 79. Ormatie - Only (Original Mix) Hope Recordings (5:27) 80. Perc - Gonkle (Bitten By The Black Dog) Perc Trax (6:22) 81. Perc - My Head Is Slowly Exploding (Ancient Methods Remix) Perc Trax (7:03) 82. Perc - Start Chopping (Tommy Four Seven Remix) Perc Trax (5:53) 83. Perc - You Saw Me (Sigha & Truss Remix) Perc Trax (7:46) 84. Pete Lopez, Marlon D - Shes Obsessed (Antranigs Ocd Instrumental) Lost In House (8:07) 85. Psyk - Second Trail (Original Mix) Figure (6:19) 86. Psyk - Third Trail (Original Mix) Figure (6:19) 87. Reagen - Synthtetic (Original) Microfreak Records (7:27) 88. Rob Belleville - Close The Distance (Original Mix) purebox (6:11) 89. Rob Belleville - From Midnight til Daylight (Original Mix) purebox (6:03) 90. Rob Belleville - Massive Melting (Original Mix) purebox (6:11) 91. Rob Belleville - Massive Melting (Ryogo Yamamoris Purebox Mix) purebox (6:16) 92. Simon Wish - Dreams (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:46) 93. Simon Wish - Over This Lay feat Jesse Michael (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:14) 94. Simon Wish - Passion (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:05) 95. Slad - Notch (Original Mix) Technoland (7:03) 96. Slad - Third Cabinet (Original Mix) Technoland (6:25) 97. Soundmanipulator - Una Preva (Bruno Ledesma & Lucas Ezequiel) NuLabel (9:01) 98. Soundmanipulator - Una Preva (Original Mix) NuLabel (6:03) 99. Soundmanipulator - Want To Play A Game (Original Mix) NuLabel (6:24) 100. Takuya Yamashita - Mars (Original Mix) Outpost Recordings (7:15) 101. Tebler - Komputaa (Original) FIR Records (5:34) 102. The Micronaut - Schleie (MollonoBass Remix) Acker Records (4:49) 103. UMEK, Olivier Giacomotto - This Sound (Sasha Carassi Phobiq Remix) 1605 (6:40) 104. Vince Noog - Vision (Original Mix) purebox (6:48) 105. Vince Noog - Vision (Ryogo Yamamoris Mix) purebox (7:25) 106. Vlada Asanin - Monkey Business (Original Mix) Definitive Recordings (6:06 Minimal 1. Acetato 3, Diezzera - Im Loco (Original Mix) Attary Records (7:39) 2. Acetato 3, Lado B - Minimalna (Original Mix) Attary Records (5:57) 3. Acetato 3, Lado B - Start Game (Original Mix) Attary Records (7:00) 4. Alberto la Torre - First Pop (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:27) 5. Alberto la Torre - Invisible (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:04) 6. Alberto la Torre - Wilderness (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (7:21) 7. Bjoern Efinger - Tropical Drums (Jule Grasz Remix) Starcake Records (6:14) 8. Bjoern Efinger - Tropical Drums (Original Mix) Starcake Records (7:39) 9. Cmore Trix - The Wiggler (Glitter Remix) 4slash4 (6:01) 10. Cmore Trix - The Wiggler (Original Mix) 4slash4 (5:09) 11. Dago DJ - Black Jungle (Endy DJ) Drugstore Records (5:40) 12. Dave Angel & Ken Ishii - Type E (Shin Nishimura Remix) Plaza In Crowd (7:18) 13. Dirt, Nail - Bishop (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:07) 14. Dirt, Nail - Pleasing Plow (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:43) 15. Dirt, Nail - Radio (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:35) 16. Djafar - Rich And Rush (Original) Wald Und Wiese (6:12) 17. Djafar - Saw Dark (Original) Wald Und Wiese (5:42) 18. Dog, off - Star Eksho (Original Mix) Digital Music Labels (6:49) 19. Dog, off - Trill Cat (Randoom Remix) Digital Music Labels (8:17) 20. Double M - Andive (Original Mix) MFR (6:28) 21. Falke, Vogelbein - Papa (Orginal) Get Minimal Music (6:37) 22. Falke, Vogelbein - Smokers (Original) Get Minimal Music (7:06) 23. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Brojanowski Daddy Remix) Der Hut (6:06) 24. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Felix Lorussos Flat Broke Remix) Der Hut (6:58) 25. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Kamika Remix) Der Hut (6:56) 26. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Original Mix) Der Hut (6:26) 27. Joe Dominguez - Boombox (Original Mix) Digital Music Labels (6:44) 28. Juan Ddd, Bedoya - Relik (Original Mix) Starten Music (7:15) 29. Luca Aversano - The Beating of Wings a Butterfly (Original Mix) Unistory Music (7:18) 30. Lyr - Kepler 9b (Original Mix) From A Tree (5:36) 31. Mac Vaughn - Funnel Cloud (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:03) 32. Mac Vaughn - This Is Just A Test Mas (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:20) 33. Marcio Kantana - Analogie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (6:31) 34. Marco Furnari - Nightmare (Original Mix) Infernal Poison Publisher (7:30) 35. Marco Furnari - Rabbithole (Original Mix) Infernal Poison Publisher (6:30) 36. Marco Sapiens - Body 2 Body (Nitro Mix) Groove On (7:29) 37. Marco Sapiens - Body 2 Body (Original Mix) Groove On (7:25) 38. Mark Dekoda - Why Dont You (Original Mix) Bosphorus Underground Recordings (6:02) 39. Matt Funkk - Elephant (Original Mix) Consumed Records (8:19) 40. Matt Funkk - Evolve (Original Mix) Consumed Records (7:42) 41. Michael Lovatt - Howler (Damolh33 Remix) Melonsound (6:30) 42. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Original Mix) Sound Lab (5:46) 43. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Weskors Dream Remix) Sound Lab (5:56) 44. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Wocky Remix) Sound Lab (4:25) 45. Mounsie - Are U Scared (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:46) 46. Mounsie - Black Russian (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:31) 47. Mounsie - Made In Turkey (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:28) 48. Oleg Mass - Interpretation (Original Mix) Einwanderer Records (6:48) 49. Ozen Nouse aka Enzo Porrino - Paper Heart (Original Mix) CibiCaldi Records (6:33) 50. Ozen Nouse aka Enzo Porrino - Sintetic Sky (Original Mix) CibiCaldi Records (7:23) 51. Paul Parsons - Peepin (Jamore Landson Remix) Tall House Digital (8:38) 52. Sadder - Dark Smile (Original Mix) Dser Records (6:52) 53. Sadder - Insane Friend (Original Mix) Dser Records (7:29) 54. Samuele Buselli - Jumping (Original Mix) Milk (5:05) 55. Samuele Buselli - Running (Original Mix) Milk (5:19) 56. Samuele Buselli - Wake Up (Original Mix) Milk (5:09) 57. Steve Fourez, Jason Kebble - Limestone (Original Mix) Syncope Recordz (6:17) 58. The Forest, Stimmhalt - Sunflower (Nemaier Remix) DLab Records (5:58) 59. The Forest, Stimmhalt - Sunflower (Original Mix) DLab Records (7:32) 1. Kamika - Conform [6:18] 2. Heinrichs & Hirtenfellner - Cut Bread [7:9] 3. RenГЁ Bourgeois - Mama San [7:34] 4. Maksim Dark - Die Intellektuelle Idee (Mike Wall Remix) [7:25] 5. Brojanowski - Let Me Be Your Lover [7:10] 6. Urla Ender - 13.0 (Gabriel Le Mar Remix) [6:53] 7. Roberto Mozza - One Night In Palais (Toubi Mcweird Remix) [6:24] 8. Leenn'y - Mr. Orange [6:23] 9. Nadja Lind - Aggregat No.5 [6:36] 10. Miro Pajic - Inter Fear [7:5] 11. Oliver Ton - The Whupp (Rene Bourgeois Whupp Dat Ass Remix) [7:29] 12. SoundApotheke - De De Puuh [4:50] 13. Olaf Over - Psycho Kit [4:48] 14. Norman - Zugang Voll Integriert (Syntax Error Remix) [5:44] 15. Baby Chris - Lesson In Live (Bonus Mix) [7:54] 16. Fallhead - Unten Der HГјgel (Esspapier Special Edit) [6:1] 17. Lampenfieber - The Balls [6:38] 18. f.i.e.l.d.y - High [7:8] 19. Trotzkopf - Monuciani (Nutmann Remix) [6:21] 20. Unknown Option - Once Upon A Time [5:44] 21. Monkeylovers - Hear No Evil [7:25] 22. Flea - Minx [7:38] 23. Demas - Bohnen Herbert (Sebastian Koch's Schoten Remix) [6:14] 24. Michael Burkat & Lars Klein - Das Rockt Auch! [7:3] 25. Aemkay - Hunter [8:7] minimal techno 1. Andy Martin - Ataraxia (Original Mix) (7:03) 2. Andy Martin - Human Circuit (Original Mix) (7:02) 3. Andy Martin - Popol Vuh (Original Mix) (8:18) 4. Andy Martin - Telekinesis (Original Mix) (7:47) 5. Damolh33, Hertzman - Concept (Original Mix) (6:07) 6. Damolh33, Hertzman - Moisture (Original Mix) (6:36) 7. Damolh33, Hertzman - Nimbus (Original Mix) (6:14) 8. Damolh33, Hertzman - Skill (Original Mix) (6:10) 9. Dani Sbert - Moon (Original Mix) (7:29) 10. Dani Sbert - Sun (Original Mix) (7:29) 11. Hertzman - Aeon (Original Mix) (6:07) 12. Hertzman - Fortress (Original Mix) (6:10) 13. Hertzman - Story (Original Mix) (6:13) 14. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Chris Fortier 40oz Drum Dub Tool) (3:25) 15. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Chris Fortier Remix) (7:06) 16. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Hair Band DropOut Remix) (8:39) 17. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Heat Merchantz Remix) (10:28) 18. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Joint Custody Remix) (8:57) 19. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (No Soul To Sell Remix) (8:11) 20. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Original Mix) (8:59) 21. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Alex Young Y2K Remix) (6:48) 22. Marco P - Numb (Landmark Remix) (7:25) 23. Mark Denken - Ducks & (Original Mix) (5:39) 24. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Francesco Bergomi May Go On To Ecuador Remix) (7:03) 25. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Andy Martin Remix) (6:42) 26. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Original Mix) (7:59) 27. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Tomas More Kepler 22b Remix) (7:52) 28. Swallen - OMG (Min & Mal & Doublewave Remix) (8:07) 29. Swallen - OMG (Original Mix) (6:55) 30. Swallen - OMG (Skate Remix) (6:17) 31. Tony Kauffmann, Tinney M - Alien X (Original Mix) (7:52) 32. Tony Kauffmann, Tinney M - Reconstruction (Original Mix) (7:21) 1. Alex Di Stefano - Phase One (Koen Groeneveld Remix) (6:40) 2. Alex Di Stefano - Phase One (Original Mix) (6:38) 3. Alex Villanueva - GoodFellas (Damasko Remix) (6:12) 4. AMochi - Black Reigns (Original Mix) (7:31) 5. AMochi - Phantom (Original Mix) (6:20) 6. AMochi - Stray (Original Mix) (6:05) 7. Bart Skils - Burnin (Nicole Moudaber Remix) (7:41) 8. Bart Skils - Burnin (Original Mix) (7:06) 9. D-Nox & Beckers - Sunner (Dustin Zahn Dub) (6:46) 10. D-Nox & Beckers - You Are (Bushwackas Just Be Remix) (9:13) 11. Ensaime, Alex Guesta - Hands Up (Club Mix) (8:11) 12. Funk D'Void - Counter Cat (Original Mix) (6:14) 13. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Andre Luki Remix) (6:07) 14. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Degasperi Remix) (6:55) 15. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Gabriel Noise Remix) (7:19) 16. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (LSotnas Remix) (4:16) 17. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Mendhelson Remix) (7:10) 18. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Original Mix) (7:19) 19. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Original Mix) (6:20) 20. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Paride Saraceni & Demas Hypnodeep Remix) (7:44) 21. Margot - Liuff Settanta (Florian Meindl Remix) (7:36) 22. MiniCoolBoyz - Excuse Me (Alberto Pascual Remix) (6:24) 23. MiniCoolBoyz - Excuse Me (Marka T Remix) (6:46) 24. MiniCoolBoyz - Feel My Drums (Mladen Tomic Remix) (7:38) 25. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Luigi Madonna Remix) (6:38) 26. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Marka T Remix) (6:55) 27. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Piig & Dan Remix) (7:45) 28. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Sam Paganini Remix) (7:25) 29. MiniCoolBoyz - This Is My Acid House (Black Abstract Acid House Remix) (6:39) 30. Nick Daring - Alliance (Original Mix) (7:20) 31. Paul Mac - The Process (Original Mix) (5:12) 32. Paul Mac - The Process (Paul Mac Stimulus Dub) (6:05) 33. Paul Mac - The Process (Takashi Watanabe After Hours Mix) (8:19) 34. Paul Mac - The Process (Takashi Watanabe Remix) (8:13) 35. Spada - Banga (Original Mix) (7:08) 36. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (ABrothers Remix) (7:15) 37. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Dave The Drummer Remix) (6:54) 38. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Knobs Drill Remix) (7:30) 39. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Original Mix) (5:48) 40. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Spiriakos & Steen Remix) (5:37) 41. Stefanowitz - Atma (Original Mix) (7:17) 42. Stefanowitz - Pfhrwhapp (Original Mix) (6:43) 43. Stefanowitz - Psyche (Original Mix) (6:48) 44. Tintin - Render In (Original Mix) (7:42) A Hvich ?– Survival (Moldavius Remix) A Hvich ?– Survival (Original Mix) A Hvich ?– Survival (Stevie Wilson Remix) Aaron Santos & James Teej ?– Sorry Soul (Nhar Remix) Acidia ?– Street (Acidia Club Mix) Alberto Santana ?– Minus One (Original Mix) Alberto Santana ?– Overload (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez ?– Ghost in the Machine (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez ?– Walkfunk (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– It?’s A Groove (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– Was Great (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– Was Up (Original Mix) Alex D?’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A ?– Techno is (D-Unity Remix) Alex D?’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A ?– Techno is (Gabriel D?’or & Bordoy Remix) Boris Brejcha ?– Picolomini (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha ?– Ruhrschussel (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha ?– We Are Looking For (Original Mix) Chris Lo ?– All Sistem (Original Mix) Chris Lo ?– Bronx Brothers (Original Mix) Chris Majcen ?– Time Spiral (Original Mix) Coma ?– Fiction (Original Mix) Coma ?– Gravity (Original Mix) Coma ?– Total DLY (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton ?– Feng Shui Theory 1 (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton ?– Feng Shui Theory 2 (Original Mix)..... 4 Souls ?– Swing Ya Thing (Original Mix) Affkt, Darlyn Vlys, One Hand aka Darlyn Vlys AFFKT ?– Kohu (Original Mix) Alessio Mereu ?– Hypochondriac (Original Mix) Animal Trainer ?– Alive (Original Mix) Aquarium Punks ?– African Man With A Piano (Original Mix) Beat ?– For The Masses (Original Mix) Brisboys ?– Mercury Groove (Original Mix) Charles Ramierz ?– Heavens Groove (Kabuto Koji Remix) Christian Smith, Florian Meindl ?– Desire (Original Mix) Cristhian Hoffmann ?– Restart The Music (Original Mix) Dave Garcia, Eric Ortega ?– El Pirata (Danny LeBlack Remix) Deep Sound ?– Tech (Original Mix) Dema, Paride Saraceni ?– Semafor (Piatto Remix) DFormation ?– Dont Stop (Julian Poker Remix) DFormation, Oscar L ?– MAD (D-Unity Remix) DFormation,Simon Shaker ?– Get Excited (Javi Colors DJ Garces Remix) Dirtyworx ?– Berliner (Original Mix) DJ Kay ?– Waterfall (Autophase Remix) Dzeko Torres ?– Self Explanatory (Original Mix) Falke, Vogelbein ?– Minimal Smoke (Original) Gino Patricio ?– No Diggity (Original) Groove Man ?– Back In The Game (Original Mix) Isabelle ?– Breakup Jewelry (Original) Ismael Rivas aka Riva ?– El Farol (Original Mix) Jalebee Cartel ?– Funda (Original Mix) Jamie Anderson, Deepgroove ?– Freya (Daniel Steinberg Remix) JDG_Meltek ?– Retrigger (Original Mix) Jhoan Sanchez ?– En Las Alturas (Moizez Ohr Remix) Jochen Pash ?– Voyage (Dj PP Remix) Julian Poker ?– Fever (Original Mix) Libex, Paolo Pellegrino ?– Prika (Original Mix) Marco Lys, Alex Kenji ?– Manaus (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa ?– Athens (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa, Luigi Rocca ?– The Passenger (Original Mix) Mark Diablo ?– 365 (Original Mix) Mark Wheels ?– Theory Of Relativity (Original Mix) Marvell, Too Fresh ?– Hotel Party feat Marvell (Bass Kleph Remix) Maxikool ?– Click (Original Mix) Milton Channels ?– I Want It (Original Mix) Ned Rise ?– Magic Fly (Original Mix) Neverdogs, Brusca ?– Podenco (Original Mix) Nikola Gala ?– A Voice From Outer Space (Original Mix) Nino Bua ?– The Beat Within (Original Mix) Oliver Klein, Kolombo ?– Espionnage (Fusty Delights Remix) Peeta ?– Gandhis Flip Flop (Original Mix) Pizeta ?– Ocra (Original Mix) Ron Carroll, Superfunk ?– Lucky Star (Kolombo 303 Dub) RPO ?– The First Time In My Life (Joy Marquez Remix) Sharam Jey ?– Attention (Eats Everything Jay Robinsons Remix) Sharam Jey, Deadbots ?– Obey (Polymath Remix) Stan Kolev ?– Rescue Me (Original Mix) Sweet N Candy ?– Deep Water (Florian Meindl Edit) System F, Marc Almond ?– Soul On Soul (Elektrochemie LK Mix) Tamer Fouda ?– Bitch (Minimal Bitch Mix) The Selph ?– An Anxious Friend (Original Mix) Thomas Schumacher, Florian Meindl ?– Satisfaction (Original Mix) Vlada Asanin, Cuartero ?– Pincel (Original Mix) Xar Lee ?– Te Da Igual (Tony Dee Remix) Yan Oxygen ?– Ghost (Original Mix) Agaric ?– Run. Ostern Jam Beatfunk ?– Pump (Original Mix) BNZO-El Chupacabra Original Mix Hollen ?– Mamy Groovy (Tony Dee Remix) Lewis Ryder ?– Kaffee-Monster Schief Gegangen (Nathan Coles & David Cokers Spanish Fly Mix) Mark Reeve-Lichtkleid Original Mix Maximan ?– Jail View (Scan Mode Remix) Rohrer & Siegel ?– BigBertha The Martinez Brothers ?– Issshhh (Beats) Alberto Pascual ?– Drive (Original Mix) Dektend & Dfndr ?– Rococco Cake Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris Altogether Lost Ben Klock S Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jon Reynolds & Tomas Rubeck ?– Union Street Car Park (Original Mix) Markantonio, Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati ?– My Tisana (Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati Remix) Patrick Kunkel and M.in ?– I Know feat. Harold Todd (Original Mix) VA-Maximan Jail View Scan Mode Remix Flug -13c Tool Mix Glimpse ?– Work That Body (Kehakuma Remix) Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jeff Mills ?– Gadd Luigi Madonna-Enigma Four mike parker ?– ringing bass Paul Ritch ?– Shake It (Original Mix) Timmo Comb Of Mermaid ?– Original Mix Tom Flynn ?– Budgie Smuggler (Original Mix) Atesh K. ?– Simple Trap Avilo-Missio Daniele Papini ?– Astanti Titta Remix David Phillips ?– The Batch Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris-Altogether Lost Ben Klock s Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Roland M. Dill ?– I?’ll be There (Sam Ball Remix) TechGroup Maurizio Vitiello-MusicOn Original Mix Aquarius Heaven-Universe Drumfunk (Original Mix) Hollen ?– Alfio (Original Mix) Javier Carballo ?– Islands (Djohnny Remix) Javier Carballo ?– Low (Original Mix) Jon Gurd and Dave Robertson-Never Do That (Original Mix) Luca Lozano ?– Heaven & Hell (Penner & Muder Remix LuLu Rouge ?– Bless You (Minilogue rmx) RAY OKPARA- MODERN DANCE (Original mix) agaric-drifter Agaric-Who Made Up The Rules Original Mix Benny Royal ?– Go Bump (Original Mix) Daelo ?– Move On (Zack Marullo Remix) Djulz ?– Da Madness (Original Mix) Kaiserdisco ?– Amalfino (2000 And One & DJ Madskillz Remix) Kernel Key ?– Pallets (Original Mix) leonardo_gonnelli-not_again_(sammy_remix) Mihalis Safras ?– San trope (Oxia remix) Yoshitaca And Ittetsu And Jun Akimoto ?– Just Lay Back (Ittetsu And Jun Akimoto Remix) Alberto Pascual ?– Drive (Original Mix) Dektend & Dfndr ?– Rococco Cake Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris Altogether Lost Ben Klock S Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jon Reynolds & Tomas Rubeck ?– Union Street Car Park (Original Mix) Markantonio, Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati ?– My Tisana (Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati Remix) Patrick Kunkel and M.in ?– I Know feat. Harold Todd (Original Mix) VA-Maximan Jail View Scan Mode Remix Flug -13c Tool Mix Glimpse ?– Work That Body (Kehakuma Remix) Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jeff Mills ?– Gadd Luigi Madonna-Enigma Four mike parker ?– ringing bass Paul Ritch ?– Shake It (Original Mix) Timmo Comb Of Mermaid ?– Original Mix Tom Flynn ?– Budgie Smuggler (Original Mix) Alex DElia -Moogerfooger Mladen Tomic Remix Bryan Zentz ?– Double R (Original Mix) Daniel Dubb ?– Wound Up (Original Mix) Lazy M ?– Ready To Rock (Marco Lansi Remix) Mooryc ?– Turn Left (Douglas Greeds ?– from here to poznan rmx) Timmo ?– Locust (Alex Di Stefano Remix) Victor Calderone ?– Pleasure Grip (Original Mix) Vogue. Victor Ruiz. Barudi ?– Playboy (Dub Mix) Xircus ?– Rolf Harris (Ronan Portela Remix) Aquarius_Heaven_-_Universe_(Original_Mix) Bruch & Junior ?– Seat No Fastbelt (Original Mix) Frann delice & Xuzav ?– Run Ran Run (Original mix) Kernel Key ?– Pallets (Original Mix) Smart Wave ?– Mind mazes(DJ Raid detroits dub mix) The Evil Amigos ?– Playa Bossa Veerus & Maxie Devine ?– 1976 (Original Mix) Xircus ?– Rolf Harris (Ronan Portela Remix) Broombeck ?– Wtfai (Wehbba Remix) Bryan Zentz ?– Double R (Original Mix) D Julz-Da Madness Daniel Dubb ?– Wound Up (Original Mix) Electric Indigo & Irradiation ?– Phytoplankton NiCe7 ?– In Between (Supernova Remix) Yoshitaca ?– Just Lay Back (Jun Akimoto & Ittetsu Remix) 01. Piatto - Saturn 8 (Original Mix) 02. Paul Nazca - Scale Of Sky (Original Mix) 03. Ant Brooks - What's Mine (Original Mix) 04. Whitenoize - The Underground (TJR Remix) 05. Roy RosenfelD - Coin Flip (Original Mix) 06. PHNTM - Flash Dance (Original Mix) 07. Ahmet Sendil - I Still Have A Dream (Original Mix) 08. Balthazar, Jackrock - Puerto Rico (Alex Di Stefano Remix) 09. Andre Walter, Chris Hope - Mania (Original Mix) 10. Andrea Roma - Just A Loop (Original Mix) 11. Vladimir Acic - Mr. Joe Gideon (Original Mix) 12. 777 Systems - Noms (Original Mix) 13. Rub A Dub - TM (Original Mix) 14. Dualfunk - Rolling (Original Mix) 15. A.K.O. - Say Hello (Original Mix) 16. Alex Long - Magenta (Original Mix) 17. Mario Ochoa - La Noche (Original Mix) 18. Frank Sonic, Mike Maass - Butan (Original Mix) 19. Juan Ddd - Mad Dog (Original Mix) 20. The Scumfrog - In Love (Original Mix) 21. Juan Ddd, Johan Dresser, Stereomono - Ant Man (Original Mix) 22. SoNa, Simia - Dimply (Original Mix) 23. Hellomonkey - My Seven Favorite Sharpshooters (Original Mix) 24. Dima German - Physical Reaction (Original Mix) 25. Darryl Green - Warning (Original Mix) 26. W10 - Five O'Clock Love (Original Mix) 27. Montblank - Shuffle (Original Mix) 28. Denis Underground - Feel Free (Original Mix) 29. Kyfu - Trop Cale (Original Mix) 30. Miguel Bastida - Rezolution (Original Mix) 31. Daniel Kaufman - Stalled (Original Mix) Alex Mine – Don’t Look Back (Original Mix) Alex Mine – Teraphy (Original Mix) Aumrec – Anouka (Original Mix) Aumrec – Aumrec (Original Mix) Aumrec – Lapislazul (Ninth Camomile Remix) Catatonic Overload – Death Before Disco (Original Mix) Catatonic Overload – Environment (Delete Remix) Catatonic Overload – Environment (Original Mix) Dani Sbert – Otherside (Original Mix) Dani Sbert – Ready (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – Moonflower (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – Smoker (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – When the Sunshine Goes Down (Original Mix) Daniele Kama – Last Request (Original Mix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (German Valley Remix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (Gion Remix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (Original Mix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Cristiano Casiraghi Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Loko Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Original Mix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Ricardo Espino Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Sotisfaction Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Ferdi L Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Giuseppe Antonino Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Joe Kendut Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Original Mix) Ian O’Donovan – Redemption (Original Mix) Ian O’Donovan – Relieve (Original Mix) Jacob Dannyl – Where Is My Mind (Killer Session) Leechi Alexej – Hubbub (Original Mix) Leechi Alexej – Turk Kizi (Original Mix) Leo R – Amber Light (Original Mix) Leo R – Drill Bit (Original Mix) Leo R – Room 237 (Original Mix) Loud Noize – Dark Distortion (Original Mix) Loud Noize – Distorted Reality (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Hidden Empire (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Knavish (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Sphinx (Original Mix) Marco Lys – Kama (Original) Marco Lys – Kama (Solo Remix) Mario Ochoa – Take A Look (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa – The Rooster (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Promzona (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Regroover (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Wave Of Resonance Timework (Original Mix) Mike Huckaby – The Tresor Track (Original Mix) NHB & Fabrizio Pettorelli – Bad Habits (Original Mix) Nice Deejay – Miss Nice (Original Mix) Nice Deejay – Ndrom (Original Mix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Mike Ban & Dietmar Wohl Remix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Original Mix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Torsten Kanzler Remix) Oliver Kucera – Lightning Bolt (Spark Taberner Remix) Oliver Kucera – Stop Sequencer (Original Mix) Oliver Kucera & Souris – Lightning Bolt (Original Mix) People Get Real – Bleep Spectro (Original Mix) People Get Real – Pachino (Original Mix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Ditto Remix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Don Ruijgrok Remix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Original Mix) Psyk – Lowdown (Original Mix) Psyk – Repeat (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Inertia (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Mobility (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Rhythm (Original Mix) Ramon Zenker & Harada – Rappelkiste (Original Mix) Repton – I Was Here (Nikkolas Research Remix) Repton – I Was Here (Original) Repton – I Was Here (Simon Firth Remix) Sasha Carassi – Lateral Pressure (Original Mix) Sintex Music – Bangkok (Original Mix) Sintex Music – Diffuse (Original Mix) Spoiled Kid – The ONE! (Original Mix) Spoiled Kid – You Can Take It (Original Mix) Synthetic Technology – Fatal Error (Original Mix) Synthetic Technology – Placenta (Original Mix) The Abductors – Stevige Track (Original Mix) The Advent – Distract (Original Mix) The Advent – Higher Learning (Original Mix) The Advent – Nexus 22 (Original Mix) The Collectorz – Blood (Original Mix) The Collectorz – Blood (Raw Mix) Tomas More – Flesh (Original Mix) Tomas More – Persona (Original Mix) Tomas More – The Kiss (Original Mix) Tomas More – The Unknown Word (Original Mix) Tony Kairom – Popeye (Original Mix) Tony Kairom – The Addams Family (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Atom (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Flux (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Kaleidoscope (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Changes (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Changes (Romar Remix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Make You Wet (Karim Rajhi Remix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Make You Wet (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Underground (Micro on Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Underground (Original Mix) Zenbi – Gezuar (Original Mix) Zenbi – Minimalistic (Original Mix) A Hvich – Survival (Moldavius Remix) A Hvich – Survival (Original Mix) A Hvich – Survival (Stevie Wilson Remix) Aaron Santos & James Teej – Sorry Soul (Nhar Remix) Acidia – Street (Acidia Club Mix) Alberto Santana – Minus One (Original Mix) Alberto Santana – Overload (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez – Ghost in the Machine (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez – Walkfunk (Original Mix) Alex Costa – It’s A Groove (Original Mix) Alex Costa – Was Great (Original Mix) Alex Costa – Was Up (Original Mix) Alex D’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A – Techno is (D-Unity Remix) Alex D’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A – Techno is (Gabriel D’or & Bordoy Remix) Boris Brejcha – Picolomini (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha – Ruhrschussel (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha – We Are Looking For (Original Mix) Chris Lo – All Sistem (Original Mix) Chris Lo – Bronx Brothers (Original Mix) Chris Majcen – Time Spiral (Original Mix) Coma – Fiction (Original Mix) Coma – Gravity (Original Mix) Coma – Total DLY (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton – Feng Shui Theory 1 (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton – Feng Shui Theory 2 (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Eta Carinae (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Husaria (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Magma (Original Mix) Dave Spritz – Salvia (Original Mix) David Temessi & Hiab – Imotape (Original Mix) David Temessi & Hiab – Powertape (Original Mix) Davidchristoph – Fear Frequency (Bodyscrub Remix) Davidchristoph – Fear Frequency (Original Mix) Davidchristoph – Ghost Raider (Loco & Jam Remix) Davidchristoph – Ghost Raider (Original Mix) Deep Future – Do it All Night (Hugo Remix) Deep Future – Do it All Night (Original Mix) Deep Future – Flying Colours (Lazaro Casanova Miami Vice Refix) Deep Future – Flying Colours (Original Mix) DJ Milectro & Jonny Calypso – Direction (Original Mix) DJ Milectro & Jonny Calypso – Rise & Fall (Original Mix) Dorian Chavez & Mobius Strum – MAE (Original Mix) Dorian Chavez & Mobius Strum – Rainforest (Original Mix) Franck Valat – Landscape 010 (Original Mix) Franck Valat – Mindie (Original Mix) Gepy – Baby Dinosaur (Original Mix) Gepy – Pippo (Original Mix) Glitter, Nytron – Freak Chick (Original Mix) Johnny Kaos & Hunzed – Emociones De La Vida (Original Mix) Koer – Fobos (Original Mix) Koer – Moonlight (Original Mix) Luthier – Prevent Hearing (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – Infinity (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – Roundabout (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – You Know (Original Mix) Maximiljan – Backlash (Egal 3 Remix) Maximiljan – Backlash (Original Mix) Maximiljan – Funky Mary (Original Mix) Mechanique – Island Of Stability – (Original Mix) Mechanique – Karoshi – (Original Mix) Mendo & Yvan Genkins – Capture (Original Mix) Mendo & Yvan Genkins – Witness (Original Mix) Mike Spaccavento – Game Over (Original Mix) Mike Spaccavento – Vocal Round (Original Mix) Morry – Minimal Baby (Original Mix) Morry – Shit Happiness (Original Mix) Nytron – House You (Original Mix) Oliver Schories – The Deal (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Bitter Rucker (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Dumb House (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Timeline (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Zulu (Original Mix) Paolo Driver – Good Afternoon (Los Suruba 90′s Remix) Paolo Driver – Good Afternoon (Original Mix) Paolo Driver & Roby J – Fusion (Original Mix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Funk D’void Remix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Lewis Ryder Remix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Original Mix) Paul Loraine – Once Again (Original Mix) Phonokemi – 2000 Eyes (Original Mix) Phonokemi – Black Comes the Day (Original Mix) Phonokemi – Smile (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Babylon (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Bumbaclat (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Got Me Down (Original Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Alexander Kowalski Remix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Benny Grauer Remix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Digital Bonus Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Original Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Skai & Joel Armstrong Remix) SIS – Aires (Original Mix) SIS – Boogie Nights (Original Mix) Sivesgaard – Unorthodox (Ricardo Tobar Remix) Solee & Joxe – Abundance (Original Mix) Sven Jaeger – Casta Uela (Original Mix) Sven Jaeger – Cicilon (Original Mix) Ted Dettman – Normal Life (Original Mix) Tim J – 7 Faktors of Awakenings (Original Mix) Tim J – Beat Down (Original Mix) Tim J – Tresor (Original Mix) Tom Hades – Pitched to the Max (Original Mix) Tom Hades – Pitched to the Max (Sasha Carassi Remix) Tom Hades – React (Original Mix) Tomas More – Scopic Drive (Original Mix) Tomas More – Scopic Drive (Roman Fluegel Remix) Tomas More – That Thing (Original Mix) Wally Stryk – Mon Amour (Max Jacobson & Jason Patrick Remix) Wally Stryk – Mon Amour (Original Mix) Wally Stryk – Palermo Soho (Do Santos Remix) Wally Stryk – Palermo Soho (Original Mix) 01. Robert Noise & Ploughman – Chennai (Original Mix) (7:07) 02. Glen & Adrian – Microchip (Original Mix) (7:05) 03. Ray Valentine – Turkey Turist (Original Mix) (6:11) 04. Ruiz Sierra – Turn Off The Lights (Original Mix) (7:01) 05. Emanuele Sorgato – Go (Original Mix) (5:11) 06. BenyOne – Machine (Original Mix) (6:37) 07. Secret Groovers – Inversion (Original Mix) (9:12) 08. Cristian Glitch – Dispersion (Original Mix) (6:36) 09. Rodrigo Diaz – Sexstars (Original Mix) (7:24) 10. Stephen Advance & Roland Weber – Instant Reaction (Original Mix) (6:15) 11. Italianbeat Guys – Thunderstorm (Original Mix) (9:05) 12. Stephen Advance & Droplex – Predator (Original Mix) (6:00) 13. Luix Spectrum – Define (Original Mix) (7:07) 14. Miniroom & Red Pig Flower – Red [email protected] (Original Mix) (6:20) 01. London Exchange – Forever (Dura Remix) (6:36) 02. Dura – Anti Pink (Original Mix) (6:36) 03. Azzimov – Penetrator (Oziriz Remix) (6:02) 04. Jackson White – Back (Original Mix) (6:28) 05. Jackson White – Wrong Out (Original Mix) (6:13) 06. Dura – Outswise (Original Mix) (5:50) 07. Dura – Eyes On The Prize (Brutal Kids Remix) (6:06) 08. Dura, Sasha Check – Ritas Groove (Original Mix) (6:55) 09. Twist – Rockfeller Fcuk (Original Mix) (7:05) 10. Jackson White – Beat In Beat (Original Mix) (5:36) 11. Lee Poulson – For A Kiss Or Two (Original Mix) (6:37) 12. Lee Poulson – Kuka (Original Mix) (6:21) 13. Oziriz, Jackson White – Back To Cube (Original Mix) (6:28) 14. Oziriz – Motions (Original Mix) (8:05) 15. Twist – Hidden Place (Original Mix) (8:19) 16. Oziriz – Saxy Waxy (Original Mix) (7:09) 17. Oziriz – Strings As The Ropes (Original Mix) (6:06) 18. Dura – Get Smart (Original Mix) (6:54) 19. Oleg Kostrow – Nemo’s Song (Dura Remix) (3:46) 20. London Exchange – We Are Not Together (Azzimov Remix) (7:13) A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Accapella).mp3 A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Instrumental).mp3 A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Original Mix).mp3 Aeon Flux – We Will Be Free – Original Mix).mp3 Airwolf – Rebels – Original Mix).mp3 Alessio Arcangeli – 1000 Miles – Original Mix).mp3 Alessio Arcangeli – Honefoss – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Life S. – Fuck Off – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Shaje – Bourre – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Shaje – Bourre – Sums 4 Am Remix).mp3 Alex Vandoff – Casino Flamingo – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Verano, Jim Marlaud – Make Me Real – Radio Edit).mp3 Alex Xela – Are You Ready – Original Mix).mp3 Alexander Seretti – Broken – Original Mix).mp3 Alive Me – Something Wrong In The System Control – Original Mix).mp3 Almaru – One Step – Original Mix).mp3 Alvin Tech – Hey – Original Mix).mp3 Alvin Tech – Rhythm Of The Night – Original Mix).mp3 Amadeo, Process P – Agua Fresca – Original Mix).mp3 Ambient P – Music Keeps Me Dancing – Original Mix).mp3 Andhim – Afrikadelle – Original Mix).mp3 Andlee – Trackformers – Original Mix).mp3 Andre Slater – Metamorfosis – Original Mix).mp3 Andrea Pisapia – Scala Reale – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Jupiter Planet – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Mercury Planet – 4ndr375-73k Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Planet Neptune – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Uranus Planet – 4ndr375-73k Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Assembled In – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Audio Delta – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Apartamento – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Casa – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Finca – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – My Fly Mind – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Santana – Trafalgar – Original Mix).mp3 Andrew Phillips – The Saxophonist – Criminal Vibes Remix).mp3 Anthony Grant – 1-2-3-4 – Original Mix).mp3 Anthonydee – Annoyed – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Becouse – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Fantastic – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – God’s Grace – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Kick – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Rhodet – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – This Is The Beat – Original).mp3 Arc, Kalls – U Got It – Radio Edit).mp3 Art Pleasure – You Feat. Jessy Howe – Original Mix).mp3 Arts, Leni – One Pub One Tony – Original.mp3 Arts, Leni – One Pub One Tony – Original).mp3 Audiosweep – Cell Up – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Debug – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Five – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Four – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall One – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Three – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Two – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Room – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Touch – Original Mix).mp3 Aumrec – Apregunno – Mogahertz Remix).mp3 Aumrec – Apregunno – Original Mix).mp3 Aumrec – Rumade – Alfred Mc Remix).mp3 Aumrec – Rumade – Original Mix).mp3 Autarc – Toolfunk013-1 – Original).mp3 B. Vivant – House Muzik – Original Mix).mp3 B.B Project – Big Party – Original Mix).mp3 Balthazar, Deepzone – Dj, Take Me Away – Radio Club Mix).mp3 Basilica – Somebody Calling You – Original Mix).mp3 Bassbeatz – I Love This Beat – Original Mix).mp3 Bastique, Romee – The Godfather – Original Mix).mp3 Beat Syndrome – Salasa Jar – Original Mix).mp3 Beatjunk – Grinning Bass – Original Mix).mp3 Ben Murray – Next Level – Original Mix).mp3 Benhams – Psychosis In A Dream – Original Mix).mp3 Benn Lian – Because I Called Her – Original Mix).mp3 Bifath – Natural Part 2 – Magru Remix).mp3 Blacksoul – Dancin Feat. Marcya – Joey Aka Jozsef Keller & Pete-R Instrumental).mp3 Bollen, Fichtner – Osama’s Groove – Original Mix).mp3 1. Adam Jace – Deepfusion (7:52) 2. Aki Bergen – M.u.s.i.c. (7:42) 3. Alexander Fog – Black Carnival (6:58) 4. Babak Shayan – Azadi Nist (5:54) 5. Basti Pieper – Orient (12:33) 6. Bucher & Kessidis – Live On (7:47) 7. Coskun & Ak – Take Me (7:45) 8. Deepgroove & Jamie Anderson – Voix (Minicoolboys Remix) (7:41) 9. Dzeta N Basile – One Of A Kind (8:48) 10. Freaks – 2 Please U (Losoul’s Surreal Visits Dub) (6:57) 11. Green Rabbit – Primal Self (4:18) 12. Hardy Heller & Alex Connors – Fred, The Pink Elephant (C-rock Wild Pitch Mix) (7:11) 13. Jerome Noak – I love L.A. (Sasha Kaktus Remix) (6:28) 14. Junior Gee – On The Floor (6:23) 15. Lazo – Caroussell (Lukas Greenberg Mix) (7:42) 16. Lukas Greenberg – The Flash (Jimmy & Fer Ferrari Mix) (8:35) 17. Markus Wesen – Soulful House Music (Original) (9:10) 18. Minoru – 68.71 Per Cent (8:35) 19. Nick Curly – Deep Breath (6:56) 20. Nicole Moudaber – Dilemma (7:36) 21. Nikola Gala – Bring In ‘da Funk (6:08) 22. Nikola Gala – Timeless City (6:41) 23. Pelle Buys – Kiss The Ground (6:37) 24. Roberto Rodriguez – Whisper (7:58) 25. Sebastian Porter – Labamba (Original) (8:04) 26. Sven Kegel & Heino Helck – Wellenbrecher (8:11) 27. The Timewriter – HERE COMES THE SUN (Stryke’s Sunshine State of Mind Remix) (8:16)1. Carl Cox – Nexus (Original Mix) (6:14) 2. Carl Cox – Nexus (Foamo Mix) (6:15) 3. Carl Cox – Nexus (Foamo Dub Mix) (6:15) 4. Carl Cox – Nexus (Tomy De Clerque Mix) (7:52) Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Kronic Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Mobin Master & Tate Strauss Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Rave Radio Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Rocket Pimp Remix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Bass Threat – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Call To 911 – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Deadly Crash – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Fashion Factory – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Get Down Low – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Glance In The Future – Original Mix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Digital Department Remix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Erdi Irmak Remix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Original Mix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Reelaux Not So Dirty Remix).mp3 Brian Bloom, Franky Malloy, Mc G – We Live 4 The Weekend – Original Mix).mp3 Bruno Nasty – Ablana – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt – Get Told – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt – Locked In Trip – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt, Yemi – Music Takes Me Higher – Original Mix).mp3 Camilo Picon – Isotonico – Original Mix).mp3 Chirik Burnlive, Fenix Modest – Acid Smith – Original Mix).mp3 Chris Blum – Extrascharf – Patrick Arbez Remix).mp3 Chris Blum – Josephine – Original).mp3 Chris Blum – Knock Out – Original).mp3 Chris Blum – Sonnenwende – Original).mp3 Chriss Ortega, Christian Hinzer – The Groove – Nicola Fasano, Steve Forest Mix).mp3 City Capture – Any Kind Of Season – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Collide – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Crossfire – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Mirror Surface – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – The Cube – Original Mix).mp3 Coming Out – Start Again – Datamotion Edit Remix).mp3 Coopa – Stutter – 1 Fish, Two Fish Remix).mp3 Coopa – Stutter – Original Mix).mp3 Crazy House Dj’s, Joseph One – Supulo – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Exploited, Alan Lockwood – On Road – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Vecchi – Chinatown – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Vecchi – Confusion – Original Mix).mp3 Da Groovemakers – On The Road Again – Original Mix) – 1).mp3 Da Groovemakers – On The Road Again – Original Mix).mp3 Daily – Kalavalier – Original Mix).mp3 Damian William – Qulove – Original Mix).mp3 Damien J. Carter, Matt Devereaux, Michael Maze – Ticket To Somewhere Feat. Andy P – Claudio Lari Remix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Around Of Consciousness – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Dark Room Of The Earth – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Minimal Injection – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Underwater – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti & Stenli Tong – Impulse Of Sound – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Steinberg – Tansania – Original Mix).mp3 Danny Darko, Toni Lewis – Full Moon – Original Mix).mp3 Dapayk & Padberg – Island Feat. Caro – Florian Meindl Remix).mp3 Dapayk Solo – Child Of The Night – Formatb Remix).mp3 Dario Ruzzier – Commit – Original Mix).mp3 Darwin & Backwall – Ask For More – Maxime Zarcone Remix).mp3 Data Mc – Fever – K-Paul Remix).mp3 Dave Copp, Tommy Mckinley – Coca – Original Mix).mp3 Dave Dumper, Sim Wiener – P.B.S. – Original Mix).mp3 Dave Rose, Alexei & Carlos Kinn – Get The Funky – Original M

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3. Lil B - White Gold House Flame (Sparta Bitch Mob)

  • Published: 2012-02-05T08:10:01Z
  • By FilyPusha
Lil B - White Gold House Flame (Sparta Bitch Mob)

Deep House 1. Alla Farmer - Take 2 (Original Mix) [Electronica] (6:28) 2. ArkadiuszS - Winter Street City (Original Mix) [Minimalistyczni E] (7:29) 3. Chmara Winter - Bonk (Original Mix) [Your Mamas Friend] (6:12) 4. Chmara Winter - Roast B (Original Mix) [Your Mamas Friend] (6:36) 5. Chmara Winter - Szajba (Original Mix) [Your Mamas Friend] (7:53) 6. Christian Reich - Western Wall (Original Mix) [Asymmetric Dip] (5:54) 7. Christian Reich - Western Wall (Tom Ellis Remix) [Asymmetric Dip] (7:08) 8. Dimi Wilson - Astadiala (Original Mix) [DeepClass Records] (8:03) 9. Dimi Wilson - Giorikas (Original Mix) [DeepClass Records] (7:26) 10. Dimi Wilson - Kostikas (Original Mix) [DeepClass Records] (6:34) 11. dOP & Masomenos - Hello (Original Mix) [Connaisseur Recordings] (4:17) 12. dOP - Rave Forever Together (Original Mix) [Connaisseur Recordings] (8:44) 13. Eric Redd - 54 (Mike Matthews Club Mix) [Carrillo Music LLC] (6:01) 14. Felipe L - Kind Soul (Original Mix) [AK Tek Records] (7:35) 15. Felipe L - Pim Pla (Original Mix) [AK Tek Records] (7:32) 16. Jon Delerious - Asend (Original Mix) [Lost My Dog] (5:52) 17. Jon Delerious - Believe In You (Giom Remix) [Lost My Dog] (5:49) 18. Jon Delerious - Believe In You (Huxley Remix) [Lost My Dog] (6:25) 19. Jon Delerious - Believe In You (Original Mix) [Lost My Dog] (6:49) 20. Jon Delerious - Remember (Original Mix) [Lost My Dog] (6:13) 21. Magit Cacoon, Nunu - Soul Motion (Original Mix) [Girl Scout] (6:51) 22. Marc Smith - Stepping Back (Its OK Dub) [Chillin Music] (7:50) 23. Marc Smith - Stepping Back (Sleazzy McQueen Remix) [Chillin Music] (7:36) 24. Marc Smith - Stepping Back (Space Throwback Remix) [Chillin Music] (7:48) 25. Marc Smith - You Want To (Lance De Sardi Remix) [Chillin Music] (7:04) 26. Mauro Basso - Drone (Ariane Blank Remix) [Auditive] (6:44) 27. Mauro Basso - Drone (Dreher & Smart Remix) [Auditive] (6:29) 28. Mauro Basso - Drone (Original Mix) [Auditive] (7:46) 29. Mauro Basso - Drone (Tim Engelhardt Remix) [Auditive] (7:52) 30. Michel Laurent - Orion (Original Mix) [Noze] (6:13) 31. Mockbeat - City Lights (Ian Metty Dub Mix) [MIDI Life Records] (6:05) 32. Moe Turk, Fat Boy Pym - Beachin (Original Mix) [Vibe Lebanon Records] (6:08) 33. Moe Turk - Time Machine (Original Mix) [Vibe Lebanon Records] (7:25) 34. Patrick Chardronnet - Source Of Life (Original Mix) [Connaisseur Recordings] (8:31) 35. Pol On, Chmara Winter - Bonk (Pol On Rmx) [Your Mamas Friend] (5:46) 36. Randal Soeung - What Its For (Jesus Pablo Remix) [Headset Recordings] (6:17) 37. Randal Soeung - What Its For (Original Mix) [Headset Recordings] (7:34) 38. Sonny Joey Waschington - Deep Garden (Deep Mix) [Integrity Records] (4:46) 39. Sonny Joey Waschington - Moving Forward (Original Mix) [Integrity Records] (5:35) 40. Sonny Joey Waschington - Moving Forward (Voice Mix) [Integrity Records] (5:35) 41. Steve Mill & Luke Fair - Beaches (Original Mix) [Add2Basket Records] (6:44) 42. Steve Mill & Luke Fair - Beaches (Peter Horrevorts Remix) [Add2Basket Records] (8:48) 43. Storm Queen - Look Right Through (Jamie Jones Remix) [Defected] (6:14) 44. Tatoine - Sometimes (Kevin McKay Remix) [Repressure Recordings] (7:39) 45. V i v i d - Nobody But Her (Original Mix) [Greelpound] (5:31) 46. V i v i d - Nunna Yo Bidness (Original Mix) [Greelpound] (5:40) Electro House 1. Amy B, Warehouse - You And Me Tonight (Danny Merx Remix) [3am Jam] (6:52) 2. Amy B, Warehouse - You And Me Tonight (TJR Remix) [3am Jam] (5:41) 3. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Harikus Arcade Riot Mix) [Blow Out Records] (7:31) 4. Brotha Berry - Dance All Night (Original Mix) [Soul Shift Music] (6:15) 5. BSharry - Are You Ready (Original Mix) [Gardenia Records] (5:07) 6. BSharry - Stoned Is Breaking (Original Mix) [Gardenia Records] (5:29) 7. Damian William - The Chameleon (Original Mix) [Couture] (6:30) 8. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel The Sun (Iron Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (6:25) 9. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel the Sun (Revolution Dj Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (5:56) 10. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel The Sun (Steve Weaver & Jocix Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (6:48) 11. David Far3ll - Freedom (Original Mix) [Balkan Delights] (6:48) 12. David Far3ll - Freedom (Stanisha Reversed Elephants Remix) [Balkan Delights] (8:22) 13. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Jam Xpress Remix) [Yes Yes Records] (5:06) 14. Digital Project - Love Me (Original Mix) [General Records] (6:19) 15. Digital Project - Love Me (Vocal Dub Mix) [General Records] (5:49) 16. DJ Cross, Drop Dead Red, Adam Savage - UFO (Axis Mix) [Murky Beatz] (5:20) 17. Eric Redd - 54 (Carvelo Pill Poppin Mix) [Carrillo Music LLC] (6:00) 18. Footjam - N.S.B. (Original Mix) [THaF Records] (5:22) 19. Footjam - Sneakerz (G0ldt0p Remix) [THaF Records] (5:17) 20. Footjam - Sneakerz (Jackiroqs Remix) [THaF Records] (6:20) 21. Footjam - Sneakerz (Original Mix) [THaF Records] (6:38) 22. Footjam - Toechdown (Original Mix) [THaF Records] (5:57) 23. Hot Mess - No Requests (Original Mix) [Heavy Artillery Recordings] (5:17) 24. Hotel Stereo - Out Of My Mind (Extended) [Bikini Sounds] (6:41) 25. Hotel Stereo - Out Of My Mind (Instrumental) [Bikini Sounds] (6:41) 26. In Cahoots - Yeti (Original Mix) [Macro Records] (5:12) 27. Jakatorre - Focus (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (4:31) 28. Jakatorre - Going (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (6:14) 29. Jakatorre - Grrr (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (3:43) 30. Jakatorre - Open (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (6:05) 31. Jakatorre - Space To Earth (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (5:34) 32. Jay Costa - Pianor (Myles James remix) [Juuhch] (5:03) 33. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Alex Greed Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (5:31) 34. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Danny T Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (6:45) 35. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Original Mix) [Clone 21 Records] (4:18) 36. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Rob Estell Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (5:37) 37. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Subject Delta Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (4:20) 38. MC Complex, HER - Go (Perfect Cell vs The Amp Jackers Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (5:32) 39. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Cheeky D Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (6:30) 40. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Original Mix) [Digital Dope Records] (4:49) 41. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Perfect Cell vs The Amp Jackers Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (6:01) 42. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Scott Thomas Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (4:05) 43. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (The Funk Out Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (5:17) 44. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Woncka Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (6:26) 45. Nofx, Reat Kay - Treelectrick (Club Mix) [Rich & Glorious] (5:30) 46. Probe - Baila (Original Mix) [Plasmapool] (7:43) 47. Sesa - KICK IT (Original Mix) [Do The Hip Recordings] (6:44) 48. The Catevari - Vesuvius (Original Mix) [Dirty Wave] (4:41) 49. The Catevari - Vesuvius (Ver 2) [Dirty Wave] (4:18) House 1. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (Aba & Simonsen Remix) [discowax] (4:36) 2. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (Chukie & Mastiksoul Remix) [discowax] (6:42) 3. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (G&C Remix) [discowax] (6:18) 4. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (Jorgensen Remix) [discowax] (6:12) 5. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (Original Mix) [discowax] (3:36) 6. Amy B, Warehouse - You And Me Tonight (Original Mix) [3am Jam] (5:37) 7. Andrew Phillips - False Vibration (Ramon Castells Remix) [The Mansion Recordings] (6:08) 8. Aquarell - Roots & Culture (Jackie Misfit Remix) [Echolette Records] (7:52) 9. Aquarell - Roots & Culture (Santos Resiak Remix) [Echolette Records] (7:36) 10. Aquarell - Roots & Culture (Shaun Ingham Hedley & Frank House Remix) [Echolette Records] (8:22) 11. Born To Funk - Kenya [Copyright] (6:58) 12. Born To Funk - La Scoica [Copyright] (7:33) 13. CJ Reign - Brand New Life (CJs Urban Groove Dub) [Bass Machine] (5:48) 14. CJ Reign - Brand New Life (Original Mix) [Bass Machine] (6:10) 15. CJ Reign - Brand New Life (Reigns Energize Dub) [Bass Machine] (6:28) 16. Coqui Selection - Dissko (Jorge Montia Marfil Remix) [PornoStar Records] (5:47) 17. Coqui Selection - Dissko (Original Mix) [PornoStar Records] (7:04) 18. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel the Sun (Adam Jetrack remix) [Music Pirates Records] (7:20) 19. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel the Sun (Hathor Dj Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (4:35) 20. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel the Sun (NorbEEBoy & Fabio Costa Acoustic Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (3:48) 21. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Club Mix) [Yes Yes Records] (4:52) 22. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Original Mix) [Yes Yes Records] (4:17) 23. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Willy Joy Remix) [Yes Yes Records] (4:36) 24. Diavlo - Swat (Original Mix) [MAR186] (6:21) 25. Dishop - Felicidad (Klash Rivera Latin Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:33) 26. Ebbo Riginal - Its Getting Funky (Original Mix) [Big Toy Music] (6:41) 27. Ebbo Riginal - Less Stress (Original Mix) [Big Toy Music] (6:41) 28. Garrett & Ojelay - Hey Mr. DJ (Original Mix) [Beatdown] (6:36) 29. Garrett & Ojelay - Hey Mr. DJ (Sonny Fodera Remix) [Beatdown] (5:37) 30. Giacomo Dati - Dance Into Traffic (Dagrab Mix) [Nplaymusic] (8:22) 31. Giacomo Dati - Dance Into Traffic (Original Mix) [Nplaymusic] (9:02) 32. Gorje Hewek, Izhevski - Aureol (Original Mix) [ProTez] (9:50) 33. Gorje Hewek, Izhevski - Inspire (Original Mix) [ProTez] (8:50) 34. Japain - Cross Towns (Hideout Remix) [19Box Recordings] (6:05) 35. Kadasma, XyO - Cool Breeze (Original Mix) [Kadasma Records] (6:39) 36. Lucas, Daniel Malker, Hugo Sanches - Saturday Night (Original Mix) [ADS Records] (7:21) 37. Matt Everson - Chopper (Original Mix) [Bamboo Music] (7:12) 38. Michael Ruris - Glow (Original) [Handmade Recordings] (6:33) 39. Michael Ruris - Glow (Power Bass Line Mix) [Handmade Recordings] (6:33) 40. Mike Deluxe - Let It Out (Extended Mix) [Strawberry Flavor] (5:30) 41. Only Children - Be The One (Original Mix) [Nuclear Family] (6:01) 42. Plastik Funk, Dave Kurtis - Shake (Original Mix) [Tiger Records] (6:21) 43. Raul Duran - Line All (Original Mix) [Hipnotika Recordings] (8:18) 44. Sebastian Roter, Dan Lewis - I Believe (Roter & Lewis Mix) [Whitepromo] (6:52) 45. Sebastian Roter, Dan Lewis - People (Original Mix) [Whitepromo] (6:56) 46. SoundSAM - That Language (Original Mix) [Phat Fuel Records] (8:21) 47. SoundSAM - Them Rhodes (Original Mix) [Phat Fuel Records] (10:03) 48. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Angger Dimas Remix) [Ultra] (4:08) 49. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Autoerotique Remix) [Ultra] (5:41) 50. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Pixel Cheese Remix) [Ultra] (6:30) 51. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Tommy Trash Remix) [Ultra] (5:14) 52. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Tommy Trash Remix Instrumental) [Ultra] (5:00) 53. Tomascom - My Name Is (Moduloktopus Is My Name Remix) [Sundown Records] (6:58) 54. Vadim Shuttle - Twisted (Sergio Navarro & Blas Marin Remix) [Fever Sound Records] (6:59) 55. Yuriy Poleg, Phillipo Blake, V.Ray - Dont Give Up (Original Mix) [Muza Music] (6:52) Indie Dance_Nu Disco 1. Chordashian - Dont Wait Up (Downtown Party Network Remix) [Mullet Records] (5:54) 2. Chordashian - Dont Wait Up [Mullet Records] (4:53) 3. Chordashian - Sea Crest (Sportloto Remix) [Mullet Records] (5:50) 4. Chordashian - Sea Crest [Mullet Records] (6:02) 5. Chordashian - The Jam (Slow Hands Remix) [Mullet Records] (6:10) 6. Chordashian - The Jam [Mullet Records] (4:42) 7. Moon Boots - Aretha (ColeCo Remix) [Nurvous Records] (7:07) 8. Moon Boots - Aretha (Kid Colors 88 Cruiser Remix) [Nurvous Records] (7:35) 9. Moon Boots - Aretha (Original Dub) [Nurvous Records] (4:53) 10. Moon Boots - Aretha (Original Mix) [Nurvous Records] (4:21) 11. Moon Boots - Aretha (Zimmer Remix) [Nurvous Records] (5:04) 12. Of Norway - Song For Ava (Original Mix) [Connaisseur Recordings] (5:28) 13. Storm Queen - Look Right Through (Aeroplane Remix) [Defected] (5:13) 14. Storm Queen - Look Right Through (Dimitri From Paris Erodiscomix) [Defected] (7:01) 15. V i v i d - Everybody But Me (Original Mix) [Greelpound] (7:00) 16. Zarkoff - Lost Joys Of Youth (Original Mix) [Adriatiko Recordings] (4:50) 17. Zarkoff - Seven Sins Of Memory (Borgie Remix) [Adriatiko Recordings] (6:35) 18. Zarkoff - Seven Sins Of Memory (Original Mix) [Adriatiko Recordings] (6:20) Minimal 1. Display FM - Crikets (The Missing Link Remix) [Emote Music] (12:51) 2. Flexb - Call Me (Original Mix) [Delato Records] (7:00) 3. Flexb - Donna Gnini & Villar (Original Mix) [Delato Records] (7:00) 4. Flexb - Flex (Original Mix) [Delato Records] (7:01) 5. Gymmy J - Breaking The Habit (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (5:56) 6. Gymmy J - Dear Fabrizio (Feat The Rebby Show) [Different Is Better] (6:47) 7. Kane Roth - Little Helper 301 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:45) 8. Kane Roth - Little Helper 303 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:52) 9. Kane Roth - Little Helper 304 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:47) 10. Kane Roth - Little Helper 305 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:28) 11. Kane Roth - Little Helper 306 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:46) 12. Larry Baaaam - Power Of Cocaine 2k12 (Carlo Ruetz Remix) [040 Recordings] (7:14) 13. Santini, Tellez - Lost Thoughts (Alicia Hushs Buckaroo Remix) [Thoughtless Music] (6:40) 14. Sebastian Pena - In The Mind (Du Sant Remix) [Krad Records] (7:24) 15. Sebastian Pena - In The Mind (Original Mix) [Krad Records] (7:52) 16. Sebastian Pena - Little Drops (Original Mix) [Krad Records] (7:33) 17. Sebastian Pena - Sperm Race (Ochu LaRoss Remix) [Krad Records] (6:44) 18. Sebastian Pena - Sperm Race (Original Mix) [Krad Records] (7:17) 19. Sebastian Pena - Sperm Race (Ungar Remix) [Krad Records] (7:25) Progressive House 1. Alberto Matz - The Things I Left Behind (Original Mix) [WeRecommendRecords WRR] (8:03) 2. Alberto Matz - Your Sweetest Mistake (Original Mix) [WeRecommendRecords WRR] (8:03) 3. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Dub 2012 ReMaster) [Blow Out Records] (7:34) 4. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Instrumental 2012 ReMaster) [Blow Out Records] (8:32) 5. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Original 2012 ReMaster) [Blow Out Records] (8:32) 6. Brotha Berry - Hot Nights (Original Mix) [Soul Shift Music] (6:29) 7. Cora Novoa - Calypso (Original Mix) [Mesmeric] (7:36) 8. Cora Novoa - Miami Affairs (Original Mix) [Mesmeric] (8:05) 9. Cora Novoa - Miami Affairs (Tigerskins Epic Version) [Mesmeric] (8:32) 10. David Far3ll - Freedom (Loquai Remix) [Balkan Delights] (5:52) 11. David Far3ll - Freedom (Stanisha Remix) [Balkan Delights] (9:30) 12. Fred Hyas - I Love You (Elev8 Remix) [Pure Magic Recordings] (6:11) 13. Housemonster - Perfect Match (Jonathan EQ Remix) [Family Business Records] (6:11) 14. Housemonster - Perfect Match (Original Mix) [Family Business Records] (5:56) 15. Imprezaboys - Sky Blue (Imprezaboys Adrenaline Remix) [Ib Digital] (7:32) 16. Javah, Mimi Boheme - Waiting (Altego Remix) [Redux Recordings] (6:34) 17. Jay Costa - Pianor (Original mix) [Juuhch] (5:10) 18. Lab Of Music - First Contact (Club Mix) [Labofmusic Records] (6:30) 19. Lab Of Music - First Contact (Dj Friendly) [Labofmusic Records] (6:53) 20. Lab Of Music - First Contact (Original Mix) [Labofmusic Records] (6:46) 21. Linas - Desire (Original Mix) [Progressive Tone Digital] (7:29) 22. Markeight - Line Up (Original Mix) [LAD Publishing & Records] (6:41) 23. Markeight - Shinobi (Original Mix) [LAD Publishing & Records] (7:05) 24. Massimo Cassini - God Mode (Guido Durante Remix) [Keep On] (9:03) 25. Matias Spataro - Their Illustrated Moment (Original Mix) [No Signal Records] (7:48) 26. Rich Gior - Mirage (Original Mix) [Southside Recordings] (6:47) 27. Rich Gior - New York New York (Original Mix) [Southside Recordings] (6:25) 28. rLINE - Anfibionic (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (8:59) 29. rLINE - Blind Also Dream (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (6:43) 30. rLINE - Nestdia (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (6:07) 31. rLINE - The Acid Milk (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (6:21) 32. rLINE - Vengeance (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (6:26) 33. Sedi - In Time (Original Mix) [NRG Dance Records] (8:55) 34. Spectromanski - Absinthe (Original Mix) [Journees Music] (9:13) 35. Spectromanski - Faded Memories (Original Mix) [Journees Music] (8:30) 36. Spectromanski - Il Volo Della Sirena (Original Mix) [Journees Music] (6:48) 37. Ville Nikkanen - Dizkomuzik (Original Mix) [4House Digital] (5:35) 38. Ville Nikkanen - Neon (Original Mix) [4House Digital] (7:31) 39. Ville Nikkanen - Night Flight (Original Mix) [4House Digital] (6:56) 40. Yuriy Poleg, Phillipo Blake, V.Ray - Dont Give Up (Felix Young Remix) [Muza Music] (8:09) Soulful House/Jackin 1. Brotha Berry - Ice Shock Proto2 (Original Mix) [Soul Shift Music] (5:38) 2. DJ Volcano - Mi Son (Original Mix) [El Buho] (5:07) 3. DJ Volcano - Mojito Cha (Original Mix) [El Buho] (5:04) 4. DJ Volcano - Sabroso Party (Original Mix) [El Buho] (5:04) 5. Jeff Service - All Dekked Out (Original Mix) [Flosshatt Digital] (6:44) 6. Jeff Service - Just A Little (Original Mix) [Flosshatt Digital] (6:29) 7. Jeff Service - My 92 (Original Mix) [Flosshatt Digital] (6:42) 8. Storm Queen - Look Right Through (Vocal Mix) [Defected] (7:29) Tech House 1. Amy B, Warehouse - You And Me Tonight (Hey Sam Remix) [3am Jam] (5:24) 2. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Minilogue Remix) [Blow Out Records] (9:05) 3. Astronivo - The Porges (Henek Remix) [Sounds Of Earth] (8:12) 4. Dagrab - Voodoo Market (Original) [Nplaymusic] (6:46) 5. Dagrab - Voodoo Market (Soft Mix) [Nplaymusic] (6:29) 6. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Solo Remix) [Yes Yes Records] (6:47) 7. Diavlo - Stereotype (Original Mix) [MAR186] (7:09) 8. Dishop - Felicidad (Alfonso Llovera Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (8:03) 9. Dishop - Felicidad (Dyan K Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (7:15) 10. Dishop - Felicidad (Jabu David Cut Aacini Gomez Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:42) 11. Dishop - Felicidad (Jair Ydan Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:54) 12. Dishop - Felicidad (Karlos Kastillo Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:39) 13. Dishop - Felicidad (Original Mix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:54) 14. Dishop - Felicidad (Sam Koen Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (7:42) 15. Dishop - Felicidad (Tone 15 Felicidad Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (8:38) 16. DJ Boris - La Musica (Cristian Arango Remix) [Nervous Records] (7:01) 17. DJ Boris - La Musica (Jean Pierre Lost In Queens Remix) [Nervous Records] (6:53) 18. DJ Boris - La Musica (Miss Jennifer Remix) [Nervous Records] (7:03) 19. DJ Boris - La Musica (Original Mix) [Nervous Records] (8:03) 20. Donato Bilancia, Joseph DL - Build Up (Original Mix) [Stendhal Records] (8:10) 21. Donato Bilancia, Joseph DL - Build Up (Paride Saracenis Abyssal Remix) [Stendhal Records] (7:48) 22. Emilio Picazo, Pechan DJ - Sucking Glass (SOS Fundation Original Mix) [Darkside Digital Records] (7:20) 23. Fabian Argomedo - Nordic (Redondo Remix) [Sanity] (7:25) 24. Kane Roth - Little Helper 302 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (7:01) 25. Magit Cacoon, Nunu - Soul Motion (P Toile & Tigerskin) [Girl Scout] (7:17) 26. Matt Everson - Love Chant (Original Mix) [Bamboo Music] (6:54) 27. Phonic Funk - Under [Strom] (7:38) 28. Phonic Funk - Utopia [Strom] (6:10) 29. Rickzor, Rumme - Gods Last (Original Mix) [Rogue Recordings] (7:18) 30. Rickzor, Rumme - How You Feel (Original Mix) [Rogue Recordings] (7:46) 31. Rickzor, Uf0 - Rompiendo Olas (Original Mix) [Rogue Recordings] (8:01) 32. Style Of Eye, Magnus the Magnus - Antidote (Highbloo Remix) [Horehaus] (5:37) 33. Style Of Eye, Magnus the Magnus - Antidote (NT89 Remix) [Horehaus] (5:21) 34. Style Of Eye, Magnus the Magnus - Antidote (Sebjak Remix) [Horehaus] (6:58) 35. Style Of Eye, Magnus the Magnus - Antidote (Tony Senghore Remix) [Horehaus] (5:29) 36. Yuriy Poleg, Phillipo Blake, V.Ray - Dont Give Up (Sanya Shelest Remix) [Muza Music] (6:45) Techno 1. AnGy KoRe, Daniele Crocenzi, Gymmy J - Danger (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (6:15) 2. AnGy KoRe - Hi (Gymmy J Remix) [Different Is Better] (7:00) 3. Astronivo - The Porges (Forza Remix) [Sounds Of Earth] (7:21) 4. Astronivo - The Porges (Original Mix) [Sounds Of Earth] (7:42) 5. Audio Louis - Jeff Is Locked (Original) [Glider Records] (7:00) 6. Audio Louis - Ugo Day (Original) [Glider Records] (6:40) 7. Audio Louis - Wet (Analog Peoples Streampunk) [Glider Records] (7:32) 8. Audio Louis - Wet (Original) [Glider Records] (6:43) 9. Balthazar, Jackrock - Das Zimmer (DJ Baly Remix) [Renesanz] (7:53) 10. Balthazar, Jackrock - Das Zimmer (George Yammine Remix) [Renesanz] (7:40) 11. Balthazar, Jackrock - Das Zimmer (Original Mix) [Renesanz] (7:04) 12. Balthazar, Jackrock - Das Zimmer (Skymate Remix) [Renesanz] (6:26) 13. Diavlo - Stereotype (Danny Nagels & Erez Only Remix) [MAR186] (6:51) 14. Dishop - Felicidad (AxHz Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (7:16) 15. Gymmy J - El Cholo (APaul Remix) [Different Is Better] (6:32) 16. Gymmy J - Karasho (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (7:23) 17. Gymmy J - No King (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (5:43) 18. Gymmy J - Punch (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (7:07) 19. Gymmy J - Recycle (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (7:13) 20. Gymmy J - Sharp (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (7:03) 21. Jay Davis - Babel (Kaj Tyszka Remix) [Refuge Records] (7:06) 22. Jay Davis - Babel (Original) [Refuge Records] (7:44) 23. Jay Davis - Babel (Shannon Remix) [Refuge Records] (8:29) 24. Kyle Geiger - Final Chapter (Original) [Cubera Records] (7:18) 25. Kyle Geiger - Mimetic Desire (Original Mix) [Cubera Records] (6:41) 26. Kyle Geiger - Mimetic Desire (Warehouse Edit) [Cubera Records] (6:23) 27. Magit Cacoon, Nunu - Soul Motion (ME) [Girl Scout] (7:58) 28. Marka T, Devid Dega - The Grass Age (Guido Durante Remix) [Keep On] (7:13) 29. Mike Shannon - Walter Winchell (Original Mix) [Cynosure Recordings] (7:08) 30. Minimo - Loss (Original Mix) [Dropkick Records] (6:24) 31. Minimo - Sox (Original Mix) [Dropkick Records] (8:53) 32. Mr Bizz - Bamboo (Original Mix) [Beat Therapy Records] (7:56) 33. Mr Bizz - Olivia (Original Mix) [Beat Therapy Records] (7:10) 34. Santini, Tellez - Lost Thoughts (Fairmont Remix) [Thoughtless Music] (5:09) 35. Santini, Tellez - Lost Thoughts (Original Mix) [Thoughtless Music] (8:41) 36. Shannon & El Lobo - Bong Are The Days (Original Mix) [Cynosure Recordings] (7:35) 37. Sosa Ibiza - Wind Force (Michele Pinna Acid Techno Reinterpretation) [The Triangle Records] (8:14) 38. WayWork - Flipout (Original Mix) [Funktripes Music] (8:07) 39. WayWork - Miss Takes (Original Mix) [Funktripes Music] (8:34) 40. WayWork - Out of My Bed (Original Mix) [Funktripes Music] (7:07) 41. WayWork - Slow (Original Mix) [Funktripes Music] (8:00) Deep House 1. Afroseeds, Soul Maestro - Changes (Intrumental) [Housegrown] (8:08) 2. Afroseeds, Soul Maestro - Changes (Main Vocal) [Housegrown] (8:08) 3. Afroseeds, Soul Maestro - Changes (Remix) [Housegrown] (8:06) 4. Allan Zax - Come To The Sky (Album Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (7:15) 5. Allan Zax - Is It Midnight Already (Original Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (8:20) 6. Allan Zax - Remember Novermber (Original Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (9:05) 7. Allan Zax - Stylish Black (Album Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (8:32) 8. Allan Zax - Unspoken Words (Album Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (6:29) 9. Allan Zax - We Love The Music (Instrumental Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (7:25) 10. Amine Edge - I Love You (Original Mix) [Katchuli] (7:14) 11. Amine Edge - The Rythm (Chris Minus & SKAI Remix) [Katchuli] (7:38) 12. Amine Edge - The Rythm (Original Mix) [Katchuli] (7:19) 13. Bicycle Corporation - Citylight Safari (Original Mix) [WL77 1744] (5:41) 14. Bicycle Corporation - Someone Needs Me Back (Original Mix) [WL77 1744] (7:12) 15. Bicycle Corporation - Sunrise On The People (Original Mix) [WL77 1744] (6:23) 16. David Lazzari - Bird (Intro Mix) [DIP Recordings] (7:50) 17. David Lazzari - Star Final (Original Mix) [DIP Recordings] (9:15) 18. DTakerz, Jean Jeak - It Makes A Difference (Fathead Johnson Remix) [Grouper Recordings] (6:36) 19. DTakerz, Jean Jeak - It Makes A Difference (Leoesco Remix) [Grouper Recordings] (7:40) 20. DTakerz, Jean Jeak - It Makes A Difference (Original Mix) [Grouper Recordings] (7:23) 21. DTakerz, Jean Jeak - Orange Camomille (Original Mix) [Grouper Recordings] (6:54) 22. Gavin Herlihy - Endless Feeling (Larse Remix) [Culprit] (7:25) 23. Gavin Herlihy - Tell Me What You Need (Geddes 928 Remix) [Culprit] (7:03) 24. Gavin Herlihy - Tell Me What You Need (Inxec & Shaun Reeves Remix) [Culprit] (7:19) 25. Gordon Lyu - Lost Visions (Original Mix) [Officina Sonora] (4:35) 26. Hooved - Queen Of Flowers (Markus Homm Queens Way Remix) [Keep On] (8:15) 27. Hooved - Queen Of Flowers (Original Mix) [Keep On] (7:03) 28. Hooved - Queen Of Flowers (Sasch BBC & Caspar Remix) [Keep On] (6:51) 29. Jerry K - Hoot (Dirty Culture Remix) [Seta Label] (7:59) 30. Jerry K - Hoot (Original Mix) [Seta Label] (7:05) 31. Jerry K - What Do You Thing (Original Mix) [Seta Label] (6:41) 32. John Collins - Alone (Original Mix) [Vision Collective Recordings] (7:40) 33. John Collins - Deep Inside (Raw Mix) [Vision Collective Recordings] (6:26) 34. John Collins - Freestylin (Original Mix) [Vision Collective Recordings] (6:32) 35. John Collins - Roll With You (Original Mix) [Vision Collective Recordings] (6:57) 36. Kasper Winding - Chinatown To Chinatown (Acid Washed Remix) [Sound Of Copenhagen] (6:43) 37. Koolfunk - Eastway (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:48) 38. Kriece - The Squid From Madrid (Junk Yard Rhythm Section Mix) [Illegal Ninja Moves] (6:22) 39. Kruse & Nuernberg - Mesmerized (CRock & Brett Johnson Remix) [Moodmusic] (7:52) 40. Kruse & Nuernberg - Mesmerized (Original Mix) [Moodmusic] (6:47) 41. Kruse & Nuernberg - Reminiscence (Julien Chaptal Remix) [Moodmusic] (8:07) 42. Kruse & Nuernberg - Reminiscence (Michelle Owen Remix) [Moodmusic] (6:07) 43. Kruse & Nuernberg - Reminiscence (Original Mix) [Moodmusic] (6:18) 44. Martines - Around Sound (Mend Remix) [Deep Plastic Records] (7:10) 45. Martines - Around Sound (Mrkino Remix) [Deep Plastic Records] (7:00) 46. Martines - Around Sound (Original Mix) [Deep Plastic Records] (8:48) 47. Mercury - Candlelight feat Robert Owens (Original Mix) [Gomma Dance Tracks] (3:42) 48. Mercury - NY Feeling (Original Mix) [Gomma Dance Tracks] (5:49) 49. Mercury - Running Back To You feat Christopher McCray (Original Mix) [Gomma Dance Tracks] (5:55) 50. Milty Evans - Gregorian (Original) [Look At You Records] (7:10) 51. Nurhee - Dan (Jay Tripwire Remix) [Rip N Burn] (7:22) 52. Nurhee - Dan (Original Mix) [Rip N Burn] (7:19) 53. Olej - Dreams (Original Mix) [Deep Digital Recordings] (8:46) 54. Olej - Retromobil (Original Mix) [Deep Digital Recordings] (7:52) 55. Paul Mad - Undes (Original mix) [Deep Beep Records] (6:38) 56. Rene Breitbarth - East (Original Mix) [Deep Data] (7:06) 57. Rene Breitbarth - North (Original Mix) [Deep Data] (6:36) 58. Rene Breitbarth - South (Original Mix) [Deep Data] (7:58) 59. Rene Breitbarth - West (Original Mix) [Deep Data] (8:59) 60. Rishi K - Nomadic (Original Mix) [Dalam Muzika] (7:52) 61. Rishi K - San Pedro Dreaming (Original Mix) [Dalam Muzika] (9:56) 62. Sterling - Banana Shark (Festival Mix) [Unvirtual Music] (6:23) 63. Sterling - Banana Shark (Original Mix) [Unvirtual Music] (5:44) 64. Sterling - So Why Did They (Agrande Remix) [Unvirtual Music] (7:11) 65. Sterling - So Why Did They (Original Mix) [Unvirtual Music] (6:03) 66. Yeray Herrera, Vicious Beats - Special Deep (Original Mix) [Vicious Music Records] (6:39) 67. Yeray Herrera, Vicious Beats - The Truth (Original Mix) [Vicious Music Records] (6:45) 68. Yeray Herrera - Sound Of The Night (Dan Styles Remix) [Vicious Music Records] (7:21) 69. Yeray Herrera - Sound Of The Night (Original Mix) [Vicious Music Records] (7:17) Electro House 1. Abduction Live - Life Is Like (Original Mix) [Proto Records] (6:09) 2. Abduction Live - The Rise (Original Mix) [Proto Records] (5:45) 3. Abduction Live - Vocalizer (Original Mix) [Proto Records] (5:54) 4. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Back To The Roots Mix) [Clone 21 Records] (7:48) 5. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Kishin Vs Ice Climbers Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (4:29) 6. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Original Mix) [Clone 21 Records] (7:01) 7. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Raw N Holgerson Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (5:50) 8. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Stereoliner Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (7:06) 9. Astro Raph - Da House Dewn Boots Feat DJ La Rage (Original Mix) [Busted Beats] (6:20) 10. Bassive - New School (Cool Project Remix) [Funkk Sound Recordings] (5:54) 11. Bassive - New School (Enrique Navarrete Remix) [Funkk Sound Recordings] (4:21) 12. Bassive - New School (Most Freedom Remix) [Funkk Sound Recordings] (4:29) 13. Bassive - New School (Original Mix) [Funkk Sound Recordings] (3:44) 14. Christian VilaCosme Martin - The Green Way (Adrian Villaverde Remix) [Mylo Records] (6:00) 15. Chunks - Get Down To Miami (General Tosh Remix) [Tiger Records] (5:22) 16. Chunks - Get Down To Miami (Nuff Remix) [Tiger Records] (5:18) 17. Dafter - Bang Bang (Original Mix) [Gigabeat Records] (5:52) 18. Dafter - Guess This (Original Mix) [Gigabeat Records] (5:11) 19. Dafter - Up To Your Mind (Original Mix) [Gigabeat Records] (5:47) 20. DDeiEstate - Revolver (Original Mix) [Betty Beat Records] (6:56) 21. Divine X - Akasha (Original Mix) [Heavy Artillery Recordings] (5:58) 22. Divine X - Extermination (Original Mix) [Heavy Artillery Recordings] (6:44) 23. Divine X - Ride (Original Mix) [Heavy Artillery Recordings] (6:12) 24. Dj Mark Power - Comon Baby Bounce (Moodyboy Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (8:44) 25. DJ Neogame - Blue Blood (Original Mix) [Electrico Records] (4:33) 26. DJ Neogame - Difficult load (Original Mix) [Electrico Records] (5:41) 27. Electroshock, DJ Neogame - Great Impression (Original Mix) [Electrico Records] (5:44) 28. Electroshock - Arabesco (DJ Neogame Remix) [Electrico Records] (4:39) 29. Gioshi - Fire (Bonus Track) [Smilax Records] (4:24) 30. Isis Signum - Electromagnetica (Original Mix) [Sango Music] (6:13) 31. Ivan The Muru - Memories Of Sensations (Original Mix) [Magic Beatz Records] (6:11) 32. Johnny Beast - Bonfire For A Witch (Original Mix) [Rezone Records] (8:33) 33. Johnny Beast - Go (Original Mix) [Rezone Records] (8:41) 34. JTrick, JayyFresh - Diablo (Original Mix) [Club Cartel] (5:55) 35. JTrick, JayyFresh - Shakedown (Original Mix) [Club Cartel] (5:30) 36. Kredo - One Of A Kind (Tommie Keeston Remix) [Bonerizing Records] (4:29) 37. makina - Bounce (Original Mix) [Get It On Records] (7:37) 38. Malcolm Funktion, Secret Groovers - The Secret Funktion (Da GobliNN Remix) [Absolutely Records] (5:07) 39. Malcolm Funktion, Secret Groovers - The Secret Funktion (KrisCuk Remix) [Absolutely Records] (4:38) 40. Malcolm Funktion, Secret Groovers - The Secret Funktion (Original Mix) [Absolutely Records] (5:16) 41. Markus Voorn - Another Day (Original Mix) [Unilife Records] (9:01) 42. Markus Voorn - Zodiac (Original Mix) [Unilife Records] (7:46) 43. Noisestorm - Backlash (Original Mix) [Monstercat] (5:22) 44. Noisestorm - Let It Roar (Original Mix) [Monstercat] (5:46) 45. Noisestorm - Renegade (Original Mix) [Monstercat] (6:10) 46. Rokas M, Ignas Petru, Martyna - Juicy Beach (Miami Album Mix) [Soundwaves] (5:22) 47. Switch Cook - Planete 51 (Original Mix) [Royal Music Paris] (7:52) 48. Teamtek - Elektrofunt (Original Mix) [Evolution Recordings] (5:32) 49. TonC - Almost There (Original Mix) [Young Guns] (4:33) House 1. Allan Zax - Me Me Me & Me Too (Original Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (7:44) 2. AlX - Tasty (Millok & Dark Beat Remix) [Straight Music] (7:14) 3. Astro Raph - Happiness And Pain (Original Mix) [Busted Beats] (5:16) 4. Astro Raph - No Worry (Original Mix) [Busted Beats] (7:15) 5. Atesh K - Nicosia (Gilbert Van Haasen RMX) [Regular Beats Records] (6:14) 6. Barry Fore - 4Ya (Dizkodude Remix) [Essentials] (7:24) 7. Barry Fore - 4Ya (Nene Dasile Remix) [Essentials] (7:01) 8. Barry Fore - 4Ya (Original Mix) [Essentials] (6:38) 9. Barry Fore - 4Ya (Sem Thomasson Remix) [Essentials] (6:19) 10. Bertie Bassett - Kinda Beat (Beat Mix) [Total Wipes] (7:46) 11. Bertie Bassett - Kinda Beat (Kinda Mix) [Total Wipes] (7:08) 12. Bertie Bassett - To The Rhythm (Original Mix) [Total Wipes] (6:24) 13. Brandon Steel - Other Side (Andy LaToggo Remix) [Nachtaktiv Records] (6:18) 14. Brandon Steel - Other Side (Diego Diaz Remix) [Nachtaktiv Records] (6:05) 15. Brotha Berry - Ice Shock Proto2 (Original Mix) [Soul Shift Music] (5:38) 16. BSC - What You Do To Me Ft Jessi Colosante (Boddhi Satva Afriki Soul Inst Remix) [NY Soul Records] (6:45) 17. BSC - What You Do To Me Ft Jessi Colosante (Boddhi Satva Afriki Soul Remix) [NY Soul Records] (6:45) 18. BSC - What You Do To Me Ft Jessi Colosante (Original) [NY Soul Records] (6:50) 19. BSC - What You Do To Me Ft Jessi Colosante (Rob Lamont Remix) [NY Soul Records] (6:20) 20. CCO - And I Love Her (Original Mix) [Dustpan Recordings] (5:09) 21. CCO - Dont Care 4 Me (Original Mix) [Dustpan Recordings] (6:29) 22. CCO - Old Buddy Bolden (Original Mix) [Dustpan Recordings] (6:10) 23. Chris Count - 4 Your Love (Club Mix) [Upsoul] (6:56) 24. Chris Count - 4 Your Love (Original Mix) [Upsoul] (6:48) 25. Chunks - Get Down To Miami (DJ Falk Remix) [Tiger Records] (5:58) 26. David Herrero - Groove Pressure (Original Mix) [Nirvana Recordings] (5:37) 27. David Mayl, Aisha Bordas - La Fete feat Aisha Bordas (Original Mix) [Playmusic Recordings] (5:55) 28. Daviddance - Danger feat Miss Danger (Original Mix) [Daviddance] (7:37) 29. DDeiEstate - That Easy (Original Mix) [Betty Beat Records] (6:07) 30. Diego Sanchez, Mary Row - JUST LISTEN Feat Mary Row (Edu Iglesias Remix) [Evolution Senses Records] (7:09) 31. DJ Smilk - Police (Original Mix) [Dum A Dum Records] (6:38) 32. DLayna, Juan K Paul - I Feel The Music (ArkadiuszS Remix) [Housearth Records] (7:44) 33. Do Shock Booze - Jah is not dead (Makotrax Remix) [Totem Traxx] (7:41) 34. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Jan Areno Remix) [Disc Doctor] (5:39) 35. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Original Mix) [Disc Doctor] (7:12) 36. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Treitl Hammond Remix) [Disc Doctor] (7:12) 37. Electric Avenue - Jupiter (Original Mix) [Groove Life Records] (6:08) 38. Frank Cherryman, Danny Ulman, Jesus Amo - Hold Back The Tears (Original Mix) [Moorgate Records] (5:13) 39. Freddy D - Loves Gone Behind (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:20) 40. Fresh, Ali Algranati - Change Your Mind (Original Mix) [Bikini Records] (6:30) 41. George Llanes Jr. - Soul Ascension (Original Mix) [Street King] (6:56) 42. Ghettochild - Jaymis Street (Original Mix) [Oxi2 Records] (8:26) 43. iAma - THE GAME (EXTENDED MIX) [Melodica] (6:21) 44. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Disco Lights (Original Mix) [Disko Zoo Records] (5:03) 45. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Disco Lights (Wise D & Kobe Remix) [Disko Zoo Records] (6:36) 46. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Dynomite (MarkFunk Old School Remix) [Disko Zoo Records] (6:36) 47. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Dynomite (Original Mix) [Disko Zoo Records] (5:05) 48. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Evil Woman (Bryan Jones Remix) [Disko Zoo Records] (7:40) 49. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Evil Woman (Jazzys PLFT Remix) [Disko Zoo Records] (6:43) 50. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Evil Woman (Original Mix) [Disko Zoo Records] (5:33) 51. Jerry M & DrPJ - Hold Me (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (5:36) 52. Jerry M & DrPJ - Holiday Club Mix (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (6:01) 53. Jerry M & DrPJ - Holiday Orijinal Mix (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (4:33) 54. Jerry M & DrPJ - Speak Up 99 (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (7:00) 55. Jerry M & DrPJ - Wind Like (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (5:54) 56. KKlass - Bad Boy (Original Mix) [Hotfingers] (6:26) 57. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (Alex Guerrero Remix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (8:28) 58. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (Alex Myna Remix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (6:44) 59. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (D-Unitys Big Room Mix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (7:07) 60. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (D-Unitys Remix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (6:33) 61. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (Extended Mix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (5:18) 62. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (ZAD Remix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (6:54) 63. Leisuregroove, Kevin Andrews - Came To Fk (Club Mix) [Housesession Records] (7:59) 64. Leisuregroove, Kevin Andrews - Do The Shit My Way & feat Joe Le Groove (Original Mix) [Housesession Records] (7:42) 65. Leslie Carter, Slow Motion Replay - Tell Me Bedtime Story (Soul Source Remix) [Soulab] (5:55) 66. Linka, MondelloG - Happy Day (Original Mix) [Essentials] (5:37) 67. Little Nancy - World Vision (Fingers Clear Remix) [Aquasound] (7:56) 68. Little Nancy - World Vision (Original Mix) [Aquasound] (6:06) 69. Lyya Rokk, Michael Donato - Get Out (Original Mix) [Moozaa Records] (7:16) 70. Lyya Rokk, Michael Donato - Get Out (Rayart Minor Mix) [Moozaa Records] (6:46) 71. Marksell - New Season (Club Mix) [2DJS4LOVE Recordings] (7:23) 72. Marksell - New Season (Electric Mix) [2DJS4LOVE Recordings] (6:17) 73. Marksell - New Season (Extended Mix) [2DJS4LOVE Recordings] (7:24) 74. Marksell - New Season (Original Mix) [2DJS4LOVE Recordings] (5:54) 75. Milty Evans - Bet On Black (Original) [Look At You Records] (6:58) 76. Mitchell Niemeyer - Botox (Delivio Reavon & Aaron Gill Remix) [Steel Music] (6:05) 77. Mitchell Niemeyer - Botox (Giancarlo Remix) [Steel Music] (5:19) 78. Mitchell Niemeyer - Botox (Nene Dasile Remix) [Steel Music] (5:45) 79. Mitchell Niemeyer - Botox (Original Mix) [Steel Music] (6:00) 80. Oscar L - Woman On Fire (Rikard Remix) [TKC Music] (7:18) 81. Parfenov, Anton Balkov - Day By Day (Duher Remix) [Essentials] (5:10) 82. Project 99 - Bubbles (Jane Klos Remix) [Electro Top] (5:16) 83. Raffa Garcia - Element Beautiful feat Bismarck Sax (Latin House Mix) [Playmusic Recordings] (7:30) 84. Raffa Garcia - Element Beautiful feat Bismarck Sax (Original Mix) [Playmusic Recordings] (7:29) 85. Rick Silva - El Beat (Original Mix) [Progresiva Records & Grooves] (7:21) 86. Ruben Zurita - Nothing Is True (Angelo Ferreri On Discours Mix) [Station Group Records] (7:08) 87. Sebastian Moreno - Back To The Roots (Original Mix) [Seen Records] (5:10) 88. Subban - Paris Bebe feat JEF K (Dub Digital Only) [Silver Network] (8:27) 89. Subban - Paris Bebe feat JEF K (Jef K Gwen Maze & PIRRES Dub Version Digital Only) [Silver Network] (7:14) 90. Subban - Paris Bebe feat JEF K (Jef K Gwen Maze & PIRRES Version) [Silver Network] (7:13) 91. Subban - Paris BeBe feat JEF K (Original Mix) [Silver Network] (8:29) 92. Tomy Montana - What U Want (Modaal & Discojack Rmx) [Gramma Rec] (6:54) 93. Tomy Montana - What U Want (Original Mix) [Gramma Rec] (6:07) 94. Uppercut - Turn The Music To Your Head (Mikel Curcio Remix) [KULT] (6:10) 95. Victor Vera - Planet Cool (Original Mix) [Apsides Records] (6:46) 96. Victor Vera - Vendetta (Original Mix) [Apsides Records] (8:06) 97. Volkoder, Darocha - For You (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:06) 98. Volkoder, Darocha - Wanna Dance (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:06) 99. Yogi Man - Fat Kid Dancing (Original Mix) [Groove Life Records] (6:28) 100. Yogi Man - My Hands Are On Fire (Original Mix) [Groove Life Records] (6:24) 101. Yuriy Poleg, Phillipo Blake, VRay - Dont Give Up (Zetandel Chill Remix) [Muza Music] (5:05) Indie Dance/Nu Disco 1. David Mariscal - Mil Flores (Instrumental) [POLKA] (8:12) 2. David Mariscal - Mil Flores (Rychy Martin Vision) [POLKA] (6:57) 3. David Mariscal - Mil Flores (Vox) [POLKA] (8:12) 4. Dean Sutton - American Dreams (Original Mix) [4House Digital] (5:03) Minimal 1. Aiho - Playground (Lucents Playtime Remix) [Bosphorus Underground Recordings] (6:52) 2. Aiho - Playground (Original Mix) [Bosphorus Underground Recordings] (7:03) 3. Andy Mart - Drop & Run (Original Mix) [Ready 2 Rock] (6:50) 4. Andy Mart - Gameplay (Original Mix) [Ready 2 Rock] (7:34) 5. Bombilla - I Think I Spider (Original Mix) [Shufflemood] (6:51) 6. Bombilla - No Comment (Coeters Dark Edit) [Shufflemood] (6:58) 7. Bombilla - No Comment (Original Mix) [Shufflemood] (6:36) 8. CPixel - Future Artefact (Philo Sci Mix) [Pulsed Recordings] (7:03) 9. Damolh33, Hertzman - Analysis (Original Mix) [NuLabel] (6:10) 10. Damolh33, Hertzman - Density (Original Mix) [NuLabel] (6:33) 11. Damolh33, Hertzman - Magus (Original Mix) [NuLabel] (6:14) 12. Damolh33, Hertzman - Steel Tongue (Original Mix) [NuLabel] (6:18) 13. Dano Cube - Abstract (Original Mix) [Minimized Records] (7:24) 14. Dano Cube - Liquid (Original Mix) [Minimized Records] (8:03) 15. Giuseppe Bottone - Anomaly (Original Mix) [Berlin Aufnahmen] (7:31) 16. Giuseppe Bottone - End Of The World (Original Mix) [Berlin Aufnahmen] (7:37) 17. Giuseppe Bottone - Il Trapezio (Original Mix) [Berlin Aufnahmen] (8:11) 18. Giuseppe Francaviglia - Ping Pong (Original Mix) [FHD Records] (7:15) 19. Ill Boy Phil - Bierzeltnintendo (Orginal) [Signal] (10:29) 20. Ill Boy Phil - Get Angry (Orginal) [Signal] (7:03) 21. Ill Boy Phil - Get Angry (Remix) [Signal] (6:33) 22. Jepy Jey - Plastic Fantastic (Giuseppe Francaviglia & Davix Remix) [JJ Records] (6:15) 23. Jepy Jey - Plastic Fantastic (Original Mix) [JJ Records] (6:03) 24. Jepy Jey - Plastic Fantastic (Redub Remix) [JJ Records] (7:48) 25. Jepy Jey - Plastic Fantastic (Tony Kairom Remix) [JJ Records] (6:56) 26. Jorge Savoretti - Sul Meno (Original Mix) [Love Letters From Oslo] (7:48) 27. Kachas - Dream (Original Mix) [Octane Recordings] (6:52) 28. Kachas - No No (Original Mix) [Octane Recordings] (8:01) 29. Kachas - Respect (Original Mix) [Octane Recordings] (9:52) 30. KINEZzzz - Capture This (Original Mix) [New Era Recordings] (5:00) 31. Michael Melchner - Sumu (Original Mix) [Love Letters From Oslo] (8:06) 32. Michele Flore - Celest June (Original Mix) [Emmestudio Records] (5:40) 33. Michele Flore - Trem (Original Mix) [Emmestudio Records] (5:12) 34. Pitt Larsen - Phenomenal (Original Mix) [Specktral Blue] (6:11) 35. Pitt Larsen - Presure (Original Mix) [Specktral Blue] (6:35) 36. Sebastian Pena - Black Souvenir (Original Mix) [Manege] (7:23) 37. Sebastian Pena - Black Souvenir (Sudok Remix) [Manege] (5:21) 38. Sebastian Pena - In Black (Felix Lorusso Remix) [Manege] (6:57) 39. Sebastian Pena - In Black (Original Mix) [Manege] (8:11) 40. Stealth Slap - Ummmbeck (Original Mix) [EON5] (7:06) 41. Zombie In Progress - Project Alexia (Richie Med Remix) [Tekx Records] (7:52) Progressive House 1. Allan Zax - No Fear (Original Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (8:47) 2. Andrew M, Sonny G - Kidney (Original Mix) [Squeeze Music] (4:32) 3. Andy Piney - Blue Inside (Original Mix) [DLab Records] (8:22) 4. Andy Piney - What The DJ (Original Mix) [DLab Records] (9:37) 5. Austin - Picture (Bob Fanzidon Remix) [Panda Recordings] (7:46) 6. Austin - Picture (Dontknower Deep Remix) [Panda Recordings] (9:00) 7. Austin - Picture (Original Mix) [Panda Recordings] (6:38) 8. Austin - Picture (Shaddike Remix) [Panda Recordings] (5:39) 9. C2U - Drama (Original Mix) [T & T Records] (5:27) 10. C2U - Fire of the Night (Original Mix) [T & T Records] (5:17) 11. C2U - Fluffy Bunny Feet (Original Mix) [T & T Records] (5:59) 12. C2U - Rodeo Drive (Original Mix) [T & T Records] (5:15) 13. Carlo Lucca, Diane Morgan - Magic Of The Place (Original Mix) [Livelife Digital Records] (6:28) 14. Cheerocky, 82 Drones - Prophetess (Original Mix) [SoHo Beats Recordings] (6:58) 15. Christian Falero, Adrian Villaverde - Control Feat Ashley Kirk (Instrumental Mix) [Pink Rabbit] (7:04) 16. Christian Falero, Adrian Villaverde - Control Feat Ashley Kirk (Mednas Dub Mix) [Pink Rabbit] (5:09) 17. Christian Falero, Adrian Villaverde - Control Feat Ashley Kirk (Original Mix) [Pink Rabbit] (7:04) 18. Chunks - Get Down To Miami (Original Mix) [Tiger Records] (5:33) 19. Coherent - Archetypal (Original Mix) [Particles] (8:51) 20. Coherent - Archetypal (Tvardovsky Remix) [Particles] (7:06) 21. Disfunktion - Lapogee (Jake Shanahan & Sebastian Lintz Remix) [S2 Records] (5:57) 22. Disfunktion - Lapogee (Ludvig Holm fk Melodies Remix) [S2 Records] (6:52) 23. Disfunktion - Lapogee (Original Mix) [S2 Records] (6:52) 24. Dj Mark Power - Comon Baby Bounce (Club Mix Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (5:43) 25. Dj Mark Power - Comon Baby Bounce (Steve Murrell Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (5:52) 26. DJ Mojito - Lucky (Original Mix) [Le Night Club] (7:44) 27. DJ Tommy One - With Love in Heart (Original Mix) [Bullhorn Records] (4:16) 28. DLayna, Juan K Paul - I Feel The Music (DJ Bounce Remix) [Housearth Records] (5:54) 29. DLayna, Juan K Paul - I Feel The Music (Jose Uceda Remix) [Housearth Records] (5:50) 30. Do Shock Booze - Jah is not dead (Fumihiro Hoshi & DJ FREAK Remix) [Totem Traxx] (7:18) 31. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Dreamway & Gabi Oprea Remix) [Disc Doctor] (6:40) 32. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Seedy Jazz & Eeemus Remix) [Disc Doctor] (5:44) 33. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Tim Engelhardt Remix) [Disc Doctor] (6:41) 34. Ed Lee - Pancakes (Original Mix) [Stripped Digital] (6:45) 35. EDX, Nadia Ali - This Is Your Life (Original Club Mix) [PinkStar Records] (5:25) 36. Elvis K - They All Know You (Original Mix) [Jill Recordings] (6:02) 37. Evave - Free Tonight (Original Mix) [Digital Motion] (5:57) 38. Evave - Start Again (Original Mix) [Digital Motion] (7:01) 39. Evave - Time To Go (Original Mix) [Digital Motion] (7:39) 40. Fabio Perpetua - Bio (Original Mix) [Love That Sound Records] (5:18) 41. Fabio Perpetua - Bio (Rework) [Love That Sound Records] (6:13) 42. Fyono - Cut Me Loose (Originak Mix) [Vurtical] (7:10) 43. Fyono - Three Bottles Of Ballantines (Original Mix) [Vurtical] (6:31) 44. Hairdryer - Back To The Sunshine (Alfacentaurus Remix) [Trancepole] (5:04) 45. Hairdryer - Back To The Sunshine (Igor Zaharov amp Sober System Remix) [Trancepole] (6:37) 46. Hairdryer - Back To The Sunshine (Original Mix) [Trancepole] (6:35) 47. Hakan Akcan - Impossible Love (Original Mix) [Silvana Records] (8:23) 48. Hakan Akcan - Son Of The Wind (Original Mix) [Silvana Records] (8:23) 49. Hakan Akcan - Youre In My Dream (Original Mix) [Silvana Records] (8:20) 50. Hugcaro, Rafael de Alba - ShangriLa (The Other Side Instrumental Mix) [SYCDmusic] (7:44) 51. Hugcaro, Rafael de Alba - ShangriLa (The Other Side Mix) [SYCDmusic] (7:44) 52. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Dj Emil Mainstream Mix) [Dextrous Records] (8:15) 53. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Evgeny KoTT Remix) [Dextrous Records] (7:19) 54. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Incognet Remix) [Dextrous Records] (7:05) 55. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Original Mix) [Dextrous Records] (6:59) 56. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Platinum Monkey Remix) [Dextrous Records] (7:47) 57. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Sezer Uysal Loves Baku Remix) [Dextrous Records] (7:11) 58. Igor Zaharov, Sober System - Kill Killer (Original Mix) [Flash Records] (6:07) 59. Inkfish - Procrastination (Original Mix) [Inkfish Recordings] (6:35) 60. Italo Roldo - The Bee (Thanos Kous Remix) [Stigma Recordings] (6:50) 61. Jason Brooks - Control The World (Christian Poow Remix) [Futuro Sounds] (6:58) 62. Johnny Beast, Kenzou Kumei - Keep Busted (Original Mix) [Rezone Records] (8:29) 63. Marwan Jaafreh - Moments Of Remembering (Original Mix) [Impressed Recordings] (7:06) 64. MatricK - I Will Tech You Sucker (Original Mix) [Cyber Donkey] (6:47) 65. MatricK - The World Can Be Better (Original Mix) [Cyber Donkey] (5:47) 66. Millaway - Bluescreen (Original Mix) [Anatolian Deep] (7:10) 67. Millaway - Everlast (Artem Zlobin Remix) [Anatolian Deep] (6:36) 68. Millaway - Everlast (Coreye Remix) [Anatolian Deep] (7:19) 69. Millaway - Everlast (Original Mix) [Anatolian Deep] (7:23) 70. Monogamma, Eugene - Shine (KavProject Remix) [System Recordings] (7:27) 71. Monogamma, Eugene - Shine (Original Mix) [System Recordings] (6:14) 72. Niko Trade Mark - Unexpected (Original Mix) [Dancefloor Dreams] (6:39) 73. Oscar L - Woman On Fire (Original Mix) [TKC Music] (6:36) 74. Paduraru - Bedtime Stories (Burche Deephouse Mix) [Worldwide Exclusive Records] (6:42) 75. Paduraru - Dynamicfaith (Archie JD Proghouse Mix) [Worldwide Exclusive Records] (6:28) 76. Paduraru - Movational Melodies (Inspiring House Mix) [Worldwide Exclusive Records] (7:22) 77. Paduraru - Progside Dub (Proghouse Mix) [Worldwide Exclusive Records] (7:01) 78. Raffa Vergara - Africa (Luis Ache Remix) [Tulum Records] (6:37) 79. Raffa Vergara - Africa (Maiax Tribalism Remix) [Tulum Records] (6:53) 80. Raffa Vergara - Africa (Mark Alvarado Remix) [Tulum Records] (5:23) 81. Raffa Vergara - Africa (Original Mix) [Tulum Records] (7:08) 82. Robero - Youre In My Heart (Extended Mix) [Digital Gunsta] (5:37) 83. Sid Mehra - Inference As Usual (4llucinex Remix) [Eltronic Fusion Records] (7:14) 84. Solesystem pres Melomaniacs - American Dream (DEye Remix) [Mistique Digital] (7:59) 85. Solesystem pres Melomaniacs - American Dream (Original Mix) [Mistique Digital] (7:37) 86. Solesystem pres Melomaniacs - American Dream (XSector Remix) [Mistique Digital] (8:52) 87. Sugarshaker, Leeroy K - Afraid To Close My Eyes (Moodyboy Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (8:25) 88. Sugarshaker, Leeroy K - Afraid To Close My Eyes (Steve Murrell Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (6:44) 89. Switch Cook - Nothing Is Real (Original Mix) [Royal Music Paris] (7:48) 90. Switch Cook - So Strong (Original Mix) [Royal Music Paris] (7:49) 91. Syzthaime - Duodenum (Original Mix) [Beardy Bird] (7:29) 92. Syzthaime - Neptune (Original Mix) [Beardy Bird] (8:37) 93. Syzthaime - Withconde (Original Mix) [Beardy Bird] (8:23) 94. T. Tommy, Blas Marin, Patrizze, Jose Del Barrio - Try (Original Mix) [Morumbi Recordings] (6:07) 95. The Digital Monkey - Needs A Name (Original Mix) [KornerHouseRecords] (6:52) 96. The Digital Monkey - Rhapsodic (Original Mix) [KornerHouseRecords] (8:59) 97. The Digital Monkey - Undisclosed (Original Mix) [KornerHouseRecords] (7:10) 98. The Digital Monkey - Unnamed (Original Mix) [KornerHouseRecords] (7:22) 99. Tone Ranger - Hold On Tight (Original Mix) [Mena Music] (6:50) 100. TPe3 - Lost (Original Mix) [Junior The Clubbers] (7:30) 101. Uppercut - Turn The Music To Your Head (Original Mix) [KULT] (8:27) 102. Vincent Martini - Passion (Instrumental Mix) [Passion Night Records] (6:14) 103. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Club Martini Rework) [Passion Night Records] (6:03) 104. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Edoardo EDR Rosellini) [Passion Night Records] (5:26) 105. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Extended Mix) [Passion Night Records] (5:49) 106. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Jessie Pink Remix) [Passion Night Records] (5:44) 107. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Jozef C Remix) [Passion Night Records] (4:41) Tech House 1. Acirne - Circle Of Us (Original Mix) [Memento] (7:30) 2. Alex Hentze - Side Walk (Chris Fortier 40oz. Dub) [CUBEREC] (5:50) 3. Alex Hentze - Side Walk (Chris Fortier 40oz. Remix) [CUBEREC] (6:36) 4. Allan Ramirez - Junior (Original Mix) [Good Feeling] (7:14) 5. Atesh K - Dark Tension (Barish Baron Remix) [Regular Beats Records] (8:08) 6. Black Criss - Liqued (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:44) 7. Blue Mondays - Holes (Original Mix) [Memento] (8:39) 8. Blue Mondays - Holes Dub (Dub) [Memento] (8:55) 9. Boza - Welcome To The Party (Original Mix) [Modified Records] (6:10) 10. Dani Casarano, Felipe Valenzuela, Yvan Genkins - Earth & Sun (Remix) [Melisma] (7:43) 11. Dany Cohiba - Kapurtala (Original Mix) [Gabbana Records] (6:13) 12. Dany Cohiba - Kapurtala (The Macbrothers Remix) [Gabbana Records] (6:17) 13. Datasend - Push It Dude (Bastian Knop Remix) [Meleon Music] (8:09) 14. David Herrero - Groove Pressure (Cuartero Remix) [Nirvana Recordings] (6:51) 15. Davis Gruss, Celic - This Story (DJ Smilk Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:33) 16. Davis Gruss, Celic - This Story (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:36) 17. Davis Gruss - Lamur (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:09) 18. Davis Gruss - Lovinger (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:10) 19. Dhaze - Locked Out (Original Mix) [Low Pressings] (7:03) 20. Dhaze - The Trap (Original Mix) [Low Pressings] (7:40) 21. DJ Smilk, Black Criss - Estuphira (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (8:22) 22. DJ Smilk, Black Criss - Is The True (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:18) 23. DJ Smilk, Davis Gruss, Black Criss - Indonesia (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:36) 24. DJ Smilk, Davis Gruss - So Club (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:34) 25. Gas - Nighthawk (Original Mix) [Memento] (6:29) 26. Gomo - Bandelay (Mikel Ayerra & Ismael Alonso Remix) [Dum A Dum Records] (6:14) 27. Gomo - Bandelay (Original Mix) [Dum A Dum Records] (7:10) 28. Hector Couto, Danny Serano - Jet Lag (Original Mix) [Brise Records] (7:10) 29. iO, Goshva - Getaway (Original Mix) [Mulen Records] (7:54) 30. iO, Goshva - Lazy Time (Original Mix) [Mulen Records] (7:54) 31. iO, Goshva - Salamander (Alex Celler Spaced Out Dub) [Mulen Records] (7:20) 32. iO, Goshva - Salamander (Original Mix) [Mulen Records] (7:26) 33. Jerry M & DrPJ - Smooth Over (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (6:57) 34. Jewel Kid - Double E (Original Mix) [Alleanza] (8:07) 35. Julian Collazos - Adventure (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:35) 36. Julian Collazos - Long Life (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:24) 37. Julian Collazos - Toxic (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:00) 38. Julian M - Full (DJ WLD Remix) [Catwash Records] (8:08) 39. Julian M - Full (Gauthier DM Remix) [Catwash Records] (8:01) 40. Julian M - Full (Original Mix) [Catwash Records] (6:46) 41. Kolokol Production - Meri Fon Lele (Changes Mix) [Kolokol Digital] (6:12) 42. Kolokol Production - Meri Fon Lele (Original Mix) [Kolokol Digital] (6:11) 43. Kolokol Production - Meri Fon Lele (Pawas Remix) [Kolokol Digital] (8:41) 44. Kolokol Production - Meri Fon Lele (Rene Breitbarth Remix) [Kolokol Digital] (6:50) 45. Kuca - What Happpened (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (5:32) 46. Luca Donzelli - Bottle Of Truth (Original Mix) [Kaapro Rec] (6:27) 47. Luca Donzelli - Cimelicus (Original Mix) [Kaapro Rec] (7:08) 48. Luca Donzelli - Play The Mind (Joop Juniors Intoxicated Rework) [Kaapro Rec] (5:45) 49. Luca Donzelli - Play The Mind (Original Mix) [Kaapro Rec] (7:17) 50. Marcelo Castelli, Tom Sawyer - Is This Love (Tom Sawyer Remix) [Atsuo Records] (6:43) 51. MatricK - Trollolo (Original Mix) [Cyber Donkey] (7:11) 52. Max Cue - Medicine Man (Original Mix) [Sonoptix] (7:30) 53. Max Cue - Satellite (Original Mix) [Sonoptix] (7:44) 54. Max Tocci - Panic Room (Original Club Mix) [Nasimus Records] (7:29) 55. Michael Knop - Crash Prophet (Original Mix) [Green Fiction] (6:44) 56. Michael Knop - Milk (Original Mix) [Green Fiction] (6:36) 57. Michael Senna, Peter Zohdy - All In Vain (Blondish Remix) [Two Birds] (8:07) 58. Michael Senna, Peter Zohdy - All In Vain (Original Mix) [Two Birds] (5:22) 59. Michael Senna, Peter Zohdy - DirtyTalk (Digital Only) [Two Birds] (6:20) 60. Mike Rivera - Landscape (Original Mix) [Kore Music] (8:26) 61. Mike Rivera - Sila (Original Mix) [Kore Music] (8:11) 62. Mike Rivera - Solo Dieces (Original Mix) [Kore Music] (7:44) 63. Mike Rivera - TresCuartos (Original Mix) [Kore Music] (7:07) 64. Milty Evans - Goldar Saved Us (Original) [Look At You Records] (7:04) 65. Nik Allen - Geometric Logic (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:27) 66. Nik Allen - I Dont Give A (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (5:47) 67. Nurhee - Dan (Manna-Croup Remix) [Rip N Burn] (7:20) 68. Oscar L - Woman On Fire (DJ Deka & Dave Rose Remix) [TKC Music] (7:15) 69. Oscar L - Woman On Fire (GoldnAnt Remix) [TKC Music] (6:48) 70. Paul Mad - Undes (Alex Piccini remix) [Deep Beep Records] (6:20) 71. Piek, Danny Serano - We Feel House Music (Original Mix) [Brise Records] (6:23) 72. Reflect Grace - Im A Robot Not A Human (Original Mix) [Happy Groove Trax] (4:48) 73. Ruben Zurita - Nothing Is True (Neosoto Remix) [Station Group Records] (6:48) 74. Ruben Zurita - Nothing Is True (Original Mix) [Station Group Records] (7:08) 75. Ruben Zurita - Nothing Is True (Robert Garcia Remix) [Station Group Records] (8:25) 76. Serious Beat - Andromeda Galaxy (Original Mix) [GramolaRec] (9:43) 77. SL Curtiz, Damir Pushkar - Get With Yourself (ACK & Mr Norberto Remix) [NumberOneBeats Records] (6:21) 78. SL Curtiz, Damir Pushkar - Get With Yourself (Edy Valiant Remix) [NumberOneBeats Records] (6:43) 79. The Boy That Could - Yzarc (Original Version) [Swoop Records] (9:59) 80. Tom Sawyer - Nirvana Monkey Man (Marengo Edit) [Atsuo Records] (5:59) 81. Tom Sawyer - Southamerican (Enrico Caschetta Remix) [Atsuo Records] (8:26) 82. Uppercut - Turn The Music To Your Head (Zoltan Kontes 4Hours Dub) [KULT] (7:13) 83. Uppercut - Turn The Music To Your Head (Zoltan Kontes 4Hours Remix) [KULT] (7:13) 84. Vicente Belenguer, Blas Marin, Antonio Jimenez - Black Point (Original Mix) [Tormenta Records] (8:22) 85. Vincent Villani, Kevin G, Chriis Cruz - Planet Underground (Original Takeover Mix) [Dark Vibe Productions] (7:18) 86. Volkoder, Darocha - Get On (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:03) Techno 1. Aiho - Playground (Balthazar & JackRock Remix) [Bosphorus Underground Recordings] (7:06) 2. Alessandro Verdi - Carousel (Original Mix) [SampleTune Records] (6:04) 3. Alessandro Verdi - Salt & Sugar (Original Mix) [SampleTune Records] (6:00) 4. Apostolis Lamda - Hitmans (Original Mix) [Misdeed Records] (6:40) 5. Apostolis Lamda - Serial Code (Original Mix) [Misdeed Records] (5:58) 6. Coherent - Archetypal (Stimpack Strange Mix) [Particles] (6:37) 7. Dani Casarano, Felipe Valenzuela, Yvan Genkins - Earth & Sun (Dance Floor Mix) [Melisma] (7:50) 8. Darkko - Fancy Ride (Original Mix) [Progrezo Records] (6:43) 9. Datasend - Push It Dude (Bastian Knop & Loop My Life Freakmix) [Meleon Music] (6:54) 10. Do Shock Booze - Jah is not dead (DJ AX Fresh Mix) [Totem Traxx] (6:16) 11. Do Shock Booze - Jah is not dead (Gary BeMore Remix) [Totem Traxx] (4:28) 12. Electrorites - Never Back Down (Feyser & Hroft Rmix) [Naughty Pills Records] (7:17) 13. Electrorites - Never Back Down (Original Mix) [Naughty Pills Records] (9:10) 14. Electrorites - Never Back Down (Stiv & Vallo Remix) [Naughty Pills Records] (7:19) 15. Gabeen - Psychoanalysis (Albert Kraner Remix) [Elektrax Recordings] (6:27) 16. Ground Spain - Minuendo (Original Mix) [Hexil Creative Records] (7:25) 17. Ground Spain - Road (Original Mix) [Hexil Creative Records] (7:54) 18. Jewel Kid - Kukz (Original Mix) [Alleanza] (8:37) 19. John Lorvs, James Kentaro - Eleven (Original Mix) [Lorvs Records] (7:11) 20. Justy - Lost Control (Doctor Trash Remix) [Thats Hot Records] (7:53) 21. Justy - Lost Control (Lewis Fautzi Remix) [Thats Hot Records] (5:42) 22. Justy - Lost Control (Morgan Tomas Remix) [Thats Hot Records] (8:16) 23. Justy - Lost Control (Original Mix) [Thats Hot Records] (6:50) 24. Lefo X - Celebrate The End (Vanishs End Of Days Remix) [Velcro City Records] (5:21) 25. Oldiendo - Around The Carousel (Hadji Remix) [Armatura Bonus] (7:06) 26. Oldiendo - Around The Carousel (Original) [Armatura Bonus] (6:17) 27. Oldiendo - Help Me (Bojan Vukmirovic Remix) [Armatura Bonus] (8:10) 28. Oldiendo - Help Me (Original) [Armatura Bonus] (5:11) 29. Pedro Romero - Chromakey (Original Mix) [Equim Recordings] (6:11) 30. Pedro Romero - Lumakey (Original Mix) [Equim Recordings] (7:35) 31. Pierre Deutschmann - Warp08 (Original) [Klender Limited] (6:52) 32. Poy Poy - Thereversepath (Alessandro Spaiani Remix) [Criminal Zone Records] (9:21) 33. Poy Poy - Thereversepath (Original Mix) [Criminal Zone Records] (6:37) 34. Ripperton - For All The Wrong Reasons (Original 12 Mix) [Tamed Musiq] (9:27) 35. Ripperton - For All The Wrong Reasons (Skudge Remix) [Tamed Musiq] (8:26) 36. Tom Freak - Fck (Original Mix) [Picche Records Ltd] (6:26) 37. Tom Freak - Milf (Original Mix) [Picche Records Ltd] (6:28) 38. Vegim - Anoda (Original Mix) [Take More Music Records] (6:35) 39. Vegim - Drop It (Original Mix) [Take More Music Records] (7:20) 40. Vegim - Get On (Original Mix) [Take More Music Records] (7:46) 41. Vegim - Turn Back (Original Mix) [Take More Music Records] (7:50) Ferry Corsten Simon Patterson Sander Van Doorn Paul Van Dyke David Guetta Feed Me DJ Solovey Korn Tommy Lee Limp Bizkit Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike Swedish House Mafia Steve Angello Sebastian Bennett Prodigy Chemical Brothers Crystal Method Tiesto Armin Van Bureen DJ Feel Arty Bobina Chris Brown Daft Punk Kesha Pitbull Fedde Le Grand Judge Jules & Roger Shah Timbaland David Guetta Lady Gaga Ronski Speed Snoop Dogg Kid Cudi Bingo Players Chocolate Puma Britney Spears Axwell Girlicious Laidback Luke Dirty South Rihanna Spencer & Hill The Black Eyed Peas Boys Noize Akon Javi Mula Ludacris Vandalism & Angger Dimas Robert Miles Alicia Keys Bimbo Jones Cher Eric Prydz Inna Linkin Park Paul Van Dyk Sean Kingston Busta Rhymes Rolvario SHM Ian Van Dahl Rio Sidney Samson Wizard Sleeve Riverside Benny Benassi Clockwork Cyberpunkers Kelis Mason Nic Chagall Hy2rogen & Fr3cky Justin Timberlake Avril Lavigne Darude Delirium Edward Maya Empire Of The Sun Jay Sean Madonna Tiesto Xzibit Katy Perry Depeche ModeAlice Deejay Basshunter Gigi D'agostino Temper Trap Modern Talking Marco V Robbie Rivera Mastiksoul Dr. Dre Cascada Gorillaz Real 2 Real DJ Solovey The Pussycat Dolls Shakira Queen Atb Dave Aude Ian Carey Michael Jackson Mariah Carey Syke N Sugarstarr 2Pac Wiz Khalifa Martin Solveig & Dragonette Brooklyn Bounce Eminem Justin Bieber Rebecca Black royksopp Skrillex Elvis Presley wolfgang gartner sean tyas Bloody Beetroots Sean Paul Bob Sinclar R3hab Da Fresh Cosmic Gate Arty Far East Movement EasyTech The Cataracs Dev Chew Fu Lil Jon Taio Cruz Kylie Minogue Apster & Bassjackers Hardwell Jay Z Fast Foot Steve Angello Kanye West & Twista Pendulum Dada Life Deadmau5 Salt n Pepa Uppermost Quintino Avicii Bob Marley Cee Lo Green Duck Sauce Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike Hyper Crush Klaas Leona Lewis Mustard Pimp Mike Candys Jack Holiday Porter Robinson Hard Rock Sofa Swedish House Mafia The Prodigy The White Panda Tim Berg Congorock FTampa Lazy Rich Diplo Cazzette Mohombi Soundprank The Partysquad Clinton Sparks Beyonce Funkerman Shermanology Kelly Rowland Oliver Twizt Nicole Scherzinger 50 Cent Vanilla Ice Faithless Example Kaskade Pleasurekraft Swanky Tunes Snow Patrol Dirtyloud The Game DJ Fresh Dash Berlin Bruno Mars Lil Wayne Drake ATB A&B Armin Only Alesso Soulja Boy SODMG Lil B Based God

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4. Lamentations 1-5 (Destroying Our Lives & How To Ask God For Help)

Lamentations 1-5 (Destroying Our Lives & How To Ask God For Help)

The book of Lamentations in the Hebrew Bible does not appear in the same place that it appears in our Bibles. In the Hebrew Bible it appears with a group of books: Esther, and Ruth, Job, and Ezra. It was written by Jeremiah, and that is why in our Bibles they inserted it after the book of Jeremiah, because it is almost sort of an epilogue to the book of Jeremiah, in that it follows the destruction of the city of Jerusalem. There is on the site of Golgotha a cave that is called Jeremiah's Grotto. This cave known as Jeremiah's Grotto comprises a part of the face of the skull; hence the name Golgotha. Because as you look at the cliff, with these caves that are there in the cliff, they take the appearance of a skull. One of these caves is called Jeremiah's Grotto. It is interesting that from those caves there on the site of Golgotha, you have a tremendous view of the city of Jerusalem, for Golgotha is actually the top of what was once Mount Moriah. And it looks down over the city of Jerusalem. Tradition declares that Jeremiah sat in this grotto when he wrote the book of Lamentations, and there he wept and cried over the desolation of the city of Jerusalem as he saw its ruins, as he saw the walls destroyed, as he saw the buildings leveled. And from this vantage, he wrote this book. In the Septuagint, which is a translation of the scriptures into Greek that was done by seventy Hebrew scholars about 200 B.C., they prefaced the book of Lamentations with these words, "And it came to pass, that after Israel had been carried away captive, and Jerusalem made desolate, Jeremiah sat weeping and lamented this lament over Jerusalem and said, 'How doth the city sit solitary.'" So, they have that as a prologue to the book of Lamentations, and it was picked up and put in the Vulgate. The book of Lamentations is a favorite style of Hebrew poetry in four of the chapters. They are as known as an acrostic, and they were written in order to facilitate the memorization, in that you'll notice that in the first three chapters there are twenty two verses in each chapter. In the original Hebrew poetry, these twenty two verses were actually twenty two lines of the poem, and each line began with a succeeding letter of the Hebrew alphabet. So the first line began with Aleph, and then with Beth, and then with Gimel, and then with Daleth, and on through the Hebrew alphabet, each line with the succeeding letter of the Hebrew alphabet in the first three chapters...in the first two chapters. In the third chapter, you'll notice that there are sixty six verses. The first three lines begin with Aleph, the next three with Beth, the next three with Gimel. And so it was in triplets, actually, thus the sixty six verses. The fourth chapter, again each line beginning with the succeeding letter of the Greek alphabet. And even though the fifth chapter has twenty two verses, it is not in an acrostic. It doesn't follow this same pattern of each line beginning with the successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. But they would often write their poems that way in order to help you in memorizing the poem, because you knew that the next line began with the next letter of the alphabet in succeeding order. This is a funeral dirge. It is a lament of Jeremiah over Jerusalem after the destruction. And the book of Lamentations is read each year in the synagogue on the fourth day of the ninth month. So, around August the fourth, this particular lament or book is read in the Jewish synagogues as they commemorate the anniversary of the destruction of Solomon's temple in 586 B.C. With that as a background, let us go into the first chapter, as Jeremiah declares, How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people! how is she become as a widow! she that was great among the nations, and the princess among the providences, how is she become a tributary! (Lam 1:1) The city is empty. It is now sitting solitary. The inhabitants have either been slain or carried away captive. There is a weird silence over this once prosperous, beautiful city, as it lies there now in rubble. She weepeth sore in the night, and her tears are on her cheeks: among all her lovers she hath none to comfort her: all her friends have dealt treacherously with her, they are become her enemies (Lam 1:2). Jerusalem was once as a princess. Actually, tribute was paid to Solomon and to his kingdom, but now Jerusalem has become a tributary paying tribute to others. Those that she trusted in, Egypt and others have now become her enemies. Judah is gone into captivity because of affliction, and because of great servitude: she dwells among the heathen, she finds no rest: in all of her persecutors overtook her between the straits. The ways [or the paths] on the way to Zion do mourn, because none come to her solemn feasts (Lam 1:3-4): It must be a weird, awesome feeling to look over the ruins of a once great and prosperous city. Can you imagine, say sitting on Mount Wilson and overlooking the Los Angeles basin and nobody living there? No freeways jammed with cars. No industries belching out their smoke, just everything with a deathly silence. Imagine how you would feel, you know, having seen all of the activities and all, that go on in that great basin, and suddenly to look at it and see the whole thing silent and empty. It must be an awesome kind of a feeling to see such a thing. That's what Jeremiah... he had grown up in this city. He had seen the streets full of people. He had watched the worshippers at the temple and all. He had seen the pilgrims gather for their feasts, but now it's all silent. Now it's empty and the ways or the paths on the way to Jerusalem are mourning because no one is coming to the solemn feasts anymore. all of her gates are desolate (Lam 1:4): The gates of Jerusalem are interesting places because there is always so many people passing in and out of the gates. A lot of times in Jerusalem just... if you don't have anything to do, it's interesting just to go at the gates of the city and just watch the people come and go through the gates. They're always just bustling with activity, and now it's silent. The gates are desolate. her priests sigh, her virgins are afflicted, she is in bitterness. Her adversaries are the chief, her enemies prosper, for the LORD hath afflicted her (Lam 1:4-5) And then he gives the reason: for the multitude of her transgressions: her children are gone into captivity before the enemy. And from the daughter of Zion all of her beauty is departed: her princes are become like harts that find no pasture, they are gone without strength before the pursuer. Jerusalem remembered in the days of her affliction and her miseries all of her pleasant things that she had in the days of old, when her people fell into the hand of the enemy, and none did help her: the adversaries saw her and did mock at her sabbaths. Jerusalem has grievously sinned; therefore she is removed (Lam 1:5-8): Again, not blaming God, which is so often our mistake when calamity comes. "Why did God allow this to happen to us?" But recognizing that the blame was upon the people because of their transgression and because they had grievously sinned against God. "Therefore she is removed." all that honored her despise her, because they have seen her nakedness: yea, she sighed, and turned backward. Her filthiness is in her skirts; she remembered not her last end; therefore she came down wonderfully: she had no comforter. O LORD, behold my affliction: for the enemy has magnified himself. The adversary has spread out his hand upon all of her pleasant things: for she has seen the heathen entered into her sanctuary, whom thou didst command that they should not enter into thy congregation (Lam 1:8-10). And so the heathen came right into the temple, into the Holy of Holies and they destroyed the temple of God. A stranger wasn't to come within the sanctuary, and yet they have seen them come in and destroy it. All of her people sigh, they seek bread; they have given their pleasant things for meat to relieve the soul: see, O LORD, and consider; for I am become vile (Lam 1:11). They spent all of their money, actually, and given all of their treasures for bread. Is it nothing to you, all ye that pass by? behold, and see if there be any sorrow like unto my sorrow, which is done unto me, wherewith the LORD hath afflicted me in the day of his fierce anger. From above hath he set fire into my bones, and it prevaileth against them: he hath spread a net for my feet, he hath turned me back: and he hath made me desolate and faint all the day. The yoke of my transgressions is bound by his hand: they are wreathed, and come up upon my neck: he hath made my strength to fall, the Lord hath delivered me into their hands, from whom I am not able to rise up. The Lord hath trodden under foot all my mighty men in the midst of me: he hath called an assembly against me to crush my young men: the Lord hath trodden the virgin, the daughter of Judah, as a winepress. For these things I weep (Lam 1:12-16); Thus, the lamentation, the weeping of Jeremiah as he sees the destruction that has come, the mighty men destroyed, the virgins ravished by the enemy, the young men crushed and the young girls trodden. "For these things I weep." my eye runs down with water, because the comforter that should relieve my soul is far from me: my children are desolate, because the enemy prevailed. Zion spread forth her hands, and there is none to comfort her: the LORD hath commanded concerning Jacob, that his adversaries should be round about him: Jerusalem is as a menstruous woman among them. The LORD is righteous; for I have rebelled against his commandments: hear, I pray you, all the people, and behold my sorrow, my virgins and my young men are gone into captivity (Lam 1:16-18). And so he sort of personifies Jerusalem, and lets Jerusalem cry out declaring the righteousness of God in judgment, "The Lord is righteous." For they were guilty of having rebelled against God. The Lord is always righteous in judgment, and yet it seems that that is an area where we always want to fault God. And we always hear sort of insinuations that God is unrighteous in judgment. "How can a God of love condemn a man to hell?" You know, and you've heard the rest of it. And the idea is that God is not really righteous when He judges. But that's one thing you can be certain of, and that is the righteousness of God in judgment. In the book of Revelation, as God is bringing His judgment upon the earth, there are voices that come from the altar saying, "Holy and true art Thy judgments, oh Lord." And then in one place where God turns the fresh water upon the earth to blood, there are voices that declare, "Oh, that's great. They shed the blood of Your saints so You've given them blood to drink," and testifying of the properness of that particular judgment that God brings upon the earth at that time. But God will judge. God has declared He will judge. And thus you can be sure that God is going to judge this world. God is going to judge the wicked. But God, when He judges the wicked, will be absolutely righteous in His judgment. People may complain about it now, but when God makes His judgment there can be no complaint, for the Lord is righteous. They had rebelled against the Lord. They rebelled against His commandment. He said, I called for my lovers, but they deceived me: my priests and my elders gave up the ghost in the city, while they sought their meat to relieve their souls (Lam 1:19). They died of starvation while they were looking for food. Behold, O LORD, for I am in distress: my bowels are troubled; mine heart is turned within me; for I have grievously rebelled: abroad the sword bereaveth, at home there is as death. They have heard that I sigh: there is none to comfort me: all my enemies have heard of my trouble; they are glad that you have done it: and thou will bring the day that thou has called, and they shall be like unto me. Let all their wickedness come before thee; and do unto them, as thou has done unto me for all my transgressions: for my sighs are many, and my heart is faint (Lam 1:20-22). Chapter 2 The second lamentation: How hath the Lord covered the daughter of Zion with a cloud in his anger, and he has cast down from heaven unto the earth the beauty of Israel, and remembered not his footstool in the day of his anger! The Lord has swallowed up all the habitations of Jacob, and has not pitied: he hath thrown down in his wrath the strongholds of the daughter of Judah; he hath brought them down to the ground: he hath polluted the kingdom and the princes thereof. He has cut off in his fierce anger all of the horn of Israel: he has drawn back his right hand from before the enemy, he has burned against Jacob like a flaming fire, which devours round about. He has bent his bow like an enemy: he stood with his right hand as an adversary, and slew all that were pleasant to the eye in the tabernacle of the daughter of Zion: he poured out his fury like fire (Lam 2:1-4). It must have been an awesome and a very traumatic experience to have seen the destruction that was wrecked upon Jerusalem by the Babylonian army. When, after eighteen months of siege, they finally broke into the city and began to slay with the sword. Even before they broke the walls and came in, people were already starving to death within the city. It was a horrible scene. Jeremiah can't get it out of his mind, the thoughts and the sights that he saw. They were imprinted in his mind. And now, as he sees it lying desolate, he reflects over these things. And he tells some of the things that were happening, and they are so horrible that they would make those kind of impressions in your mind that cause you to shudder whenever you think of them. And they are those mental images that you just can't seem to remove. As you see the people starving to death, falling on the streets, faint, weak, once mighty people, once a proud people, but now so defeated and destroyed. The Lord was as an enemy: he swallowed up Israel, he has swallowed up all of her palaces: he has destroyed the strongholds, he has increased in the daughter of Judah mourning and lamentation. He hath violently taken away the tabernacle, as if it were of a garden; he hath destroyed his places of the assembly: the LORD has caused the solemn feasts and the sabbaths to be forgotten in Zion, and hath despised in the indignation of his anger the king and the priest. The Lord hath cast off his altar, he has abhorred his sanctuary, he hath given up in the hand of the enemy the walls of her palaces; they have made a noise in the house of the LORD, as in the day of the solemn feast (Lam 2:5-7). That is, the enemies were in there cheering and yelling and all as they were destroying it, much as the voices and cheers and all that once went up in the days of their solemn feasts. The LORD hath purposed to destroy the wall of the daughter of Zion: he hath stretched out a line, he has not withdrawn his hand from destroying: therefore he made the rampart and the wall to lament; they languished together. Her gates are sunk into the ground; he has destroyed and broken her bars: her king and her princes are now among the Gentiles: there is no more law; her prophets also find no vision from the LORD. The elders of the daughters of Zion sit on the ground, and keep silent: they have cast dust upon their heads; they have girded themselves with sackcloth: and the virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to the ground. And my eyes do fail because of the tears, my bowels are troubled, my liver is poured out upon the earth, for the destruction of the daughter of my people; because the children and the sucklings swoon in the streets of the city (Lam 2:7-11). It's almost more than he can bear. He sees these little children and little nursing babies fainting because of the lack of food. He sees them as they are swooning, just staggering through the streets. Young girls, their heads bowed down to the ground. The old men just sitting there staring blankly in sackcloth with dust, with dirt. They've just covered themselves with dirt and there is no place to go. There's no hope. It's all gone. The little children say to their mothers, Where is the corn and the wine? when they swooned as the wounded in the streets of the city, when their soul was poured out into their mothers' bosom. What thing shall I take to witness for thee? what thing shall I liken to thee, O daughter of Jerusalem? what shall I equal to thee, that I may comfort thee, O virgin daughter of Zion? for thy breach is great like the sea: who can heal thee? Your prophets have seen vain and foolish things for you: and they have not discovered your iniquity, to turn away your captivity; but they have seen for thee false burdens and causes of banishment. All that pass by clap their hands at thee; they hiss and wag their head at the daughter of Jerusalem, saying, Is this the city that men call The perfection of beauty, The joy of the whole earth? (Lam 2:12-15) Desolate, destroyed, ravaged city, once the perfection of beauty. Once the joy of the whole earth, and now it's being hissed at as people walk by, clapping their hands and shaking their heads. All of your enemies have opened their mouth against thee: they hiss, gnash the teeth: they say, We have swallowed her up: certainly this is the day that we have looked for; we have found, and we have seen. The LORD hath done that which he had devised; he has fulfilled his word that he commanded in the days of old (Lam 2:12-17): God was faithful to His warnings. He had told them if they did not turn from their wickedness, if they did not turn from their idolatry, that He was going to bring their enemies against them and they would be destroyed. God has done that which He had purposed. he has fulfilled his word that he commanded in the days of old: he has thrown down, he's not pitied: he has caused your enemies to remove joy over thee, he has set up the horn of your adversaries [the power of your adversaries]. Their heart cried unto the Lord, O wall of the daughter of Zion, let tears run down like a river day and night: give thyself no rest; let not the apple of thine eye cease (Lam 2:17-18). He's calling them for intercession to weep before God until God does a work again. Arise, cry out in the night: in the beginning of the watches pour out your heart like water before the face of the Lord: lift up your hands toward him for the life of thy young children, that faint for hunger in the top of every street (Lam 2:19). "Isn't this enough," Jeremiah is saying, "to challenge you to seek God, to seek God all night long? Look at your little children swooning in the streets. Pray for them that God will somehow work His work again among the people." They were living in an extremely desperate time, but they were not yet really desperate before the Lord. They were just plain desperate, but really not seeking God. You wonder what will it take to cause men to really seek God, to really cry out? The Bible says, "The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much" (James 5:16). My mom tells me how that one time when I was a little kid and I was sick, and she came into the bedroom and laid hands on me, and I was running a fever. And she prayed, "Oh Lord, touch Charles, you know, and heal him." And when she was through praying, I said to her, "Mom, now pray like you really mean it." And I wonder how many times our prayers aren't just sort of perfunctory type of activities, you know. There is no real heart behind it. "The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much." God said to Jeremiah, "And in the day that you seek Me with your whole heart, in that day I will be found of you." And Jeremiah is saying, "Hey, go for it. Cry in the night, in the beginning of the watches, pour out your heart like water before the face of the Lord. Lift up your hands toward Him. At least for the life of the young children that are fainting for hunger on every street." Behold, O LORD, and consider to whom thou hast done this: Shall the women eat their fruit (Lam 2:20), That is, the women eat their own little babies, which they were doing. shall children be born who are only a span long? (Lam 2:20) The women were so malnourished that as their children were being born they were only seven or eight inches long at birth. Horrible. shall the priest and the prophet be slain in the sanctuary of the Lord? The young and the old lie on the ground in the streets: my virgins and my young men are fallen by the sword; thou hast slain them in the day of your anger; you have killed, and not pitied. You have called us in a solemn day my terrors round about me, so that in the day of the LORD'S anger none escaped nor remained: those that I have swaddled and brought up hath my enemy consumed (Lam 2:20-22). Chapter 3 In this third lamentation he begins from the depth of depression and despair. He begins with hopelessness, and hopelessness is always the experience behind depression. Depression is the loss of hope, no way out, nothing I can do. Hopelessness leads to depression. I am the man that hath seen affliction by the rod of his wrath. He has led me, and brought me into darkness, but not into light (Lam 3:1-2). It seems like God has turned against the prophet. "I have seen the wrath of God. God's brought me into darkness, not into light." Surely against me is he turned; he's turned his hand against me all the day. My flesh and my skin hath he made old: he hath broken my bones. He's built against me, and circled me with gall and travail. He has set me in dark places, as they that be dead of old. He hedged me about, that I cannot get out: he has made my chain heavy. Also when I cry and shout, he shuts out my prayer (Lam 3:3-8). God isn't listening to my prayer. God seems to have closed every door of escape. There is no way out. I'm in the hole and there is no place to go. I'm in this darkness, and God isn't listening to my prayers. [It's like] he has enclosed me with hewn stone (Lam 3:9); That is, he's built a wall around me. and he's made my paths crooked. He was unto me as a bear lying in wait, and as a lion in secret places. He has turned aside my ways, and pulled me in pieces: he has made me desolate. He has bent his bow, and set me as a mark (Lam 3:9-12). I'm a target for God's arrows. He has caused the arrows of his quiver to enter into my reins. I was a derision to all my people; and their song all the day. He has filled me with bitterness, he has made me drunken with wormwood. He has also broken my teeth with gravel stones, he has covered me with ashes. You have removed my soul far off from peace: I forgot prosperity. And I said, my strength and my hope is perished from the LORD: Remembering mine affliction and my misery, the wormwood and the gall. My soul hath them still in remembrance, and is humbled in me (Lam 3:9-20). Boy, that is about as low as you can get. That's the bottom, that's the pits. He's down, just the bottom. And out of the depths of his despair and depression, suddenly there is a dramatic change. That dramatic change is explained; the reason for it is explained in verse 21. In the midst of his hopelessness, in the midst of his despair, when it seems that all is forsaken, there is no way out, that God isn't even listening, and God isn't ready to help me, in the midst of this place of total despair, he said, This I recall to my mind, therefore I have hope (Lam 3:21). He changed his whole mindset. The Bible speaks about our renewing our minds. The Bible speaks about our bringing every thought into captivity unto the obedience of Jesus Christ. And we can think ourselves into a miserable mood. We can think ourselves into despair and hopelessness. You can think yourself into the grave. Or, by setting your mind upon the Lord, renewing your mind in Him, you can come into a whole new state of consciousness. No longer one of total despair and hopelessness, but one now of victory and hope. And that's what Jeremiah did. He changed the thought patterns from, "Oh, woe is me. Oh, this is the end. Oh, there is no hope. Oh, I've had it. Oh, there's no one to help. Oh, I'm boxed in," to thinking about the Lord. As we think about ourselves, we often become depressed, because none of us are all of what we would like to be. We, each of us, have a divergence between our ego and our super ego, the real me and the ideal me. Oh, but you see yourself in an ideal way. "This is what I really am," providing everything is all right. It's only because of these other factors that you see me like this, this nastiness isn't the real me. I'm very sweet, and generous, and kind, and benevolent, and loving, and marvelous, and a very lovable person. The person that you see is what has happened to me, because of, you know, what you've done. But that's not the real me, you see. So, there is this idealization, the ideal me, the super ego, and then there's the real me. Now if there is a vast difference between your super ego and your ego, then you're going to have real problems of mental instability. The more well adjusted a person is, is in measure to the distance between his ego and super ego. If your ego is close to your super ego, then you're a well adjusted person. If there is a wide divergence between your ego and super ego, then you're very maladjusted in your life. Now the psychologist says, "Bring your super ego down. You've got too high of ideals. You've got too high of standards. No one can live to those. You've got to lower your ideals." The Lord says, "Bring your ego up, through the power of the Spirit, through My help. Become the person that I want you to be. Receive My strength, receive My ability, and I will make you that person that is pleasing and glorifying unto God. That person who is loving, who is kind, who is compassionate, who is filled with joy." So, he came to a change of mental attitude. No longer thinking about himself, but now thinking about the Lord. It made such a great difference. Oh, if we could only get our minds off of ourselves and onto the Lord. In the times of discouragement, in the times of defeat, in the times of depression, if we could only get our minds off of ourselves and onto the Lord. That's the secret of the way out. Rather than wallowing in this self pity. Just get our minds and hearts... "Thou will keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on Thee" (Isaiah 26:3). Keep your minds stayed on the Lord and God will keep you in perfect peace. Get your mind on yourself and you're going to have all kinds of turmoil and depression. [So when I recall to my mind,] this I recall to my mind (Lam 3:21), What does he recall to his mind? First of all, It's the LORD'S mercies that we're not consumed (Lam 3:22), Things are bad, but they could be worse. It's God's mercies that we're still here. The fact that I wake up in the morning is proof that God is merciful. You see, God is under no obligation to keep me around. It's only by His mercies that I've not been consumed. Secondly, because his compassions fail not (Lam 3:22). In First Corinthians 13, as Paul is describing agape, he said, "Love never fails." God's love never fails. God has never stopped loving you. God does not love you when you are good and hate you when you are bad. God's love for you is unchanging. It doesn't fail. God's love is continually being poured out upon your life. God's love is not contingent upon what you are, but upon what He is. "His compassions they fail not." Love is not love that alters when it alteration finds. "Oh, I love you. You're my dream come true. I'd swim the Pacific to be by your side. I'd fly to the moon to be close to you. Yikes. You have bad breath. I change my mind." That's not true love. Love is not love that alters when it alteration finds. We have in our minds, again, an idealization, the perfect man, the perfect woman. And we meet someone and fall in love, not with them but with our idealization. And when it comes that they don't meet up to the standards of our idealization, then we're no longer in love. That's ridiculous. You never were in love to begin with. Love is not love that alters when it alteration finds. Therefore, true love is hard to find among men. And that's using it in a generic sense, talking of the Homo Sapien. True love can only really be found with God. You see, He isn't deceived by an idealization. You haven't fooled Him with your smooth, suave manners: the opening of the doors, and the genteel, gallant ways. Hasn't deceived Him at all. He knows what a rat you are from the beginning. But He loves you; that's the amazing thing. "His compassions they fail not." And God knowing me as well as He knows me, still loving me is one of the great miracles. God's compassions fail not. He never stops loving you. You need to remember that. Now Jeremiah was thinking that God had forsaken him completely. "God's hedged me in. He's not listening to my prayers." But when he really adjusts his thinking, he knows that God's love is unfailing. God continues, never stops His loving me. They are new every morning (Lam 3:23): The mercy and the love of God, fresh every day. oh great is thy faithfulness (Lam 3:23). God is so faithful. As Jeremiah was looking at this devastated city, that desolation was a testimony of God's faithfulness. God had said to those people, "If you continue in your wickedness, if you continue in your idolatry, I am going to bring the Babylonian army against you, and they're going to destroy you, and they're going to break down the walls of this city. And those that aren't killed by the famine will be killed by the sword. And those that aren't killed by the sword will be killed by the pestilence. But I'm going to destroy you out of this holy mountain." And now God has kept His word and Jeremiah is looking at the faithfulness of God to His word. "Great is Thy faithfulness." God, You said You would do it, and You did it. Now the faithfulness of God can be a glorious thought and blessing, or it can be a horrendous thought. It all depends on what side you are. If you're a child of God, then God's faithfulness to His promises of that which He is going to do for His children, a believer in Jesus Christ, all that God has promised us. Oh, and we can rest and hope for God is faithful. He will do what He said. If you're not a child of God, then the faithfulness of God is an awesome prospect, because you can be sure that God will do exactly what He said He is going to do to all of the sinners, those that reject Him. "Great is Thy faithfulness." God is faithful in keeping His word. The LORD is my portion (Lam 3:24), Now he's thinking upon the faithfulness of God, the love of God, the mercies of God, and now, "The Lord is my portion." Everything else has been taken away. My house is destroyed. All of my possessions are gone. I've been stripped, but I have the Lord. And if I have the Lord, that's all I really need. The LORD is my portion, saith my soul; therefore will I hope in him (Lam 3:24). Those who do not have the Lord as their portion have very little hope. But my hope is in Him. The LORD is good unto them that wait for him, the soul that seeks him (Lam 3:25). If you'll wait upon God, if you'll seek God, God is good, so good to those that wait upon Him and seek Him. It is good that a man should both hope and quietly wait for the salvation of the LORD (Lam 3:26). What else can I do? It is good for a man that he bears the yoke of his youth. He sits alone and keeps silence, because he has borne it upon him. He puts his mouth in the dust; if so be there may be hope. He giveth his cheek to him that smiteth him: he is filled full with reproach (Lam 3:27-30). A prophecy of Jesus Christ in the midst of this, even as Christ always is there in the time of suffering to bear the burdens and the reproach that we bear for Him. The Lord will not cast off for ever (Lam 3:31): This judgment isn't going to last forever. This forsaking of the people by God isn't going to last forever. But though he has caused grief, yet he's going to have compassion according to the multitude of his mercies (Lam 3:32). God will change in His actions towards us. For he does not afflict willingly, nor grieve the children of men (Lam 3:33). In other words, it doesn't really please God to have to deal in such stringent ways with his children. I've often said, you can make it easy on yourself or make it hard on yourself. And any time you fight God, you're making it hard on yourself. That's the lesson that Jonah learned. He fought God and ended up in the belly of a whale in a miserable condition. Three days and three nights in that hot mammal. Ninety eight degrees with high humidity. He talks about the waves rolling over his head and the seaweed twined around him. Probably stinky at that. And when he came out of that horribly miserable experience, he shared the lesson that he learned. They that observe lying vanities, forsake their own mercies. If you think you can run from God or hide from God, you're only making it hard on yourself. You're heading for trouble. You're heading for misery. He thought he could hide from God. He thought he could run from God, that he could escape the call of God. It's a lie. There is no way. You're just going to be miserable, friend. Try to fight God; you're heading for misery. He doesn't afflict willingly. He doesn't want to lay the rod on you. He gets no delight in the chastising of His children, but because He loves us. He is faithful and will chastise. To crush under his feet all the prisoners of the earth, To turn aside the right of a man before the face of the Most High, To subvert a man in his cause, the Lord approves not. Who is he that saith, and it cometh to pass, when the Lord commanded it not? Out of the mouth of the Most High proceeds not evil and good? (Lam 3:34-38) God doesn't talk out of both sides of His mouth. James speaks about the double minded man, unstable in all of his ways. Jesus speaks of how the same fountain cannot bring forth bitter and sweet waters. God doesn't speak both good and evil. Wherefore doth a living man complain, a man for the punishment of his sins? (Lam 3:39) Rather than complain of the chastisement. Let us search and try our ways, and turn again unto the LORD. Let us lift up our heart with our hands unto the God in the heavens. For we have transgressed and have rebelled: and you have not pardoned. You have covered with anger, and persecuted us: and you have slain, and you have not pitied (Lam 3:40-43). And now he goes back into the dirge. You see, he came out for a while into the light. You have covered yourself with a cloud, that our prayers should not pass through (Lam 3:44). It seems like, you know, people say, "Well, it seems like, you know, the ceilings were of brass." But Jeremiah sees the, you know, like the prayers are just being closed off by a cloud between God and me. Thou has made us as the offscouring and refuse in the midst of the people. All of our enemies have opened their mouths against us. Fear and a snare is come upon us, desolation and destruction. My eye runs down with rivers of water for the destruction of the daughter of my people. My eye trickles down, and ceases not, without any intermission, Till the LORD looks down, and beholds from heaven. My eye affecteth my heart, because of all of the daughters of my city. My enemies chased me sore, like a bird, without cause. They have cut off my life in the dungeon, and cast a stone upon me. Waters flowed over my head; then I said, I'm cut off. And I called upon thy name, O LORD, out of the low dungeon. And you have heard my voice: hide not your ear at my breathing, at my cry. For you drew near in the day that I called upon thee: and you said, Fear not. O Lord, thou has pleaded the causes of my soul; thou hast redeemed my life. O Lord, thou has seen my wrong: judge thou my cause. For thou has seen all their vengeance and their imaginations against me. You heard their reproach, O LORD, and all of the imaginations against me; The lips of those that rose up against me, and the device against me all the day. Behold their sitting down, their rising up; I am their music. Render unto them a recompense, O LORD, according to the work of their hands. Give them sorrow of heart, thy curse unto them. Persecute and destroy them in the anger from under the heavens of the LORD (Lam 3:45-66). Here again is sort of a David type of a prayer against his enemies. Jeremiah doesn't ask God to bless his enemies, but to really do them in. It is in the New Testament that Jesus taught us to bless those that curse you. Bless and curse not. Chapter 4 The fourth lamentation: How is the gold become dim! the most fine gold changed! the stones of the sanctuary are poured out in the top of every street. The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold, how are they esteemed as earthen pitchers, the work of the hands of the potter! Even the sea monsters draw out the breast, and they give suck to their young ones (Lam 4:1-3): The mammals in the sea nurse their little ones. the daughter of my people is become cruel, like the ostriches of the wilderness (Lam 4:3). Now, the ostrich totally forsakes its eggs. It lays its eggs and leaves them; it has nothing to do with the raising of its kids, just has no concern. Doesn't even know the eggs ever hatched and doesn't really care if the egg ever hatched. It just lays its eggs in the sand and that's it, forgets all about them. If they make it, they make it on their own. The mother ostrich has no mothering instincts. But the mammals in the sea nurse the little ones. But the daughter of my people, the young mothers in Jerusalem had become like ostriches in that they weren't concerned with their offspring anymore. The tongue of the nursing child cleaves to the roof of his mouth for thirst: the young children ask for bread, and no man breaks it unto them. They that did feed delicately (Lam 4:4-5) Those that used to dine at Gulliver's are desolate in the streets: they that were brought up in scarlet embrace dunghills. For the punishment of the iniquity of the daughter of my people is greater than the punishment of the sin of Sodom, because at least they were overthrown in a moment [they were destroyed], no hands stayed on her (Lam 4:4-6). Theirs was an instant death. That is much better than death by starvation. Her Nazarites were purer than snow, they were whiter than milk, they were more ruddy in body than rubies, their polishing was of sapphire (Lam 4:7): The young men who had made their commitments, the Nazarite vows to God, but now, Their visage is blacker than a coal; they are not known in the streets: their skin is cleaving to their bones (Lam 4:8); They're like walking skeletons. it is withered, it is become like a stick. They that are slain with the sword are really better off than those that are slain with hunger: for these pine away, stricken through for the want of the fruits of the field. The hands of the pitiful women have boiled their own children: and they were their meat in the destruction of the daughter of my people. The LORD has accomplished his fury, he has poured out his fierce anger, he has kindled a fire in Zion, and it has devoured the foundations thereof. The kings of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world, would not have believed that the adversary and the enemy should have entered into the gates of Jerusalem (Lam 4:7-12). It was thought to be impregnable. It sits there on the hill with the walls around it. They thought that the city was impregnable. The inhabitants of the earth would never have believed that Jerusalem could be taken. And yet it is now destroyed. For the sins of her prophets, and the iniquities of her priests, that have shed the blood of the just in the midst of her, They have wandered as blind men in the streets, they have polluted themselves with blood, so that men could not touch their garments. They cried unto them, Depart ye; it is unclean; depart, depart, don't touch: when they fled away and wondered, they said among the heathen, They shall no more sojourn there. The anger of the LORD hath divided them; he will no more regard them: they respected not the persons of the priests, they favored not the elders. As for us, our eyes as yet failed for our vain help: in our watching we have watched for a nation that could not save us. They hunt our steps, that we cannot go in the streets: our end is near, our days are fulfilled; for our end is come. Our persecutors are swifter than eagles of heaven: they have pursued us on the mountains, they laid wait for us in the wilderness. The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the LORD, was taken in their pits, of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall live among the heathen. Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom [that is their perennial enemy], that dwells in the land of Uz; the cup also shall pass through unto thee: thou shalt be drunken, and shall make thyself naked. The punishment of thine iniquity is accomplished, O daughter of Zion; he will no more carry thee away into captivity: he will visit thine iniquity, O daughter of Edom; he will discover thy sins (Lam 4:13-22). So Edom is rejoicing, but just wait, yours is coming. Chapter 5 Fifth lamentation: Remember, O LORD, what is come upon us: consider, and behold our reproach. Our inheritance is turned to strangers, our houses to aliens. We are orphans, fatherless, our mothers are as widows. We have drunken our water for money (Lam 5:1-4); We had to pay for a drink of water. and our wood is sold to us. Our necks are under persecution: we labor, we have no rest. We have given the hand to the Egyptians and to the Assyrians, to be satisfied with bread. Our fathers have sinned, and are not; and we have borne their iniquities. Servants have ruled over us: there is none that doth deliver us out of their hand. We got our bread with the peril of our lives, because of the sword of the wilderness. Our skin was black like an oven, because of the terrible famine (Lam 5:4-10). As a result of the starvation that the skin just turning black and leathery. They ravished the women in Zion, and the maids in the cities of Judah (Lam 5:11). The enemies had come in. It must have been a horrible thing. The fathers to see their wives and their young daughters ravished by the enemy, raped and all and then murdered. Princes have been hung by their thumbs: the faces of elders were not honored. They took the young men to grind in bondage, and the children had to carry the wood. The elders have ceased from the gate, the young men from their music. The joy of our heart is ceased; our dance is turned into mourning. The crown is fallen from our head: woe unto us, that we have sinned! For this our heart is faint; for these things our eyes are dim. Because of the mountain of Zion, which is desolate, the foxes walk upon it. Thou, O LORD, remains for ever; thy throne from generation to generation. Wherefore does thou forget us for ever, and forsake us so long a time? Turn thou us unto thee, O LORD, and we shall be turned; renew our days as of old (Lam 5:12-21). Therein is the answer, "Oh God, turn our hearts to Thee. Renew that relationship that we once had with You." You remember Jesus said to the church of Ephesus, "I have this against thee, in that you have left your first love. Remember from whence you have fallen and repent and do thy first works over." Oh God, return us to that first love. Lord, return us unto thee. But he ends with a sad note of dejection. But thou hast utterly rejected us; thou art very angry against us (Lam 5:22). What a sad, tragic book that never needed to be written had the people only hearkened unto the voice of God. This whole black period of history needed not to be. God warned them over and over and over again. He sent His prophets, warning them over and over of the destruction that was going to come, but they would not give heed to the word of God or to the warnings from God. But God is faithful, and that which God declared He did. And today God is warning this world of His judgment, which is going to fall. And that which happened to Jerusalem is going to happen to this whole godless world. There is coming a devastation, a holocaust, such as the world has never seen before or will ever see again. Jesus in describing the days that are coming said, "And in that day, there shall be a Great Tribulation such as the world has never seen before or will ever see again." The only safe place for you to be is in Christ. If you are in Christ He will keep you from that hour that is coming upon the earth. But if you're outside of Christ, as in Hebrews, "There remains only that fearful looking forward to the fiery indignation of God's wrath which will devour His adversaries. For if he who despised Moses' law was put to death, of how much worse punishment do you suppose he is accounted worthy who has trodden under foot the Son of God? And is accounted the blood of His covenant, wherewith he was sanctified an unholy thing and has done despite to the Spirit of grace? For we know Him who has said, 'It is a fearful thing to fall in the hands of a living God'" (Hebrews 10:27-31). God has promised His judgment is going to come upon this wicked world. God is faithful and will keep His promise. But Jesus said, "Pray ye always that you'll be accounted worthy to escape all of these things and to stand before the Son of man" (Luke 21:36). And I am praying and believing God to answer my prayer that I will escape this great time of tribulation when the wrath of God is poured out upon the earth, and I expect to be standing before the Son of man when it all happens. Book of Revelation, chapter 5, "And there was in the right hand of Him that sat upon the throne, a scroll with writing within and without and sealed with seven seals. And I heard the angels say with a great voice, 'Who is worthy to take the scroll and loose the seals thereof?' And I, John began to weep, sob convulsively because no one was found worthy to take the scroll or to loose the seals. And the elder said unto me, 'Weep not, behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah hath prevailed to take the scroll and to loose the seals.' And I turned and I saw Him as a Lamb that had been slaughtered. And He came forth and took the scroll out of the right hand of Him who sat upon the throne. And the twenty four elders brought forth their golden vials full of odors, which were the prayers of the saints. And they offered them before the throne of God and they sang a new song saying, 'Worthy is the Lamb to take the scroll and loose the seals, for He was slain and has redeemed us by His blood. Out of every nation and tribe, and tongue and people, and He has made us unto our God, kings and priests and we're going to reign with Him on the earth'" (Revelation 5:1-10). You see, that's where I plan to be. Standing before the Son of God, singing of the worthiness of the Lamb who died for me, who has redeemed me from among the families of the people on the earth. Only the redeemed church can sing that song. Angels can't sing that song; they haven't been redeemed by the blood of Jesus. That's not the song of Israel, because they come from all of the nations and family of people on the earth. That's the song of the redeemed church before the throne of God. Angels can sing the chorus. They do. A hundred million join in, plus millions of others, as they say, "Worthy is the Lamb to receive glory and honor and dominion and might and power and authority." They join the chorus, but they can't sing the verse, that's yours. "And when He loosed the first seal, I heard a voice that said, 'Come,' and I saw a white horse and his rider going forth upon the earth, conquering and to conquer" (Revelation 6:1-2). There begins the Great Tribulation. And he begins then from chapter 6 on through to chapter 18 describing the events that are going to take place upon the earth when God judges man for their wickedness and for their sin. God is faithful. He's going to do it. There is only one safe place for anyone to be. That's in Christ Jesus. I'm glad I'm there. I don't expect to be any place else. I don't want to be. Why should I be? I'm so happy here in Christ. Shall we pray. Father, we thank You for that secret place abiding in the presence of the Almighty, dwelling in Christ. Oh, Father, how we thank You that You have provided for us a place of refuge, safety in Christ. Lord, I pray for those that are here tonight who are not in Christ. Oh God, may they seriously consider the faithfulness of God, even as He kept His word and destroyed Jerusalem, so will He keep His word and judge this world. For God is faithful. Lord, may we turn from our sin, from our idolatries, from our wicked ways, and may we serve the Lord with our whole heart. In Jesus' name we pray. Amen. If you're not sure that you're a child of God, I wouldn't leave this place tonight until I was. I mean, I'm serious. We're living in desperate days. And really as Jeremiah exhorts, it's time really that we just not cease in prayer unto God. For the people round about us, we will make intercession for our nation, for each other, for these are truly the last days, and Satan is going about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. And he's ripping off an awful lot of those from the church. Leading them into life, a life of sin. A life of self seeking, living after pleasure, and walking after the flesh. And the mind of the flesh is death. I wouldn't leave tonight until I had a deep assurance that things are square between God and me. You can go back to the prayer room as soon as we're dismissed. Some of the pastors will go back there and pray with you. God bless, God keep, and may God lay upon your heart the awareness of the day and the hour in which we live, and the need of an all out effort in our service for Jesus Christ. And may the Lord use you in a very special way, as His instrument to bring His love to this needy world. In Jesus' name.

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5. Tommy College

Tommy College

TOMMY DID YOU KNOW? Tommy looks out over the river every night from a top floor room in a 5 bed house in a sheltered off suburban living block Dreams of a life, but doesn't everyone, of a life, with a four bed marble five star penthouse far from the river living just like a rock star a forgettable child, from humble beginnings, but its not a sin to be shallow cursed with a lazy shortsighted eye but it's not a shame to be hollow Tommy did you know they've been writing a song about you, it's an age old tale of a boy learnt to play a little guitar, went too far and the boy done sole his soul. Tommy looks out from gold rim glasses, listens to bruce springsteen says if these guy got they a piece o the pie well a boy like me's got nothing to fear so Buys a guitar and as time passes he arrives at a place where they pay free beer and the students cheer when they see time fly to a song they love to hear Gets rid of the specs, to get some respect, but it's not a sin to be shallow Learn how to smile in the mirror a while, it's not a shame to be hollow Tommy did you know they've been writing a song about you, it's an age old tale of a boy who learnt he a little guitar, went too far and the boy done sold his soul Tommy looks out from a slight left parting tinted with a silver streak and with five years gone well the boys moved on he's no more the silent unknown one no Sings of a heart that thought it was broken, but it turned out just to be cold and dead with a cynical head in a fucked up world just trying to be living They say that he lived his life in need, getting sympathy for the dark sad eyes and the long black shirts like a downturned lip kinda meant he was flirting Dead in the eyes with a heart of greed, trying to impress me with a minor chord and a depressed tone like how sexy it is to be lonely Never really loved much more then himself, but it's not a sin to be shallow Never really knew much of anyone else, But it's not a sin Tommy did you know they've been writing a song about you, it's an age old tale bout a boy who learnt to play him a little guitar, went too far and then the boy went and sold his soul. TOMMY COLLEGE Tommy college bought his name in school another fool for the Devil just a useless tool sold out his talent to be viewed as superficially cool, and swapped real talk quick for the ability to rule the mass with tune; see he was blessed with a good view, an enlightened sense of vision and a silver tounge too, and all his funds came easy from a silver spoon see he had every oppurtunity to make a little room but the concept of fame took his focus away and so he spent his days looking in the mirror trying to change Pierce the lip and shave the uni-brow you can learn a little music by the time you get to uni And be out with the crowd maybe form a little unit keep the conversation low to keep a mysterious image Keep your friends at a distance and your band leash, keep the girls always guessing and a spring in your feet Just make out like your arriving but your just about to leave, to be the life of the party got to work out how it breathes From green to brown leaves he'd perfected the image, starts a band with a girl and a black violinist and a drummer with spiked hair and a tattooed Penis, like a misfit crew, he called them Bite the Fuckin Bullet And they played fat shows in the campus holes and all the local pub venues till they were locally known And all the local girls loved it like a star in their home town, local girls fall before a city boy frown But the college boy had a little plan to wear crowns and so he played the girls loose never getting tied down The girls dug tommy like they wanted to help his little sad sack cutesy faced depressedy self but see he had his shifty eye on the kind of sket that little punks like Tommy would endevour to get And so looking round the campus in unclever regret he got to eyein up the girls he'd not been bothered by yet And saw a red haired beauty with a cross round her neck who had a look like she never gave a toss who was checkin her Tommy couldn't help but get to picturing wrecking her little jesus loving ass and so he wrote her letter the kind of cheese that slimy guys like these just breath I'm talkin fake sycophantic cliched thou's and thee's I want your soul in my life, we just have to meet, your a river of love and grace, won't you quench me please bending over backwards trying to make that wench be pleased, but he was benched, she's like boy won't you Unclench me please I'm not the kind of girl who gives it up for any singer yo, if you like it put a diamond on the finger by the centrepole The pussy whipped him, six months he spent to get on, and a man hates to fold on a good investment See Tommy played a good game, you can say what you want but when a girl plays a game see she plays it long He put a ring on the finger and his tounge in one, he was the first one inside her for a while it was fun They were celebrities in college, honeymoon in Hong Kong, and plus the gigs were sold out it seemed like everyone Wanted to be part of their lovely little Uni romance, see she was there with her friends at every gig they had dancing And so her friends bought there friends like they were all entourage, soon every motherfuck on campus wanted to be involved And every student in the class of two thousand and three, bought a copy of Bite the Bullets first CD Tommy knew that he could play but see he knew that the key to his success was the woman that he resented secretly And so he couldn't help but see the silver lining of the light When she had a heart attack watching a gig one night. this is something she lived with for a while, behind the laughing of her eyes and the beautiful smile she'd had a life filled with surgery and physical pain but she just laughed, said "the old tickers clicking again" She had a hole in her heart, nobody was to blame, but old Tommy saw the chance to up the level again Started trying to raise funds at the gigs he played, saying please help my lover get research to be saved Time passed and she just got worse, but old Tommy gave the girl a space in every verse And by the time she was wheeled in a chair to her class Tommy College had a space on his righteous arse On the daytime news basking in the false glory of a fake dude rising off've someone else's story and cause we love to watch while the world gets fucked well as Melody fell Tommy College raised up. Until the days she was too weak to even stand up, when old tommy got the crowd to put a lighter hand up and he'd say This is a song for my lover if you know a better nother then you better put it on I'm just a lonely type a brother with a heart broke lover and a sad sad song I'm gonna go to the river put my hands in the water and a pray to the one I got a hand full of charity a the neck of my string held up in the other one three years and the time flew by, the sad story made him household and nationwide Tommy and his melody, saving a life with a song and shit just seemed so right like it would never go wrong He played gigs for live Aid and for BBC 1, and for a while they were the couple that every teenager wanted but they knew this long story would become a short sonnet cause this bloody sunday had a black cherry sat right upon it SICK LOVE I love your cancer chic junkie sunk eyes, the blue vein ripple at the top of your thighs I can't believe, the wheeze as you breath and the grey of your skin is a porcelain prize I love the thin fringe limp on your head, the stone blue cold lonely eyes of the dead Down the phone, I hear the crackle of your lung and I know I'll be sleeping in a hospital bed tonight She wont be here much longer, you better get to know her now It's palliative, how much I care The pressures high, I can see from the green line. But It's M E on you, till your lips turn blue Emphycemiea Pneumoniea and Pluracy too; I should leave but I'm breathless under you A Flutter and a murmer and a hole in the heart, she's Bi-Polar and it's tearing me apart. Fey Grace laces every tread, your hazy eyes lazy lithium red in such beautiful dressing with your mood supressed I've got a stitched heart and your pulling the thread Peach skin, pristine bruised, Red green yellow purple and blue It's internal, I don't know what to do, I'm just a side effect of the placebo in you. MURDERERS back from the edge of madness, back from the edge of the world my love I am enveloped in encompassing sadness, reminded by the beautiful girls of our love from cally road up to the valens, the hooplah haunts and happens of our love at least we'll always have camden, the grays inn road and the worlds end pub oh Your past life, i think I knew you, we were someone else and we lived in regret as lovers, do you recall we were murderers Black is the edge of darkness, deep as the end of the sea my love Chomping at the bit of my harness, frustrated by the weight of the world as our love comes Crashing in a scene of violence, that old east london shoreditch pub falls deaf as the edge of silence, sated by the beautiful world of our love Don't take for granted my heart, thats what she said to me And went and wasted her words on a younger me At the astoria I will relive my tragedy wonder lonely from the angel up to silver street Dance away my pain at the old triple three Sleep in victoria and wake me up in hackey then use a day old pass to jump the 19 bus to finsbury park and to the memory Where I am still a boy, and only seventeen, where the stars are still that bright and the grass is still that green where the traffic in the air is our special kind of silence and the harmony of you would cast a voodoo over me and the nights would pass us by, and the weeks would die, till the ground was covered wet with all the morning light and the clocks just seem to lie and let the whole world pass us by and the canopy of concrete is a canvass for a street light bastard your last breath I will steal from you so to I'll steal your death and meet you where we wait forever until we'll be together again your regrets, I will take from you so there aint none left and I'll live in regret forever, as if I never said your name Your past life, i think I knew you, we were someone else and we lived in regret as lovers, do you recall we were murderers my curse in life is to see through you in a future tense, and know that as we lay as lovers, you will become my killer Back from the dead with purpose, back from the land of the lame with my soul all tourniqueted up to my sternum pretending to be one and the same with my soul from camberwell back up to morden, wondering the streets of south with my soul all black and apathetic with boredom, done with all the streets are drowning my soul TOMMY's REMORSE I’m so free, so free, don’t you wanna follow me oh my life, ever since you died I’ve been so Fuckin free, hollowed out the eyes and made a Home in the branches of a old and broken oak tree I'm so wild, don't you wanna colour my life oh my stars - never thought it be this hard I'm so fuckin dead, ripples in my head like the leaves on the branches of this old and broken oak tree of my home Your precious to me, so precious to me Salt and pepper, husband and wife Won’t you endevour through the stormy weather with me I want to keep you for the rest of your life I want you teathered to me, want you indebted to me Laying in bed for my love to arrive Come to heaven with me, I want to tear out your eyes And you’ll always need me to guide you home I never meant to kill you, I only meant to make you sick so you’d be like “feed me” and I’m like “be with me” This is my curse I killed her first and now kills my lover Please Hear my words of good advice, sisters, good friends and brothers Don’t slip inside you’ll die a little death like all the others Your lips collide with mine to steal our breath beneath the covers Don’t let our hearts connect through pressed flesh of heaving chest Those hearts that tangle us in passion with each sweaty breath It wouldn’t do us any good to take what we both crave Cause the scratching of my floorboards is the turning of a grave I think the ghost is up again, knocking on the window who's that out there? someone who cares? I think the ghost is up again, scraping up the stairs outside come inside to me, I'm everything you need I need everything, and you're everything to me; You're everything I need, come stand beside me I need everything, and you're everything to me, everything I need. The air that I breathe. And theres a bloodstain on the floor, that says you got what you came here for; I should have never been your whore, cause it's all that you wanted I’m so free, but she’s always gonna follow me, All my life, I only wanted her to treat me right We we’re so fuckin high but I’m not surprised t| hat I remember The way she changed from that early may till late December I just want to protect you Alice, I just want to make you smile Please Let me infect you Alice, I want to keep you for the rest of your life I want you teathered to me, want you indebted to me Salt and Pepper, Husband and wife Come to heaven with me, I want to tear out your eyes And you’ll always need me to guide you home

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6. Exodus 20:18 - 22 (Israel Fears God's Presence & God gives Laws To Israel's Judges)

Exodus 20:18 - 22 (Israel Fears God's Presence & God gives Laws To Israel's Judges)

Exodus 20 - The Ten Commandments A. The nation's great fear of the presence of God. 1. (18) The people stand afar off. Now all the people witnessed the thunderings, the lightning flashes, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood afar off. a. All the people witnessed the thunderings, the lightning: Awesome sights and sounds came from Mount Sinai together with the speaking of the law. All of the phenomenon together made for an overwhelming scene. i. Lightning flashes: "The word here is unusual and might be translated 'torches', meaning 'flashes' or 'fireballs'. This is the same word used for the symbol of God's presence that Abraham sees at the making of God's covenant with him (Genesis 15)." (Cole) ii. The mountain smoking: Deuteronomy 5:23 explains why the mountain smoked; it says the mountain was burning with fire. b. They trembled and stood afar off: The awe of all the phenomenon did nothing to draw the people closer to God; it only made them stand afar off. 2. (19) The request of the people. Then they said to Moses, "You speak with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die." a. Let not God speak with us: One might think that Israel loved the dramatic experience at Mount Sinai, and especially the honor of hearing God's voice like a loudspeaker from heaven. Instead, because of the great awe and dread they felt, they wanted God to stop speaking to them directly. i. Biblically speaking, an up-close encounter with God could just as often be troubling as it might be comforting. Israel could not see, feel, and hear this much from God and not at the same time be acutely aware that He is perfect and holy and they were not. ii. This is a typical reaction of those who came into the presence of God, such as Isaiah who felt undone before God (Isaiah 6:1-5) and John who fell as a dead man before the Lord (Revelation 1:17). iii. "What Israel dreaded, Moses coveted (Exodus 33:18)." (Cole) b. You speak with us, and we will hear: The people promised to hear and (by implication) obey the word of God that came to them by Moses. They failed in this promise, both soon after this and in the longer term. i. In following generations, Israel interpreted the law downward so it could be more easily obeyed, removing the heart and intent of the law. Jesus exposed this shallow understanding of the law in His Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:17-48). This progressed to the point where Saul of Tarsus could say and mean of himself, concerning the righteousness which is in the law, [I was counted] blameless (Philippians 3:6). c. Let not God speak with us, lest we die: In drawing back from direct dealing with God, Israel wanted Moses to be their mediator, fearing death if they did not have a mediator. i. Man's desire for a mediator - someone to act as a go-between with us a God - is only good if it is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, for there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus (1 Timothy 2:5). 3. (20) The purpose for this fear. And Moses said to the people, "Do not fear; for God has come to test you, and that His fear may be before you, so that you may not sin." a. Do not fear; for God has come to test you: The people of Israel wanted to separate themselves from the manifest presence of God, but God meant it for good to test them. · The test revealed to them what kind of God they served: a God above nature, personal, good, and holy. · The test revealed to them what God's expectations were, that God is a moral God who expects moral behavior from His people. · The test revealed to them their own weakness and need for God's grace, help, and rescue. b. That His fear may be before you: This distinguishes between two kinds of fear. Do not fear speaks of the tormenting fear that comes from both guilt and danger. That His fear may be before you speaks of the attitude of honor and reverence that leads to respect and obedience. i. "Fear not. And yet fear." (Trapp) ii. Though it is better to obey God out of fear than to disobey Him, God's ultimate motivation for obedience is love. This is clear from 1 John 4:18-19: There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear involves torment. But he who fears has not been made perfect in love. We love Him because He first loved us. c. So that you may not sin: Israel did not learn this lesson well. In approximately 40 days they danced around a gold calf with both idolatry and immorality (Exodus 32). 4. (21) Moses draws near. So the people stood afar off, but Moses drew near the thick darkness where God was. a. So the people stood afar off, but Moses drew near: Israel dreaded the powerful presence of God, but Moses longed for it. Moses would later more directly and eloquently show this desire (Exodus 33). i. Moses had a relationship with God the common man in Israel did not have. Through the circumstances of his life and the direct revelation of God, Moses was aware of both God's holy power and also of God's glorious grace. b. Moses drew near the thick darkness where God was: It wasn't that Moses was a flawless saint. Moses was a murderer who had been forgiven and restored by God. Moses knew what it meant to connect with God on the ground of grace, not what one deserved. B. Laws concerning worship and altars. 1. (22-23) The purity of worship. Then the LORD said to Moses, "Thus you shall say to the children of Israel: 'You have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. You shall not make anything to be with Me; gods of silver or gods of gold you shall not make for yourselves.'" a. You have seen that I have talked with you from heaven: This makes it perfectly clear that God spoke the Ten Commandments to Israel from heaven. This happened at Mount Sinai, but God spoke from heaven. b. You shall not make anything to be with Me; gods of silver or gods of gold: Because God did not reveal Himself to Israel in any form or image, they were not to make any other god of silver or gold to set beside (be with Me) God. 2. (24-26) Instructions for altars and sacrifice. "'An altar of earth you shall make for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen. In every place where I record My name I will come to you, and I will bless you. And if you make Me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stone; for if you use your tool on it, you have profaned it. Nor shall you go up by steps to My altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed on it.'" a. An altar of earth you shall make for Me: As God began this expanded section of His law for Israel, the first law mentioned had to do with sacrifice and atonement. This was in expectation that Israel would break the laws God gave them, and need to atone for their sin by sacrifice, all with a view to the ultimate sacrifice God would ultimately provide. i. Our word altar comes from the Latin altus, meaning high or elevated - because altars were raised to give them prominence and dignity. Yet the Hebrew word for altar (mizbach) has the sense of a place of sacrifice or killing, coming from the Hebrew word to kill. ii. An altar of earth: "In opposition to the costly shrines and services of those dunghill deities." (Trapp) God did not need an ornate or elaborate altar; an altar of earth was sufficient. With God's ultimate altar, a few wooden beams were sufficient. b. You shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings: The distinction between burnt offerings and peace offerings was given later in greater detail. Yet the mere mention of them at the outset of the giving of the law indicates that man cannot keep the law, and must have sacrifice to deal with this inability. c. I will come to you, and I will bless you: This wonderful promise was made in the context of sacrifice and atonement. Even in the Law of Moses, God often made the connection between trust in atoning sacrifice and the presence and blessing of God. i. Though there was blessing in keeping the law, we ultimately are only blessed by the law if we keep the entire law - therefore we seek and find blessing from God on the basis of His atoning sacrifice. d. You shall not build it of hewn stone: If an altar were made of stone, it was possible or even likely that attention would be drawn and glory would be given to the stone carver. God, at His altar, wanted to share glory with no man - the beauty and attractiveness would be found only in the provision of God, not in any fleshly display. i. If you use your tool on it, you have profaned it: "Not polished it. So in preaching (1 Corinthians 2:4-5). Some mar all by over-doing." (Trapp) e. Nor shall you go up by steps: God wanted no display of human flesh at His place of covering sacrifice. Steps might allow the leg of the priest to be seen. God doesn't want to see our flesh in worship. i. What God does want from us in worship is seen by Jesus' statement in John 4:24: God is Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth. God wants worship that is characterized by Spirit (as opposed to flesh) and truth (as opposed to deception or mere feeling). ii. "Later on, when altars with steps were allowed to be built (Leviticus 9:22; Ezekiel 43:13-17), the priests were instructed to wear linen undershorts (Exodus 28:40-42; Ezekiel 44:18)." (Kaiser) Exodus 21 - Laws To Direct Judges A. Laws regarding servitude. 1. (1) These are the judgments. "Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them: a. Now these are the judgments: Exodus chapters 21-23 contain many laws on a wide variety of subjects, including: · Employment law regarding the treatment of servants · Murder, manslaughter, and violent assault · Liability for one's animals and responsibility for the animals of others · Theft, responsibility, and restitution · Rape, dowry, and the value of a woman's virginity · Idolatry and sorcery · Treatment of disadvantaged people in society · Money and property lending · Justice and equal standing before the law i. "THESE different regulations are as remarkable for their justice and prudence as for their humanity. Their great tendency is to show the valuableness of human life, and the necessity of having peace and good understanding in every neighbourhood; and they possess that quality which should be the object of all good and wholesome laws-the prevention of crimes." (Adam Clarke) b. Which you shall set before them: The wide-ranging character of these laws show that God gave them both for the laws in themselves, but also for the principles and precedent they would establish for the judges appointed by Moses. i. "These 'laws,' or, better, 'judgments' (mispatim), are given as precedents to guide Israel's civil magistrates in the cases of civil dispute." (Kaiser) 2. (2-4) The general law concerning Hebrew slaves (indentured servants). "If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years; and in the seventh he shall go out free and pay nothing. If he comes in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he comes in married, then his wife shall go out with him. If his master has given him a wife, and she has borne him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself." a. If you buy a Hebrew servant: With ancient Israel, as in the entire ancient world, there were people who worked for others on the principle of servitude. They were slaves in some sense, though not necessarily in the brutal and degraded sense most think of slavery. i. Some think that the Bible is responsible for slavery. The opposite is true; slavery existed long before Israel or Moses. The Bible is responsible for the elimination of slavery, not its establishment. ii. "Moses did not institute slavery in any shape; the laws concerning it were made on purpose to repress it, to confine it within very narrow bounds, and ultimately to put an end to it." (Spurgeon) iii. "The Torah accepts slavery as an inevitable part of ancient society, much as Paul did, but the new humanitarian approach will ultimately be the death-knell of slavery…In any case, slavery in Israel was rural, domestic and small scale." (Cole) iv. It is significant that the first words of this section of law in the Book of Exodus show that God wanted Israel to respect the rights and dignity of servants. "The first words of God from Sinai had declared that He was Jehovah Who brought them out of slavery. And in this remarkable code, the first person whose rights are dealt with is the slave." (Chadwick) b. A Hebrew servant: There were four basic ways a Hebrew might become a slave to another Hebrew. · In extreme poverty, they might sell their liberty (Leviticus 25:39). · A father might sell a daughter as a servant into a home with the intention that she would eventually marry into that family (Exodus 21:7). · In the case of bankruptcy, a man might become servant to his creditors (2 Kings 4:1). · If a thief had nothing with which to pay proper restitution (Exodus 22:3-4). i. The ideas of man-stealing and life-long servitude - the concepts many have of slavery - simply do not apply to the practice of slavery in the Old Testament. Normally, slavery was: · Chosen or mutually arranged · Of limited duration · Highly regulated c. He shall serve six years; and in the seventh he shall go out free and pay nothing: In all of the four above mentioned cases, the servitude was never obligated to be life-long. The Hebrew servant worked for six years and then was set free. i. "He was, more properly an 'indentured labourer', bound for six years." (Cole) ii. "That this servitude could extend, at the utmost, only to six years; and that it was nearly the same as in some cases of apprenticeship among us." (Clarke) iii. G. Campbell Morgan, after looking at the laws regarding slavery, wrote: "A careful consideration of them will show that they abolished slavery, and substituted for it, covenanted labour." iv. "Henceforward the condition of slaves among the Hebrew people would be in marked distinction to slavery as existing among other peoples. It was the beginning of a great moral movement." (Morgan) d. If he comes in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he comes in married, then his wife shall go out with him: At the end of the six years the servant went out with what he came in with. If the master provided a wife (and therefore children), the wife and children had to stay with the master until they had fulfilled their obligations or could be redeemed. i. By himself: "Literally 'with his back', i.e. 'bare back and nothing more'. The phrase is vivid and unique, but the meaning is clear. This provision may seem hard to us, but the wife was presumably a perpetual slave, and therefore the master's own property." (Cole) 3. (5-6) The bond-slave: a willing slave for life. "But if the servant plainly says, 'I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,' then his master shall bring him to the judges. He shall also bring him to the door, or to the doorpost, and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl; and he shall serve him forever." a. But if the servant plainly says, "I love my master": If, after the six years of servitude, a servant wished to make a life-long commitment to his master - in light of the master's goodness and his blessings for the servant - he could, through this ceremony, make a life-long commitment to his master. i. This commitment was not motivated by debt or obligation, only by love for the master, and the good things that the master had provided for the servant. b. His master shall bring him to the judges: This describes the public and recognized ceremony for recognizing a willing slave, one who had fulfilled his obligation yet still wanted to serve his master out of love. i. "The 'judges' changed the slave's status from temporary to permanent by a ceremony at the doorpost of the master's house." (Kaiser) c. His master shall pierce his ear with an awl: In the ceremony, the servant's ear was pierced - opened - with an awl. This was done in the presence of witnesses, and then he shall serve him forever. i. It's a remarkable thing to think of this ceremony being carried out. A servant said, "I know I have fulfilled my obligations to my master, and I have served what I have owed. Yet I love my master and am so grateful for what he has given that I will gladly obligate myself for life, not out of debt or shame or defeat, but out of love." ii. Psalm 40:6 later spoke of this ceremony taking place between the Father and the Son, where the Psalmist spoke prophetically for the Messiah: Sacrifice and offering You did not desire; my ears You have opened. Jesus was a perfect bond-slave to the Father (Philippians 2:7). iii. "That awl represents the nail that affixed Christ to the cross, and we must expect it in every true act of consecration." (Meyer) d. He shall serve him forever: Jesus gave us the right to be called friends instead of servants (John 15:15). Yet the writers of the New Testament found plenty of glory in simply being considered bondservants of Jesus (Romans 1:1, James 1:1, 2 Peter 1:1, Jude 1:1). i. Pagans had a custom of branding the slave with the name or the sign of the owner. Paul referred to himself as just such a slave in Galatians 6:17: From now on, let no one trouble me, for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus. Paul was a slave for life to Jesus. ii. This is a picture of the sinner's service of sin; there comes a place where the sinner, so filled with a love of his sin, seals his heart over to sin as his master. iii. This is a picture of our service to Jesus. · We have the power to go free if we want to. · We must be willing to take the consequences of chosen service. · We must be motivated by love for our Master. 4. (7-11) The rights of female servants. "And if a man sells his daughter to be a female slave, she shall not go out as the male slaves do. If she does not please her master, who has betrothed her to himself, then he shall let her be redeemed. He shall have no right to sell her to a foreign people, since he has dealt deceitfully with her. And if he has betrothed her to his son, he shall deal with her according to the custom of daughters. If he takes another wife, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marriage rights. And if he does not do these three for her, then she shall go out free, without paying money." a. If a man sells his daughter to be a female slave: The matter described here seems to describe the selling of a young female as a slave to a family with the intention of marriage. This is why the text explained, who has betrothed her to himself. i. "Refers to a girl who is sold by her father, not for slavery, but for marriage." (Kaiser) ii. "Probably the origin of the custom was the same in either case: to avoid paying a higher bride-price at a later age, and to rear the future daughter-in-law within the family, ensuring that she 'fitted in'. Such an attitude to slaves abolishes slavery, except in name." (Cole) iii. In ancient societies (including sometimes among the Hebrews), a child might be sold as a slave in light of a debt or; especially in the case of a female slave, in a dowry arrangement to satisfy a debt. Such arrangements were more of what we associate with indentured servitude than slavery. Yet, these are not the circumstances regarding this particular law. b. He shall let her be redeemed: If her master did not marry her or decided not to give her to his son, the master was still obligated to respect her rights under God's law. He had to treat her well and give her the opportunity to escape the obligation of servitude. i. "Should the terms of marriage not be fulfilled, it is to be considered a breach of contract, and the purchaser must allow the girl to be redeemed." (Kaiser) ii. No right to sell her to a foreign people: "Even if he has wearied of her, he cannot sell her to another master: that would be a breach of marriage obligation to her." (Cole) c. He shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marriage rights: If the girl received into the home with the expectation of future marriage did not work out, she was not to be treated poorly. She was not to be deprived the comforts of the home; instead she must be treated according to the custom of daughters - treated like a daughter, not a slave. i. "The word translated food should perhaps be rendered 'meat': it means, say the commentators, the wife's fair share of luxuries, not mere subsistence allowance, which any slave would get." (Cole) d. Then she shall go out free, without paying money: If the household failed in their obligations toward the girl received into the home with the expectation of future marriage, she was granted freedom. These were remarkable protections of ones who might be disadvantaged. i. The girl in this circumstance - out of her birth home, released by her natural parents - had no natural protector in that society. God directed the judges of Israel to be her protector. ii. Thus, "The right of a parent to sell his daughter was carefully guarded against abuse." (Thomas) B. Laws regarding violence and disability. 1. (12-14) Appropriate punishment for both murder and manslaughter. "He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death. However, if he did not lie in wait, but God delivered him into his hand, then I will appoint for you a place where he may flee. But if a man acts with premeditation against his neighbor, to kill him by treachery, you shall take him from My altar, that he may die." a. He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death: The principle for capital punishment goes back to Genesis 9:6: Whoever sheds man's blood, by man his blood shall be shed; for in the image of God He made man. The right for the state to use the sword of execution is also stated in the New Testament (Romans 13:3-4). b. If he did not lie in wait…if a man acts with premeditation: God told the judges of Israel to look for evidence of premeditation and treachery. God did not place accidents, or crimes of passion or neglect on the same plane as crimes of premeditation and treachery. c. You shall take him from My altar, that he may die: The principle of punishing murderers is so important to God that He denied murderers refuge at His altar. According to almost universal custom in the ancient world, a religious altar was a place of sanctuary against justice or vengeance. An accused man might find safety if he could flee to an altar before he was apprehended. i. "The supplicant would catch hold of the projecting 'horns' of the altar (1 Kings 2:28). This was tantamount to dedicating himself to YHWH, like any animal sacrifice bound with ropes to the altar horns." (Cole) ii. Yet God told the judges of Israel there was to be no mercy in the sentencing of those guilty of the worst murders, what we might call first-degree murder. God said, "You shall take him from My altar, that he may die." The murderer was to find no protection in misunderstood, misapplied faith. iii. God said also that unpunished murderers defiled the land: Moreover you shall take no ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death, but he shall surely be put to death . . . So you shall not pollute the land where you are; for blood defiles the land, and no atonement can be made for the land, for the blood that is shed on it, except by the blood of him who shed it. Therefore do not defile the land which you inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell among the children of Israel. (Numbers 35:31, 33-34) iv. The principle that unpunished murders defile a land is a sobering, humbling thought among Americans, were so many are murdered and few are brought to justice for those murders. d. Then I will appoint for you a place where he may flee: Later (in Numbers 35 and Joshua 20) God commanded and Israel made cities of refuge (a place where he may flee). These were selected, prepared cities where one could flee in the case of manslaughter, and be protected until his case was properly heard. i. "From the earliest times the nearest akin had a right to revenge the murder of his relation, and as this right was universally acknowledged, no law was ever made on the subject; but as this might be abused, and a person who had killed another accidentally, having had no previous malice against him, might be put to death by the avenger of blood, as the nearest kinsman was termed, therefore God provided the cities of refuge to which the accidental manslayer might flee till the affair was inquired into, and settled by the civil magistrate." (Clarke) ii. This careful distinction between degrees of guilt and punishment in murder, and the protections for the one guilty of manslaughter as opposed to murder show the sophistication and concern for justice in the principles given to Israelite judges. 2. (15-17) Laws concerning murder of a parent. "And he who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death. He who kidnaps a man and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, shall surely be put to death. And he who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death." a. He who strikes his father or mother: Strikes must be taken in the context of Exodus 21:12, which says He who strikes a man so that he dies. A child who murdered, or attempts the murder of a parent, was to receive capital punishment. b. He who kidnaps a man and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, shall surely be put to death: Kidnapping was also considered a capital offense. In the eyes of God, criminally enslaving a man was not far from murdering him. i. "Kidnapping for slavery was common in the ancient world" (Cole), and is here clearly prohibited. ii. This is a subtle yet important difference between slavery as it was (and is) commonly practiced and slavery as regulated in the Bible. Most slavery (ancient and modern) was actually a form of kidnapping - the taking and imprisoning of a person against their will. As regulated in the Bible (and as practiced in some other ancient cultures), slavery was received willingly (usually as payment for debt) or, in the case of war, was an alternative to death. In ancient Israel, other cultures were not kidnapped and enslaved (as was the practice in the African slave trade). iii. The context and placement of this law is significant. "Kidnapping is not a property offense since no property offense draws a capital punishment, and this law is not listed under property laws. Instead, it is the theft of a human being." (Kaiser) iv. Or if he is found in his hand "should be translated 'and is caught with the money in his hand.' Unexpectedly large bank balances are still hard to explain to the Income Tax department of our own day." (Cole) c. He who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death: The idea was of an adult child who threatened their parent. Though this law was severe, it preserved a critical foundation for civilized society: respect between generations. i. The idea of the curse here is more like what we would think of as a death threat. "Since to curse was to will and pray the downfall of the other with all one's heart, it represented the attitude from which sprang acts like striking or murder." (Cole) ii. The Law of Moses also had a built-in protection for the rights of the child, according to Deuteronomy 21:18-21. This passage states that the parent did not have the right to carry out this punishment, but they were required to bring the accused child before the elders and judges of the city. This meant that the parent - against all contemporary custom - did not have the absolute power of life and death over their children. As a practical matter, the judges of Israel rarely if ever administered the death penalty in such cases, yet the child was held accountable. iii. Yet the law discouraging conflict between generations is important. Each elder generation, as they grow older, is at the mercy of the younger generation. If the younger generation is allowed to carry on open warfare with the older generation, the very foundations of society are shaken - as reflected in the Fourth Commandment. Some modern laws - including developing laws regarding euthanasia - may lead to the easy murder of the older generation by the younger. 3. (18-19) Regarding compensation for personal injury. "If men contend with each other, and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but is confined to his bed, if he rises again and walks about outside with his staff, then he who struck him shall be acquitted. He shall only pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed." a. If men contend with each other, and one strikes the other: If, because of a conflict, a man was unable to work (is confined to his bed) because of an injury received at the hand of another, the one who injured him must pay compensation to the man and his family. i. These laws of compensation for personal injury have parallels in the Code of Hammurabi and in Hittite Laws. b. If he rises again and walks about outside with his staff: However, if the man could recover from the injury, the guilty party was only required to pay for his medical recovery and for his lost time. c. And shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed: Though these principles have been abused by the greedy in our modern day, the principles themselves still stand. 4. (20-21) Regarding the beating and death of a servant. "And if a man beats his male or female servant with a rod, so that he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished. Notwithstanding, if he remains alive a day or two, he shall not be punished; for he is his property." a. So that he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished: This shows that in ancient Israel servants could be murdered. In many other cultures, the master was held blameless if he murdered a servant, because the servant was not considered a person. i. "The great advance on ancient thinking is that the slave is considered here as a person." (Cole) b. Notwithstanding, if he remains alive a day or two, he shall not be punished: Yet the master not be punished if the servant did not die immediately. Perhaps this was a way to determine intent, with the idea that if the servant lived for several days, it was an indication that the master must not have intended to murder him. i. The idea was that if the victim did not die immediately, it was evidence that he was struck with the intention of discipline and not murder. Additionally, if the slave died through this unintentional attack, the loss of property was thought to be penalty enough to the master. ii. Adam Clarke noted that this reflects a general principle in the Law of Moses: great consideration to the rights of the accused. "And all penal laws should be construed as favourably as possible to the accused." (Clarke) iii. "The aim of this law was not to place the slave at the master's mercy but to restrict the master's power over him." (Kaiser) c. He shall surely be punished…he is his property: These laws together paint a picture of the ideas behind slavery in ancient Israel. A servant was a person (who could not be murdered), yet they were also considered the property of the master, until their obligation was fulfilled. i. For he is his property: "Is literally 'because he is his money.' The point is not that men are mere chattel…but that the owner has an investment in this slave that he stands to lose either by death…or by emancipation." (Kaiser) ii. These principles paint a spiritual analogy. Spiritually speaking, we are the property of whom we serve. We are either slaves to Satan or to Jesus Christ. 5. (22-25) Laws of retribution. "If men fight, and hurt a woman with child, so that she gives birth prematurely, yet no harm follows, he shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman's husband imposes on him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. But if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." a. He shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman's husband imposes on him: This is an example of a case of retribution, where a pregnant woman was injured in a conflict, and she gave birth prematurely. A penalty was only to be assessed if there was lasting damage. i. If no lasting damage resulted, there are no damages awarded. Perhaps this was recognition that the law cannot address every loss or consequence, and that only permanent consequences are justly compensated. b. But if any harm follows: If lasting damage resulted - short of death, which was covered by another law - there was retribution or restitution due. i. "For the accidental assault, the offender must still pay some compensation, even though both mother and child survived….The fee would be set by the woman's husband and approved by a decision of the court." (Kaiser) c. But if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye: If lasting damage resulted, the eye for eye principle always limited retribution. This law was meant to block man's natural desire for vengeance. It was not given as a license for revenge. i. Our tendency is to want to do more against the offending party than what they did to us. This principle can apply to our modern practice of assessing huge punitive damages in lawsuits, and this law presents the principle that only the loss itself is to be compensated. d. You shall give life for life: This principle leads some to wonder if, in ancient Israel, people were routinely killed for what we might consider accidental death or manslaughter. It's important to correlate this principle of you shall give life for life with Numbers 35:31, which allows a substitute ransom payment for loss of life that was not willful and premeditated murder. i. Numbers 35:31: Moreover you shall take no ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death, but he shall surely be put to death. This prohibition indicates that it was common practice to take ransom money for wrongful death in other circumstances. ii. "Thus we conclude that the defendant must surrender to the deceased child's father or wife's husband the monetary value of each life if either or both were harmed." (Kaiser) 6. (26-27) The law of retribution as it regards masters and servants. "If a man strikes the eye of his male or female servant, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for the sake of his eye. And if he knocks out the tooth of his male or female servant, he shall let him go free for the sake of his tooth." a. If a man strikes the eye of his male or female servant, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for the sake of his eye: The principle of eye for an eye had a different application for servants. If injured by the master, the servant received something more precious than an eye - his freedom. i. These laws don't try to make the master feel a certain way about his slave. Instead, the laws guide the behavior of the master, giving him incentive to protect and honor his slave, treating them more like an employee than a work-animal. b. If he knocks out the tooth of his male or female servant, he shall let him go free: "If this did not teach them humanity, it taught them caution, as one rash blow might have deprived them of all right to the future services of the slave; and this self-interest obliged them to be cautious and circumspect." (Clarke) C. Laws regarding animal control and damage. 1. (28-32) Determining guilt when an animal kills a human. "If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, then the ox shall surely be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be acquitted. But if the ox tended to thrust with its horn in times past, and it has been made known to his owner, and he has not kept it confined, so that it has killed a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death. If there is imposed on him a sum of money, then he shall pay to redeem his life, whatever is imposed on him. Whether it has gored a son or gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him. If the ox gores a male or female servant, he shall give to their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned." a. The ox shall surely be stoned…but the owner of the ox shall be acquitted: This law illustrated the principle of intent and neglect. An owner of a man-killing ox could not be held guilty if the animal had no history of aggression towards people. Yet the animal must die, and the owner was forbidden to profit from the animal or its death (its flesh shall not be eaten). No one was to profit from or regard casually even accidental death. i. "This means injury by oxen, since the Israelites kept no other animal that was capable of killing a human: horses were foreign luxuries." (Cole) ii. "This served to keep up a due detestation of murder, whether committed by man or beast; and at the same time punished the man as far as possible, by the total loss of the beast." (Clarke) b. But if the ox tended to thrust with its horn in times past . . . the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death: Yet, if an ox owner had an ox (or similar animal) whom he knew to be aggressive and he failed to control the animal, he was guilty of murder and punished as such. c. If there is imposed on him a sum of money, then he shall pay to redeem his life: It seems that if the survivors of the dead man accepted monetary restitution in lieu of the owner's death, this was an acceptable settlement. d. Whether it has gored a son or gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him: The same principles were applied in the death of a minor. They were regarded as people with rights to respect as well as adults. e. If the ox gores a male or female servant, he shall give to their master thirty shekels of silver: If a servant was killed under such circumstances, the price of restitution was thirty shekels of silver, which was considered the price of a slave. i. "Even in Israel, a slave was still a man: his blood brings blood-guilt, like that of any other man." (Cole) ii. Significantly, this was the same price Jesus was sold for when Judas betrayed Jesus for thirty pieces of silver (Matthew 26:15). 2. (33-36) More laws regarding the principles of negligence and restitution. "And if a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls in it, the owner of the pit shall make it good; he shall give money to their owner, but the dead animal shall be his. If one man's ox hurts another's, so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the money from it; and the dead ox they shall also divide. Or if it was known that the ox tended to thrust in time past, and its owner has not kept it confined, he shall surely pay ox for ox, and the dead animal shall be his own." a. He shall give money to their owner, but the dead animal shall be his: These laws communicate the principle of responsibility for the consequences of an individual's actions upon another. The example given had to do with necessary restitution when the digging of a pit caused the death of an animal. i. If a man opens a pit: "More likely for grain storage than water storage. Pits were also used as traps for animals (2 Samuel 23:20) or prisons for men (Genesis 37:24)." (Cole) b. If one man's ox hurts another's, so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the money from it: These laws required the investigation and analysis of judges, so that the application of the law took into account findings of intent and negligence. There is a sense in which these are simply applications of the general principles of justice and fairness. i. "To a struggling Israelite farmer, fair payment for the death of an ox might mean the difference between life and death, or at least between freedom and slavery for debt." (Cole) Exodus 22 - More Laws to Direct Judges A. Laws regarding personal property and restitution. 1. (1-4) Restitution required in cases of theft. "If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and slaughters it or sells it, he shall restore five oxen for an ox and four sheep for a sheep. If the thief is found breaking in, and he is struck so that he dies, there shall be no guilt for his bloodshed. If the sun has risen on him, there shall be guilt for his bloodshed. He should make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. If the theft is certainly found alive in his hand, whether it is an ox or donkey or sheep, he shall restore double." a. If a man steals an ox or a sheep: The command against theft was already stated in the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:15). Here are more specific principles given to judges, so they could apply that principle in the daily life and administration of justice among the people of Israel. i. Slaughters or sells: "There is a heavier fine for this, since such action presumably shows deliberate intent to steal." (Cole) b. He shall restore: The Mosaic Law did not send a person to jail because of theft. Instead, the thief was required to restore what he stole, plus an additional penalty. i. In this passage, the penalty could be anywhere from 500% (he shall restore five oxen for an ox) to 200% (he shall restore double). "The reason for the fivefold penalty in the case of stealing an ox is probably because one man stole the means of another man's livelihood. The principle would extend to taking any of the man's plowing or cultivating implements." (Kaiser) ii. This can be regarded as a positive approach to the punishment of criminals, putting them to productive restitution and compensating the victims of their theft. These principles are often ignored in the modern administration of justice. iii. They are also, as a principle, ignored in many Christian lives. "This chapter is full of restitution, of which there is far too little in ordinary Christian life. We try to make amends for injury done to another by an extraordinary amount of civility; but we are reluctant in so many words to frankly confess that we have done wrong, and make proper reparation for the act or speech." (Meyer) c. He should make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft: If the person was unable to pay back what he stole, the thief was sold as an indentured laborer, with the money from the sale going to the victim. d. If the thief is found breaking in, and he is struck so that he dies, there shall be no guilt for his bloodshed. If the sun has risen on him, there shall be guilt for his bloodshed: A property owner had the right to protect his property with force - but only with reasonable force. The assumption was that if it was daylight, the property owner had the ability to defend himself short of lethal force. i. "It is typical of Israel's merciful law that even a thief has his rights." (Cole) 2. (5-8) Further application of the principle of restitution. "If a man causes a field or vineyard to be grazed, and lets loose his animal, and it feeds in another man's field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard. If fire breaks out and catches in thorns, so that stacked grain, standing grain, or the field is consumed, he who kindled the fire shall surely make restitution. If a man delivers to his neighbor money or articles to keep, and it is stolen out of the man's house, if the thief is found, he shall pay double. If the thief is not found, then the master of the house shall be brought to the judges to see whether he has put his hand into his neighbor's goods." a. If a man causes a field or vineyard to be grazed, and lets loose his animal, and it feeds in another man's field, he shall make restitution: The owner of an animal was responsible for the grazing of his animals. He was obliged to respect his neighbor's property (the grazing land). i. "Thus men are held responsible, not only for the harm they do, but also for the harm they occasion, even though they may not have purposely designed the damage that ensued." (Kaiser) ii. "We wrong another not only by what we do, or permit to be done, but in what we carelessly fail to do." (Meyer) b. He shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard: This was a fair punishment, and significant enough to give a farmer a reason to not allow his animals to carelessly and destructively graze. i. "These laws also began by laying emphasis on the guilt of carelessness. The truth emphasized is that no man must live his life on the basis of selfishness or wholly alone and that wrong inflicted on neighbor by neighbor in the material realm becomes sin against God in the moral realm." (Morgan) c. He who kindled the fire shall surely make restitution: Restitution was also required in cases of vandalism or foolish negligence, even if one kept the property of another. The Mosaic legal system had a high view of personal responsibility, even with the property of others. i. This translates into a proper concern for the property of others today. A Christian, if he backs into someone else's car, will certainly leave a note and make good the damage. A Christian will have proper insurance, guaranteeing they can compensate for someone else's loss. ii. If someone gives you something to hold for them, you are then responsible for it as a faithful steward or manager. This principle also includes what God gives us to manage or steward for Him. d. Shall surely make restitution…he shall pay double: Restitution was paid according to a pre-determined amount or percentage; it was not left to the whim of either the victim or the judge. 3. (9-13) More application of the principle of restitution. "For any kind of trespass, whether it concerns an ox, a donkey, a sheep, or clothing, or for any kind of lost thing which another claims to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whomever the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor. If a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and it dies, is hurt, or driven away, no one seeing it, then an oath of the LORD shall be between them both, that he has not put his hand into his neighbor's goods; and the owner of it shall accept that, and he shall not make it good. But if, in fact, it is stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner of it. If it is torn to pieces by a beast, then he shall bring it as evidence, and he shall not make good what was torn." a. Any kind of lost thing which another claims to be his: In the law of Israel, an owner did not lose ownership simply because the object was lost. If another found the object and owner laid claim to it (with a dispute following), it was to be decided by judges. i. "An object has been lost: the owner later sees a similar object in possession of his neighbor, and claims it as his own. The Israelites apparently did not follow the Anglo-Saxon dictum of 'finders are keepers': a lost object remains the possession of the original owner, who can claim it on sight." (Cole) b. The cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whomever the judges condemn shall pay double: If there was a dispute regarding the loss of property, the judges heard evidence, investigated, and decided who was right and who was wrong. The guilty party had to pay double restitution - whether they were the accused or the defendant. There was a price for false accusation or lawsuit. i. Before the judges: "Hebrew, the gods: so judges are called, if good especially (Psalm 82:6). And the seat of judicature is called the holy place (Ecclesiastes 8:10)." (Trapp) c. If a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and it dies, is hurt, or driven away, no one seeing it: This law considered the situation when something suspicious happens - an animal in the care of another dies, is hurt, or driven away. Yet, it happened with no witnesses (no one seeing it). Shall the testimony of the accused be accepted in such cases? d. Then an oath of the LORD shall be between them both, that he has not put his hand into his neighbor's goods; and the owner of it shall accept that: In such cases, the owner of the animal was obligated to accept the sworn testimony of the accused, unless there was evidence that gave reasonable doubt to the truthfulness of the accused. i. This principle is the foundation of our idea that a man is innocent until proven guilty. In this case, the man's oath was taken as true unless proof to the contrary could be found. ii. He shall bring it as evidence: "Production of the carcase would show that, while the shepherd could not prevent the kill, he was alert enough to stop the devouring of the prey." (Cole) e. The owner of it shall accept that: Though the owner of the animal suffered loss, he was not allowed to compensate the loss by accusing and winning damages against an innocent party. He had to accept the outcome, even though justice left him uncompensated. i. There is a parallel thought in the New Testament, that believers should avoid taking legal disputes among themselves to secular judges. They should allow the matter to be judged by the church (1 Corinthians 6:1-8). 4. (14-15) Restitution principles applied to borrowing and lending. "And if a man borrows anything from his neighbor, and it becomes injured or dies, the owner of it not being with it, he shall surely make it good. If its owner was with it, he shall not make it good; if it was hired, it came for its hire." a. If a man borrows anything from his neighbor: The principles of responsibility and restitution also applied to borrowing and lending. b. The owner of it not being with it…If its owner was with it: The assumption was that if the owner was with the animal or tool (or whatever) as it was used by another, the owner was responsible for the care and use of the object while in his presence. If the owner was not present, the borrower was responsible. c. He shall surely make it good: This was the simple principle meant to guide the judges. The guilty party had to make it good. Distinctions were to be made according to fairness and justice, not simply to reward whoever suffered loss. Sometimes loss is suffered and no one is to blame. B. Moral and ceremonial laws. 1. (16-17) The remedy for pre-marital sex. "If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife. If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the bride-price of virgins." a. If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed: Some claim this passage did not prohibit pre-marital sex; but it did prohibit (or at least strongly discourage) it in practice, because it required a man to either marry or provide for a woman he had pre-marital sex with. i. Virgin: The Hebrew (betulah) "Was an unmarried girl who was always presumed to be a virgin." (Kaiser) ii. Entice a virgin: "Hebrew, over-persuade with her by fair words, which make fools fain." (Trapp) b. He shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife: This law emphasized the principle that there is no such thing as casual sex. Both Old and New Testaments state that sexual relations carry lasting consequences (1 Corinthians 6:15-16). i. "This was an exceedingly wise and humane law, and must have operated powerfully against seduction and fornication; because the person who might feel inclined to take the advantage of a young woman knew that he must marry her, and giver her a dowry." (Clarke). ii. This law encouraged both men and women to value the virginity of a woman. "Since a man has taken a girl without paying bride-price, bride-price he must pay, for who else will pay it now?" (Cole) It's not that the virginity of men was worthless or ignored; yet the law encouraged greater care and preservation for the virginity of women until marriage and the advantageous circumstances for child raising. iii. It is to the great detriment of society and culture when the government works against the value of virginity, and (intentionally or not) supports behavior that doesn't value it or promotes the cheapening of virginity and abstinence until marriage. iv. A man illustrated the value of virginity with a true story about a friend who owned an antique store and had a table for sale. The table was worth $600, but was marked down to $300. A man tried to bargain her down to $200, and not only did she refuse, but she realized the true value of the table, and upped the price to its true worth - even when offered $300. The man finally bought the table for $600, and certainly treated it like a $600 table - because its worth had been recognized and fought for. Some women who know men treat them shabbily contribute to the problem by selling themselves cheaply. c. If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the bride-price of virgins: If the man who took advantage of the woman was considered a completely unacceptable husband by the father of the wronged woman, then that man had to pay the dowry without receiving the bride. This was a strong incentive against taking advantage of young women. d. He shall pay money: This brief presentation of the law gave no penalty to the woman involved. This was because she was thought to be disadvantaged (if a man entices a virgin) and needed to be recompensed. If she was not taken advantage of, then the loss of her virginity and the diminution of her marriage prospects was thought to be punishment enough. i. "This one consideration was a powerful curb on disorderly passions, and must tend greatly to render marriages respectable, and prevent all crimes of this nature." (Cole) 2. (18-20) Three capital crimes. "You shall not permit a sorceress to live. Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death. He who sacrifices to any god, except to the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed." a. A sorceress: Among the ancients, the practice of sorcery had two associations. First, contact with dark or demonic powers or persons. Second, altered states through drugs and potions. There was understood to be a connection between drug taking and occultist practices. i. The law shows that such communication is possible, and the penalty shows that it is dangerous. ii. The King James Version translates sorceress as witch. "An enchantress, sorceress, whose help was sometimes sought in enticing young maids to folly. The man-witch is also here meant, but the woman-witch mentioned; both because women are more inclinable to that sin; and also because the weaker sex is not to be spared for this fault." (Trapp) iii. Taking this noun sorceress, the "verb is to use incantations, magic, sorcery, or the arts of witchcraft. Our English 'witch' is alleged to have come from 'to wit,' i.e., 'to know,' in the adjectival wittigh or wittich, contracted to witch. The Greeks rendered our word by pharmakos ('poisoners'), since sorcerers dealt in drugs and pharmaceutical potions." (Kaiser) iv. "Many of the Israelites had, no doubt, learned these curious arts from their long residence with the Egyptians; and so much were the Israelites attached to them, that we find such arts in repute among them, and various practices of this kind prevailed through the whole of the Jewish history, notwithstanding the offence was capital, and in all cases punished with death." (Clarke) v. "It is clearly against the will of God that in this life men should hold any communication with the spirit world, save that of direct fellowship with Himself, through His Son, by the Holy Spirit." (Morgan) b. You shall not permit a sorceress to live: This was considered a severe enough threat that sorcery was considered a capital crime. This combination of occult practices and drug-induced altered states was seen as destructive to the culture and moral fabric of ancient Israel. i. "Thus with blunt directness and complete finality, the law of God against all traffic with the world of evil spirits was promulgated." (Morgan) ii. "Witchcraft is equally condemned in New Testament days (Acts 13:10; 19:19), but in spite of the practices of the church in the Middle Ages, there is no hint in the New Testament that mediums or witches should be put to death." (Cole) iii. Shall utterly be destroyed: This uses the ancient Hebrew word herem. "Herem is something devoted to God; however, it is not a voluntary but an involuntary dedication. It is now set apart to be banned from the earth." (Kaiser) c. Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death: Bestiality was practiced in the ancient world, and here God commanded specifically against it. i. "This offensive sex act apparently was prevalent among the Canaanites." (Kaiser) "Bestiality was not only an obvious perversion: it figured so often in the Canaanite cycle 'Tales of Baal' that it probably had a religious significance for the Canaanites." (Cole) ii. It is surprising to some that bestiality is legal in some European nations, and a subculture practices and promotes it. Yet there should be no surprise; if God's standard is rejected in one area of sexual morality, then the standards are often left up to the individual to decide. It is Christian civilization and morality that has discouraged and condemned fornication, adultery, pedophilia, polygamy, prostitution, homosexuality, gender confusion and the like. As Christian civilization and morality are increasingly mocked and rejected, it is no surprise that all of these sexual practices are increasingly practiced, supported, and encouraged. iii. Some years ago a student group at a university responded to the school's sponsorship of GLAD (Gay/Lesbian Awareness Days), with a mocking parody they called BAD (Bestiality Awareness Days). University administration did not allow them to promote or carry out their parody celebration; but there was no rational reason to prohibit this apart from a Biblical foundation for morality. iv. If the moral measure for a sexual act is, If it feels good, do it - then there is no moral measure, and the culture will become increasingly depraved until this changes. d. He who sacrifices to any god, except to the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed: In ancient Israel, it was strictly prohibited to sacrifice to the pagan gods. This law was often broken, and this penalty was rarely applied. One rare example of its application was when Elijah executed the prophets of Baal in 1 Kings 18:40. 3. (21) Compassion for the stranger. "You shall neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt." a. You shall neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress him: A good measure of our moral character is found in how we treat a stranger. People often find it easy to treat their own flesh and blood well, but God commands us to have a concern for others - including the stranger. i. The enduring hatred and strife between ethnic and national groups shows just how little humanity has progressed. ii. It is fair to examine how accommodating are we to the strangers among us. If we stay with our own safe group and enjoy all the blessings, and fail to be outreaching and out-looking as a blessing to others, we mistreat a stranger. b. For you were strangers in the land of Egypt: Israel's own experience of being strangers should have given them appropriate sympathy for strangers in their midst. i. God's command that there be kindness and good treatment towards the stranger does not mean that it is not good or fitting that strangers receive permission to live among a new community. The people of Israel were strangers in the land of Egypt, but at the express invitation of Pharaoh (Genesis 47:5-6). Israel was not welcomed into Canaan, and their coming was rightly regarded as a war of conquest. Governments have the right and responsibility to control borders and immigration; yet there is no doubt of the individual's responsibility to neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress him. 4. (22-24) Compassion for the weak and vulnerable. "You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. If you afflict them in any way, and they cry at all to Me, I will surely hear their cry; and My wrath will become hot, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless." a. You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child: The widow and fatherless child were the weakest and most vulnerable members of society. In an unrestrained, survival-of-the-fittest society, they would be the first to suffer abuse and destruction. God here commanded that at the very least, they not be afflicted. i. "It was the prophets who chided Israel for their neglect in this area of oppressing the poor and the weak." (Kaiser) b. I will kill you with the sword: Because of their special vulnerability, God commanded a special care and concern for them, promising to protect them. i. "The society that lacks social justice will itself come under God's judgment." (Cole) 5. (25-27) Compassion for the poor. "If you lend money to any of My people who are poor among you, you shall not be like a moneylender to him; you shall not charge him interest. If you ever take your neighbor's garment as a pledge, you shall return it to him before the sun goes down. For that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin. What will he sleep in? And it will be that when he cries to Me, I will hear, for I am gracious." a. If you lend money to any of My people who are poor among you, you shall not be like a moneylender to him: Interest was prohibited on loans made to the poor and the taking of collateral had to be reasonable. i. "The reason for the prohibition is presumably that the poor man borrows in his need. The loan is seen as assistance to a neighbor, and to make money from his need would be immoral." (Cole) ii. This only prohibited the taking of interest on loans for relief of the poor. Adam Clarke said of the word translated interest: "Neshech, from nashach, to bite, cut, or pierce with the teeth; biting usury. So the Latins call it usura vorax, devouring usury… Perhaps usury may be more properly defined unlawful interest, receiving more for the loan of money than it is really worth, and more than the law allows." Trapp commented on the word interest: "Hebrew, Biting usury." iii. "The prohibition against interest was written with the poor in mind. Commercial loans were not explicitly canned because they were not considered. Out of sixteen biblical passages dealing with loans (but not with interest), not one deals with a commercial loan. Commercial loans simply did not come under the biblical purview." (Gamoran, cited in Kaiser) b. If you ever take your neighbor's garment as a pledge: The fact that one's garment could be used as collateral (under regulated circumstances) shows that these were loans, with repayment expected and secured with collateral. They were not gifts, but loans. i. "Retaining one's outer garment (used as temporary collateral) overnight was strictly forbidden, for even an interest-free loan apparently required some type of pledge or security." (Kaiser) c. And it will be that when he cries to Me, I will hear: God promised to hear the prayer of the poor man when he cried out to the Lord. God's general sympathy for the poor is reflected in the fact that Jesus came from a poor family. When He was dedicated in the temple, shortly after His birth, the sacrifice was that of a poor family: two birds (Luke 2:24). 6. (28-31) Laws regarding holiness and separation unto God. "You shall not revile God, nor curse a ruler of your people. You shall not delay to offer the first of your ripe produce and your juices. The firstborn of your sons you shall give to Me. Likewise you shall do with your oxen and your sheep. It shall be with its mother seven days; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me. And you shall be holy men to Me: you shall not eat meat torn by beasts in the field; you shall throw it

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7. Genesis 2-3 (Adam in the Garden of Eden & Man’s Temptation and Fall)

Genesis 2-3 (Adam in the Garden of Eden & Man’s Temptation and Fall)

Genesis 2 - Creation Completed; Adam in the Garden of Eden A. The completion of creation. 1. (1-3) The seventh day of creation. Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made. a. And He rested on the seventh day: God did not need rest on the seventh day because He was tired. He rested to show His creating work was done, to give a pattern to man regarding the structure of time (in seven-day weeks), and to give an example of the blessing of rest to man on the seventh day. i. The seven-day week is permanently ingrained in man. Though some through history tried to change the seven-day week (a ten-day week was attempted during the French Revolution), those attempts have come to nothing. We are on a seven-day cycle because God is on a seven-day cycle. b. God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it: God sanctified the seventh day because it was a gift to man for rest and replenishment, and most of all because the Sabbath is a shadow of the rest available through the person and work of Jesus Christ. i. Colossians 2:16-17 and Galatians 4:9-11 make it clear that Christians are not under obligation to observe the Sabbath today, because Jesus fulfilled the purpose and plan of the Sabbath for us and in us (Hebrews 4:9-11). Yet Christians do not lose the Sabbath; every day is a day of rest in the finished work of Jesus Christ. Every day is specially set apart to God. ii. Though we are free from the legal obligation of the Sabbath, we dare not ignore the importance of a day of rest. God has built us so we need one. But we are also commanded to work six days. “He who idles his time away in the six days is equally culpable in the sight of God as he who works on the seventh.” (Clarke) In our modern world of four or five day workweeks and generous vacation time, surely more “leisure time” can be given to the work of the Lord. c. In it He rested from all His work: Though God rested on the seventh day of creation, He did not institute the Sabbath or show us His rest for His own sake. God does not take the Sabbath off. Jesus Himself said, “My Father has been working until now, and I have been working” (John 5:17). God does not need a day off, but man needs to see the rest of God and know he can enter into it by the finished work of Jesus. i. The description of each other day of creation ended with the phrase, “so the evening and the morning were the…day.” However, this seventh day of creation does not have that phrase. This is because God’s rest for us isn’t confined to one literal day. In Jesus, God has an eternal Sabbath rest for His people (Hebrews 4:9-11). ii. “God, having completed His work of creation, rests, as if to say, ‘This is the destiny of those who are My people; to rest as I rest, to rest in Me.’ ” (Boice) 2. (4-7) The history of the heavens and the earth. This is the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, before any plant of the field was in the earth and before any herb of the field had grown. For the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground; but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being. a. This is the history of the heavens and the earth: This probably ends the “genealogy” of the heavens and the earth, a history given directly by God to either Moses or Adam, recording the history of God’s seven-day creation. This was something no human was present to witness. b. In the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens: This is the first use of Lord (Yahweh) in the Bible. Our English word Lord comes from the Anglo-Saxon word for bread (as does our word loaf), because ancient English men of high stature would keep a continual open house, where all could come and get bread to eat. They gained the honorable title of lords, meaning “dispensers of bread.” c. Before any plant of the field was in the earth: This history begins before there was any vegetation on the earth at all (back to Genesis 1:1), a time when there was only space and a watery globe we know as the earth. d. The Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth: When God first created vegetation (on the third day of creation, Genesis 1:11-13), man was not yet been created to care for the vegetation of the earth, and there was no rain. The thick blanket of water vapor in the outer atmosphere created on the second day of creation (Genesis 1:6-8) made for no rain cycle (as we know it) but for a rich system of evaporation and condensation, resulting in heavy dew or ground-fog. e. The Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground: When God created man He made him out of the most basic elements, the dust of the ground. There is nothing “spectacular” in what man is made of, only in the way those basic things are organized. i. When the Bible speaks of dust, it means something of little worth, associated with lowliness and humility (Genesis 18:27; 1 Samuel 2:8; 1 Kings 16:2). In the Bible, dust isn’t evil and it isn’t nothing; but it is next to nothing. f. And breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being: With this Divine breath man became a living being, like other forms of animal life (the term chay nephesh is used in Genesis 1:21, 1:21, and here). Yet only man is a living being made in the image of God (Genesis 1:26-27). i. The word for breath in Hebrew is ruach - the word imitates the very sound of breath - is the same word for Spirit, as is the case in both ancient Greek (pneuma) and Latin (spiritus). God created man by putting His breath, His Spirit, within him. ii. “The implication, readily seen by any Hebrew reader, [is] that man was specially created by God’s breathing some of His own breath into him.” (Boice) iii. The King James Version reads: man became a living soul. This makes some wonder if man is a soul, or if man has a soul. This passage seems to indicate that man is a soul, while passages like 1 Thessalonians 5:23 and Hebrews 4:12 seem to indicate that man has a soul. It seems that the Scripture speaks in both ways, and uses the term in different ways and in different contexts. B. Adam in the Garden of Eden. 1. (8-9) Two trees in the Garden of Eden. The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there He put the man whom He had formed. And out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. a. The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden: Eden was a garden specifically planted by God; it was a place God made to be a perfect habitation for Adam (and later, Eve). b. There he put the man whom He had formed: The details in the creation of Adam and Eve teach us something. After reading Genesis 1, we might have assumed that man and woman were made at the same time, but the text doesn’t specifically say so. We assume it. We don’t know the details about man’s creation until Genesis 2. c. Out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow: The rest of Genesis chapter 2 does not present a different or contradictory account of creation. Rather, it is probably the history of creation from Adam’s perspective. This is Adam’s experience of creation, which does not contradict the account of Genesis 1:1-2:7 - it fills it out. i. In Matthew 19:4-5, Jesus refered to events in Genesis 1 and to events in Genesis 2 as one harmonious account. d. The tree of life…the tree of the knowledge of good and evil: These two trees were among all the other trees God created and put in the Garden of Eden. i. The tree of life was to grant (or to sustain) eternal life (Genesis 3:22). God still has a tree of life available to the His people (Revelation 2:7), which is in heaven (Revelation 22:2). ii. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil was the “temptation” tree. Eating the fruit of this tree would give Adam an experiential knowledge of good and evil. Or, it is possible that it is called the tree of the knowledge of good and evil not so man would know good and evil, but so God could test good and evil in man. 2. (10-14) Rivers in the Garden. Now a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it parted and became four riverheads. The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which skirts the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. Bdellium and the onyx stone are there. The name of the second river is Gihon; it is the one which goes around the whole land of Cush. The name of the third river is Hiddekel; it is the one which goes toward the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates. a. Now a river went out of Eden: The whole feel of this account gives the sense that it was written by an actual eyewitness of the rivers and surroundings. Adam probably wrote this himself. b. The name of the first is Pishon: These rivers are given specific names which answer to names of rivers known in either their modern or ancient world. However, the names of these rivers can’t be used to determine the place of the Garden of Eden because the flood dramatically changed the earth’s landscape and “erased” these rivers. i. We know modern rivers today such as the Tigris or Euphrates because some rivers in the post-flood world were named after familiar pre-flood rivers by Noah and his sons. 3. (15-17) God’s command to Adam. Then the Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to tend and keep it. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” a. Put him in the garden of Eden to tend and keep it: God put Adam into the most spectacular paradise the world has seen, but God put Adam there to do work (to tend and keep it). Work is something good for man and was part of Adam’s perfect existence before the fall. i. “The ideal state of sinless man is not one of indolence without responsibility. Work and duty belong to the perfect state.” (Leupold) b. Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat: The presence of this tree - the presence of a choice for Adam - was good because for Adam to be a creature of free will, there had to be a choice, some opportunity to rebel against God. If there is never a command or never something forbidden there can then never be choice. God wants our love and obedience to Him to be the love and obedience of choice. i. Considering all that, look at Adam’s advantages. He only had one way he could sin and we have countless ways. There are many trees of temptation in our lives, but Adam had only one. ii. God made this command originally to Adam, not to Eve; God had not yet brought woman out of man. c. In the day that you eat of it you shall surely die: God not only made His command clear to Adam, but He also clearly explained the consequences for disobedience. C. God creates the first woman. 1. (18) God declares He will make a helper comparable to Adam. And the Lord God said, “It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper comparable to him.” a. It is not good that man should be alone: For the first time, God saw something that was not good - the aloneness of man. God never intended for man to be alone, either in the marital or social sense. i. Marriage, in particular, has a blessed “civilizing” influence on man. The most wild, violent, sociopathic men in history have always been single, never under the plan God gave to influence men for good. This is not good! b. I will make him a helper comparable to him: God’s “blueprint” for creating this companion to Adam was to make a helper comparable to Adam. i. Different versions of the Bible translate this idea in a variety of ways, but the idea is essentially the same in each of them: · Helper meet (suitable, adapted, completing) (Amplified) · A companion ... a helper suited to his needs (Living) · A helper such as he needs (Beck) · A helper correspondent to himself (Septuagint Bible) · A helper suitable (NIV, NASB) · A help meet for him (KJV) c. A helper comparable: In reference to the marriage relationship, God created woman to be a perfectly suitable helper to the man. This means God gave the plan and agenda to Adam, and he and the woman together work to fulfill it. i. The phrase “in reference to the marriage relationship” is used because God has not ordained women to be helpers to men in authority (instead of being in authority themselves), except in marriage and in the church (1 Timothy 2:12-13). ii. God gives to man the responsibility (and the accountability) to be the leader in the home and gives to the woman the responsibility and the accountability to help him. iii. This does not mean there is to be no help from the man to the woman (though in many cases this is sadly true). It means when God looks down from heaven upon the family, He sees a man in leadership, good or bad, faithful or not, to the calling of leadership. A true leader will, of course, help those helping him. iv. We only see “helping” as a position of inferiority when we think like the world thinks. God considers positions of service as most important in His sight (Matthew 20:25-28). d. A helper comparable: Not only was the woman to be a helper, but also she was made comparable to the man. She should be considered and honored as such. A woman or wife cannot be regarded as a mere tool or worker, but as an equal partner in God’s grace and an equal human being. 2. (19-20) No helper was found comparable for Adam among the animals. Out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and brought them to Adam to see what he would call them. And whatever Adam called each living creature, that was its name. So Adam gave names to all cattle, to the birds of the air, and to every beast of the field. But for Adam there was not found a helper comparable to him. a. Brought them to Adam to see what he would call them: If Adam had the capability to intelligently name all the animals, it shows he was a brilliant man. Since at this time Adam’s intellect had not yet suffered from the fall, he was probably the most brilliant man who ever lived. Adam was the first and greatest of all biologists and botanists. b. So Adam gave names: Adam did not name any other animal after himself, calling any other animal “man” or “human.” By this, we see he understood that he was essentially different from all the animals. They were not made in the image of God. i. Mark Twain had a joke where he described Adam coming home to Eve after naming all the animals. Eve looked at an elephant and said, “What did you name that big animal?” Adam replied, “I called it an elephant.” Eve asked, “Why did you call it an elephant?” Adam answered, “Because it looked like an elephant!” c. But for Adam there was not found a helper: It was obvious to Adam that the animals came in pairs and he had no mate. Since God deliberately had Adam name the animals after seeing his need for a partner (Genesis 2:18), God used this to prepare Adam to receive the gift of woman. 3. (21-22) God makes the first woman from Adam’s side. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place. Then the rib which the Lord God had taken from man He made into a woman, and He brought her to the man. a. God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam: This is the first surgery recorded in history. God even used a proper anesthetic on Adam. b. The ribe which the Lord God had taken from man He made into a woman: God used Adam’s own body to create Eve to forever remind him of their essential oneness. As Adam came to know Eve he would see many ways that they were different, but he must never forget that they are essentially one and that they are made of the same substance. They are more alike than they are different. i. We don’t really know exactly what God took from Adam’s side to make Eve, and it doesn’t really matter. Modern research into cloning and genetic replication shows every cell in our body contains the body’s entire genetic blueprint. God took some of Adam’s cells and changed their genetic blueprint in the creation of Eve. Nevertheless, the story that women have one more rib than men because of the way Eve was created is a myth. ii. We also know the Bride of Christ comes from the wound made in the side of the second Adam, Jesus Christ. iii. There is a beautiful Jewish tradition saying God made woman, not out of man’s foot to be under him, nor out of his head to be over him, but “She was taken from under his arm that he might protect her and from next to his heart that he might love her.” (Barnhouse) c. He made into a woman: It is important to realize that there are not two beginnings to the human race, one in Adam and one in Eve. There was one beginning of the human race in Adam. d. And He brought her to the man: God brought Eve to Adam and created Eve out of Adam. He was first - the source and the head. She was created to be a helper perfectly suited to him. Thus the subordinate relationship of wives to husbands is found before the curse, not only after it. 4. (23) Adam’s brilliant understanding of who Eve is and how she is related to him. And Adam said: “This is now bone of my bones And flesh of my flesh; She shall be called Woman, Because she was taken out of Man.” a. This is now bone of my bones: Adam recognized that Eve was both like him (bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh) and not like him (woman…taken out of man). b. Flesh of my flesh: Adam understood the essential oneness in his relationship with Eve. This point is so important that it is referred to several times in the New Testament, including the great marriage passage in Ephesians 5:28-29: so husbands ought to love their own wives as their own bodies; he who loves his wife loves himself. For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it (Ephesians 5:28-29). i. No one walks into a room and seeks the most uncomfortable seat. The natural concern we have for ourselves causes us to take care of ourselves. In a healthy marriage relationship the husband realizes the essential union he has with his wife, that he cannot bless her without blessing himself and he cannot mistreat or neglect her without mistreating or neglecting himself. c. She was taken out of Man: Adam recognized that though he and Eve were one, she was not the same as him. He understood that two different people were becoming one. 1 Peter 3:7 tells husbands to recognize that they are one with someone different, someone whom they must understand: Likewise you husbands, dwell with them with understanding, giving honor to the wife, as to the weaker vessel. i. If men and women are different, are they equal? Elisabeth Elliot, quoted in Boice: “In what sense is red equal to blue? They are equal only in the sense that both are colors in the spectrum. Apart from that they are different. In what sense is hot equal to cold? They are both temperatures, but beyond this it is almost meaningless to talk about equality.” d. She shall be called woman: “Woman has been defined by many as compounded for wo and man, as if called man’s wo because she tempted him to eat the forbidden fruit; but this is no meaning of the original word, nor could it be intended, as the transgression was not then committed.” (Clarke) 5. (24-25) The marriage of Adam and Eve. Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. a. They shall become one flesh: The marriage principle stated here is based upon the dynamic of oneness yet distinction. A man and wife can truly come together in a one-flesh relationship, yet they must be joined. It is a spiritual fact, but the benefits of that oneness are not appropriated by accident or by chance. b. They shall become one flesh: This passage forms the foundation for the Bible’s understanding of marriage and family. Both Jesus (Matthew 19: 5) and Paul (Ephesians 5:31) quoted it in reference to marriage. i. “The institution of monogamous marriage, home, and family as the basic medium for the propagation of the race and the training of the young is so common to human history that people seldom pause to reflect on how or why such a custom came into being.” (Morris) ii. Many want to believe that the monogamous, two-parent family was invented in the 1950’s by American television icons Ozzie and Harriet, but Adam and Eve are the original family. This is God’s ideal family. This isn’t polygamy. This isn’t concubinage. This isn’t the keeping of mistresses. This isn’t adultery. This isn’t homosexual co-habitation. This isn’t promiscuity. This isn’t living together outside the marriage bond. This isn’t serial marriage. This is God’s ideal for the family, and even when we don’t live up to it, it is still important to set it forth as God’s ideal. c. One flesh: The idea of one flesh is taken by many to be mainly a way of expressing sexual union. While sexual union is certainly related to the idea of one flesh, it is only one part of what it means to be one flesh. There are also important spiritual dimensions to one flesh. i. Paul makes it clear the sexual union has one flesh implications even when we don’t intend so, as when a man has sex with a prostitute (1 Corinthians 6:16). Husband and wife become “one flesh” under God’s blessing. In extramarital sex, the partners become “one flesh” under God’s curse. ii. In this sense, there is no such thing as “casual sex.” Every sexual relationship at least begins a one-flesh bond. The bond will either be something beautiful (like the beautiful dancing of Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers) or it will be something grotesque (like Siamese twins). iii. It depends on whether the bonding takes place in a relationship with the right conditions: committed love, demonstrated by the marriage commitment, and a pursuit of true intimacy. Just because sex is taking place in marriage doesn’t mean it is truly fulfilling God’s purpose of bonding together a one-flesh relationship. d. They shall become one flesh: Though an initial bond in a one flesh relationship can be formed at the first sexual relationship a couple has, the fullness of what God wants to do in the one flesh relationship takes time. It has to become. e. They were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed: Before the fall, Adam and Eve were both naked ... and not ashamed. The idea of “nakedness” is far more than mere nudity. It has the sense of being totally open and exposed as a person before God and man. To be naked…and not ashamed means you have no sin, nothing to be rightly ashamed of, nothing to hide. i. Adam and Eve knew they were physically naked - nude - before the fall. What they did not know was a sinful, fallen condition, because they were not in that condition before their rebellion. ii. We often feel uncomfortable when someone stares at us. This is because we associate staring with prying, and we don’t want people to pry into our lives. We want to remain hidden and only reveal to other people what we want to reveal. iii. When we want to be most attractive to someone else, we do the most to change our normal appearance. We have the thought, “If I really want to impress this person, I have to fix myself up.” None of this feeling was present with Adam and Eve when they were naked…and not ashamed. Genesis 3 - Man’s Temptation and Fall A. The temptation from the serpent. 1. (1) The serpent begins his temptation. Now the serpent was more cunning than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman, “Has God indeed said, ‘You shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?” a. The serpent: The text here does not, by itself alone, clearly identify the serpent as Satan, but the rest of the Bible makes it clear this is Satan appearing as a serpent. i. In Ezekiel 28:13-19 tells us that Satan was in Eden. Many other passages associate a serpent or a snake-like creature with Satan (such as Job 26:13 and Isaiah 51:9). Revelation 12:9 and 20:2 speak of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan. ii. The representation of Satan as a serpent makes the idea of Moses saving Israel by lifting up a bronze serpent all the more provocative (Numbers 21:8-9), especially when Jesus identifies Himself with that very serpent (John 3:14). This is because in this picture, the serpent (a personification of sin and rebellion) is made of bronze (a metal associated with judgment, since it is made with fire). The lifting of a bronze serpent is the lifting up of sin judged, in the form of a cross. iii. Ezekiel 28 tells us Satan, before his fall, was an angel of the highest rank and prominence, even the “worship leader” in heaven. Isaiah 14 tells us Satan’s fall had to do with his desire to be equal to or greater than God, to set his will against God’s will. b. The serpent was more cunning than any beast: Satan’s effectiveness is often found in His cunning, crafty ways. We can’t outsmart Satan, but we can overcome him with the power of Jesus. i. It was the craftiness of Satan that made him successful against Eve: as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness (2 Corinthians 11:3). c. And he said to the woman: Apparently, before the curse pronounced in Genesis 3:14-15, the serpent was different than what we know today as a serpent. This creature didn’t start as a snake as we know it, it became one. i. “The creature that tempted Eve became a serpent as a result of God’s judgment on it, and it went slithering away into the bushes to the intense horror of Adam and Eve.” (Boice) ii. Demonic spirits evidently have the ability, under certain circumstances, to indwell human or animal bodies (Luke 8:33). On this occasion, Satan chose to indwell the body of a pre-curse serpent. iii. Poole says the woman wasn’t surprised at the serpent’s speaking because Adam and Eve had free conversation with angelic beings that often appeared in the form of men. If this is true, it wasn’t so strange to Eve that an angelic being might appear to her in the form of a beautiful pre-curse serpent. iv. Perhaps Satan made the voice supernaturally seem to come forth from the serpent, or perhaps Satan “said” this to Eve in her thoughts. What Satan said is more important than how he said it. d. To the woman: Satan brought his temptation against the woman because he perceived she was more vulnerable to attack. This is because she did not receive the command to not eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil directly from God but through Adam (Genesis 2:15-17). i. Perhaps Satan knew by observation Adam didn’t do an effective job in communicating to Eve what the Lord told him. This failure on Adam’s part made Eve more vulnerable to temptation. ii. Satan will often attack a chain at its weakest link, so he gets at Adam by tempting Eve. The stronger ones in a “chain” must expect attack against weaker links and support them against those attacks. iii. It was also in God’s plan to allow Satan to tempt Eve this way. If Adam would have sinned first, and if he had given the fruit to Eve, she might have a partial excuse before God: “I was simply obeying the head of our home. When he gave me the fruit, I ate of it.” e. Has God indeed said: Satan’s first attack is leveled against the Word of God. If he can get Eve confused about what God said, or to doubt what God said, then his battle is partially won. i. From the beginning, Satan has tried to undermine God’s people by undermining God’s Word. He can undermine just as effectively by getting us to neglect God’s Word as by getting us to doubt it. f. “Has God indeed said, ‘You shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?” Satan took God’s positive command (Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat [Genesis 2:16-17]) and rephrased it in a negative way: “God won’t let you eat of every tree.” 2. (2-3) Eve’s reply to the serpent. And the woman said to the serpent, “We may eat the fruit of the trees of the garden; but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God has said, ‘You shall not eat it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die.’ “ a. And the woman said to the serpent: Eve’s first mistake was in even carrying on a discussion with the serpent. We are called to talk to the devil, but never to have a discussion with him. We simply and strongly tell him, “The Lord rebuke you!” (Jude 9) b. We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: Eve’s knowledge of what she should not do is partially correct, but what she doesn’t seem to know makes her all the more vulnerable to deception. i. Eve does not seem to know the name of this tree; she only calls it the tree in the midst of the garden, instead of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Genesis 2:17). ii. Eve misquoted God’s command to Adam. Her words, “you shall not eat it” and “lest you die” are close enough, but she added to the command and put words in God’s mouth when she said, “nor shall you touch it.” Of course, it was a good idea to completely avoid the temptation; no good could come from massaging the fruit you’re not supposed to eat. But it is a dangerous thing to teach the doctrines of man as if they are the commandments of God (Matthew 15:9). iii. Clarke on nor shall you touch it: “Some Jewish writers ... state that as soon as the woman had asserted this, the serpent pushed her against the tree and said, ‘See, you have touched it, and are still alive; you may therefore safely eat of the fruit, for surely you shall not die.’” c. God has said: Eve’s ignorance of exactly what God said was really Adam’s responsibility. He did a poor job of relating to his wife the word God gave him. i. We can almost picture Adam telling Eve, “See that tree in the middle of the garden? Don’t touch it or God says we’ll die!” While this is better than saying nothing, what Adam didn’t explain made a vulnerable place where Satan could attack. d. Lest you die: This may seem like a small thing to hinge the destiny of the human race and all creation on. But the tree was nothing more than a restraint on Adam and Eve. It reminded them they were not God, that God had a legitimate claim on their obedience, and that they were responsible to Him. 3. (4-5) Satan’s direct challenge to God’s Word. Then the serpent said to the woman, “You will not surely die. For God knows that in the day you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” a. You will not surely die: Satan effectively laid the groundwork. He drew Eve into a discussion with him and planted the seed of doubt about God’s Word, and he exposed Eve’s incomplete understanding of God’s Word. Now he moves in for the kill, with an outright contradiction of what God said. i. Satan can only effectively work when he has established a foothold. No one falls like Adam and Eve will fall, “all of a sudden.” A foundation has been laid. ii. This is why we are called to never give place to the devil (Ephesians 4:27). This shows how remarkable it is that Jesus could say, “Satan has nothing in Me.” (John 14:30) b. You will not surely die: Satan first wanted Eve to forget all about what God said about the consequences of sin. When we know and remember the consequences of sin, we are more likely to give up the passing pleasures of sin (Hebrews 11:25). i. In Satan’s direct challenge, he tries to get Eve to doubt the goodness of God. If God lies to her, how can He be good? ii. In Satan’s direct challenge, he tries to get Eve to doubt the badness of sin. If this fruit is something good for her, why doesn’t God want her to have it? iii. Satan wants us to see sin as something good that a bad God doesn’t want us to have. His main lie to us is “sin is not bad and God is not good.” iv. “Satan and the flesh will present a thousand reasons to show how good it would be to disobey His command.” (Barnhouse) c. In the day you eat of it your eyes will be opened: Satan’s temptation was all the more powerful because there was truth in it. It was true your eyes will be opened, and this was fulfilled (Genesis 3:7). But their eyes were instantly opened to their own sin and rebellion. i. It is as if a deaf person was promised to be able to hear again, but all they could hear was screaming. ii. Their eyes were opened, they did know good and evil, but not as gods. “Pure lie” is rarely effective in temptation. If Satan doesn’t couple it with some truth, there is little power in his temptation. d. You will be like God, knowing good and evil: The final enticement is the most powerful, because it was how Satan himself fell, wanting to be equal with God. Eve tried to become a god herself by her rebellion against God. i. Jewish rabbis embellish on Satan’s temptation to Eve: “Nothing but malice has prompted God’s command, because as soon as you eat of it, you will be as God. As He creates and destroys worlds, so will you have the power to create and destroy. As He does kill and revive, so will you have the power to kill and revive. God Himself ate first of the fruit of the tree, and then He created the world. Therefore, He forbids you to eat of it, lest you create other worlds ... Hurry now and eat the fruit of the tree in the midst of the garden, and become independent of God, lest He bring forth still other creatures that will rule over you.” ii. The goal of becoming God is the center of so many non-Christian religions, including Mormonism. But in our desire to be gods, we become like Satan (who said, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God ... I will be like the Most High [Isaiah 14:13-14]) instead of being like Jesus, who came as a servant (Matthew 20:28). iii. The New Age movement and the desire to be “god” are just as strong as ever. According to a 1992 survey, as many as 12 million Americans can be considered active participants in the New Age movement, and another 30 million are avidly interested. If all these people were brought together in a church-like organization, it would be the third largest religious denomination in America. More than 90% of the subscribers to New Age Magazine are college graduates, compared to half the general population. iv. In 1995, New Age influence made it all the way to the White House. New Age author Marianne Williamson (writer of A Course In Miracles), guru to many of Hollywood’s spiritual seekers, spent a night at the White House as the personal guest of Hillary Clinton. And Anthony Robbins, motivational guru and king of late-night infomercials, consulted with President Clinton at Camp David. Robbins is also recognized as a leader in the New Age movement. B. The sin of Adam and Eve and the fall of the human race. 1. (6) Adam and Eve both disobey God in their own way. So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree desirable to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate. She also gave to her husband with her, and he ate. a. So when the woman saw: Eve surrendered to this temptation in exactly the way John describes in 1 John 2:16. First, she gave in to the lust of the flesh (saw that it was good for food), then she gave in to the lust of the eyes (pleasant to the eyes), then she gave in to the pride of life (desirable to make one wise). i. Jesus was tempted in the same three-fold way: an appeal to the physical appetites, an appeal to covetous and emotional desires, and an appeal to pride (Matthew 4:1-11). b. The woman saw that the tree was good for food: Eve’s perceptions were partially true and partially false. The tree was not really good for food, though Eve was deceived into thinking it was so. The fruit probably was pleasant to the eyes, though that shouldn’t mean much. And it was only true in Eve’s mind that the tree was desirable to make one wise. i. We can see the total truth of Paul’s statement in 1 Timothy 2:14, that Eve was deceived when she sinned. In her mind, she thought she was doing something good for herself. c. She took of its fruit and ate: Satan could tempt Eve, but she didn’t have to take it. The taking was all her doing. Satan couldn’t cram the fruit down her throat. Eve was responsible. She couldn’t rightly say, “the devil made me do it.” i. As with every temptation, God had made for Eve a way of escape (1 Corinthians 10:13). She could have simply run from Satan and the tree, but Eve didn’t take God’s way of escape. d. She also gave to her husband with her: Not only did Eve sin, but she became the agent of temptation for Adam. But when Adam ate, he was not deceived as Eve was. Adam sinned with his eyes wide open, in open rebellion against God. i. Therefore, it is Adam, not Eve, who bears the responsibility for the fall of the human race and for the introduction of death into the created order (Romans 5:12, 1 Corinthians 15:22). Eve was tricked into sinning; Adam knew exactly what he was doing (1 Timothy 2:14). ii. Many have speculated that Adam sinned because he didn’t want Eve to be alone in the fall, and he ate of the fruit out of a romantic impulse. This may well be true, but it makes Adam’s sin not one bit less rebellious. Rebellion against God is not “better” when motivated by a romantic impulse. iii. “Take and eat” will one day become verbs of salvation, but only after Jesus had lived in the world of Adam’s curse and surrendered to death. 2. (7) The nakedness of Adam and Eve. Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves coverings. a. Then the eyes of both of them were opened: Seemingly, it was only after the sin of Adam that they knew of their sinful state. They knew they were naked, in the sense of having their shame exposed to all creation. b. They new that they were naked: Psalm 104:2 and Matthew 17:2 suggest that light can be a garment for the righteous. It may be that Adam and Eve were previously clothed in God’s glorious light, and the immediate loss of this covering of light left them feeling exposed and naked. i. “It is more than probable that they were clothed in light before the fall, and when they sinned the light went out.” (Barnhouse) c. The eyes of both of them were opened: The way they saw themselves changed, but also the way they saw the entire world was now different. After the fall, everything looked worse. i. Was it good or bad that Adam and Eve saw their nakedness and felt terrible about it? It was good, because it is good to feel guilty when you have done something wrong. d. They sewed fig leaves together: Their own attempt to cover themselves took much ingenuity, but not much wisdom. Fig leaves are said to have a prickly quality, which would make for some pretty itchy coverings. i. Every attempt to cover our own nakedness before God is just as foolish. We need to let Jesus cover us (Revelation 3:5, 18), and put on Jesus Himself as our covering garment (Galatians 3:27). The exhortation from Jesus is for us: Behold, I am coming as a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his garments, lest he walk naked and they see his shame. (Revelation 16:15) ii. Obviously, they covered their genital areas. In virtually all cultures, adults cover their genital areas, even though other parts of the human body may be more or less exposed from culture to culture. iii. This is not because there is something intrinsically “dirty” in our sexuality, but because we have both received our fallenness and pass it on genetically through sexual reproduction. Because of this, God has implanted it in the minds of men that more modesty is appropriate for these areas of our body. 3. (8-9) Adam and Eve hide from God; God calls out to them. And they heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden. Then the Lord God called to Adam and said to him, “Where are you?” a. They heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: Adam and Eve knew that when they heard the Lord coming, He would want to be with them. This was how the Lord had fellowship with Adam and Eve, in a very natural, close, intimate way. i. Leupold on walking in the garden in the cool of the day: “The almost casual way in which this is remarked indicates that this did not occur for the first time just then ... There is extreme likelihood that the Almighty assumed some form analogous to the human form which was made in His image.” ii. We can assume this is God, in the Person of Jesus Christ, appearing to Adam and Eve before His incarnation and birth at Bethlehem, because of God the Father it is said, “No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him” (John 1:18), and no man has ever seen God in the Person of the Father. (1 Timothy 6:16) iii. “Cool of the day” is literally “the breeze of the day.” From Hebrew geography and culture, we might guess this means late afternoon. b. Adam and his wife hid themselves: This shows that Adam and Eve knew that their attempt to cover themselves failed. They didn’t proudly show off their fig-leaf outfits; they knew their own covering was completely inadequate, and they were embarrassed before God. c. Where are you? This is not the interrogation of an angry commanding officer, but the heartfelt cry of an anguished father. God obviously knew where they were but He also knew a gulf had been made between Himself and man, a gulf that He Himself would have to bridge. C. God confronts Adam and Eve with their sin. 1. (10-12) Adam tries to explain his sin. So he said, “I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; and I hid myself.” And He said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you that you should not eat?” Then the man said, “The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I ate.” a. I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid: Sin made Adam afraid of God’s presence and afraid of God’s voice. Ever since Adam, men run from God’s presence and don’t want to listen to His Word. i. We are still made in God’s image, so we want to be in the presence of God and hear His voice, while at the same time, we are afraid of Him. b. Who told you that you were naked? God knew the answer to this question. He asked it because He allowed Adam to make the best of a bad situation by repenting right then and there, but Adam didn’t come clean and repent before God. i. We all sin, but when we sin, we can still give glory to God by openly confessing without shifting the blame onto others (Joshua 7:19-20). ii. There is often nothing you can do about yesterday’s sin (though in some cases you may be able to make restitution). Yet you can do what is right before God right now by confessing and repenting. c. Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you that you should not eat? God confronted Adam’s problem squarely. This wasn’t primarily a wardrobe problem or a fear problem or a self-esteem problem. This was a sin problem and Adam’s wardrobe, fear, or self-understanding could not be addressed until the sin problem was addressed. d. Then the man said: Notice that to this point, God has not addressed Eve at all. Adam, being the head, is the problem here. e. The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I ate: Adam’s attempt to blame Eve is completely consistent with human nature. Few of us are willing to simply say as David did, I have sinned against the Lord (2 Samuel 12:13) i. Significantly, if there is any blame, it is on Adam, not Eve. Not only does Adam unjustly accuse Eve, but also he refuses to accept proper responsibility for his part in her sin. ii. By saying “the woman whom You gave to be with me,” Adam essentially blames God for the sin saying, “You gave me the woman, and she is the problem.” Adam wasn’t content to blame Eve; he had to blame God also. 2. (13) Eve’s reply to God. And the Lord God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” The woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.” a. The serpent deceived me, and I ate: When confronted by God, Eve doesn’t necessarily shift the blame when she admits the serpent deceived her and then she ate. This much was true, she had been deceived, and she did eat. b. Deceived me: The only problem comes when we fail to see that being deceived is sin in itself. It is sin to exchange the truth of God for the lie (Romans 1:25). D. The curse and its aftermath. 1. (14-15) God’s curse upon the serpent. So the Lord God said to the serpent: “Because you have done this, you are cursed more than all cattle, and more than every beast of the field; on your belly you shall go, and you shall eat dust all the days of your life. And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.” a. And the Lord God said to the serpent: When God spoke to Adam and to Eve, He asked them each questions. God didn’t ask Satan (the being animating the serpent) any questions, because there was nothing to teach him. b. You are cursed more than all cattle: The first part of the curse is directed at the animal that Satan used to bring the temptation. God commanded the serpent to slither on the ground instead of walking on legs like any other animal. i. Adam and Eve must have been terrified as this once-beautiful creature called a serpent was transformed into the creeping, slithering, hissing snake we know today. They must have thought, “It’s our turn next!” ii. I will put enmity between you and the woman: In addition, there is a natural aversion between mankind and serpents, especially on the part of women. c. You shall eat dust all the days of your life: This was true of the serpent as an animal, but it is also true of Satan. To eat dust has the idea of total defeat (Isaiah 65:25, Micah 7:17). God’s judgment on Satan is for him to always know defeat. He will always reach for victory, but always fall short of it. i. Satan was, in his own thinking, majestic and triumphant over Jesus on the cross, but he failed. In attacking Jesus, Satan made his own doom certain. ii. In Jesus, we share in the victory over Satan: And the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet shortly. (Romans 16:20) d. Enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed: The second part of the curse is directed against Satan himself. God placed a natural animosity between Satan and mankind. Enmity has the idea of ill will, hatred, and a mutual antagonism. Satan’s hatred of Eve was nothing new; it was already present - but now man will, generally speaking, have antagonism towards Satan. i. The “friendship” Eve and the serpent seemed to enjoy earlier in the chapter is finished. There is now a natural fear of Satan in the heart of man. ii. If we are born naturally rebellious against God, we are also born cautious and afraid of Satan. One must be hardened to willingly and knowingly serve Satan. Instinctively, we don’t serve God or Satan; we serve ourselves (which is fine with Satan). e. He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel: In this, God prophesies the doom of Satan, showing that the real battle is between Satan and the Seed of the Woman. i. There is no doubt this is a prophecy of Jesus’ ultimate defeat of Satan. God announced that Satan would wound the Messiah (you shall bruise His heel), but the Messiah would crush Satan with a mortal wound (He shall bruise your head). ii. The heel is the part within the serpent’s reach. Jesus, in taking on humanity, brought Himself near to Satan’s domain so Satan could strike Him. iii. This prophecy also gives the first hint of the virgin birth, declaring the Messiah - the Deliverer - would be the Seed of the Woman, but not of the man. iv. Genesis 3:15 has been called the protoevangelium, the first gospel. Luther said of this verse: “This text embraces and comprehends within itself everything noble and glorious that is to be found anywhere in the Scriptures.” (Leupold) f. He shall bruise your head: For God to see the defeat of Satan at Satan’s first flush of victory shows God knew what He was doing all along. God’s plan wasn’t “set back” when Adam and Eve sinned, because God’s plan was to bring forth something greater than man in the innocence of Eden. God wanted more than innocent man; His plan is to bring forth redeemed man. i. Redeemed man - this being who is greater than innocent man - is only possible because man had something to be redeemed from. 2. (16) God’s curse upon the woman. To the woman He said: “I will greatly multiply your sorrow and your conception; in pain you shall bring forth children; your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you.” a. I will greatly multiply your sorrow: God first cursed the woman with multiplied sorrow. Men and women have each known sorrow throughout history, yet the unique sorrow of women is well known. i. Under Jesus, some of the effects of the curse are relieved, and it has been the Christianizing of society that brought rights and dignity to women. ii. “It is difficult for women in Christian lands to realize the miseries of their hundreds of millions of sisters in pagan lands, where the lot of women is little above that of cattle. Where the gospel has gone, the load has been lifted, and woman in Christ has become the reflection of the redeemed Church, the bride of Christ.” (Barnhouse) b. Your sorrow and your conception; in pain you shall bring forth children: The first curse upon women is a broad one. It has the idea that women would experience pain in regard to their children in general, not just in the act of giving birth. God ordained that the pain with which women bring children into this world be an example of the pain they experience more generally in life. i. It has been observed that women bring forth children with more pain than just about any other creature. c. Your desire shall be for your husband: This is true of women in a way that it is not true for men. “This verse will be understood better when it is realized that the desire of man toward his wife alone is solely by God’s grace and not by nature.” (Barnhouse) d. Your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you: The idea is to contrast the woman’s desire and the husband’s rule over her. This speaks of an inherent challenge in embracing the husband’s role as leader of the home and family. i. This same word for desire is used in Genesis 4:7 of the desire of sin to master over Cain. Because of the curse, Eve would have to fight a desire to master her husband, a desire that works against God’s ordained order for the home. ii. The principle of Adam’s headship as a husband was established before the fall (see Genesis 2:18 and 2:22). Now the curse on Eve makes it much harder for her to submit and flow with God’s institution of male headship in the home. iii. “As a result of the fall, man no longer rules easily; he must fight from his headship. Sin has corrupted both the willing submission of the wife and the loving headship of the husband. The woman’s desire is to control her husband (to usurp his divinely appointed headship), and he must master her, if he can. So the rule of love founded in paradise is replaced by struggle, tyranny and domination.” (Susan T. Foh, cited in Boice) 3. (17-19) God’s curse upon the man. Then to Adam He said, “Because you have heeded the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat of it’: “Cursed is the ground for your sake; in toil you shall eat of it all the days of your life. Both thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you, and you shall eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for dust you are, and to dust you shall return.” a. Because you have heeded the voice of your wife: It wasn’t just as if Adam took Eve’s advice. He chose to be with Eve intead of obeying God. There is a sense in which idolatry of Eve was an aspect of Adam’s disobedience against God. b. Cursed is the ground: Because of Adam, there is a curse upon all creation. Before the curse on man, the ground only produced good. After the curse, it will still produce good, but thorns and thistles will come faster and easier than good fruit. c. In toil you shall eat of it: Adam worked before the curse, but it was all joy. Now work has a cursed element to it, with pain and weariness a part of work. Is there not a time of hard service for man on earth? Are not his days also like the days of a hired man? Like a servant who earnestly desires the shade, and like a hired man who eagerly looks for his wages (Job 7:1-2). d. Dust you are, and to dust you shall return: The final curse upon man promised there would be an end of his toil and labor on the earth - but it was an end of death, not not an end of deliverance. i. The curse of death shows that the result of Adam’s sin extended to the entire human race. Because of Adam, sin entered the world (Romans 5:12), death came to all mankind (Romans 5:15, 1 Corinthians 15:22), death reigned over man and creation (Romans 5:17), all men were condemned (Romans 5:18), and all men were made sinners (Romans 5:19). ii. The principle of Galatians 3:13 is established as we consider that Jesus bore each aspect of the curse upon Adam and Eve in its totality: Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us. · Sin brought pain to childbirth, and no one knew more pain than Jesus did when He, through His suffering, brought many sons to glory (Hebrews 2:10) · Sin brought conflict, and Jesus endured great conflict to bring our salvation (Hebrews 12:3) · Thorns came with sin and the fall, and Jesus endured a crown of thorns to bring our salvation (John 19:2) · Sin brought sweat, and Jesus sweat, as it were, great drops of blood to win our salvation (Luke 22:44) · Sin brought sorrow, and Jesus became a man of sorrows, acquainted with grief, to save us (Isaiah 53:3) · Sin brought death, and Jesus tasted death for everyone that we might be saved (Hebrews 2:9) 4. (20) The naming of Eve. And Adam called his wife’s name Eve, because she was the mother of all living. a. Adam called his wife’s name Eve: Up to Genesis 3:20, the woman has never been called Eve. We are so used to saying “Adam and Eve” that we assume she already had her name. But to this point, she was called a female (Genesis 1:27), a helper comparable (Genesis 2:18), a woman (Genesis 2:22, 23), and a wife (Genesis 2:24, 25; 3:8). This does not mean God did not have a name for Eve, but we are told what the name is in Genesis 5:2: He called them Mankind. i. The idea that the woman takes her name from the husband, and the idea that both genders are encompassed in terms like mankind, humanity, and chairman. Our use of these terms is not merely cultural, it is Biblical. ii. A woman gains more of her identity from her husband than the man does from the wife. For this reason, women should take special care in which man they marry. b. Because she was the mother of all living: Adam named her Eve, even though she was not a mother at all at the time. She was not even pregnant yet. Adam named her in faith, trusting God would bring forth a deliverer from the woman, because God said He would defeat Satan through the Seed of the woman (Genesis 3:15). 5. (21) God clothes Adam and Eve in the skins of animals. Also for Adam and his wife the Lord God made tunics of skin, and clothed them. a. The Lord God made tunics of skin, and clothed them: God wanted Adam and Eve clothed, not naked. “God gave His approval of the sense of shame which had led our first parents to cover their nakedness.” (Leupold) i. The world’s oldest profession is not prostitution, but the clothing business (Genesis 3:7). b. Tunics of skin: In order for Adam and Eve to be clothed, a sacrifice had to be made. An animal had to die. Without shedding of blood there is no remission. (Hebrews 9:22) i. There are only two religions; there is the religion of fig leaves and there is the religion of God’s perfect provision through Jesus. ii. Covering ourselves with our good works is like Adam and Eve trying to cover themselves with fig leaves. Our good works are like monopoly money - great for monopoly, but not legal tender. Your good works are essential to what it takes to live out your life, but they are not legal tender before God. iii. Adam and Eve were clothed in a garment that was purchased with the life of another. We are clothed with a garment of righteousness that was purchased with the life of another, Jesus Christ. c. And clothed them: This indicates that Adam and Eve were saved. Adam had faith in God’s promise of a Savior, and God provided a covering for them through a sacrifice. We will see Adam and Eve in heaven. 6. (22-24) God sets cherubim to guard the Tree of Life. Then the Lord God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of Us, to know good and evil. And now, lest he put out his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever”; therefore the Lord God sent him out of the garden of Eden to till the ground from which he was taken. So He drove out the man; and He placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life. a. Behold, the man has become like one of us, to know good and evil: The idea behind this phrase is difficult to understand. Perhaps there is a note of sarcasm by God here (as Elijah used in 1 Kings 18:27), regarding Satan’s empty promise to become like gods. Or, perhaps the idea focuses on man’s greater knowledge (though in a bad sense) now that he has the experiential knowledge of evil. b. And take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever: In mercy, God protected Adam and Eve from the horrible fate of having to live forever as sinners by preventing them from eating from the tree of life. c. The Lord God sent him out of the garden of Eden: We don’t know if Adam and Eve wanted to stay in the garden of Eden. Perhaps they felt if they left the garden, they might never see God again because it was the only place where they met Him. d. He drove out the man; and He placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden: Cherubim are always associated with the presence and glory of God (Ezekiel 10, Isaiah 6, Revelation 4). When cherubim are represented on earth (such as in the tabernacle, Exodus 25:10-22), they mark a meeting place with God. Though Adam and Eve and their descendants were prevented from eating the fruit of the tree of life (by God’s mercy), they could still come there to meet God. This was their “holy of holies.” Therefore it was important to send a cherubim with a flaming sword to guard the way to the tree of life. i. “Any angel of the lowest rank could have dealt with Adam. The flaming sword was pointed against Satan to keep him from destroying the way of access to the altar, which God had set up.” (Barnhouse) ii. This is the last historical mention of the garden of Eden in the Bible. We can speculate that God did not destroy it, but left it to the effects of the curse and suppose that it generally deteriorated from its original condition, blending into the surrounding geography.

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8. Genesis 32-36 (Jacob Prepares to Meet Esau, Jacob and Esau Meet, & Shechem Massacre)

Genesis 32-36 (Jacob Prepares to Meet Esau, Jacob and Esau Meet, & Shechem Massacre)

Genesis 32 - Jacob Prepares to Meet Esau A. Jacob hears of Esau’s approach. 1. (1-2) Jacob meets the angels of God at Mahanaim. He realizes God is with him and he has angelic protection. So Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him. When Jacob saw them, he said, “This is God’s camp.” And he called the name of that place Mahanaim. a. The angels of God met him: We don't exactly know what this means. In some way, angelic being that are normally unseen were now made visible to Jacob, and he interacted with them. Perhaps God wanted Jacob to know how great His care was for him and his family. i. This wonderful revelation of God’s presence and care came after Jacob finally separated from Laban, the worldly man. Separation from the world brings greater insight to the believer. b. This is God’s camp: Literally, Jacob observed he was in a double camp. He was not alone; God had a camp of angels with him at Mahanaim. i. It was not as if God’s angels just joined Jacob. They were with him the entire time. Now Jacob could see God’s angels with him and it provided great encouragement. ii. Angels, though “higher” beings than us, are ordained by God to be our servants (Hebrews 1:14) and they minister to us even as they ministered to Jesus (Matthew 4:11). In 2 Kings 6:15-17 Elisha’s servant had his eyes opened to see the tremendous angelic host surrounding them. iii. John Paton, a missionary to the New Hebrides Islands, told of how one night hostile natives surrounded his missions headquarters, intent on burning the Patons out and killing them. He and his wife prayed through the entire night, and when daylight finally came, their attackers all left. A year later, the chief of the tribe became a Christian, and Paton asked the man about that night. The chief replied, “Who were all those men you had with you there?” The missionary explained only he and his wife were there. The chief insisted he had seen hundreds of big men with shining garments and swords circling the mission headquarters, so the natives were afraid to attack (Billy Graham in Angels, God’s Secret Agents, page 3). That night in the New Hebrides Islands, there certainly was a “double camp.” 2. (3-6) Jacob’s message to Esau. Then Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother in the land of Seir, the country of Edom. And he commanded them, saying, “Speak thus to my lord Esau, ‘Thus your servant Jacob says: “I have dwelt with Laban and stayed there until now. I have oxen, donkeys, flocks, and male and female servants; and I have sent to tell my lord, that I may find favor in your sight.”’” Then the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, “We came to your brother Esau, and he also is coming to meet you, and four hundred men are with him.” a. Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother: Jacob, seeking to reconcile with his brother (who 20 years before swore to kill him), first began by humbling himself and sending the message, “your servant Jacob.” b. I have oxen, donkeys, flocks, and male and female servants: Jacob wasn’t boasting. He wanted Esau to know that he was a man of wealth and that he did not come to take anything from Esau. Jacob tried to anticipate Esau’s thinking and answer Esau’s concerns. c. He also is coming to meet you, and four hundred men are with him: When the messengers return, Jacob heard news that gave him great concern - Esau was coming to meet him with 400 men. Because Jacob could not bring himself to think the best of Esau (for understandable reasons), he was convinced the 400 men were an army intending to destroy him and his family. 3. (7-8) Jacob’s fear and carnal preparation. So Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed; and he divided the people that were with him, and the flocks and herds and camels, into two companies. And he said, “If Esau comes to the one company and attacks it, then the other company which is left will escape.” a. Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed: When Laban confronted Jacob with a hostile militia Jacob boldly stood up to him and spoke his mind (Genesis 31:36-42). But with Esau, Jacob was afraid to meet him. This was because Jacob knew he was in the right with Laban, but he knew he was in the wrong with Esau. i. Shakespeare was right when he wrote, “Conscience does make cowards of us all” (Hamlet, Act 3 Scene 1). As Jacob had no strength before Esau because of guilt, so many Christians today are also hindered by their past. b. Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed: Before Jacob left home, after his brother swore to kill him, Rebekah told Jacob until your brother’s anger turns away from you, and he forgets what you have done to him; then I will send and bring you from there (Genesis 27:45). Rebekah never sent for Jacob; therefore he had every reason to believe that Esau was still angry with him 20 years later. i. But Jacob also had every reason to believe God would protect him. He seems to have forgotten God had a special camp of angels there to protect him. His great fear and distress is not appropriate for someone who is protected by God. ii. Jacob should have said, “I don’t know if Esau is coming to me in peace or in war. I hope for peace, but if it is war, I trust God will protect me.” c. He divided the people that were with him, and the flocks and herds and camels, into two companies: In splitting his company, Jacob used man’s wisdom to prepare for Esau’s coming. He should have trusted God could protect all he had. Jacob forgot about God’s two camps (Genesis 32:2) and was tried to make his own two camps. 4. (9-12) Jacob’s prayer. Then Jacob said, “O God of my father Abraham and God of my father Isaac, the Lord who said to me, ‘Return to your country and to your family, and I will deal well with you’: I am not worthy of the least of all the mercies and of all the truth which You have shown Your servant; for I crossed over this Jordan with my staff, and now I have become two companies. Deliver me, I pray, from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau; for I fear him, lest he come and attack me and the mother with the children. For You said, ‘I will surely treat you well, and make your descendants as the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for multitude.’ “ a. Then Jacob said: After first reacting in fear and unbelief, Jacob did the right thing. He went to the Lord and prayed a good prayer, humble, full of faith, thanksgiving, and God’s Word. b. The Lord who said to me, “Return to your country and to your kindred, and I will deal well with you”: Jacob’s prayer had God’s word (what God said in Genesis 31:3). He also quoted God’s promises “I will surely treat you well” (remembering God words in Genesis 28:13-15). i. Many of our prayers fall short because there is none of God’s Word within them. Often there is none of God’s Word in them because there is little of God’s Word in us. Jacob remembered what the Lord had said to him. c. I am not worthy of the least of all the mercies: His prayer had thanksgiving. Jacob understood he was not worthy of what God did for him or what he was asking God to do, but he relied on what God promised and not upon his own worthiness. d. Deliver me, I pray: His prayer had faith. He boldly asked God to do something, and gave humble grounds for why the Lord should fulfill His word. i. George Mueller, a great man of faith and prayer, was once asked what was the most important part of prayer. He replied: “The 15 minutes after I have said, ‘Amen.’” No matter how great Jacob’s prayer was, his faith will be seen in what he does after his prayer. 5. (13-21) Jacob sends many gifts to Esau. So he lodged there that same night, and took what came to his hand as a present for Esau his brother: two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, thirty milk camels with their colts, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten foals. Then he delivered them to the hand of his servants, every drove by itself, and said to his servants, “Pass over before me, and put some distance between successive droves.” And he commanded the first one, saying, “When Esau my brother meets you and asks you, saying, ‘To whom do you belong, and where are you going? Whose are these in front of you?’ then you shall say, ‘They are your servant Jacob’s. It is a present sent to my lord Esau; and behold, he also is behind us.’ “ So he commanded the second, the third, and all who followed the droves, saying, “In this manner you shall speak to Esau when you find him; and also say, ‘Behold, your servant Jacob is behind us.’ “ For he said, “I will appease him with the present that goes before me, and afterward I will see his face; perhaps he will accept me.” So the present went on over before him, but he himself lodged that night in the camp. a. Took what came to his hand as a present for Esau his brother: Jacob sent such an impressive gift because he wanted to make it completely clear to Esau that he did not need or want anything from him. It also could have been an attempt to buy his brother’s good favor. b. I will appease him with the present that goes before me, and afterward I will see his face; perhaps he will accept me: In all likelihood, Jacob is a perfect example of the principle “when all else fails, pray.” As soon as he finished praying, he took up us own strategies again. i. After all, if Jacob really trusted God, he would be at the head of the procession to meet Esau, not the tail. ii. Jacob hoped, “perhaps he will accept me,” but in Jacob’s mind, perhaps not. Jacob also thought, “Perhaps he will kill me just like he said he would.” c. So the present went on over before him: This gift is a good example of the way we trust in our ability to do things and make things happen apart from trusting God. We like to sing the song: All to Jesus, I surrender, all to Him I freely give; I will ever love and trust Him, in His presence daily live. I surrender all, I surrender all, All to Thee, my blessed Savior, I surrender all. i. But we, so often like Jacob, mean, “I surrender all the goats. If that isn’t enough, I surrender all the sheep. If that isn’t enough, I surrender all the camels…” To this point, what Jacob refused to do was to surrender himself. B. Jacob wrestles with God. 1. (22-23) Jacob sends all his possessions over the river. And he arose that night and took his two wives, his two female servants, and his eleven sons, and crossed over the ford of Jabbok. He took them, sent them over the brook, and sent over what he had. a. He took them, sent them over the brook: This was a demonstration of his faith, because Jacob left himself no retreat. If Esau wanted to attack his group, they would quickly be backed up against the river. b. Sent over what he had: Jacob spent the night alone. This was his last night on the east side of the Jordan, and he probably spent the night in prayer. i. God had to get Jacob alone before He dealt with him. While all the activity of the huge entourage surrounded Jacob, he could busy himself with a thousand different tasks. Once he was alone, God commanded his attention. ii. Think of all Jacob had to pray about: thanking God, remembering all that the Lord did for him, wondering how God would fulfill His work in him. This was a significant turning point in Jacob’s life and he knew it. 2. (24-25) A Man wrestles with Jacob. Then Jacob was left alone; and a Man wrestled with him until the breaking of day. Now when He saw that He did not prevail against him, He touched the socket of his hip; and the socket of Jacob’s hip was out of joint as He wrestled with him. a. A Man wrestled with him until the breaking of day: Jacob didn’t wrestle with the Man. Instead, a Man wrestled with him. Jacob didn’t start out wanting anything from God; God wanted something from him. God wanted all of Jacob’s proud self-reliance and fleshly scheming and came to take it, by force if necessary. b. A Man wrestled with him: As the following verses show, this was no mere man. This is another special appearance of Jesus in the Old Testament before His incarnation in Bethlehem. This was God in human form. c. Until the breaking of the day: We can only imagine what this scene looked like. Perhaps sometimes it looked like a barroom fight, and perhaps at other times it looked like an intense wrestling match. i. “How did Jacob ever manage to keep up his struggle throughout the entire night? I do not know. But I do know that his determination to hang in there was no greater than our frequent determination to have our own way and eventually win out over God.” (Boice) d. He saw that He did not prevail against him: As the fight progressed, it seemed Jacob was pretty evenly matched against the Man. But the match was only even in appearance. The Man could have won easily at any time, using supernatural power. i. Sometimes we feel man really can contend with God. A man or woman in rebellion against God might seem to do pretty well. The match seems even in appearance only. God can turn the tide at any moment, and is allows the match to go own for His own purposes. ii. It isn’t hard to imagine Jacob working so hard and feeling he is getting the best of his opponent, until finally the Man changed the struggle in a moment. Jacob must have felt very defeated. 3. (26) Jacob’s plea to the Man. And He said, “Let Me go, for the day breaks.” But he said, “I will not let You go unless You bless me!” a. Let Me go, for the day breaks: The Man let Jacob know this would not last much longer. Even though Jacob clung to him desperately, Jacob had lost. A better, greater Man defeated Jacob. i. This is an invaluable place for everyone to come to: where God conquers us. There is something to be said for every man doing his wrestling with God, and then acknowledging God’s greatness after having been defeated. We must know we serve a God who is greater than us, and we cannot conquer much of anything until He conquers us. b. I will not let You go unless You bless me: This wasn’t Jacob dictating terms to God as he did on previous occasions. God overcame Jacob here, and we know from Hosea 12:3-5 that Jacob sought this blessing with weeping. He knew he was defeated, yet desperately wanted a blessing from this Greater One. i. He took his brother by the heel in the womb, and in his strength he struggled with God. Yes, he struggled with the Angel and prevailed; he wept, and sought favor from Him. He found Him in Bethel, and there He spoke to us; that is, the Lord God of hosts. The Lord is His memorable name. (Hosea 12:3-5) c. Unless You bless me: According to his past, Jacob was always clever and sneaky enough so he never felt the need to trust in God alone. Now he could only rely on the blessing of God. i. Jacob was reduced to the place where all he could do was to hold on to the Lord with everything he had. Jacob could not fight anymore, but he could hold on. That is not a bad place to be. ii. Here, God is answered Jacob’s prayer in Genesis 32:9-12. Yet before Jacob could be delivered from the hand of his brother, he had to be delivered from his own self-will and self-reliance. iii. Jacob thought the real enemy was outside of him, being Esau. The real enemy was his own carnal, fleshly nature, which had not been conquered by God. 4. (27-29) Jacob’s name is changed, and he is a blessed man. So He said to him, “What is your name?” He said, “Jacob.” And He said, “Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel; for you have struggled with God and with men, and have prevailed.” Then Jacob asked, saying, “Tell me Your name, I pray.” And He said, “Why is it that you ask about My name?” And He blessed him there. a. What is your name? Jacob must have felt a sense of shame, admitting his name was Jacob, with all its associations of deception and cheating. Yet, this was who he was, and Jacob had to admit to it. i. We all want to name ourselves favorably. We say, “I am firm; you are obstinate; they are stubborn fools.” God wouldn’t allow Jacob to cover up his name, because in his case it reflected his true nature. b. Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel: The name Israel is a compound of two words: sarah (meaning, fight, struggle, or rule) and el (meaning, God). Some take the name Israel to mean, He who struggles with God or He who rules with God. But in Hebrew names, sometimes God is not the object of the verb but the subject. Daniel means God judges not he judges God. This principle shows us Israel likely means, God rules. i. From this point on, he will be called Jacob twice as often as he is called Israel. Apparently, there was still plenty of the old man left in Jacob. c. For you have struggled with God and with men, and have prevailed: Jacob prevailed in the sense that he endured through his struggle until God thoroughly conquered him. When you battle with God, you only win by losing and by not giving up until you know you have lost. This is how Jacob prevailed. d. Why is it that you ask about My name? The Man probably refused to tell Jacob His name because He figured Jacob should already know it, and it turned out that Jacob did know exactly who this was. e. And He blessed him there: Surely, this was the blessing of being defeated by God. It was the blessing of the passing of the old (Jacob) life, and the coming of a new (Israel) life. It may also have had to do with the great idea of the blessing of Abraham, and meeting Jacob’s immediate needs for security in the midst of fear. Whatever Jacob needed, God’s blessing provided at the moment. 5. (30-32) Two memorials of this event. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: “For I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.” Just as he crossed over Penuel the sun rose on him, and he limped on his hip. Therefore to this day the children of Israel do not eat the muscle that shrank, which is on the hip socket, because He touched the socket of Jacob’s hip in the muscle that shrank. a. Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: The first memorial was a name. Jacob named the place Peniel (Face of God), because he did know the name of the Man who wrestled with him. He was the same One who wrestled with Jacob all his life. i. Jacob also understood it was only by God’s grace and mercy he escaped from this episode with his life. No man should be allowed to wrestle with God and live, but God was gracious. b. He limped on his hip: The second memorial was a perpetual limp. Jacob would remember his being conquered by God with every step he took for the rest of his life. This was a small price to pay for such a great gift. Genesis 33 - The Meeting of Jacob and Esau A. Esau’s warm welcome. 1. (1-2) Jacob’s careful preparations. Now Jacob lifted his eyes and looked, and there, Esau was coming, and with him were four hundred men. So he divided the children among Leah, Rachel, and the two maidservants. And he put the maidservants and their children in front, Leah and her children behind, and Rachel and Joseph last. a. He divided the children among Leah, Rachel, and the two maidservants: These preparations were not necessarily examples of merely human wisdom and strength. Yet the order of the groups shows that Jacob openly favored Rachel and her son Joseph. b. He put the maidservants and their children in front: At least Leah was more protected than the two maidservants Bilhah and Zilpah were. 2. (3) Jacob demonstrates his submission. Then he crossed over before them and bowed himself to the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother. a. He crossed over before them: After being conquered by God, Jacob now led the procession to meet Esau. This displays some change of character. b. Bowed himself to the ground: Jacob already sent over gifts and showed he didn’t want to take anything materially from Esau. Then, by bowing down, he showed he was submitted to his brother and wanted no social power over him. i. If Jacob had not superstitiously tried to steal the blessing 20 years before, all this would. Isaac’s promise to Jacob, Let peoples serve you, and nations bow down to you. Be master over your brethren (Genesis 27:29) would be more immediately fulfilled. ii. It’s still common to suffer some problem because we try to accomplish what we think to be God’s will or to protect our interest in merely human energy and wisdom. God never needs us to sin to help Him fulfill His plan in our life. 3. (4-7) Esau warmly greets Jacob and his family. But Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck and kissed him, and they wept. And he lifted his eyes and saw the women and children, and said, “Who are these with you?” So he said, “The children whom God has graciously given your servant.” Then the maidservants came near, they and their children, and bowed down. And Leah also came near with her children, and they bowed down. Afterward Joseph and Rachel came near, and they bowed down. a. Esau ran to meet him: This probably terrified Jacob. Surely, he thought his life would soon end. Instead, God had worked in Esau, and he only wanted to bless Jacob. b. Fell on his neck and kissed him, and they wept: Esau and Jacob did not feel a need to discuss and resolve the past. God worked in both their hearts and there was no need to dredge it all up again. What was past was past. 4. (8-11) Esau receives Jacob’s gifts: and he took it. Then Esau said, “What do you mean by all this company which I met?” And he said, “These are to find favor in the sight of my lord.” But Esau said, “I have enough, my brother; keep what you have for yourself.” And Jacob said, “No, please, if I have now found favor in your sight, then receive my present from my hand, inasmuch as I have seen your face as though I had seen the face of God, and you were pleased with me. Please, take my blessing that is brought to you, because God has dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough.” So he urged him, and he took it. b. I have enough…I have enough: Both Esau and Jacob have a blessed testimony: I have enough. Godliness with contentment is great gain (1 Timothy 6:6). Esau’s peace and contentment showed him to be a remarkably blessed man, though he did not receive the promise of the Abrahamic covenant as he had hoped. b. So he urged him, and he took it: This was as important to the reconciliation as Jacob’s giving the gifts. When Jacob gave such generous gifts, it was his way of saying to Esau he was sorry and when Esau accepted the gifts, it was his way of accepting Jacob and saying he was forgiven. i. In that culture, one never accepted a gift from an enemy, only from a friend. To accept the gift was to accept the friendship. B. Jacob’s travels in the Promised Land. 1. (12-17) Jacob and Esau part their ways; Jacob goes to Succoth. Then Esau said, “Let us take our journey; let us go, and I will go before you.” But Jacob said to him, “My lord knows that the children are weak, and the flocks and herds which are nursing are with me. And if the men should drive them hard one day, all the flock will die. Please let my lord go on ahead before his servant. I will lead on slowly at a pace which the livestock that go before me, and the children, are able to endure, until I come to my lord in Seir.” And Esau said, “Now let me leave with you some of the people who are with me.” But he said, “What need is there? Let me find favor in the sight of my lord.” So Esau returned that day on his way to Seir. And Jacob journeyed to Succoth, built himself a house, and made booths for his livestock. Therefore the name of the place is called Succoth. a. Please let my lord go on ahead before his servant: Jacob was glad to be reconciled with his brother, but didn’t want to be too close to him. He was still afraid of Esau. b. Jacob journeyed to Succoth: Unfortunately, Jacob still acted like old Jacob instead of like new Israel, because he said he would go far to the south with Esau to the area of Mount Seir. Instead, he allowed Esau to go a few days beyond him and then headed north towards Succoth. i. It’s hard to try to be Jacob and Israel at the same time. We could have called him Jak-iel or Israe-ob. 2. (18-20) Jacob comes to Shechem. Then Jacob came safely to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padan Aram; and he pitched his tent before the city. And he bought the parcel of land, where he had pitched his tent, from the children of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for one hundred pieces of money. Then he erected an altar there and called it El Elohe Israel. a. And he pitched his tent before the city: It is good Jacob came to the Promised Land, and he settled there. But he came short of full obedience, because it seems God directed him to return to Bethel (Genesis 31:13). b. Then he erected an altar there and called it El Elohe Israel: The altar was good, but complete obedience was better. God wants obedience first, then sacrifice. Jacob and his family will suffer in this wasted, disobedience period of time. Genesis 34 - Simeon and Levi Massacre Shechem A. The rape of Dinah. 1. (1-4) A local prince violates Dinah and then wants to marry her. Now Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her and lay with her, and violated her. His soul was strongly attracted to Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the young woman and spoke kindly to the young woman. So Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, “Get me this young woman as a wife.” a. Now Dinah the daughter of Leah: This chapter contains one of the most shameful incidents in Israel’s history. When the Bible shows its leaders and heroes in such terrible, plain truth, we can know for sure that it is a book from God. Men don’t normally write about themselves and their ancestors like this. i. Leupold’s preaching suggestions on the chapter give us an idea of this: “We may well wonder if any man who had proper discernment ever drew a text from this chapter…It is rightly evaluated by the more mature mind and could be treated to advantage before a men’s Bible class. But we cannot venture to offer homiletical suggestions for its treatment.” b. Went out to see the daughters of the land: Remember, Jacob brought his family to a place God didn’t really want them to be. It seems God directed him to return to Bethel (Genesis 31:13), and his time spent in the city of Shechem did much harm to his family. i. Jacob chose a place to live for all the wrong reasons. He wanted to be close to the city (Genesis 33:18), though the city was ungodly. God called him to Bethel. Jacob’s poor choice of a place to live left his family open to ungodly influence. c. Went out to see the daughters of the land: Dinah’s desire to do this understandable but unwise. Jacob did not make sure she was properly supervised. To allow unsupervised socialization in a pagan town was a failure of responsibility on the part of Jacob and Leah. i. “Unattached young women were considered fair game in cities of the time, in which promiscuity was not only common but, in fact, a part of the very religious system itself.” (Morris) ii. “This occurrence serves to illustrate the low standard of morals prevalent among the Canaanites. Any unattended female could be raped, and in the transactions that ensue neither father nor son feel the need of apologizing for or excusing what had been committed.” (Leupold) iii. But try telling this to a teenager like Dinah! Teenagers often want it all, and they want it now. It is almost impossible for them to see the benefits of waiting for certain things until they are more mature. iv. A way this difficulty has been measured has been called the marshmallow test. A researcher gives this choice to a four-year-old: “I am leaving for a few minutes to run an errand, and you can have this marshmallow while I am gone, but if you wait until I return, you can have two marshmallows.” Researchers at Stanford did this test in the 1960’s, and a dozen years later they found the kids who grabbed the single marshmallow tended to be more troubled as adolescents. The one-marshmallow kids also scored an average of 210 points less on SAT tests. Learning to delay gratification is important! d. Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her and lay with her: Jacob’s lack of attention and protection was partially at fault in this tragedy. His own compromise made him less able to stand up to his own children and guide them as he should. i. Jacob’s children knew he told his brother Esau he would go south with him, but Jacob went north instead. They picked up on this and other areas of compromise and used them to justify their own compromise. e. He took her and lay with her, and violated her: As for the young man named Shechem, his soul was strongly attracted to Dinah and he even spoke kindly to her. Yet we cannot say he loved her, because he violated her. i. It was a soulish love Shechem had for Dinah, not a spiritual or godly love. He loved her for what she could be and give to him, not for what he could be and give to her. His heart is shown in the words get me this young woman as a wife. It was a soulish “get me” kind of love. ii. It is possible for a man to be attracted to a woman and to show kindness to her for reasons having nothing or little to do with love. In their desire to connect romantically with a man, women often forget this. 2. (5-7) Jacob’s lack of outrage; the anger of Simeon and Levi. And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter. Now his sons were with his livestock in the field; so Jacob held his peace until they came. Then Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him. And the sons of Jacob came in from the field when they heard it; and the men were grieved and very angry, because he had done a disgraceful thing in Israel by lying with Jacob’s daughter, a thing which ought not to be done. a. Jacob held his peace until they came: Jacob shows a distinct lack of outrage here. He seemed to take the defilement of his only daughter easily. His refusal to do what is right in regard to his family will encourage two of his sons to do something, something ungodly in response. i. When God-appointed heads do not take appropriate leadership, it creates a void, which is often filled sinfully. b. The sons of Jacob ... and the men were grieved and very angry: In this culture, the brothers had a greater responsibility to protect their sister than the father. They will “protect” Dinah’s honor in unwise and sinful ways. 3. (8-12) Hamor and Shechem seek to arrange the marriage of Dinah. But Hamor spoke with them, saying, “The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter. Please give her to him as a wife. And make marriages with us; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to yourselves. So you shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you. Dwell and trade in it, and acquire possessions for yourselves in it.” Then Shechem said to her father and her brothers, “Let me find favor in your eyes, and whatever you say to me I will give. Ask me ever so much dowry and gift, and I will give according to what you say to me; but give me the young woman as a wife.” a. Make marriages with us; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to yourselves: This was a dangerous challenge to Jacob and his family. Irresponsible intermarriage with the Canaanites could prove especially harmful for this family with such a destiny in God’s redemptive plan. b. Whatever you say to me I will give: Hamor and Shechem probably thought themselves generous. But their manner of negotiating the arrangement of the marriage insulted Dinah and her family even more with a “just name your price” attitude. They acted as if money and marriage could make her disgrace go away. 4. (13-17) The counteroffer of Simeon and Levi: all the men of the city of Shechem should be circumcised. But the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father, and spoke deceitfully, because he had defiled Dinah their sister. And they said to them, “We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one who is uncircumcised, for that would be a reproach to us. But on this condition we will consent to you: If you will become as we are, if every male of you is circumcised, then we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters to us; and we will dwell with you, and we will become one people. But if you will not heed us and be circumcised, then we will take our daughter and be gone.” a. If every male of you is circumcised, then we will give our daughters to you: Hamor and Shechem agreed to such an extremem demand because because circumcision was not only practiced among the Israelites - other ancient peoples also had the practice. Therefore they knew of the practice from the rituals of other nations. b. For that would be a reproach to us: Simeon and Levi have evil intention in this plan. Yet they cover it up with spiritual words, and used Dinah as a cover for their intended evil. i. They felt justified because the men of Shechem treated their sister as a prostitute (Genesis 34:31), but they prostituted the sign of God’s covenant for their own murderous purpose. 5. (18-24) Hamor and Shechem convince the men of the city to go along with the plan. And their words pleased Hamor and Shechem, Hamor’s son. So the young man did not delay to do the thing, because he delighted in Jacob’s daughter. He was more honorable than all the household of his father. And Hamor and Shechem his son came to the gate of their city, and spoke with the men of their city, saying: “These men are at peace with us. Therefore let them dwell in the land and trade in it. For indeed the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters to us as wives, and let us give them our daughters. Only on this condition will the men consent to dwell with us, to be one people: if every male among us is circumcised as they are circumcised. Will not their livestock, their property, and every animal of theirs be ours? Only let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us.” And all who went out of the gate of his city heeded Hamor and Shechem his son; every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city. a. Their words pleased Hamor and Shechem: Despite the obvious sacrifice involved, Hamor and Shechem were pleased with this plan. Beyond the obviously deep attraction Shechem has for Dinah, they were also undoubtedly pleased to begin to marry into a family so large, wealthy, and influential. b. Will not their livestock, their property, and every animal of theirs be ours? It is amazing what men will do for both women and wealth. A whole city of men submits to circumcision so they can take their daughters to us as wives and take their livestock, property, and every animal of theirs. B. Simeon and Levi destroy the city of Shechem. 1. (25) The massacre of the men of the city of Shechem. Now it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, each took his sword and came boldly upon the city and killed all the males. a. When they were in pain ... each took his sword and came boldly upon the city and killed all the males: This was not only a brutal, deceptive act, but it also disgraced God’s covenant of circumcision. Surely, with this clever act of violent deception, Simeon and Levi showed themselves to be the children of Jacob from a bitter, competitive home environment. i. In pain: “Crudely performed, circumcision could be quite incapacitating, particularly after two or three days.” (Kidner) b. Came boldly: “The boldness with which they executed their foul plan shows the hardness of their hearts.” (Barnhouse) 2. (26-29) They rescue Dinah and plunder the city. And they killed Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah from Shechem’s house, and went out. The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and plundered the city, because their sister had been defiled. They took their sheep, their oxen, and their donkeys, what was in the city and what was in the field, and all their wealth. All their little ones and their wives they took captive; and they plundered even all that was in the houses. a. They killed Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword: Certainly, they justified this murder and theft by saying they and their sister had been disgraced, but the punishment clearly does not fit the crime. b. They plundered even all that was in the houses: Simeon and Levi probably thought God blessed their murderous plans with great success. 3. (30-31) Jacob’s reaction. Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have troubled me by making me obnoxious among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites; and since I am few in number, they will gather themselves together against me and kill me. I shall be destroyed, my household and I.” But they said, “Should he treat our sister like a harlot?” a. You have troubled me by making me obnoxious: Sadly, Jacob is only concerned with himself. There is no concern for God’s righteousness or the death and plunder of innocents. This is Jacob, not Israel in action. i. “Jacob! You brought that trouble on yourself. You passed your own deceitful nature into your boys. You set them a constant example of guile. They heard you lie to Esau at Peniel and start northwest after he went southeast. They saw your interest in the fat pastures when you pitched your tent in Shechem. You said nothing when Dinah was violated ... Talk to God about your own sin before talking to these boys about theirs.” (Barnhouse) b. Should he treat our sister like a harlot? Simeon and Levi were correct that Dinah had been treated like a harlot. Yet, their reaction was certainly ungodly. i. When Jacob was about to die, he prophesied over each of his 12 sons. This is what he said about Simeon and Levi: Simeon and Levi are brothers; instruments of cruelty are in their dwelling place. Let not my soul enter their council; let not my honor be united to their assembly; for in their anger they slew a man, and in their self-will they hamstrung an ox. Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; and their wrath, for it is cruel! I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel. (Genesis 49:5-7) He saw Simeon and Levi for who they were, but he rebuked them far too late. ii. The prophetic word of God through Jacob proved true. God did in fact both divide the tribes of Simeon and Levi, and scatter them among Israel. But, significantly, the way it happened for each tribe was different. The tribe of Simeon, because of their lack of faithfulness, was effectively dissolved as a tribe, and the tribe of Simeon was absorbed into the tribal area of Judah. The tribe of Levi was also scattered, but because of the faithfulness of this tribe during the rebellion of the golden calf (Exodus 32:26-28), the tribe was scattered as a blessing throughout the whole nation of Israel. Both were scattered, but one as a blessing and the other as curse. Genesis 35 - Revival in Jacob’s Life A. Jacob returns to Bethel. 1. (1) God speaks to Jacob, calling him back to Bethel. Then God said to Jacob, “Arise, go up to Bethel and dwell there; and make an altar there to God, who appeared to you when you fled from the face of Esau your brother.” a. Arise, go up to Bethel and dwell there: The whole Shechem incident happened because Jacob went to Shechem instead of Bethel, where he was supposed to be. Now he finally went where God told him to go (Genesis 31:13). i. “The only cure for worldliness is to separate from it.” (Barnhouse) Jacob had to leave Shechem and go to Bethel. We often end up in much difficulty and bring much difficulty to those around us, because we do not go where God tells us to go. ii. Genesis 34 does not mention God once, and is one of the most sordid chapters in Israel’s history. Genesis 35 mentions God over and over again, more than ten times, plus 11 more times in names such as Bethel and Israel. b. Make an altar there to God: Jacob was told to go back to Bethel and resume a life of worship there. This return to the Lord would have an especially good effect on the children of Jacob. This reminds us the best thing parents can do for their children is to be in God’s will themselves. i. As Jacob looked back on his walk with God, the first meeting with God at Bethel (Genesis 28:10-22) must have seemed like a high point. But to his credit, Jacob refused to think the best years of his life with God were behind him. He returned to his first love - he returned to Bethel, and God blessed it. 2. (2-4) The cleansing of Jacob’s family. And Jacob said to his household and to all who were with him, “Put away the foreign gods that are among you, purify yourselves, and change your garments. Then let us arise and go up to Bethel; and I will make an altar there to God, who answered me in the day of my distress and has been with me in the way which I have gone.” So they gave Jacob all the foreign gods which were in their hands, and the earrings which were in their ears; and Jacob hid them under the terebinth tree which was by Shechem. a. Put away the foreign gods that are among you, purify yourselves: Jacob’s family only got right with God after Jacob himself did. This again shows us the tremendous leadership role men have within the family. A man resisting God will see the same effect in his children. A man who gets right with God will see the effect in his family also. i. Jacob’s children kept foreign gods because their mother did. Rachel clung to the household idols of her father (Genesis 31:19). No matter how hard we try to teach our children godly conduct they will continue to do what we do. b. And change your garments: This was important because “Throughout the Bible, garments symbolize character. The inward life of the unregenerate is compared to a polluted garment.” (Barnhouse) i. Jude 23 gives the idea: but others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire, hating even the garment defiled by the flesh. Ephesians 4:22-24 gives a similar exhortation: that you put off, concerning your former conduct, the old man which grows corrupt according to the deceitful lusts, and be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and that you put on the new man which was created according to God, in true righteousness and holiness. c. And the earrings which were in their ears: Apparently, these earrings also had a pagan connection. Though one could find some justification for keeping the earrings, they got rid of them nonetheless. i. It is important for everyone to take stock of what they may have in their home that is ungodly or connected to the occult, and promptly get rid of those things. 3. (5-7) God’s protection of Jacob; he comes to Bethel. And they journeyed, and the terror of God was upon the cities that were all around them, and they did not pursue the sons of Jacob. So Jacob came to Luz (that is, Bethel), which is in the land of Canaan, he and all the people who were with him. And he built an altar there and called the place El Bethel, because there God appeared to him when he fled from the face of his brother. a. The terror of God was upon the cities that were all around them, and they did not pursue the sons of Jacob: Obviously, it would be fair of God to leave Jacob to the consequences of his sinful lack of leadership in the family. Yet, God’s grace covered Jacob even when his sin had made he and his family vulnerable. i. Jacob and his family needed this protection because the massacre at Shechem made them hated among the Canaanites, as Jacob feared in Genesis 34:30). b. He built an altar there and called the place El Bethel: Though Jacob had sinned, he now did what was right before God. He did this despite the danger and trusting God’s protection. He might have justified a lack of obedience because of fear, but he trusted God instead. i. It was dangerous for Jacob to set out to Bethel but it was more dangerous for him to disobey God. The only thing that could save him was a radical obedience to the Lord. No matter what the circumstances look like, the safest place is do the will of God. 4. (8) The death of Deborah, Rebekah’s beloved nurse. Now Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, died, and she was buried below Bethel under the terebinth tree. So the name of it was called Allon Bachuth. a. Now Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, died: We know nothing of this woman before this account. Seemingly, she came with Rebekah as a companion when she came from Haran to marry Isaac. Obviously, she was a beloved member of the family, because they named the place where she was buried Allon Bachuth, which means “Oak of Weeping.” b. Rebekah’s nurse: Some commentators assume for some reason, she came to be in Jacob’s household, coming from his mother’s household, but we do not know for certain if this is the case. 5. (9-15) God speaks to Jacob again at Bethel. Then God appeared to Jacob again, when he came from Padan Aram, and blessed him. And God said to him, “Your name is Jacob; your name shall not be called Jacob anymore, but Israel shall be your name.” So He called his name Israel. Also God said to him: “I am God Almighty. Be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall proceed from you, and kings shall come from your body. The land which I gave Abraham and Isaac I give to you; and to your descendants after you I give this land.” Then God went up from him in the place where He talked with him. So Jacob set up a pillar in the place where He talked with him, a pillar of stone; and he poured a drink offering on it, and he poured oil on it. And Jacob called the name of the place where God spoke with him, Bethel. a. Then God appeared to Jacob again…and blessed him: When Jacob finally arrived at the place God told him to go, Jacob immediately found great blessing. God appeared to him, God blessed him, and God called him by his new name (Israel). i. The reminder of the new name was important, because Jacob had acted like Jacob instead of Israel. Yet, God wanted to set his mind on the new man God made him to be. God does the same with us, reminding us who we are in Him. God wants us to remember and live in the great names He gives us. b. God appeared to Jacob again: Relationship was restored. This was an excellent example of what it means to return to your first love, as in Revelation 2:4-5: Jacob remembered to go back to Bethel. He repented by getting rid of all the idols, and he did the first works by building an altar and worshipping God as before. c. The land which I gave Abraham and Isaac I give to you; and to your descendants after you I give this land: God granted Jacob a precious reminder of his place in God’s great covenant, begun with his grandfather Abraham. In this, Jacob did not need to hear anything new from God. He just needed to be reminded of what was true, and encouraged to cling to it all. d. Then God went up from him in the place where He talked with him: Seemingly, God appeared to Jacob here in bodily form. God blessed Jacob remarkably after his return to his first love. Much blessing waits for us until we do what God tells us to do. e. He poured a drink offering on it, and he poured oil on it: Appropriately, Jacob performed sacrificial acts of worship to the God who had blessed him so much. i. The idea of a drink offering is found often in the Bible. Exodus 29:40-41, Leviticus 23:13, and Numbers 15:5-7 show the drink offering was made with wine poured out in sacrifice before the Lord at His altar. Paul considered the pouring out of his life before God to be like the pouring out of a drink offering at God’s altar (Philippians 2:17 and 2 Timothy 4:6). ii. Jacob’s heart of worship showed gratitude towards God. When we look back on life, we should never have the attitude that says, “I was robbed.” Instead our heart should say, “God has blessed.” This will probably determine if we will be perfectly miserable or perfectly delightful as we get older. B. The birth of Benjamin and the death of Rachel. 1. (16-17) The birth of another son. Then they journeyed from Bethel. And when there was but a little distance to go to Ephrath, Rachel labored in childbirth, and she had hard labor. Now it came to pass, when she was in hard labor, that the midwife said to her, “Do not fear; you will have this son also.” a. Rachel labored in childbirth: There seems to be none of the contentiousness and competitiveness surrounding the birth of this last son, possibly because they were all older at this time. More so, it was because they were now in the Promised Land and it just wasn’t as important as before. b. In childbirth: We don’t know how long Jacob stayed at Bethel, but it is possible this last child was conceived at this place where Jacob came back to his first love for the Lord. 2. (18) The naming of the last son. And so it was, as her soul was departing (for she died), that she called his name Ben-Oni; but his father called him Benjamin. a. She called his name Ben-Oni: Rachel named this last child - who before would have been seen as a cause for rejoicing and victory in the competition with her sister - she named this child Ben-Oni, meaning “son of my sorrow.” i. Ultimately, this shows the futility of Rachel’s competition with her sister Leah. Now at the time of her final “victory,” all she found was sorrow. b. But his father called him Benjamin: Jacob wisely named the child Benjamin, which means “son of my right hand.” Perhaps he rightly sensed the special place God had for this child, or perhaps he simply prized Benjamin so greatly because he was the final link between him and the woman he loved most. c. Benjamin: The right side was associated with greater strength and honor, because most people are right handed. Benjamin (son of my right hand) therefore has the idea of “son of my strength” or “son of my honor.” i. The idea is expressed in passages like Exodus 15:6: Your right hand, O Lord, has become glorious in power; Your right hand, O Lord, has dashed the enemy in pieces. ii. The Lord is our strength and honor, as in Psalm 16:8: I have set the Lord always before me; because He is at my right hand I shall not be moved. iii. God’s strength and honor are for us: My soul follows close behind You; Your right hand upholds me. (Psalm 63:8) Though I walk in the midst of trouble, You will revive me; You will stretch out Your hand against the wrath of my enemies, and Your right hand will save me (Psalm 138:7). iv. Jesus sits at the right hand of the Father, the position of strength and honor, and we sit there with Him! If then you were raised with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God (Colossians 3:1). 3. (19-20) The death and burial of Rachel. So Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem). And Jacob set a pillar on her grave, which is the pillar of Rachel’s grave to this day. a. Rachel died and was buried: Rachel’s death was in tragic fulfillment of the curse Jacob himself pronounced on the one who stole the idols of Laban (Genesis 31:32). i. In Genesis 30:1, Rachel pleaded with Jacob, Give me children, or else I die! As it happened, both became true. She had children and died as a result. b. Jacob set a pillar on her grave: This also shows that even when we get right with God and return to our first love it doesn’t mean life becomes only ease and comfort. There are constant challenges for us to trust God. i. We cannot prize comfort more than getting right with God. For some, comfort is their idol - a false god they worship with constant pursuit and attention. Some only want a comfortable life, not a godly life. The symbol for some Christians seems to be an easy chair, not a cross. 4. (21-22a) Reuben’s sin with his father’s concubine. Then Israel journeyed and pitched his tent beyond the tower of Eder. And it happened, when Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine; and Israel heard about it. a. Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine: Reuben was the firstborn. We might expect the best conduct from him, and might expect him to most seriously receive the covenant of his fathers. Yet, here he sinned in a most offensive way against his father and entire family. i. However, we don’t have to wonder about where this sinful conduct came from. In the home so filled with strife, contention, competition, and the pursuit of the flesh, it was almost to be expected. b. Israel heard about it: Through their sin, Reuben, Simeon, and Levi seemed to disqualify themselves from the high calling of Abraham’s blessing. It will be up to the fourth son, Judah, to bring forth the Messiah. 5. (22b-26) Jacob’s 12 sons. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve: the sons of Leah were Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, and Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; the sons of Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin; the sons of Bilhah, Rachel’s maidservant, were Dan and Naphtali; and the sons of Zilpah, Leah’s maidservant, were Gad and Asher. These were the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Padan Aram. a. The sons of Jacob were twelve: From what we have seen in the last few chapters, this was not a collection of amazingly spiritual men. i. “We are greatly amazed in reflecting upon the event as a whole that descendants of the worthy patriarch Abraham should almost immediately after his time already have sunk to the level upon which Jacob’s sons stand in this chapter.” (Leupold) b. These were the sons of Jacob: This was actually a severely dysfunctional family. God will use this family, but not because they were such great or spiritual men, but because He chose them by His grace alone. C. The death of Isaac. 1. (27) Jacob visits his father Isaac one last time. Then Jacob came to his father Isaac at Mamre, or Kirjath Arba (that is, Hebron), where Abraham and Isaac had dwelt. a. Jacob came to his father Isaac: More than 20 years ago, Jacob left his home thinking his father’s death was at hand. Now, quite unexpectedly, he had the opportunity to see his father one last time before his death. i. We should remember our times are in God’s hands. We may expect a long or short life for others or ourselves and be quite wrong. Only God knows. b. His father Isaac: There seemed to be nothing dramatic between Isaac and Jacob at this meeting. It was possible Isaac was incapacitated by old age. 2. (28-29) Jacob and Esau bury their father together. Now the days of Isaac were one hundred and eighty years. So Isaac breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his people, being old and full of days. And his sons Esau and Jacob buried him. a. His sons Esau and Jacob buried him: The sons had already been brought together by God’s hand. Now they worked together again, united by the death of their father. Genesis 36 - The Family of Esau A. Esau’s separation from Jacob. 1. (1-5) The wives, sons, and daughters of Esau. Now this is the genealogy of Esau, who is Edom. Esau took his wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite; Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; and Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, sister of Nebajoth. Now Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, and Basemath bore Reuel. And Aholibamah bore Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan. 2. (6-8) The separation of Jacob and Esau. Then Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the persons of his household, his cattle and all his animals, and all his goods which he had gained in the land of Canaan, and went to a country away from the presence of his brother Jacob. For their possessions were too great for them to dwell together, and the land where they were strangers could not support them because of their livestock. So Esau dwelt in Mount Seir. Esau is Edom. a. Their possessions were too great for them to dwell together: Esau’s cry to Isaac Have you only one blessing, my father? (Genesis 27:38) proved unfounded. Because he was a descendant of Abraham God blessed Esau, and blessed him in the only way he really cared about: materially. B. The descendants of Esau. 1. (9) The Edomites descend from Esau. And this is the genealogy of Esau the father of the Edomites in Mount Seir. a. Esau the father of the Edomites: Edom and the Edomites are mentioned some 130 times in the Bible. They were an important group of neighbors to Israel. · When the Israelites came through the wilderness to the Promised Land in the time of Moses, the Edomites refused them passage through their land (Numbers 20:21). This was a source of great discouragement for the nation (Numbers 21:4). · Even so, God commanded special regard for the Edomites among Israel: You shall not abhor an Edomite, for he is your brother (Deuteronomy 23:7). · In the days of Saul, Edom was made subject to Israel (1 Samuel 14:47), and David established garrisons there (2 Samuel 8:14). But later, in the days of Joram, the son of Ahab, the Edomites became independent of Israel (2 Kings 8:16-22). · Several of the prophets spoke about and against Edom, including Jeremiah (Jeremiah 49:17-18) and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 25:12-14). · Herod the Great - the one who tried to kill the young child Jesus - was an Edomite. From the time Islam conquered the Middle East, the region has been virtually unoccupied, except for a few Bedouins and military outposts. It has been brought to nothing, as Obadiah had prophesied (the entire book of Obadiah records an extended prophecy against Edom). b. The Edomites in Mount Seir: The Edomites also held the rock city of Petra, which can only be reached through a narrow, winding gorge. Petra was so defensible that it was said that a dozen men could protect Petra against a whole army. 2. (10-43) The descendants of Edom and the chiefs of the Edomites. These were the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, and Reuel the son of Basemath the wife of Esau. And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz. Now Timna was the concubine of Eliphaz, Esau’s son, and she bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These were the sons of Adah, Esau’s wife. These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons of Basemath, Esau’s wife. These were the sons of Aholibamah, Esau’s wife, the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon. And she bore to Esau: Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah. These were the chiefs of the sons of Esau. The sons of Eliphaz, the firstborn son of Esau, were Chief Teman, Chief Omar, Chief Zepho, Chief Kenaz, Chief Korah, Chief Gatam, and Chief Amalek. These were the chiefs of Eliphaz in the land of Edom. They were the sons of Adah. These were the sons of Reuel, Esau’s son: Chief Nahath, Chief Zerah, Chief Shammah, and Chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs of Reuel in the land of Edom. These were the sons of Basemath, Esau’s wife. And these were the sons of Aholibamah, Esau’s wife: Chief Jeush, Chief Jaalam, and Chief Korah. These were the chiefs who descended from Aholibamah, Esau’s wife, the daughter of Anah. These were the sons of Esau, who is Edom, and these were their chiefs. These were the sons of Seir the Horite who inhabited the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, the sons of Seir, in the land of Edom. And the sons of Lotan were Hori and Hemam. Lotan’s sister was Timna. These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam. These were the sons of Zibeon: both Ajah and Anah. This was the Anah who found the water in the wilderness as he pastured the donkeys of his father Zibeon. These were the children of Anah: Dishon and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah. These were the sons of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan. These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran. These were the chiefs of the Horites: Chief Lotan, Chief Shobal, Chief Zibeon, Chief Anah, Chief Dishon, Chief Ezer, and Chief Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, according to their chiefs in the land of Seir. Now these were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the children of Israel: Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah. And when Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his place. When Jobab died, Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his place. And when Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who attacked Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his place. And the name of his city was Avith. When Hadad died, Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his place. And when Samlah died, Saul of Rehoboth-by-the-River reigned in his place. When Saul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place. And when Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor died, Hadar reigned in his place; and the name of his city was Pau. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab. And these were the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families and their places, by their names: Chief Timnah, Chief Alvah, Chief Jetheth, Chief Aholibamah, Chief Elah, Chief Pinon, Chief Kenaz, Chief Teman, Chief Mibzar, Chief Magdiel, and Chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom, according to their dwelling places in the land of their possession. Esau was the father of the Edomites. a. These were the chiefs of the sons of Esau: When we see the kings and chiefs among the descendants of Esau, we see more clearly what God meant when He said, Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated (Malachi 1:2-3 and Romans 9:13). Esau was obviously a blessed man but he was hated and rejected in regard to being chosen for a critical role in God’s plan of redemption. i. “If God blesses so abundantly those who are not chosen, what is the magnitude of His blessings for those who are chosen? If nonspiritual people experience such outpourings of merely common grace, how great must the special grace of the regenerate be!” (Boice) b. She bore Amalek to Eliphaz: Notable among this list is Amalek. From him came the Amalekites, notable enemies of Israel (Exodus 17:8-16; Deuteronomy 25:17-19; 1 Samuel 15:1-8). i. In addition, the names of the descendants of Esau don’t reflect a godly heart. · Dishon (Genesis 36:21) means gazelle · Alvan (Genesis 36:23) means wicked · Ithran (Genesis 36:26) means advantage · Aran (Genesis 36:28) means mountain goat · Baal-Hanan (Genesis 36:38) - his name embraced the false god Baal. c. Jobab the son of Zerah: “Many have supposed that Jobab is the same as Job, so remarkable for his afflictions and patience; and that Eliphaz...was the same who in the book of Job is called one of his friends: but there is no proper proof of this, and there are many reasons against it.” (Clarke)

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9. 2 Chronicles 28-36 (Hezekiah’s Passover; God Protects Jerusalem; Josiah’s Passover)

2 Chronicles 28-36 (Hezekiah’s Passover; God Protects Jerusalem; Josiah’s Passover)

2 Chronicles 28 - The Evil Reign of Ahaz A. The sin of Ahaz and the punishment of Ahaz. 1. (1-4) Ahaz rejects God and embraces idols. Ahaz was twenty years old when he became king, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem; and he did not do what was right in the sight of the LORD, as his father David had done. For he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, and made molded images for the Baals. He burned incense in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, and burned his children in the fire, according to the abominations of the nations whom the LORD had cast out before the children of Israel. And he sacrificed and burned incense on the high places, on the hills, and under every green tree. a. He did not do what was right in the sight of the LORD: This briefly describes the reign of perhaps the worst king of Judah. Whereas many previous kings fell short in some area or another, of Ahaz it is simply said that he did not do what was right in the sight of the LORD. b. As his father David had done: Ahaz had plenty of good examples, both immediately in his father Jotham and historically in his ancestor David. Ahaz rejected these godly examples and walked in his own way. c. He walked in the way of the kings of Israel: Ahaz not only rejected the godly heritage of David, he embraced the ungodly ways of the kings of the northern kingdom of Israel. The southern kingdom of Judah had a mixture of godly and ungodly kings; the northern kingdom of Judah had only ungodly kings, and Ahaz followed their pattern. i. “This is the first instance where Judah imitates Israel’s apostasy.” (Wiseman) ii. Micah 7:2-7 is a good description of the depravity of the times of Ahaz and the reaction of the godly remnant to it. d. And burned his children in the fire: This describes Ahaz’s participation in the worship of Molech. The pagan god (or, demon, more accurately) Molech was worshipped by heating a metal statue representing the god until it was red hot, then placing a living infant on the outstretched hands of the statue, while beating drums drowned out the screams of the child until it burned to death. i. In Leviticus 20:1-5, God pronounced the death sentence against all who worshipped Molech, saying: I will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from his people, because he has given some of his descendants to Molech, to defile My sanctuary and profane My holy name (Leviticus 20:3). ii. Sadly, even a man as great as Solomon at least sanctioned the worship of Molech and built a temple to this idol (1 Kings 11:7). One of the great crimes of the northern tribes of Israel was their worship of Molech, leading to the Assyrian captivity (2 Kings 17:17). King Manasseh of Judah gave his son to Molech (2 Kings 21:6). Up to the days of King Josiah of Judah, Molech worship continued, because he destroyed a place of worship to that idol (2 Kings 23:10). iii. “The ‘Valley of (the son of) Hinnom’ descended eastward below the southern edge of the city of Jerusalem; and it became noted as the scene of Judah’s most revolting pagan practices (2 Chronicles 33:6). It was later defiled by King Josiah and converted into a place of refuse for the city (2 Kings 23:10); thus the perpetual fires of ‘Gehenna’ became descriptive of hell itself (Mark 9:43).” (Payne) e. According to the abominations of the nations whom the LORD had cast out from before the children of Israel: The Canaanite nations that occupied Canaan before the time of Joshua also practiced this terrible form of human and child sacrifice. God would bring judgment upon Judah for their continued practice of these sins. i. This reminds us that the war against the Canaanites in the Book of Joshua – as terrible and complete as it was – it was not a racial war. God’s judgment did not come upon the Canaanites through the armies of Israel because of their race, but because of their sin. If Israel insisted in walking in the same sins, God would bring similar judgment upon them. 2. (5-8) A great slaughter and captivity of many from Judah. Therefore the LORD his God delivered him into the hand of the king of Syria. They defeated him, and carried away a great multitude of them as captives, and brought them to Damascus. Then he was also delivered into the hand of the king of Israel, who defeated him with a great slaughter. For Pekah the son of Remaliah killed one hundred and twenty thousand in Judah in one day, all valiant men, because they had forsaken the LORD God of their fathers. Zichri, a mighty man of Ephraim, killed Maaseiah the king’s son, Azrikam the officer over the house, and Elkanah who was second to the king. And the children of Israel carried away captive of their brethren two hundred thousand women, sons, and daughters; and they also took away much spoil from them, and brought the spoil to Samaria. a. Therefore the LORD his God delivered him into the hand of the king of Syria: 2 Kings 16:5-6 tells us more about this confederation of Israel and Syria in this attack against Judah. This was part of King Pekah of Israel’s anti-Assyria policy. He thought that with Judah defeated, Syria and Israel together could more effectively resist the resurgent power of the Assyrian Empire. i. Isaiah 7 makes it clear that the goal of this attack was to dethrone Ahaz and set up a Syrian king over Judah, a certain son of Tabeal (Isaiah 7:6). ii. The LORD his God: “God was his God, though not by covenant and grace, and special relation, which Ahaz had renounced, yet by his sovereign dominion over him; for God did not forfeit his right by Ahaz’s denying of it.” (Poole) b. Who defeated them with a great slaughter: The loss of 120,000 Judean soldiers and 200,000 civilian hostages in these battles with Israel and Syria meant that it was dark time for Judah, and it looked as if the dynasty of David would soon be extinguished, as so many dynasties in the northern kingdom of Israel had ended. 3. (9-15) The prophet’s rebuke to Israel is heeded But a prophet of the LORD was there, whose name was Oded; and he went out before the army that came to Samaria, and said to them: “Look, because the LORD God of your fathers was angry with Judah, He has delivered them into your hand; but you have killed them in a rage that reaches up to heaven. And now you propose to force the children of Judah and Jerusalem to be your male and female slaves; but are you not also guilty before the LORD your God? Now hear me, therefore, and return the captives, whom you have taken captive from your brethren, for the fierce wrath of the LORD is upon you.” Then some of the heads of the children of Ephraim, Azariah the son of Johanan, Berechiah the son of Meshillemoth, Jehizkiah the son of Shallum, and Amasa the son of Hadlai, stood up against those who came from the war, and said to them, “You shall not bring the captives here, for we already have offended the LORD. You intend to add to our sins and to our guilt; for our guilt is great, and there is fierce wrath against Israel.” So the armed men left the captives and the spoil before the leaders and all the assembly. Then the men who were designated by name rose up and took the captives, and from the spoil they clothed all who were naked among them, dressed them and gave them sandals, gave them food and drink, and anointed them; and they let all the feeble ones ride on donkeys. So they brought them to their brethren at Jericho, the city of palm trees. Then they returned to Samaria. a. A prophet of the LORD was there, whose name was Oded: This brave prophet went with the 200,000 captives taken from the conquered southern kingdom to the northern kingdom of Israel, to call the leaders of Israel to conscience for this crime against their fellow tribes. b. You shall not bring captives here, for we already have offended the LORD: Remarkably, the leaders of Israel responded to the message from Oded and recognized their own sin and guilt. They cared for the captives from the spoil of battle and sent them back to Judah. i. “Here we have the picture of a good preacher. Oded teacheth, reproveth, exhorteth, turneth himself into all shapes, of spirit and of speech, that he may work upon his hearers; and he had his desire.” (Trapp) ii. “To this beautiful speech nothing can be added by the best comment; it is simple, humane, pious, and overwhelmingly convincing: no wonder it produced the effect mentioned here. That there was much of humanity in the heads of the children of Ephraim who joined with the prophet on this occasion, 2 Chronicles 28:15 sufficiently proves.” (Clarke) B. The decline and fall of King Ahaz. 1. (16-21) Ahaz puts his trust in the kings of Assyria instead of the LORD. At the same time King Ahaz sent to the kings of Assyria to help him. For again the Edomites had come, attacked Judah, and carried away captives. The Philistines also had invaded the cities of the lowland and of the South of Judah, and had taken Beth Shemesh, Aijalon, Gederoth, Sochoh with its villages, Timnah with its villages, and Gimzo with its villages; and they dwelt there. For the LORD brought Judah low because of Ahaz king of Israel, for he had encouraged moral decline in Judah and had been continually unfaithful to the LORD. Also Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria came to him and distressed him, and did not assist him. For Ahaz took part of the treasures from the house of the LORD, from the house of the king, and from the leaders, and he gave it to the king of Assyria; but he did not help him. a. At the same time King Ahaz sent to the kings of Assyria to help him: This was because, as 2 Kings 16 explains, the combined armies of Israel and Syria had not only overcome many cities of Judah, but were at the time laying siege against Jerusalem. 2 Kings 16:5 says, they besieged Ahaz but could not overcome him. To his shame in this time of crisis, Ahaz looked to the kings of Assyria instead of the LORD. i. Before Ahaz did this, Isaiah offered him a sign for assurance of God’s help in the struggle against the combined armies of Israel and Syria (Isaiah 7:1-12). “This was a fair offer to a foul sinner” (Trapp), but Ahaz refused under the excuse of not wanting to test God, when instead he really wanted to trust in the king of Assyria. ii. The prophecy of Isaiah 7 – including the announcement of the Immanuel sign – came from Isaiah to King Ahaz during this joint Israel-Syrian invasion (also apparently with the help of the Edomites and the Philistines) Yet for the sake of David, God did not allow this disastrous attack on Judah to prevail. He would not allow this Satanic plot against the Messianic dynasty of David to succeed. iii. The kings of Israel and Syria thought of themselves as burning torches, come to destroy Judah and the dynasty of David. God said they were just like burnt-out smoking sticks, who would not ultimately do much damage (Isaiah 7:4). iv. Through Isaiah’s message to Ahaz, he assured the wicked king – who did not really listen – “There should be a remnant left to return to the land; and the virgin should bear a son, so there should not fail a king upon the throne of David. The dynasty could never be destroyed, for of Immanuel’s kingdom there shall be no end.” (Knapp) v. “The kings of Assryia, i.e. the king; the plural number for the singular.” (Poole) b. For the LORD brought Judah low because of Ahaz king of Israel: This was both because of the personal ungodliness of Ahaz and because of the poor example he was to others (he had encouraged moral decline in Judah). i. An example of his personal decline was his appeal to the Assryian King, to whom he said, I am your servant and your son. Come up and save me (2 Kings 16:7). Ahaz surrendered to one enemy in order to defeat another. He refused to trust in the God of Israel and instead submitted himself and his kingdom to an enemy of Israel. ii. “The address ‘I am your servant and your son’ clearly places Ahaz as the petitioning vassal and shows he was trusting in Assyria rather than in the LORD, against the advice of Isaiah (Isaiah 7:10-16; cf. Exodus 23:22).” (Wiseman) c. For Ahaz took part of the treasures from the house of the LORD . . . but he did not help him: Essentially, Ahaz made Judah a subject kingdom to Assyria. Ahaz now took his orders from the Assyrian king, sacrificing the independence of the Kingdom of Judah. Worse yet, he did not help him. It was useless. i. We can only wonder what blessing might have come if Ahaz would have surrendered and sacrificed to the LORD with the same energy and whole heart that he surrendered to the Assyrian king. ii. “How different was his great ancestor David! ‘In my distress,’ he says, ‘I called upon the Lord, and cried unto my God’ (Psalm 18:6). Even his wicked grandson Manasseh sought the Lord his God ‘when he was in affliction.’ But Ahaz seemed determined to fill up the measure of his sins.” (Knapp) 2. (22-27) The apostasy and end of King Ahaz. Now in the time of his distress King Ahaz became increasingly unfaithful to the LORD. This is that King Ahaz. For he sacrificed to the gods of Damascus which had defeated him, saying, “Because the gods of the kings of Syria help them, I will sacrifice to them that they may help me.” But they were the ruin of him and of all Israel. So Ahaz gathered the articles of the house of God, cut in pieces the articles of the house of God, shut up the doors of the house of the LORD, and made for himself altars in every corner of Jerusalem. And in every single city of Judah he made high places to burn incense to other gods, and provoked to anger the LORD God of his fathers. Now the rest of his acts and all his ways, from first to last, indeed they are written in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel. So Ahaz rested with his fathers, and they buried him in the city, in Jerusalem; but they did not bring him into the tombs of the kings of Israel. Then Hezekiah his son reigned in his place. a. In the time of his distress King Ahaz became increasingly unfaithful to the LORD: Times of trial and distress do not necessarily drive people closer to God. Sometimes people allow such distresses to drive them away from God. Ahaz was notable among that type, so much so that the Chronicler noted, That is that King Ahaz. i. “These hammers of the Most High did but beat upon cold iron.” (Trapp) ii. “Ahaz also ‘behaved without restraint’ and was most unfaithful. The former expression really means to favour licence rather than true liberty, while the latter is a typical term in Chronicles for failing to give God his due.” (Selman) iii. “The evil of his character is supremely demonstrated in that calamities seemed not to have the effect, as they so often had among his predecessors, of rousing him to consciousness of his sin.” (Morgan) iv. This is that King Ahaz: “A black mark is put against his name, to show how greatly guilty he was. Those who rebel against divine checks, and will not be held in by the providence of God, are to be written down in capital letters as great sinners. They sin with emphasis who sin against the chastising rod.” (Spurgeon) b. For he sacrificed to the gods of Damascus which defeated him: 2 Kings 16 tells us that this happened after a visit that Ahaz made to Damascus. He returned from the visit and made a new altar after the pattern of what he saw in Damascus and he took their forms, their style, and their gods. Sadly, he even received the help of Urijah the priest. i. 2 Kings 16 also tells us that Ahaz served as a priest at the altar of his own design. Since he created his own place of worship, it also made sense that he would disregard God’s command that a king must not serve as a priest (Numbers 18:7). ii. Ahaz’s grandfather Azariah (Uzziah) dared to enter the temple and serve God as a priest (2 Chronicles 26). Yet at least Azariah falsely worshipped the true God. Ahaz falsely worshipped a false god of his own creation. “Uzziah for so doing was smitten with leprosy; but Ahaz of a far worse disease, an incurable hardness of heart.” (Trapp) c. Cut in pieces the articles of the house of God, shut up the doors of the house of the LORD: Ahaz could not bring in his pagan, corrupt innovations without also removing what had stood before at the temple. This was an ungodly exchange, taking away the good and putting in the bad. Collectively, all these things served to discourage the worship of the true God at the temple of God. i. “He caused the Divine worship to be totally suspended; and they continued shut till the beginning of the reign of Hezekiah, one of whose first acts was to reopen them, and thus to restore the Divine worship.” (Clarke) ii. “Ahaz’s appropriation of the panels and bases from the sacred furniture does not seem to be for the purpose of sending a further gift to Tiglath-pileser but rather for deemphasizing their importance in the worship services. Perhaps he planned to reuse them in some other decorative way. At any rate death overtook him before his attention could be turned to them. They are mentioned among the several items that were carried away in the later Babylonian despoiling of Jerusalem (25:13-14; Jeremiah 27:19-20; 52:17-23).” (Patterson and Austel) iii. We remember that all this took place at the temple Solomon built unto the LORD. The mere location did not make it true worship. Sometimes idols are worshipped at a house that was once dedicated to the true God. d. And in every single city of Judah he made high places to burn incense to other gods: During these changes, Ahaz shut down the operation of the temple and established small pagan altars all around Judah. i. “It would seem as though the light of truth were absolutely extinguished. It was not so, however, for it is likely that throughout the whole reigns of Jotham and Ahaz, Isaiah was uttering his message, and that during the reign of Ahaz Micah also was delivering the word of God.” (Morgan) e. Now the rest of his acts and all his ways: So ended the reign of perhaps the worst king of Judah. Micah – who prophesied during the reign of Ahaz – describes the man who works to successfully do evil with both hands (Micah 7:3). The idea is that the man pursues evil with all his effort, with both hands. He may very well have had King Ahaz in mind. i. “He died a natural death, though he was so detestable a miscreant. God putteth off the punishment of many wicked wretches till the other world.” (Trapp) ii. “Ahaz was evil by choice, persistent in evil in spite of calamity, blasphemously rebellious notwithstanding the direct warnings of the prophet of God. This attitude of the king made the darkness all the denser.” (Morgan) 2 Chronicles 29 - Hezekiah and the Cleansing of the Temple A. The cleansing of the temple. 1. (1-2) The general assessment of his reign. Hezekiah became king when he was twenty-five years old, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Abijah the daughter of Zechariah. And he did what was right in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his father David had done. a. Hezekiah became king when he was twenty-five years old: Hezekiah came to the throne of Judah at the very end of the Kingdom of Israel. Three years after the start of his reign the Assyrian armies set siege to Samaria, and three years after that the northern kingdom was conquered. i. The sad fate of the northern kingdom was a valuable lesson to Hezekiah. He saw first hand what happened when the people of God rejected their God and His word, and worshipped other gods. b. He reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem: Hezekiah was one of the better kings of Judah, and thus had a long and mostly blessed reign. No doubt his mother Abijah was a godly and important influence on his life. i. “His mother was Abijah, the daughter of Zechariah, probably the person mentioned by the Prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 8:2) as a ‘faithful witness.’ This possible friendship of his mother for the prophet, combined with the certainty that up to this time he had been under the influence of Isaiah’s ministry, may account for Hezekiah’s action on coming to the throne.” (Morgan) c. He did what was right in the sight of the LORD: Hezekiah was one of Judah’s most zealous reformers, even prohibiting worship on the high places (2 Kings 18:4). These were popular altars for sacrifice set up as the worshipper desired, not according to God’s direction. i. “God was never happy about this practice, but none of the other good kings ever found the courage to forbid it. Hezekiah did.” (Dilday) ii. 2 Kings 18:5 makes this remarkable statement about Hezekiah: He trusted in the LORD God of Israel, so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor who were before him. For he held fast to the LORD; he did not depart from following Him, but kept His commandments, which the LORD had commanded Moses. 2. (3-11) Hezekiah exhorts the cleansing and restoration the temple. In the first year of his reign, in the first month, he opened the doors of the house of the LORD and repaired them. Then he brought in the priests and the Levites, and gathered them in the East Square, and said to them: “Hear me, Levites! Now sanctify yourselves, sanctify the house of the LORD God of your fathers, and carry out the rubbish from the holy place. For our fathers have trespassed and done evil in the eyes of the LORD our God; they have forsaken Him, have turned their faces away from the dwelling place of the LORD, and turned their backs on Him. They have also shut up the doors of the vestibule, put out the lamps, and have not burned incense or offered burnt offerings in the holy place to the God of Israel. Therefore the wrath of the LORD fell upon Judah and Jerusalem, and He has given them up to trouble, to desolation, and to jeering, as you see with your eyes. For indeed, because of this our fathers have fallen by the sword; and our sons, our daughters, and our wives are in captivity. Now it is in my heart to make a covenant with the LORD God of Israel, that His fierce wrath may turn away from us. My sons, do not be negligent now, for the LORD has chosen you to stand before Him, to serve Him, and that you should minister to Him and burn incense.” a. Sanctify yourselves, sanctify the house of the LORD God of your fathers, and carry out the rubbish from the holy place: Tragically, the condition of both the Levites and the temple was so bad that they seemed incapable of reforming themselves without this push from King Hezekiah. b. Have turned their faces away . . . and turned their backs on Him: They had failed because they gave God their back instead of their face. One might say that in every opportunity to encounter God, we have the choice to turn either our back or our face to God. i. Poole suggests that the idea of turning the back to God could also be understood literally, because according to 2 Kings 16, in the days of Ahaz the altar was moved and its replacement was directed to the east, in the manner of pagan altars instead of toward the west as God commanded. The idea was therefore that under this dangerous innovation, one had to literally turn his back to the temple and the ark of God to stand before the altar. c. They have also shut up the doors of the vestibule, put out the lamps, and have not burned incense or offered burnt offerings: This happened in the days of Ahaz, the father of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 28:24). Hezekiah knew that it was time to open up the temple again, both to clean it out and so that it could operate as intended. d. Therefore the wrath of the LORD fell upon Judah and Jerusalem: In a remarkable way, Hezekiah recognized that the calamities that had come to Judah came because of their disobedience. It takes a wise and godly person to admit this, and to act appropriately. i. “He made no attempt to blame on God the calamities which had overtaken the nation.” (Morgan) e. My sons, do not be negligent now, for the LORD has chosen you to stand before Him, to serve Him: This call to courage from Hezekiah to the priests and Levites was focused on their sense of calling (the LORD has chosen you). Getting back to a focus upon their calling and their central purpose (to serve and honor God) was essential, and this exhortation demonstrates that they had lost this focus. i. Hezekiah set the example in this devoted service to God, in that he even destroyed a notable artifact from the Exodus – the bronze serpent of Moses known as Nehushtan – when it became an idol (2 Kings 18:4). 3. (12-19) Cleansing the temple. Then these Levites arose: Mahath the son of Amasai and Joel the son of Azariah, of the sons of the Kohathites; of the sons of Merari, Kish the son of Abdi and Azariah the son of Jehallelel; of the Gershonites, Joah the son of Zimmah and Eden the son of Joah; of the sons of Elizaphan, Shimri and Jeiel; of the sons of Asaph, Zechariah and Mattaniah; of the sons of Heman, Jehiel and Shimei; and of the sons of Jeduthun, Shemaiah and Uzziel. And they gathered their brethren, sanctified themselves, and went according to the commandment of the king, at the words of the LORD, to cleanse the house of the LORD. Then the priests went into the inner part of the house of the LORD to cleanse it, and brought out all the debris that they found in the temple of the LORD to the court of the house of the LORD. And the Levites took it out and carried it to the Brook Kidron. Now they began to sanctify on the first day of the first month, and on the eighth day of the month they came to the vestibule of the LORD. Then they sanctified the house of the LORD in eight days, and on the sixteenth day of the first month they finished. Then they went in to King Hezekiah and said, “We have cleansed all the house of the LORD, the altar of burnt offerings with all its articles, and the table of the showbread with all its articles. Moreover all the articles which King Ahaz in his reign had cast aside in his transgression we have prepared and sanctified; and there they are, before the altar of the LORD.” a. Then the Levites arose: These were men who had been complicit in the neglect and disgrace of the temple. Yet the Chronicler rightly noted these men by name, because when they were exhorted by King Hezekiah to do what is right in cleansing and restoring the temple, they did it. b. On the sixteenth day of the first month they finished: This relates the staggering extent of the prior damage to the temple, in that it took 16 days to simply carry out the rubbish that had accumulated in the temple, including even the inner part of the house of the LORD. c. All the articles which King Ahaz in his reign had cast aside in his transgression we have prepared and sanctified; and there they are: After the first step of removing the problem, now they could put back what had been taken out during the reign of Ahaz (2 Chronicles 28:24 and 2 Kings 16:17-18). B. The restoration of worship. 1. (20-27) Sacrifice and worship is organized again. Then King Hezekiah rose early, gathered the rulers of the city, and went up to the house of the LORD. And they brought seven bulls, seven rams, seven lambs, and seven male goats for a sin offering for the kingdom, for the sanctuary, and for Judah. Then he commanded the priests, the sons of Aaron, to offer them on the altar of the LORD. So they killed the bulls, and the priests received the blood and sprinkled it on the altar. Likewise they killed the rams and sprinkled the blood on the altar. They also killed the lambs and sprinkled the blood on the altar. Then they brought out the male goats for the sin offering before the king and the assembly, and they laid their hands on them. And the priests killed them; and they presented their blood on the altar as a sin offering to make an atonement for all Israel, for the king commanded that the burnt offering and the sin offering be made for all Israel. And he stationed the Levites in the house of the LORD with cymbals, with stringed instruments, and with harps, according to the commandment of David, of Gad the king’s seer, and of Nathan the prophet; for thus was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets. The Levites stood with the instruments of David, and the priests with the trumpets. Then Hezekiah commanded them to offer the burnt offering on the altar. And when the burnt offering began, the song of the LORD also began, with the trumpets and with the instruments of David king of Israel. a. Then he commanded the priests, the sons of Aaron, to offer them on the altar of the LORD: In his bold restoration of the service of the temple, Hezekiah was not so foolish as to overstep the Biblical and traditional commands and to offer these sacrifices himself. His great-grandfather Uzziah did this to his own judgment (2 Chronicles 26:16-23). i. “The whole enterprise is characterized by a concern to do everything as God required, especially as the king’s command was regarded as ‘the words of the LORD’ (2 Chronicles 29:15).” (Selman) ii. “For the assembly to lay their hands on the goats of the sin offering was to designate these as substitutes for their own lives and to transfer their sins to the animal victims (Numbers 27:18-21). The goats thus served as types of Christ’s death in the sinner’s stead (2 Corinthians 5:21).” (Payne) iii. The diligence of Hezekiah was evident in that he rose early to do these things. “His zeal for God’s glory made his obedience prompt and present, ready and speedy. He could not rest until he had reformed.” (Trapp) iv. It was also shown if offering more than the law commanded. “This was more than the law required; see Levitcus 4:13, etc. It ordered one calf or ox for the sins of the people, and one he-goat for the sins of the prince; but Hezekiah here offers many more.” (Clarke) b. And when the burnt offering began, the song of the LORD also began: In his arrangement of this restoration of temple service, Hezekiah was careful to include both offering and worship. Each honored God in important ways. i. “The Hebrew that lies behind the phrase ‘singing to the LORD’ is literally ‘the song of the LORD’ (NASB), which suggests a specific writing, i.e., perhaps including the canonical Psalms that were then available for use in worship.” (Payne) ii. Hezekiah was wise in making worship such a priority. “Every human being’s first priority should be to acknowledge God’s worth. That, for example, is how the ten commandments begin (Exodus 20:3-6), it is the reason for Jesus’ obedient death on the cross, and it is the chief characteristic of the community in heaven (Revelation 4:1-5:14; 22:1-9).” (Selman) 2. (28-30) The assembly of Judah joins in the worship and recognition of sacrificial offerings. So all the assembly worshiped, the singers sang, and the trumpeters sounded; all this continued until the burnt offering was finished. And when they had finished offering, the king and all who were present with him bowed and worshiped. Moreover King Hezekiah and the leaders commanded the Levites to sing praise to the LORD with the words of David and of Asaph the seer. So they sang praises with gladness, and they bowed their heads and worshiped. a. So all the assembly worshipped, the singers sang, and the trumpeters sounded: Each person played their part in this large, communal honoring of God. i. “This chapter contains a parable of the cleansing of the heart, meant to be a temple for God; but the doors of prayer are unopened, the lamps of testimony unlit, the burnt-offerings of self-sacrifice neglected.” (Meyer) ii. “You tell me that you cannot sing the Lord’s song; then I know you have gone into the strange land of backsliding. You acknowledge that for some time now you have taken no delight in god or his service; then I am sure that the temple is badly in need of renovation.” (Meyer) iii. “The music of your life is still, because you are out of accord with the will of God; but when by surrender and consecration there is unison, your heart will be filled with songs without words, and love like an ocean in the fullness of her strength.” (Meyer) iv. The description of instruments in this passage is compelling evidence that they should be used today in worshipping God, but not all are convinced of this. “Away with such portentous baubles from the worship of that infinite Spirit who requires his followers to worship him in spirit and in truth, for to no such worship are those instruments friendly.” (Clarke) b. King Hezekiah and the leaders commanded the Levites to sing praise to the LORD with the words of David and of Asaph the seer: They worshipped God with the best words they could find – the words of the great psalms of praise written by David and others. 3. (31-36) Thank and fellowship offerings and the resulting joy. Then Hezekiah answered and said, “Now that you have consecrated yourselves to the LORD, come near, and bring sacrifices and thank offerings into the house of the LORD.” So the assembly brought in sacrifices and thank offerings, and as many as were of a willing heart brought burnt offerings. And the number of the burnt offerings which the assembly brought was seventy bulls, one hundred rams, and two hundred lambs; all these were for a burnt offering to the LORD. The consecrated things were six hundred bulls and three thousand sheep. But the priests were too few, so that they could not skin all the burnt offerings; therefore their brethren the Levites helped them until the work was ended and until the other priests had sanctified themselves, for the Levites were more diligent in sanctifying themselves than the priests. Also the burnt offerings were in abundance, with the fat of the peace offerings and with the drink offerings for every burnt offering. So the service of the house of the LORD was set in order. Then Hezekiah and all the people rejoiced that God had prepared the people, since the events took place so suddenly. a. Now that you have consecrated yourselves to the LORD, come near, and bring sacrifices and thank offerings into the house of the LORD: Once they had properly sacrificed and cleansed the temple and their own hearts before the LORD, now the assembly was invited to come and bring their personal offerings. One of the great purposes of the temple – as a place for the personal sacrifice and worship of the believer – was now restored. i. “Sacrifices and offerings are only acceptable when those offering them are themselves consecrated to Jehovah.” (Morgan) ii. “Sacrifice for sin in both the Old Testament and the New is the springboard for the sacrifice of praise (Colossians 3:15; Hebrews 13:15-16) and for the fellowship or communion meal (1 Corinthians 11:23-26).” (Selman) b. The priests were too few, so that they could not skin all the burnt offerings: The pent-up desire of the people to sacrifice and honor God through sacrifices was so great that when they were given the opportunity the priests were overwhelmed. i. Wisely, their brethren the Levites helped them until the work was ended. This was a good example of temporarily suspending a commandment out of godly necessity. ii. It was also fitting on this occasion because the Levites were more diligent in their sanctifying themselves than the priests. “For the truest faith is often found among the humble; and throughout history ‘professional’ religious leaders have too often been among those least willing to submit to Christ and to the Word.” (Payne) c. Hezekiah and all the people rejoiced that God had prepared the people: The remarkable response of the assembly was proof that God had prepared the people. There could never be such a response unless God was at work among His people, and this was evidence of such a work. i. “It was, as a very great, so a sudden change, that the people, who but the other day were so ready to comply with wicked Ahaz in his idolatrous and impious prescriptions, were now so free and forward in God’s service; whereby it plainly appeared to be the work of the Almighty God changing their hearts by his Holy Spirit.” (Poole) ii. “Two consequences followed from these offerings. The first was to acknowledge that only God had made it all possible (2 Chronicles 29:36; cf. 1 Corinthians 12:3; Ephesians 2:18). The second was that everyone rejoiced (2 Chronicles 29:36), in complete contrast with the situation with which they had begun.” (Selman) 2 Chronicles 30 - Hezekiah’s Passover A. The letter of invitation. 1. (1-5) The tribes of Israel are invited to celebrate the Passover. And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and also wrote letters to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, to keep the Passover to the LORD God of Israel. For the king and his leaders and all the assembly in Jerusalem had agreed to keep the Passover in the second month. For they could not keep it at the regular time, because a sufficient number of priests had not consecrated themselves, nor had the people gathered together at Jerusalem. And the matter pleased the king and all the assembly. So they resolved to make a proclamation throughout all Israel, from Beersheba to Dan, that they should come to keep the Passover to the LORD God of Israel at Jerusalem, since they had not done it for a long time in the prescribed manner. a. Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah: The timing of this invitation is somewhat hard to precisely determine. It seems to have happened when Israel was defeated and prostrate under Assyria, yet perhaps before the kingdom as a whole had been depopulated through exile. Therefore this invitation actually went out to the remnant that had, up to this point, escaped exile (2 Chronicles 30:6). i. “In all probability, this Passover was observed before the final passing of the northern kingdom into captivity.” (Morgan) ii. “Any such compliance had been prohibited during the two centuries that had followed Jeroboam’s division of the Solomonic empire (2 Chronicles 30:5, 26; 1 Kings 12:27-28). But now King Hoshea’s capital in Samaria was subject to Assyrian siege (2 Chronicles 30:6; 2 Kings 17:5), and the northern ruler was powerless to interfere.” (Payne) b. To keep the Passover: This great feast remembered the great and glorious deliverance of God on Israel’s behalf in the days of the Exodus (Exodus 12). It was a deliberate, emblematic reminder of the central act of redemption in the Old Testament (the deliverance from slavery in Egypt). i. Communion is likewise an emblematic reminder of the central act of redemption of the New Testament (and the Bible as a whole). The long neglect of Passover among the tribes of Israel would be like a church that had not celebrated the Lord’s Table in a long, long time. ii. “Jesus is the ultimate Passover lamb, who by his own body and blood established a new covenant (cf. Luke 22:14-20). Just as Hezekiah’s congregation were cleansed and healed, Christians are made clean by their Passover sacrifice, except that Jesus’ sacrifice is the ultimate and unrepeatable Passover.” (Selman) c. Had agreed to keep the Passover in the second month: Normally, Passover was kept in the first month (Numbers 9:1-5). However, there were special circumstances under which Passover could be kept in the second month (Numbers 9:5-14). Because they could not keep it at the regular time, here under Hezekiah they kept it in the second month. i. “Hezekiah therefore, and his counsellors, thought that they might extend that to the people at large, because of the delay necessarily occasioned by the cleansing of the temple, which was granted to individuals in such cases as the above, and the result showed that they had not mistaken the mind of the Lord upon the subject.” (Clarke) d. Since they had not done it for a long time: Even though Passover was one of the three feasts that deserved special emphasis (Exodus 23:14-17), it had not been celebrated for a long time. Hezekiah was dedicated to righting this wrong. 2. (6-9) The letter to the tribes. Then the runners went throughout all Israel and Judah with the letters from the king and his leaders, and spoke according to the command of the king: “Children of Israel, return to the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel; then He will return to the remnant of you who have escaped from the hand of the kings of Assyria. And do not be like your fathers and your brethren, who trespassed against the LORD God of their fathers, so that He gave them up to desolation, as you see. Now do not be stiff-necked, as your fathers were, but yield yourselves to the LORD; and enter His sanctuary, which He has sanctified forever, and serve the LORD your God, that the fierceness of His wrath may turn away from you. For if you return to the LORD, your brethren and your children will be treated with compassion by those who lead them captive, so that they may come back to this land; for the LORD your God is gracious and merciful, and will not turn His face from you if you return to Him.” a. Children of Israel, return to the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel: The northern kingdom of Israel had fallen and all that remained after exile to the Assyrians was the remnant of you who have escaped. Yet Hezekiah still believed in the concept of the Children of Israel, those of the tribes of Israel descended from the great patriarchs. i. In the history of the divided kingdoms there were some attempts to reunify by force, but these came to nothing. “In comparison with previous failures, this incident shows that the only really effective approach to unity has to be based on the principle of faithful worship.” (Selman) ii. “The good of our brethren in other kingdoms must also be minded.” (Trapp) b. Do not be stiff-necked, as your fathers were: This was especially relevant as the letter went to the remnant of the northern kingdom. Generally speaking, they had neglected the Jerusalem Passover for a long time. i. “Hezekiah knew that the poor remnant of Israel were in great affliction: he therefore presseth them to repentance, whereby men return to God, as by sin they run from him. . . . Hezekiah though it was good striking while the iron was hot.” (Trapp) c. For if you return to the LORD: The letter of invitation promised two things if the remnant of Israel would return to the LORD and obediently celebrate this Passover in Jerusalem. First, under God’s blessing it would go well with those already taken captive by the Assyrians. Second, God would restore the northern kingdom and allow them to come back to this land. i.. These promises were based on an eternal principle of God’s character: that He will not turn His face from you if you return to Him. God promises to draw near to those who draw near to Him. 3. (10-12) The reaction to the letter in Israel and Judah. So the runners passed from city to city through the country of Ephraim and Manasseh, as far as Zebulun; but they laughed at them and mocked them. Nevertheless some from Asher, Manasseh, and Zebulun humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem. Also the hand of God was on Judah to give them singleness of heart to obey the command of the king and the leaders, at the word of the LORD. a. But they laughed at them and mocked them: Mostly, the reception among the remnant of the northern kingdom was not warm. Reflecting the same attitude of heart that brought the kingdom as a whole into exile, the people of the northern kingdom laughed at and mocked the messengers who invited them to this great Passover in Jerusalem. i. We note there was no rational argument against the invitation; it was all opposed with simple laughter and mocking. For the frivolous and simple-minded, these replace serious thought. ii. “Josephus saith that these Israelites this invited slew both the messengers and those prophets also that exhorted them to go up.” (Trapp) b. Nevertheless some from Asher, Manasseh, and Zebulun humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem: Happily, there was a remnant of the remnant that responded to the message and came from the former northern kingdom. i. “Far more northerners participated than previously, and the recent fall of the northern kingdom in 722 B.C. meant that Jerusalem now offered the only alternative for corporate worship of the Lord.” (Selman) c. The hand of God was on Judah: The response among the peoples and villages of Judah was entirely different. God gave them singleness of heart to obey the command of the LORD and their king. B. The Passover celebrated. 1. (13-17) Preparations and sacrifices made. Now many people, a very great assembly, gathered at Jerusalem to keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the second month. They arose and took away the altars that were in Jerusalem, and they took away all the incense altars and cast them into the Brook Kidron. Then they slaughtered the Passover lambs on the fourteenth day of the second month. The priests and the Levites were ashamed, and sanctified themselves, and brought the burnt offerings to the house of the LORD. They stood in their place according to their custom, according to the Law of Moses the man of God; the priests sprinkled the blood received from the hand of the Levites. For there were many in the assembly who had not sanctified themselves; therefore the Levites had charge of the slaughter of the Passover lambs for everyone who was not clean, to sanctify them to the LORD. a. Many people, a very great assembly: This was the greatest assembly gathered for a Passover in generations. Not only had the Passover been neglected in Judah for many years, but this Passover also included those from the remnant of the northern tribes who responded to the invitation. b. They arose and took away the altars that were in Jerusalem: These were either altars to pagan gods or unauthorized altars to the true God. Both were prohibited, and as a demonstration of preparation for this great Passover, the city was cleansed of all idolatrous or unauthorized worship. i. “So must we also first cast the baggage into the brook, and then come to the Lord’s supper.” (Trapp) c. Then they slaughtered the Passover lambs on the fourteenth day of the second month: This shows the Passover being celebrated according to the Scriptural commands (allowing for the celebration of Passover in the second month according to Numbers 9:5-14). They took care to honor and obey in their celebration of this important feast. 2. (18-20) God is merciful to the ignorant worshippers. For a multitude of the people, many from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the Passover contrary to what was written. But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, “May the good LORD provide atonement for everyone who prepares his heart to seek God, the LORD God of his fathers, though he is not cleansed according to the purification of the sanctuary.” And the LORD listened to Hezekiah and healed the people. a. For a multitude of the people . . . had not cleansed themselves: This multitude seems to have mostly come from the remnant of the northern tribes, who would naturally be ignorant about how to properly prepare for Passover. i. “It was a motley crowd which assembled, and multitudes of the people were utterly ignorant of the Divine arrangements for preparation. Hezekiah’s tenderness was manifested in the pity he felt for these people, and in the prayer he offered on their behalf.” (Morgan) ii. “This largeness of heart is always characteristic of men who are really in fellowship with God, for it is in harmony with the heart of God.” (Morgan) b. Yet they ate the Passover contrary to what was written: We would expect that this would result in a great punishment or judgment against them. Instead, Hezekiah prayed for them, asking the good LORD to provide atonement. In response, the LORD listened to Hezekiah and healed the people. i. This shows the wonderful and warm mercy of God. By the letter of the command the people deserved judgment for their disobedience. Yet God showed his mercy and goodness to those who had prepared their heart to seek God, though in ignorance they did not do it all according to the commandments. ii. “Unaccustomed to temple usage, strangers to the temple rites, they had participated in the festivities of this great Passover without submitting first to the necessary ablutions. Their heart was prepared to seek God, they were proud of the great past, they desired to stand right with the Lord God of their fathers; but they were sadly ignorant and careless. The only thing to be done was to pray that their ignorance and negligence might be forgiven.” (Meyer) iii. “You may not understand doctrine, creed, or rite; but be sure to seek God. No splendid ceremonial nor rigorous etiquette can intercept the seeking soul.” (Meyer) iv. Their pattern of preparing to receive the Passover is instructive for those who come to the communion table, especially those who feel unworthy to partake of communion. · They forgot their differences and came together as one people. · They removed their idols. · They prepared their hearts. · Their sins and ignorance were confessed. · They prayed. 3. (21-22) Worship, teaching, and fellowship. So the children of Israel who were present at Jerusalem kept the Feast of Unleavened Bread seven days with great gladness; and the Levites and the priests praised the LORD day by day, singing to the LORD, accompanied by loud instruments. And Hezekiah gave encouragement to all the Levites who taught the good knowledge of the LORD; and they ate throughout the feast seven days, offering peace offerings and making confession to the LORD God of their fathers. a. So the children of Israel who were present at Jerusalem: There was special gladness for these who had come from the northern tribes. They had never before experienced such obedient and joyful worship, where they praised the LORD day by day, singing to the LORD. b. All the Levites who taught the good knowledge of the LORD: The gathering at this Passover was not only given to worship, but also to teaching. This was helpful and good at all times; one might say it was urgently needed with the presence of the northern tribes. i. This remnant of the remnant of the northern tribes came to God in ignorance and in His mercy, God received them (2 Chronicles 30:18-20). Yet God didn’t want to leave them in ignorance, so He used the Levites who taught the good knowledge of the LORD. ii. “It is a fine and expressive character given of these men. ‘They taught the good knowledge of God to the people.’ This is the great work, or should be so, of every Christian minister. They should convey that knowledge of God to the people by which they may be saved; that is, the good knowledge of the Lord.” (Clarke) c. They ate throughout the feast seven days, offering peace offerings and making confession: The third component to their gather was fellowship. They shared the same food, the same relationship with God (demonstrated by the peace offerings) and the same need for Him (demonstrated by their confession of sin). i. “Making confession: either, 1. Confessing their sins; which work was to accompany many of their sacrifices; of which see Leviticus 5:5; 16:21. Or rather, 2. Confessing God’s goodness, or praising of God, which oft goes under this name, as 1 Chronicles 16:8, 24, which also seems to be more proper work for this season of joy.” (Poole) 4. (23-27) The resulting joy and answered prayer. Then the whole assembly agreed to keep the feast another seven days, and they kept it another seven days with gladness. For Hezekiah king of Judah gave to the assembly a thousand bulls and seven thousand sheep, and the leaders gave to the assembly a thousand bulls and ten thousand sheep; and a great number of priests sanctified themselves. The whole assembly of Judah rejoiced, also the priests and Levites, all the assembly that came from Israel, the sojourners who came from the land of Israel, and those who dwelt in Judah. So there was great joy in Jerusalem, for since the time of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel, there had been nothing like this in Jerusalem. Then the priests, the Levites, arose and blessed the people, and their voice was heard; and their prayer came up to His holy dwelling place, to heaven. a. The whole assembly agreed to keep the feast another seven days: This was a remarkable and wonderful response to their experience of worship, teaching, and fellowship. They wanted to make the necessary sacrifices to continue the feast for another week, and they did it with gladness. i. There is no indication in the text that they offered more Passover lambs or continued eating unleavened bread, which belonged to the specific seasons of these feasts. The emphasis is on their continuation of worship, teaching, and fellowship. ii. This was substantially supported by King Hezekiah. “A thousand bullocks and seven thousand sheep; which generosity is the more considerable, because it was in the beginning of his reign, when he found the royal exchequer exhausted and empty; and when he had been at great expense about the cleansing and refitting of the temple, and making preparations for this great feast.” (Poole) b. Since the time of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel, there had been nothing like this in Jerusalem: Since those days there had not been a Passover in Jerusalem so widely and enthusiastically celebrated. c. The priests, the Levites, arose and blessed the people: According to Numbers 6:22-27, it was the duty of the priests to bless the people with these words: The LORD bless you and keep you; the LORD make His face shine upon you, and be gracious to you; the LORD lift up His countenance upon you, and give you peace. As the priests obeyed this command, their voice was heard, even to heaven and the people were indeed blessed. i. “The phrase ‘the priests and the Levites’ may here be rendered as ‘the Levitical preists,’ since it was the priests whom Moses had authorized ‘to bless the people.’” (Payne) 2 Chronicles 31 - Provision for the Priests A. The aftermath of Hezekiah’s Passover. 1. (1) The work against idolatry. Now when all this was finished, all Israel who were present went out to the cities of Judah and broke the sacred pillars in pieces, cut down the wooden images, and threw down the high places and the altars; from all Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh; until they had utterly destroyed them all. Then all the children of Israel returned to their own cities, every man to his possession. a. All Israel who were present went out to the cities of Judah and broke the sacred pillars: After the glorious double-length Passover celebration, the people renounced all idolatry in the strongest terms possible. i. “Hezekiah’s previous emphasis on removing the paraphernalia of idol worship (cf. 2 Chronicles 29:15-19; 30:14; also 2 Kings 18:22) now became a popular movement.” (Selman) b. From all Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh: This shows how broad the work was, including not only the Kingdom of Judah but also substantial portions of the territory of the northern tribes. i. This reformation “was not only carried on through Judah, but they carried it into Israel; whether through a transport of religious zeal, or whether with the consent of Hoshea the Israelitish king, we cannot tell.” (Clarke) 2. (2-3) The restoration and support of the regular priestly work. And Hezekiah appointed the divisions of the priests and the Levites according to their divisions, each man according to his service, the priests and Levites for burnt offerings and peace offerings, to serve, to give thanks, and to praise in the gates of the camp of the LORD. The king also appointed a portion of his possessions for the burnt offerings: for the morning and evening burnt offerings, the burnt offerings for the Sabbaths and the New Moons and the set feasts, as it is written in the Law of the LORD. a. And Hezekiah appointed the divisions of the priests and the Levites according to their divisions: Hezekiah did not allow the recent Passover celebration to be a one-time event. He followed up by the organization and institution of the regular priestly service. i. “The Hebrew for Hezekiah’s assigning the priests to divisions is definite: he ‘appointed THE divisions of the priests.’ He reestablished the twenty-four rotating courses that had been set up by David (1 Chronicles 25) to insure orderly worship.” (Payne) b. For burnt offerings . . . to serve . . . to give thanks . . . and to praise in the gates: This shows some of the duties of the priests and the Levites. Their work included the administration of the sacrifices, general service, and worship. i. In the gates of the camp of the LORD: “Of the temple, fitly compared to a camp, for the watch and the ward there kept by the priests, and for the convention of the people thither, as to their rendezvous, to pray, which is the chief service of our spiritual warfare.” (Trapp) c. The king also appointed a portion of his possessions: King Hezekiah was so committed to the restoration of the proper priestly service that he personally supported their work with a portion of his possessions. 3. (4-5) The tithe is commanded and brought. Moreover he commanded the people who dwelt in Jerusalem to contribute support for the priests and the Levites, that they might devote themselves to the Law of the LORD. As soon as the commandment was circulated, the children of Israel brought in abundance the firstfruits of grain and wine, oil and honey, and of all the produce of the field; and they brought in abundantly the tithe of everything. a. Moreover he commanded the people who dwelt in Jerusalem to contribute support for the priests and the Levites: King Hezekiah did not present this as an option for the people of Judah. They were commanded to fulfill their obligations under the Law of Moses to support the priesthood through their tithes (Numbers 18:21-24). i. As God said in Numbers 18:21, I have given the children of Levi all the tithes in Israel. God commanded the tithes (a giving of ten percent of one’s income) be given to the Levites for their support. This establishes the principle that the tithes belong to God (He said I have given, so they are His to give), but He gave them to the Levites. ii. When an Israelite failed to give their tithe, they were not robbing the Levite - though the money ended up with them. They were robbing God (Malachi 3:8-10), because God received the tithe from the giver, and He gave it to the Levite. iii. Some today think the tithe, since it went to support the Levites (who were, in a sense, government workers in ancient Israel), is covered by government taxes of today, and that free-will giving mentioned in the Old Testament answers to the New Testament emphasis on giving. We can say that the New Testament nowhere specifically commands tithing, but it certainly does speak of it in a positive light, if it is done with a right heart (Luke 11:42). iv. It is also important to understand that tithing is not a principle dependent on the Mosaic Law; as Hebrews 7:5-9 explains, tithing was practiced and honored by God before the Law of Moses. v. What the New Testament does speak with great clarity on is the principle of giving; that giving should be regular, planned, proportional, and private (1 Corinthians 16:1-4); that it must be generous, freely given, and cheerful (2 Corinthians 9). vi. Since the New Testament doesn’t emphasize tithing, one might not be strict on it for Christians (though some Christians do argue against tithing on the basis of self-interest); but since giving is to be proportional, we should be giving some percentage - and ten percent is a good benchmark - and starting place! For some to give ten percent is nowhere near enough; for others, at their present time, five percent may be a massive step of faith. vii. If our question is, “How little can I give and still be pleasing to God?” our heart isn’t in the right place at all. We should have the attitude of some early Christians, who essentially said: “We’re not under the tithe - we can give more!” Giving and financial management is a spiritual issue, not just a financial one (Luke 16:11). b. That they might devote themselves to the Law of the LORD: This reminds us of another duty of the Levites, beyond what was mentioned in 2 Chronicles 31:2 – the study and teaching of the Law of the LORD. The support of the Levites through the tithes of the people enabled this. i. This is much the same principle as what Paul wrote in 1 Timothy 5:17-18: Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine. For the Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain,” and, “The laborer is worthy of his wages.” c. As soon as the commandment was circulated . . . they brought in abundantly the tithe of everything: The response of the people was impressive. Instead of thinking of reasons why this command did not apply to them or excuses to relieve themselves of the obligation, they brought in abundantly the tithe of everything. i. “The firstfruits were the priests prerogative (Numbers 18:12-13), but the tithe, whether of crops and fruit or the herds was presented to the Levites (Numbers 18:21; cf. Leviticus 27:30-33).” (Selman) B. The distribution and blessing of the tithe. 1. (6-10) The reception of the tithes. And the children of Israel and Judah, who dwelt in the cities of Judah, brought the tithe of oxen and sheep; also the tithe of holy things which were consecrated to the LORD their God they laid in heaps. In the third month they began laying them in heaps, and they finished in the seventh month. And when Hezekiah and the leaders came and saw the heaps, they blessed the LORD and His people Israel. Then Hezekiah questioned the priests and the Levites concerning the heaps. And Azariah the chief priest, from the house of Zadok, answered him and said, “Since the people began to bring the offerings into the house of the LORD, we have had enough to eat and have plenty left, for the LORD has blessed His people; and what is left is this great abundance.” a. In the third month they began laying them in heaps: The giving of tithes was so abundant that it took four months to simply receive all the gifts. No wonder Hezekiah and the leaders blessed the LORD and His people Israel when they saw the evidence of generous giving. i. “They blessed the Lord; both for giving such plentiful provisions to his land in this year, and for giving his people such liberal and pious hearts towards this good work.” (Poole) ii. Their happiness was not only because it meant that there would be plenty for the priests and Levites, it also showed that the Spirit of God was working powerfully in the people of Israel. iii. The tithe of holy things: “The tithe of the holy or dedicated things probably refers to gifts made by the Levites to the priest from what they themselves had received.” (Selman) b. Since the people began to bring the offerings into the house of the LORD, we have had enough to eat and have plenty left: The priests and Levites had long been neglected, and now they had plenty. 2. (11-19) The administration of the tithes. Now Hezekiah commanded them to prepare rooms in the house of the LORD, and they prepared them. Then they faithfully brought in the offerings, the tithes, and the dedicated things; Cononiah the Levite had charge of them, and Shimei his brother was the next. Jehiel, Azaziah, Nahath, Asahel, Jerimoth, Jozabad, Eliel, Ismachiah, Mahath, and Benaiah were overseers under the hand of Cononiah and Shimei his brother, at the commandment of Hezekiah the king and Azariah the ruler of the house of God. Kore the son of Imnah the Levite, the keeper of the East Gate, was over the freewill offerings to God, to distribute the offerings of the LORD and the most holy things. And under him were Eden, Miniamin, Jeshua, Shemaiah, Amariah, and Shecaniah, his faithful assistants in the cities of the priests, to distribute allotments to their brethren by divisions, to the great as well as the small. Besides those males from three years old and up who were written in the genealogy, they distributed to everyone who entered the house of the LORD his daily portion for the work of his service, by his division, and to the priests who were written in the genealogy according to their father’s house, and to the Levites from twenty years old and up according to their work, by their divisions, and to all who were written in the genealogy; their little ones and their wives, their sons and daughters, the whole company of them; for in their faithfulness they sanctified themselves in holiness. Also for the sons of Aaron the

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10. Surah Al-Baqarah

  • Published: 2012-03-17T04:56:53Z
  • By Rezowan
Surah Al-Baqarah

2. Al-Baqarah Introduction to this Surat. In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. 1. Alif-Lâm-Mîm. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'ân and none but Allâh (Alone) knows their meanings]. 2. This is the Book (the Qur'ân), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqûn [the pious and righteous persons who fear Allâh much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love Allâh much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)]. 3. Who believe in the Ghaib [] and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), [] and spend out of what we have provided for them [i.e. give Zakât [], spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives, etc., and also give charity to the poor and also in Allâh's Cause - Jihâd, etc.]. 4. And who believe in (the Qur'ân and the Sunnah) [] which has been sent down (revealed) to you (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) and in [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.] which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. (Resurrection, recompense of their good and bad deeds, Paradise and Hell, etc.). 5. They are on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful. 6. Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe. 7. Allâh has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allâh's Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment. 8. And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: "We believe in Allâh and the Last Day" while in fact they believe not. 9. They (think to) deceive Allâh and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not! 10. In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allâh has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies. 11. And when it is said to them: "Make not mischief on the earth," they say: "We are only peacemakers." 12. Verily! They are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not. 13. And when it is said to them (hypocrites): "Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad Peace be upon him , Al-Ansâr and Al-Muhajirûn) have believed," they say: "Shall we believe as the fools have believed?" Verily, they are the fools, but they know not. 14. And when they meet those who believe, they say: "We believe," but when they are alone with their Shayâtin (devils - polytheists, hypocrites, etc.), they say: "Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking." 15. Allâh mocks at them and gives them increase in their wrong-doings to wander blindly. 16. These are they who have purchased error for guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided. 17. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him, Allâh took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see. 18. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the Right Path). 19. Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allâh ever encompasses the disbelievers (i.e. Allâh will gather them all together). 20. The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allâh willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allâh has power over all things. 21. O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allâh), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 22. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allâh (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped). [] 23. And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'ân) to Our slave (Muhammad Peace be upon him ), then produce a Sûrah (chapter) of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allâh, if you are truthful. 24. But if you do it not, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers. 25. And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). Every time they will be provided with a fruit therefrom, they will say: "This is what we were provided with before," and they will be given things in resemblance (i.e. in the same form but different in taste) and they shall have therein Azwâjun Mutahharatun [] (purified mates or wives), (having no menses, stools, urine, etc.) and they will abide therein forever. 26. Verily, Allâh is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it. And as for those who believe, they know that it is the Truth from their Lord, but as for those who disbelieve, they say: "What did Allâh intend by this parable?" By it He misleads many, and many He guides thereby. And He misleads thereby only those who are Al-Fâsiqûn (the rebellious, disobedient to Allâh). [] 27. Those who break Allâh's Covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allâh has ordered to be joined (as regards Allâh's Religion of Islâmic Monotheism, and to practise its legal laws on the earth and also as regards keeping good relations with kith and kin []), and do mischief on earth, it is they who are the losers. 28. How can you disbelieve in Allâh? Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return. 29. He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawâ (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything. 30. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, - while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." He (Allâh) said: "I know that which you do not know." 31. And He taught Adam all the names (of everything) [], then He showed them to the angels and said, "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful." 32. They (angels) said: "Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise." 33. He said: "O Adam! Inform them of their names," and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghaib (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?" 34. And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.". And they prostrated except Iblîs (Satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allâh). 35. And We said: "O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zâlimûn (wrong-doers)." 36. Then the Shaitân (Satan) made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time." 37. Then Adam received from his Lord Words []. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful. 38. We said: "Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve. 39. But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) such are the dwellers of the Fire, they shall abide therein forever. 40. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you, and fulfill (your obligations to) My Covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My Obligations to) your covenant (with Me), and fear none but Me. 41. And believe in what I have sent down (this Qur'ân), confirming that which is with you, [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)], and be not the first to disbelieve therein, and buy not with My Verses [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] a small price (i.e. getting a small gain by selling My Verses), and fear Me and Me Alone. (Tafsir At-Tabarî, Vol. I, Page 253). 42. And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth [i.e. Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allâh's Messenger and his qualities are written in your Scriptures, the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] while you know (the truth) []. 43. And perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât, and Irka' (i.e. bow down or submit yourselves with obedience to Allâh) along with Ar­Raki'ûn. [] 44. Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and each and every act of obedience to Allâh) on the people and you forget (to practise it) yourselves, [] while you recite the Scripture [the Taurât (Torah)]! Have you then no sense? 45. And seek help in patience and As-Salât (the prayer) and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khâshi'ûn [i.e. the true believers in Allâh - those who obey Allâh with full submission, fear much from His Punishment, and believe in His Promise (Paradise, etc.) and in His Warnings (Hell, etc.)]. 46. (They are those) who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are going to return. 47. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the 'Alamîn (mankind and jinns) (of your time period, in the past). 48. And fear a Day (of Judgement) when a person shall not avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from him nor will compensation be taken from him nor will they be helped. 49. And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and therein was a mighty trial from your Lord. 50. And (remember) when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people while you were looking (at them, when the sea-water covered them). 51. And (remember) when We appointed for Mûsa (Moses) forty nights, and (in his absence) you took the calf (for worship), and you were Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.). 52. Then after that We forgave you so that you might be grateful. 53. And (remember) when We gave Mûsa (Moses) the Scripture [the Taurât (Torah)] and the criterion (of right and wrong) so that you may be guided aright. 54. And (remember) when Mûsa (Moses) said to his people: "O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf. So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Lord." Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful. 55. And (remember) when you said: "O Mûsa (Moses)! We shall never believe in you till we see Allâh plainly." But you were seized with a thunderbolt (lightning) while you were looking. 56. Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful. 57. And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna [] and the quails, (saying): "Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you," (but they rebelled). And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves. 58. And (remember) when We said: "Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility) and say: 'Forgive us,' and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers." 59. But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another, so We sent upon the wrong-doers Rijzan (a punishment) [] from the heaven because of their rebelling against Allâh's Obedience. (Tafsir At-Tabarî, Vol. I, Page 305). 60. And (remember) when Mûsa (Moses) asked for water for his people, We said: "Strike the stone with your stick." Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water. "Eat and drink of that which Allâh has provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth." 61. And (remember) when you said, "O Mûsa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fûm (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onions." He said, "Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!" And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the Wrath of Allâh. That was because they used to disbelieve the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allâh and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allâh, i.e. commit crimes and sins). 62. Verily! Those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians, [] whoever believes in Allâh and the Last Day and do righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve []. 63. And (O Children of Israel, remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying): "Hold fast to that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein so that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 64. Then after that you turned away. Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allâh upon you, indeed you would have been among the losers. 65. And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: "Be you monkeys, despised and rejected." 66. So We made this punishment an example to their own and to succeeding generations and a lesson to those who are Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 67. And (remember) when Mûsa (Moses) said to his people: "Verily, Allâh commands you that you slaughter a cow." They said, "Do you make fun of us?" He said, "I take Allâh's Refuge from being among Al-Jâhilûn (the ignorants or the foolish)." 68. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!" He said, "He says, 'Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions', so do what you are commanded." 69. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its colour." He said, "He says, 'It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing to the beholders.' " 70. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily to us all cows are alike, And surely, if Allâh wills, we will be guided." 71. He [Mûsa (Moses)] said, "He says, 'It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other colour except bright yellow.' " They said, "Now you have brought the truth." So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it. 72. And (remember) when you killed a man and fell into dispute among yourselves as to the crime. But Allâh brought forth that which you were hiding. 73. So We said: "Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow)." Thus Allâh brings the dead to life and shows you His Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) so that you may understand. 74. Then, after that, your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allâh. And Allâh is not unaware of what you do. 75. Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe in your religion inspite of the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allâh [the Taurât (Torah)], then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it? 76. And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say, "We believe", but when they meet one another in private, they say, "Shall you (Jews) tell them (Muslims) what Allâh has revealed to you [Jews, about the description and the qualities of Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him , that which are written in the Taurât (Torah)] [], that they (Muslims) may argue with you (Jews) about it before your Lord?" Have you (Jews) then no understanding? 77. Know they (Jews) not that Allâh knows what they conceal and what they reveal? 78. And there are among them (Jews) unlettered people, who know not the Book, but they trust upon false desires and they but guess. 79. Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands and then say, "This is from Allâh," to purchase with it a little price! Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby. 80. And they (Jews) say, "The Fire (i.e. Hell-fire on the Day of Resurrection) shall not touch us but for a few numbered days." Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to them): "Have you taken a covenant from Allâh, so that Allâh will not break His Covenant? Or is it that you say of Allâh what you know not?" 81. Yes! Whosoever earns evil and his sin has surrounded him, they are dwellers of the Fire (i.e. Hell); they will dwell therein forever. 82. And those who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh swt- Islâmic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, they are dwellers of Paradise, they will dwell therein forever. 83. And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none but Allâh (Alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to kindred, and to orphans and Al-Masâkîn [] (the poor), [Tafsir At-Tabarî, Vol. 10, Page 158 (Verse 9:60)] and speak good to people [i.e. enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, and say the truth about Muhammad Peace be upon him ], and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât. Then you slid back, except a few of you, while you are backsliders. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubî, Vol. 2, Page 392). 84. And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your people, nor turn out your own people from their dwellings. Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bear witness. 85. After this, it is you who kill one another and drive out a party of you from their homes, assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their expulsion was forbidden to you. Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject the rest? Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment. And Allâh is not unaware of what you do. 86. Those are they who have bought the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter. Their torment shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped. 87. And indeed, We gave Mûsa (Moses) the Book and followed him up with a succession of Messengers. And We gave 'Iesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), clear signs and supported him with Rûh-ul-Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel) >>]. Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant? Some, you disbelieved and some, you killed. 88. And they say, "Our hearts are wrapped (i.e. do not hear or understand Allâh's Word)." Nay, Allâh has cursed them for their disbelief, so little is that which they believe. 89. And when there came to them (the Jews), a Book (this Qur'ân) from Allâh confirming what is with them [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)], although aforetime they had invoked Allâh (for coming of Muhammad Peace be upon him ) in order to gain victory over those who disbelieved, then when there came to them that which they had recognised, they disbelieved in it. So let the Curse of Allâh be on the disbelievers. 90. How bad is that for which they have sold their ownselves, that they should disbelieve in that which Allâh has revealed (the Qur'ân), grudging that Allâh should reveal of His Grace unto whom He will of His slaves. So they have drawn on themselves wrath upon wrath. And for the disbelievers, there is disgracing torment. 91. And when it is said to them (the Jews), "Believe in what Allâh has sent down," they say, "We believe in what was sent down to us." And they disbelieve in that which came after it, while it is the truth confirming what is with them. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to them): "Why then have you killed the Prophets of Allâh aforetime, if you indeed have been believers?" 92. And indeed Mûsa (Moses) came to you with clear proofs, yet you worshipped the calf after he left, and you were Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers). 93. And (remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying), "Hold firmly to what We have given you and hear (Our Word). They said, "We have heard and disobeyed." And their hearts absorbed (the worship of) the calf because of their disbelief. Say: "Worst indeed is that which your faith enjoins on you if you are believers." 94. Say to (them): "If the home of the Hereafter with Allâh is indeed for you specially and not for others, of mankind, then long for death if you are truthful." 95. But they will never long for it because of what their hands have sent before them (i.e. what they have done). And Allâh is All-Aware of the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers). 96. And verily, you will find them (the Jews) the greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) than those who - ascribe partners to Allâh (and do not believe in Resurrection - Magians, pagans, and idolaters, etc.). Everyone of them wishes that he could be given a life of a thousand years. But the grant of such life will not save him even a little from (due) punishment. And Allâh is All-Seer of what they do. 97. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ): "Whoever is an enemy to Jibrael (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'ân) down to your heart by Allâh's Permission, confirming what came before it [i.e. the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] and guidance and glad tidings for the believers. 98. "Whoever is an enemy to Allâh, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibrael (Gabriel) and Mikael (Michael), then verily, Allâh is an enemy to the disbelievers." 99. And indeed We have sent down to you manifest Ayât (these Verses of the Qur'ân which inform in detail about the news of the Jews and their secret intentions, etc.), and none disbelieve in them but Fâsiqûn (those who rebel against Allâh's Command). 100. Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throw it aside? Nay! the truth is most of them believe not. 101. And when there came to them a Messenger from Allâh (i.e. Muhammad Peace be upon him ) confirming what was with them, a party of those who were given the Scripture threw away the Book of Allâh behind their backs as if they did not know! 102. They followed what the Shayâtin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaimân (Solomon). Sulaimân did not disbelieve, but the Shayâtin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Hârût and Mârût, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)." And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allâh's Leave. And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their ownselves, if they but knew. 103. And if they had believed, and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allâh, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew! 104. O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger Peace be upon him ) Râ'ina [] but say Unzurna (Do make us understand) and hear. And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment. (See Verse 4:46) 105. Neither those who disbelieve among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikûn (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh, idolaters, polytheists, pagans, etc.) like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord. But Allâh chooses for His Mercy whom He wills. And Allâh is the Owner of Great Bounty. 106. Whatever a Verse (revelation) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring a better one or similar to it. Know you not that Allâh is able to do all things? 107. Know you not that it is Allâh to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? And besides Allâh you have neither any Walî (protector or guardian) nor any helper. 108. Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) as Mûsa (Moses) was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord?) And he who changes Faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way. 109. Many of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their ownselves, even, after the truth (that Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allâh's Messenger) has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allâh brings His Command. Verily, Allâh is Able to do all things. 110. And perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât, and whatever of good (deeds that Allâh loves) you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allâh. Certainly, Allâh is All-Seer of what you do. 111. And they say, "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian." These are their own desires. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ), "Produce your proof if you are truthful." 112. Yes, but whoever submits his face (himself) to Allâh (i.e. follows Allâh's Religion of Islâmic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin (good-doer i.e. performs good deeds totally for Allâh's sake only without any show off or to gain praise or fame, etc., and in accordance with the Sunnah of Allâh's Messenger Muhammad Peace be upon him ) then his reward is with his Lord (Allâh), on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. [See Tafsir Ibn Kathîr, Vol.1, Page 154]. 113. The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture. Like unto their word, said (the pagans) who know not. Allâh will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing. 114. And who is more unjust than those who forbid that Allâh's Name be glorified and mentioned much (i.e. prayers and invocations, etc.) in Allâh's Mosques and strive for their ruin? It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them (Allâh's Mosques) except in fear. For them there is disgrace in this world, and they will have a great torment in the Hereafter. 115. And to Allâh belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn yourselves or your faces there is the Face of Allâh (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely! Allâh is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knowing. 116. And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allâh has begotten a son (children or offspring). [] Glory be to Him (Exalted be He above all that they associate with Him). Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all surrender with obedience (in worship) to Him. 117. The Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it : "Be!" - and it is. 118. And those who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allâh speak to us (face to face) or why does not a sign come to us?" So said the people before them words of similar import. Their hearts are alike, We have indeed made plain the signs for people who believe with certainty. 119. Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) with the truth (Islâm), a bringer of glad tidings (for those who believe in what you brought, that they will enter Paradise) and a warner (for those who disbelieve in what you brought, they will enter the Hell-fire). [] And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the blazing Fire. 120. Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) till you follow their religion. Say: "Verily, the Guidance of Allâh (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism) that is the (only) Guidance. And if you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur'ân), then you would have against Allâh neither any Walî (protector or guardian) nor any helper. 121. Those (who embraced Islâm from Banî Israel) to whom We gave the Book [the Taurât (Torah)] [or those (Muhammad's Peace be upon him companions) to whom We have given the Book (the Qur'ân)] recite it (i.e. obey its orders and follow its teachings) as it should be recited (i.e. followed), they are the ones that believe therein. And whoso disbelieves in it (the Qur'ân), those are they who are the losers. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubî. Vol. 2, Page 95). 122. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the 'Alamîn (mankind and jinns) (of your time-period, in the past). 123. And fear the Day (of Judgement) when no person shall avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from him, nor shall intercession be of use to him, nor shall they be helped. 124. And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrâhim (Abraham) [i.e., Allâh] tried him with (certain) Commands, which he fulfilled. He (Allâh) said (to him), "Verily, I am going to make you a leader (Prophet) of mankind." [Ibrâhim (Abraham)] said, "And of my offspring (to make leaders)." (Allâh) said, "My Covenant (Prophethood, etc.) includes not Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers)." 125. And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqâm (place) of Ibrâhim (Abraham) [or the stone on which Ibrâhim (Abraham) >> stood while he was building the Ka'bah] as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers, e.g. two Rak'at after the Tawâf of the Ka'bah at Makkah), and We commanded Ibrâhim (Abraham) and Ismâ'il (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I'tikâf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer). 126. And (remember) when Ibrâhim (Abraham) said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allâh and the Last Day." He (Allâh) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!" 127. And (remember) when Ibrâhim (Abraham) and (his son) Ismâ'il (Ishmael) were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily! You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower." [] 128. "Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manâsik [] (all the ceremonies of pilgrimage - Hajj and 'Umrah, etc.), and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful. 129. "Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allâh answered their invocation by sending Muhammad Peace be upon him ), who shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qur'ân) and Al-Hikmah (full knowledge of the Islâmic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom or Prophethood, etc.), and sanctify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise." 130. And who turns away from the religion of Ibrâhim (Abraham) (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism) except him who befools himself? Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous. 131. When his Lord said to him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!" He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the 'Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists)." 132. And this (submission to Allâh, Islâm) was enjoined by Ibrâhim (Abraham) upon his sons and by Ya'qûb (Jacob), (saying), "O my sons! Allâh has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except in the Faith of Islâm (as Muslims - Islâmic Monotheism)." 133. Or were you witnesses when death approached Ya'qûb (Jacob)? When he said unto his sons, "What will you worship after me?" They said, "We shall worship your Ilâh [] (God - Allâh), the Ilâh (God) of your fathers, Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac), One Ilâh (God), and to Him we submit (in Islâm)." 134. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do. 135. And they say, "Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided." Say (to them, O Muhammad Peace be upon him ), "Nay, (We follow) only the religion of Ibrâhim (Abraham), Hanifa [Islâmic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allâh (Alone)], and he was not of Al-Mushrikûn (those who worshipped others along with Allâh - see V.2:105)." [] 136. Say (O Muslims), "We believe in Allâh and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac), Ya'qûb (Jacob), and to Al-Asbât [the twelve sons of Ya'qûb (Jacob)], and that which has been given to Mûsa (Moses) and 'Iesa (Jesus), and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islâm)." 137. So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allâh will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. 138. [Our Sibghah (religion) is] the Sibghah (Religion) of Allâh (Islâm) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allâh's? And we are His worshippers. [Tafsir Ibn Kathîr.] 139. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to the Jews and Christians), "Dispute you with us about Allâh while He is our Lord and your Lord? And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. [] And we are sincere to Him in worship and obedience (i.e. we worship Him Alone and none else, and we obey His Orders)." 140. Or say you that Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac), Ya'qûb (Jacob) and Al-Asbât [the twelve sons of Ya'qûb (Jacob)] were Jews or Christians? Say, "Do you know better or does Allâh (knows better… that they all were Muslims)? And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony [i.e. to believe in Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him when he comes, written in their Books. (See Verse 7:157)] he has from Allâh? And Allâh is not unaware of what you do." 141. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned, and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do. 142. The fools (pagans, hypocrites, and Jews) among the people will say, "What has turned them (Muslims) from their Qiblah [prayer direction (towards Jerusalem)] to which they were used to face in prayer." Say, (O Muhammad SAW) "To Allâh belong both, east and the west. He guides whom He wills to a Straight Way." 143. Thus We have made you [true Muslims - real believers of Islâmic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad SAW and his Sunnah (legal ways)], a Wasat (just) (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind[] and the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) be a witness over you. And We made the Qiblah (prayer direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face, only to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from those who would turn on their heels (i.e. disobey the Messenger). Indeed it was great (heavy) except for those whom Allâh guided. And Allâh would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered towards Jerusalem). Truly, Allâh is full of kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind. 144. Verily! We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad's SAW) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid- al-Harâm (at Makkah). And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction. Certainly, the people who were given the Scriptures (i.e. Jews and the Christians) know well that, that (your turning towards the direction of the Ka'bah at Makkah in prayers) is the truth from their Lord. And Allâh is not unaware of what they do. 145. And even if you were to bring to the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) all the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), they would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direction), nor are you going to follow their Qiblah (prayer direction). And they will not follow each other's Qiblah (prayer direction). Verily, if you follow their desires after that which you have received of knowledge (from Allâh), then indeed you will be one of the Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong-doers, etc.). 146. Those to whom We gave the Scripture (Jews and Christians) recognise him (Muhammad SAW or the Ka'bah at Makkah) as they recongise their sons. But verily, a party of them conceal the truth while they know it - [i.e. the qualities of Muhammad SAW which are written in the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)][]. 147. (This is) the truth from your Lord. So be you not one of those who doubt. 148. For every nation there is a direction to which they face (in their prayers). So hasten towards all that is good. Wheresoever you may be, Allâh will bring you together (on the Day of Resurrection). Truly, Allâh is Able to do all things. 149. And from wheresoever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah), that is indeed the truth from your Lord. And Allâh is not unaware of what you do. 150. And from wheresoever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah), and wheresoever you are, turn your faces towards, it (when you pray) so that men may have no argument against you except those of them that are wrong-doers, so fear them not, but fear Me! - And so that I may complete My Blessings on you and that you may be guided. 151. Similarly (to complete My Blessings on you) We have sent among you a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) of your own, reciting to you Our Verses (the Qur'ân) and sanctifying you, and teaching you the Book (the Qur'ân) and the Hikmah (i.e. Sunnah, Islâmic laws and Fiqh - jurisprudence), and teaching you that which you used not to know. 152. Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying, etc.).[] I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless Favours on you) and never be ungrateful to Me. 153. O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salât (the prayer). Truly! Allâh is with As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.). 154. And say not of those who are killed in the Way of Allâh, "They are dead." Nay, they are living, but you perceive (it) not. 155. And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.). 156. Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: "Truly! To Allâh we belong and truly, to Him we shall return." 157. They are those on whom are the Salawât (i.e. blessings, etc.) (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided-ones. 158. Verily! As-Safâ and Al-Marwah (two mountains in Makkah) are of the Symbols of Allâh. So it is not a sin on him who perform Hajj or 'Umrah (pilgrimage) of the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) to perform the going (Tawâf) between them (As-Safâ and Al-Marwah).[] And whoever does good voluntarily, then verily, Allâh is All-Recogniser, All-Knower. 159. Verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allâh and cursed by the cursers. 160. Except those who repent and do righteous deeds, and openly declare (the truth which they concealed). These, I will accept their repentance. And I am the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful. 161. Verily, those who disbelieve, and die while they are disbelievers, it is they on whom is the Curse of Allâh and of the angels and of mankind, combined. 162. They will abide therein (under the curse in Hell), their punishment will neither be lightened, nor will they be reprieved. 163. And your Ilâh (God) is One Ilâh (God - Allâh), Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He), the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. 164. Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allâh sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayât (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding. 165. And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allâh as rivals[] (to Allâh). They love them as they love Allâh. But those who believe, love Allâh more (than anything else). If only, those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allâh and that Allâh is Severe in punishment. 166. When those who were followed, disown (declare themselves innocent of) those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them. 167. And those who followed will say: "If only we had one more chance to return (to the worldly life), we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) them as they have disowned (declared themselves as innocent from) us." Thus Allâh will show them their deeds as regrets for them. And they will never get out of the Fire . 168. O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth, and follow not the footsteps of Shaitân (Satan). Verily, he is to you an open enemy. 169. [Shaitân (Satan)] commands you only what is evil and Fahshâ (sinful), and that you should say against Allâh what you know not. 170. When it is said to them: "Follow what Allâh has sent down." They say: "Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following." (Would they do that!) Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided? 171. And the example of those who disbelieve, is as that of him who shouts to the (flock of sheep) that hears nothing but calls and cries. (They are) deaf, dumb and blind. So they do not understand. 172. O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh - Islâmic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you[] with, and be grateful to Allâh, if it is indeed He Whom you worship. 173. He has forbidden you only the Maytatah (dead animals), and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a scrifice for others than Allâh (or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., on which Allâh's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But if one is forced by necessity without wilful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 174. Verily, those who conceal what Allâh has sent down of the Book, and purchase a small gain therewith (of worldly things), they eat into their bellies nothing but fire. Allâh will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor purify them, and theirs will be a painful torment. 175. Those are they who have purchased error at the price of Guidance, and torment at the price of Forgiveness. So how bold they are (for evil deeds which will push them) to the Fire. 176. That is because Allâh has sent down the Book (the Qur'ân) in truth. And verily, those who disputed as regards the Book are far away in opposition. 177. It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and each and every act of obedience to Allâh, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets[] and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masâkin (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and gives the Zakât, and who fulfill their covenant when they make it, and who are As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.) in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al­Muttaqûn (pious - see V.2:2). 178. O you who believe! Al-Qisâs (the Law of Equality in punishment) is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives, etc.) of the killed against blood money, then adhering to it with fairness and payment of the blood money, to the heir should be made in fairness. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. So after this whoever transgresses the limits (i.e. kills the killer after taking the blood money), he shall have a painful torment. 179. And there is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisâs (the Law of Equality in punishment), O men of understanding, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 180. It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves wealth, that he make a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners. (This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 181. Then whoever changes the bequest after hearing it, the sin shall be on those who make the change. Truly, Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower. 182. But he who fears from a testator some unjust act or wrong-doing, and thereupon he makes peace between the parties concerned, there shall be no sin on him. Certainly, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 183. O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting)[] is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 184. [Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskîn (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know.[] 185. The month of Ramadân in which was revealed the Qur'ân, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadân i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allâh intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allâh [i.e. to say Takbîr (Allâhu-Akbar; Allâh is the Most Great) on seeing the crescent of the months of Ramadân and Shawwâl] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.[] 186. And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.[] 187. It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Saum (the fasts). They are Lîbas [i.e. body cover, or screen, or Sakan, (i.e. you enjoy the pleasure of living with her - as in Verse 7:189) Tafsir At-Tabarî], for you and you are the same for them. Allâh knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allâh has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall. And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I'tikâf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques. These are the limits (set) by Allâh, so approach them not. Thus does Allâh make clear His Ayât (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, revelations, verses, laws, legal and illegal things, Allâh's set limits, orders, etc.) to mankind that they may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 188. And eat up not one another's property unjustly (in any illegal way e.g. stealing, robbing, deceiving, etc.), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully. 189. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) about the new moons. Say: These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage. It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back but Al-Birr (is the quality of the one) who fears Allâh. So enter houses through their proper doors, and fear Allâh that you may be successful. 190. And fight in the Way of Allâh[] those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allâh likes not the transgressors. [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihâd, but it was supplemented by another (V.9:36)]. 191. And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah[] is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (the sanctuary at Makkah),[] unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. 192. But if they cease, then Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 193. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allâh) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allâh (Alone).[] But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zâlimûn (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.) 194. The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisâs). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allâh, and know that Allâh is with Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2) . 195. And spend in the Cause of Allâh (i.e. Jihâd of all kinds, etc.) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allâh), and do good. Truly, Allâh loves Al-Muhsinûn[] (the good-doers). 196. And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad SAW), the Hajj and 'Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allâh. But if you are prevented (from completing them), sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel, etc.) such as you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either observing Saum (fasts) (three days) or giving Sadaqah (charity - feeding six poor persons) or offering sacrifice (one sheep). Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the 'Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu' and Al-Qirân), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Saum (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all. This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (i.e. non-resident of Makkah). And fear Allâh much and know that Allâh is Severe in punishment.[] 197. The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months (i.e. the 10th month, the 11th month and the first ten days of the 12th month of the Islâmic calendar, i.e. two months and ten days). So whosoever intends to perform Hajj[] therein by assuming Ihrâm), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, (be sure) Allâh knows it. And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness, etc.). So fear Me, O men of understanding! 198. There is no sin on you if you seek the Bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading, etc.). Then when you leave 'Arafât[], remember Allâh (by glorifying His Praises, i.e. prayers and invocations, etc.) at the Mash'ar-il-Harâm.[] And remember Him (by invoking Allâh for all good, etc.) as He has guided you, and verily, you were, before, of those who were astray. 199. Then depart from the place whence all the people depart and ask Allâh for His Forgiveness. Truly, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. 200. So when you have accomplished your Manasik [(i.e. Ihrâm, Tawâf of the Ka'bah and As-Safâ and Al-Marwah), stay at 'Arafât, Muzdalifah and Mina, Ramy of Jamarât, (stoning of the specified pillars in Mina) slaughtering of Hady (animal, etc.)]. Remember Allâh as you remember your forefathers or with a far more remembrance. But of mankind there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us (Your Bounties) in this world!" and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter. 201. And of them there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!" 202. For them there will be alloted a share for what they have earned. And Allâh is Swift at reckoning. 203. And remember Allâh during the appointed Days.[] But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good and obey Allâh (fear Him), and know that you will surely be gathered unto Him. 204. And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad SAW), in this worldly life, and he calls Allâh to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most quarrelsome of the opponents.[] 205. And when he turns away (from you "O Muhammad SAW "), his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle, and Allâh likes not mischief. 206. And when it is said to him, "Fear Allâh", he is led by arrogance to (more) crime. So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest! 207. And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allâh. And Allâh is full of Kindness to (His) slaves. 208. O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islâm (by obeying all the rules and regulations of the Islâmic religion) and follow not the footsteps of Shaitân (Satan). Verily! He is to you a plain enemy. 209. Then if you slide back after the clear signs (Prophet Muhammad SAW and this Qur'ân, and Islâm) have come to you, then know that Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. 210. Do they then wait for anything other than that Allâh should come to them in the shadows of the clouds and the angels? (Then) the case would be already judged. And to Allâh return all matters (for decision). 211. Ask the Children of Israel how many clear Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We gave them. And whoever changes Allâh's Favour after it had come to him, [e.g. renounces the Religion of Allâh (Islâm) and accepts Kufr (disbelief),] then surely, Allâh is Severe in punishment. 212. Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who obey Allâh's Orders and keep away from what He has forbidden, will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. And Allâh gives (of His Bounty, Blessings, Favours, Honours, etc. on the Day of Resurrection) to whom He wills without limit. 213. Mankind were one community and Allâh sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allâh by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allâh guides whom He wills to a Straight Path. 214. Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will come) the Help of Allâh?" Yes! Certainly, the Help of Allâh is near! 215. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) what they should spend. Say: Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and Al­Masâkin (the poor) and the wayfarers, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allâh knows it well. 216. Jihâd[] (holy fighting in Allâh's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allâh knows but you do not know. 217. They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islâmic calendar). Say, "Fighting therein is a great (transgression)[] but a greater (transgression) with Allâh is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allâh, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah[] is worse than killing. And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islâmic Monotheism) if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever." 218. Verily, those who have believed, and those who have emigrated (for Allâh's Religion) and have striven hard in the Way of Allâh, all these hope for Allâh's Mercy. And Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. 219. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling.[] Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit." And they ask you what they ought to spend. Say: "That which is beyond your needs." Thus Allâh makes clear to you His Laws in order that you may give thought."[] 220. In (to) this worldly life and in the Hereafter. And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: "The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. And Allâh knows him who means mischief (e.g. to swallow their property) from him who means good (e.g. to save their property). And if Allâh had wished, He could have put you into difficulties. Truly, Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise." 221. And do not marry Al-Mushrikât (idolatresses, etc.) till they believe (worship Allâh Alone). And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (idolatress, etc.), even though she pleases you. And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikûn[] till they believe (in Allâh Alone) and verily, a believing slave is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolater, etc.), even though he pleases you. Those (Al-Mushrikûn) invite you to the Fire, but Allâh invites (you) to Paradise and Forgiveness by His Leave, and makes His Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to mankind that they may remember. 222. They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: that is an Adha (a harmful thing for a husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they have purified (from menses and have taken a bath). And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allâh has ordained for you (go in unto them in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). Truly, Allâh loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers, etc.). 223. Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth (have sexual relations with your wives in any manner as long as it is in the vagina and not in the anus), when or how you will, and send (good deeds, or ask Allâh to bestow upon you pious offspring) before you for your ownselves. And fear Allâh, and know that you are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give good tidings to the believers (O Muhammad SAW). 224. And make not Allâh's (Name) an excuse in your oaths against your doing good and acting piously, and making peace among mankind. And Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower (i.e. do not swear much and if you have sworn against doing something good then give an expiation for the oath and do good).[] 225. Allâh will not call you to account for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will call you to account for that which your hearts have earned. And Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Forbearing. 226. Those who take an oath[] not to have sexual relation with their wives must wait four months, then if they return (change their idea in this period), verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 227. And if they decide upon divorce, then Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower. 228. And divorced women shall wait (as regards their marriage) for three menstrual periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allâh has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allâh and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses, etc.) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect, etc.) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. 229. The divorce is twice, after that, either you retain her on reasonable terms or release her with kindness. And it is not lawful for you (men) to take back (from your wives) any of your Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the tim

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11. Deuteronomy 5-8 (Moses Reminds Israel of their Covenant with God & A Warning Against Pride)

Deuteronomy 5-8 (Moses Reminds Israel of their Covenant with God & A Warning Against Pride)

Deuteronomy 5 - Moses Reminds Israel of their Covenant with God at Sinai A. The requirements of God’s covenant with Israel. 1. (1-5) The setting of the covenant. And Moses called all Israel, and said to them: “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your hearing today, that you may learn them and be careful to observe them. The LORD our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. The LORD did not make this covenant with our fathers, but with us, those who are here today, all of us who are alive. The LORD talked with you face to face on the mountain from the midst of the fire. I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare to you the word of the LORD; for you were afraid because of the fire, and you did not go up the mountain. He said:” a. Hear, O Israel: Israel was bound to the covenant they agreed to in Exodus 24:1-8, yet the covenant was made with the previous generation which perished in the wilderness. The present generation had to understand and embrace the covenant if they were to enjoy the blessings of the covenant. b. Made a covenant: Literally, this is to “cut a covenant.” The idea of “cutting” is associated with covenant because covenants were always sealed with sacrifice - the cutting of a sacrificial victim. c. The LORD did not make this covenant with our fathers, but with us: In fact, the covenant was originally made with the previous generation, and Moses did not deny this. But he drove the point home: This was their covenant; it is a covenant of the living, not of the dead. d. The LORD talked with you face to face: This demonstrates that the term face to face does not mean “literal face to literal face,” but is a Hebraic figure of speech meaning “intimate, free communication.” i. Deuteronomy 4:12 specifically says that Israel saw no form; you only heard a voice. Yet they had a remarkably transparent communication with God, so the figure of speech face to face applies. ii. This is why Exodus 33:11 says So the LORD spoke to Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend, and in Exodus 33:20 the LORD says, You cannot see My face; for no man shall see Me, and live. The use of face to face in Exodus 33:11 is a figure of speech, meaning Moses had free and unhindered communication with the LORD. iii. “Face to face seems to mean ‘in person,’ that is, in the immediacy of personal contact.” (Thompson) e. I stood between the LORD and you at that time: Israel could not bear such free and unhindered communication with the LORD, so they asked Moses to speak to God on their behalf. 2. (6-7) The first commandment: no other gods before Me. I am the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before Me. a. I am the LORD your God: Before God commanded anything of man, He declared who He was and what He did for Israel (who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage). The foundation was clear: because of whom God was and what He did for His people, He has the right to tell us what to do - and we have the obligation to obey Him. b. You shall have no other gods before Me: The first commandment logically flows from understanding who God is and what He has done for us. Nothing is to come before God and He is the only God we worship and serve. i. In the days of ancient Israel, there was great temptation to worship the gods of materialism (Baal, the god of weather and financial success) and sex (Ashtoreth, the goddess of sex, romance, and reproduction), or any number of other local deities. We are tempted to worship the same gods, but without the old-fashioned names and images. c. No other gods before Me: This did not imply that it was permissible to have other gods, as long as they lined up behind the true God. Instead the idea is that there are to be no other gods before the sight of the true God in our life. Before Me is literally, “to My face.” i. This means God demands to be more than “added” to our lives. We don’t just add Jesus to the life we already have. We must give Him all our lives. ii. Failure to obey this commandment is called idolatry. We are to flee idolatry (1 Corinthians 10:14). Those lives marked by habitual idolatry will not inherit the kingdom of God (1 Corinthians 6:9-10, Ephesians 5:5, Revelation 21:8, 22:15). Idolatry is a work of the flesh (Galatians 5:19-20), which marks our old life instead of the new (1 Peter 4:3), and we are not to associate with those who call themselves Christians who are idolaters (1 Corinthians 5:11). 3. (8-10) The second commandment: You shall not make for yourself any carved image . . . you shall not bow down to them. You shall not make for yourself a carved image; any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve them. For I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me, but showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments. a. You shall not make for yourself a carved image: The second commandment prohibited not only idolatry regarding false gods, it also dealt with making an image of any created thing which we might worship. b. Or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath: In that day as well as in our own, worship was tied closely with images - idealized images, or even images in the mind of man. God will not allow us to depict Him with any such image, nor replace Him with another image. i. The second commandment didn’t forbid making an image of something for artistic purposes. God Himself commanded Israel make images of cherubim (Exodus 25:18, 26:31). It forbade the making of images as an “aid” to worship. ii. “To countenance its image worship, the Roman Catholic Church has left the whole of this second commandment out of the decalogue, and thus lost one whole commandment out of the ten; but to keep up the number they have divided the tenth into two.” (Clarke) iii. John 4:24 explains the rationale behind the second commandment: God is Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth. The use of images and other material things as a focus or “help” to worship denies who God is (Spirit) and how we must worship Him (in spirit and truth). iv. Paul reminds us of the futility of trying to make God into our own image: Professing to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man; and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things. (Romans 1:22-23) c. For I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God: How can it be said that God is a jealous God? “God’s jealousy is love in action. He refuses to share the human heart with any rival, not because He is selfish and wants us all for Himself, but because He knows that upon that loyalty to Him depends our very moral life . . . God is not jealous of us: He is jealous for us.” (Redpath) d. Visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me: This does not mean God punishes us directly for the sins of our ancestors. The important words are of those who hate Me - if the descendants love God, they will not have the iniquity of the fathers visited on them. i. “‘This necessarily implies - IF the children walk in the steps of their fathers; for no man can be condemned by Divine justice for a crime of which he was never guilty.” (Clarke) ii. Yet, the focus here is on idolatry, and this refers to judgment on a national scale - nations that forsake the LORD will be judged, and that judgment will have effects throughout generations. 4. (11) The third commandment: You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain. a. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain: We can break the third commandment through profanity (using the name of God in blasphemy and cursing), frivolity (using the name of God in a superficial, stupid way), and hypocrisy (claiming the name of God but acting in a way that disgraces Him). i. . Jesus communicated the idea of this command in the disciple’s prayer, when He taught us to have a regard for the holiness of God’s name (Hallowed be Your name, Matthew 6:9). b. For the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain: The strength of this command has led to strange traditions among the Jewish people. Some go to extreme lengths in attempting to fulfill this command, refusing to even write out the name of God, in the fear that the paper might be destroyed and the name of God be written in vain. 5. (12-15) The fourth commandment: Remember the Sabbath day. Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD your God commanded you. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God. In it you shall do no work: you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your ox, nor your donkey, nor any of your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates, that your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you. And remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out from there by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day. a. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy: The seventh day (Saturday) was commanded to be respected as a day of rest. This rest was for all of Israel - servants and slaves as well as visitors. i. This is an important principle that might be too easily passed over. Here God declared the essential humanity and dignity of women, slaves, and strangers, and said they had the same right to a day of rest as the free Israeli man. This was certainly a radical concept in the ancient world. ii. In fact, in Moses’ exposition of the Law here in Deuteronomy, he pays special stress on the fact that the Sabbath is for the foreign-born slaves among Israel. Deuteronomy 5:15 (And remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt) is not cited in Exodus 20. b. To keep it holy: In their traditions, the Jewish people came to carefully quantify what they thought could and could not be done on the Sabbath day, in order to keep it holy. i. For example, in Luke 6:1-2, in the mind of the Jewish leaders, the disciples were guilty of four violations of the Sabbath every time they took a bite of grain out in the field, because they reaped, threshed, winnowed, and prepared food. ii. Ancient Rabbis taught that on the Sabbath, a man could not carry something in his right hand or in his left hand, across his chest or on his shoulder. But he could carry something with the back of his hand, his foot, his elbow, or in his ear, his hair, or in the hem of his shirt, or in his shoe or sandal. Or, on the Sabbath, you Israelites were forbidden to tie a knot - except, a woman could tie a knot in her girdle. So, if a bucket of water had to be raised from a well, an Israelite could not tie a rope to the bucket, but a woman could tie her girdle to the bucket and pull it up from the well. iii. In observant Jewish homes today, one cannot turn on a light, a stove, or a switch on the Sabbath. It is forbidden to drive a certain distance or to make a telephone call - all carefully regulated by traditions seeking to spell out the law exactly. c. For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth: God established the pattern for the Sabbath at the time of creation. When He rested from His works on the seventh day, God made the seventh day a day of rest from all our works (Genesis 2:3). But the most important purpose of the Sabbath was to serve as a shadow of the rest we have in Jesus. i. Some claim that Christians are required to keep the Sabbath today. But the New Testament makes it clear that Christians are not under obligation to observe a Sabbath day (Colossians 2:16-17 and Galatians 4:9-11), because Jesus fulfilled the purpose and plan of the Sabbath for us and in us (Hebrews 4:9-11). ii. Galatians 4:10 tells us that Christians are not bound to observe days and months and seasons and years. The rest we enter into as Christians is something to experience every day, not just one day a week - the rest of knowing we don’t have to work to save ourselves, but our salvation is accomplished in Jesus (Hebrews 4:9-10). iii. The Sabbath commanded here and observed by Israel was a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ (Colossians 2:16-17). We have a rest in Jesus that is ours to live in every day. Therefore, since the shadow of the Sabbath is fulfilled in Jesus, we are free to keep any day - or no day - as a Sabbath after the custom of ancient Israel. iv. However, though we are free from the legal obligation of the Sabbath, we dare not ignore the importance of a day of rest - God has built us so that we need one. Like a car that needs regular maintenance, we need regular rest - or we will not “wear” well. Some people are like high mileage cars that haven’t been maintained well, and it shows. v. Some Christians are also dogmatic about observing Saturday as the Sabbath as opposed to Sunday. But because we are free to regard all days as given to God, it makes no difference. But in some ways, Sunday is more appropriate; being the day Jesus rose from the dead (Mark 16:9), and first met with His disciples (John 20:19), and a day when Christians gathered for fellowship (Acts 20:7 and 1 Corinthians 16:2). Under Law, men worked towards God’s rest; but after Jesus’ finished work on the cross, the believer enters into rest and goes from that rest out to work. vi. But we are also commanded to work six days. “He who idles his time away in the six days is equally culpable in the sight of God as he who works on the seventh.” (Clarke) Many Christians should give more “leisure time” to the work of the LORD. Every Christian should have a deliberate was to serve God and advance the Kingdom of Jesus Christ. 6. (16) The fifth commandment: honor your father and your mother. Honor your father and your mother, as the LORD your God has commanded you, that your days may be long, and that it may be well with you in the land which the LORD your God is giving you. a. Honor your father and your mother: Honor for fathers and mothers is an essential building block for the stability and health of all society. If the younger generations are constantly at war with older generations, the foundations of society will be destroyed. i. Jesus used the way the Pharisees interpreted this commandment as an example of how one might keep the law with a limited interpretation, yet violate the spirit of the commandment (Matthew 15:3-6). b. That your days may be long: In Ephesians 6:2 Paul repeated this command, emphasizing the promise stated here: that your days may be long upon the land. Rebellion is costly, and many have paid a high price personally for their rebellion against their parents. 7. (17) The sixth commandment: You shall not murder. You shall not murder. a. You shall not murder: Some wonder how God can approve both capital punishment (Exodus 19:12) and this prohibition of murder. The simple answer is that in Hebrew as well as English, there is a distinction between to kill and to murder. As opposed to killing, murder is the taking of life without legal justification (execution after due process) or moral justification (killing in defense). b. You shall not murder: Jesus carefully explained the heart of this commandment. He showed that it also prohibits us from hating someone else (Matthew 5:21-26), because we can wish someone dead in our hearts, yet never have the “courage” to commit the deed. Someone may not kill from a lack of courage or initiative, though his or her heart is filled with hatred. 8. (18) The seventh commandment: You shall not commit adultery. You shall not commit adultery. a. You shall not commit adultery: Recognize that the act itself is condemned. God allows no justification for the ways that many people often seek to justify extra-marital sex, such as saying “my partner doesn’t understand me” or “we are in love” or “God led us to be with each other” or any other excuse. i. Michael English, who lost his recording contract and marriage over adultery with another Christian music singer, says of his adultery and its aftermath: “Maybe God allowed this to happen to make me see I needed some freedom.” No! b. You shall not commit adultery: The New Testament clearly condemns adultery: Now the works of the flesh are evident, which are: adultery, fornication uncleanness, licentiousness . . . (Galatians 5:19). But more than the act itself, Jesus carefully explained the heart of this commandment. It prohibits us from looking at a woman to lust for her, where we commit adultery in our heart or mind, yet may not have the courage or opportunity to do the act (Matthew 5:27-30). We aren’t innocent just because we didn’t have the opportunity to sin the way we really wanted to. 9. (19) The eighth commandment: You shall not steal. You shall not steal. a. Not steal: This command is another important foundation for human society, establishing the right to personal property. God has clearly entrusted certain possessions to certain individuals, and other people or states are not permitted to take that property without due process of law. b. Not steal: We can also steal from God. Of course, this demands we honor God with our financial resources, so we are not guilty of robbing Him (Malachi 3:8-10). But we can also rob God by refusing to give Him ourselves for obedience and His service, because He bought us and owns us: knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold . . . but with the precious blood of Christ (1 Peter 1:18-19); For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s (1 Corinthians 6:20). c. Not steal: Ephesians 4:28 gives the solution to stealing. Let him who stole steal no longer, but rather let him labor, working with his hands what is good, that he may have something to give him who has need. 10. (20) The ninth commandment: You shall not bear false witness. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. a. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor: We can break the ninth commandment through slander, talebearing, creating false impressions, by silence, by questioning the motives behind someone’s actions, or even by flattery. i. “Slander . . . is a lie invented and spread with intent to do harm. That is the worst form of injury a person can do to another. Compared to one who does this, a gangster is a gentleman, and a murderer is kind, because he ends life in a moment with a stroke and with little pain. But the man guilty of slander ruins a reputation which may never be regained, and causes lifelong suffering.” (Redpath) ii. “Talebearing . . . is repeating a report about a person without careful investigation. Many, many times I have known what it is to suffer with that. To repeat a story which brings discredit and dishonor to another person without making sure of the facts, is breaking this commandment . . . How many people, especially Christian people, revel in this, and delight in working havoc by telling tales about others. To excuse the action by saying they believed the report to be true, or that there was no intention to malign, is no justification.” (Redpath) iii. What about inappropriate silence? “When someone utters a falsity about another and a third person is present who knows that statement to be untrue but, for reasons of fear or being disliked, remains quiet, that third person is as guilty of breaking this law as if he had told a lie.” (Redpath) b. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor: The New Testament puts it simply. Do not lie to one another, since you have put off the old man with his deeds (Colossians 3:9) “How very strange that we have ever come to think that Christian maturity is shown by the ability to speak our minds, whereas it is really expressed in controlling our tongues.” (Redpath) i. “What a startling revelation it would be if a tape recording could be played of all that every church member has said about his fellow members in one week!” (Redpath) ii. Satan is always there to encourage a lie (John 8:44; Acts 5:3); and Jesus Himself was the victim of false witness (Mark 14:57); in some ways, we might say this was the sin that sent Jesus to the cross. 11. (21) The tenth commandment: You shall not covet. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife; and you shall not desire your neighbor’s house, his field, his male servant, his female servant, his ox, his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s. a. You shall not covet: All the first nine commands focus more on things we do; the tenth deals straight with the heart and its desires. i. Literally, the word for “covet” here means “to pant after.” Covetousness works like this: the eyes look upon an object, the mind admires it, the will goes over to it, and the body moves in to possess it. Just because you have not taken the final step does not mean you are not in the process of coveting right now. b. Your neighbor’s house . . . wife . . . ox . . . donkey: Covetousness can be expressed towards all sorts of things; it is the itch to have and to possess what someone else has. It speaks of a dissatisfaction with what we have, and a jealously towards those who have something “better.” i. Hebrews 13:5 puts it well: Let your conduct be without covetousness; be content with such things as you have. For He Himself has said, “I will never leave you nor forsake you.” ii. This last commandment is closely connected with the first commandment against idolatry: For this you know, that no . . . covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God (Ephesians 5:5). iii. Jesus gave a special warning about covetousness, which explained the core philosophy of the covetous heart: And He said to them, “Take heed and beware of covetousness, for one’s life does not consist in the abundance of the things he possesses.” (Luke 12:15) B. The response of Israel and the response of God at Mount Sinai. 1. (22-27) The response of Israel: shrinking fear. “These words the LORD spoke to all your assembly, in the mountain from the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice; and He added no more. And He wrote them on two tablets of stone and gave them to me. So it was, when you heard the voice from the midst of the darkness, while the mountain was burning with fire, that you came near to me, all the heads of your tribes and your elders. And you said: ‘Surely the LORD our God has shown us His glory and His greatness, and we have heard His voice from the midst of the fire. We have seen this day that God speaks with man; yet he still lives. Now therefore, why should we die? For this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of the LORD our God anymore, then we shall die. For who is there of all flesh who has heard the voice of the living God speaking from the midst of the fire, as we have, and lived? You go near and hear all that the LORD our God may say, and tell us all that the LORD our God says to you, and we will hear and do it.’“ a. In the mountain from the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice: The whole scene was indeed awesome: The LORD spoke; there was fire, a cloud, thick darkness, a loud voice; and it all made such an impression on Israel that they asked Moses to not have God speak to them so directly any more. i. Why should we die? . . . if we hear the voice of the LORD our God anymore, then we shall die makes it plain. The Mount Sinai experience was not one of sweet fellowship with God. The message of Mount Sinai was not “come unto Me,” but “stay away, for I am holy and you are not.” ii. This is exactly the message of the writer to the Hebrews in Hebrews 12:18-24: We, under the New Covenant, have not come to Mount Sinai and the message “stay away”; we have come to Mount Zion, where God’s message is “come unto Me.” b. Tell us all that the LORD our God says to you, and we will hear and do it: Israel was far too confident in their ability to keep the law of God. Their experience at Mount Sinai convinced them of God’s glory, but not of their own corruption and inability. 2. (28-33) God responds with hopeful pleasure in Israel. “Then the LORD heard the voice of your words when you spoke to me, and the LORD said to me: ‘I have heard the voice of the words of this people which they have spoken to you. They are right in all that they have spoken. Oh, that they had such a heart in them that they would fear Me and always keep all My commandments, that it might be well with them and with their children forever! Go and say to them, “Return to your tents.” But as for you, stand here by Me, and I will speak to you all the commandments, the statutes, and the judgments which you shall teach them, that they may observe them in the land which I am giving them to possess.’ Therefore you shall be careful to do as the LORD your God has commanded you; you shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left. You shall walk in all the ways which the LORD your God has commanded you, that you may live and that it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days in the land which you shall possess.” a. They are right in all they have spoken: God was pleased with Israel’s response. Their response was evidence that they took Him seriously. b. Oh, that they had such a heart: The feeling is that God liked what He saw in Israel, but “hoped” (to use a figure of speech, because God doesn’t “hope” for things the way we do) that they would keep the same attitude of heart. In fact, Israel did not keep this heart; not 40 days later they danced in worship around a golden calf. c. That it might be well with them and their children forever! This is God’s motive in calling for our obedience - that it might be well with us. Every command of God is rooted in love for us, not some obsessive desire for control, or mean-spirited attitude towards us. d. Therefore you shall be careful to do as the LORD your God has commanded you: Knowing the glory of God (as revealed at Mount Sinai) and the love of God (as revealed by His longing that it might be well with them), gave them all the more reason to obey God. i. When we have trouble obeying God, we are clearly lacking in one or both of these areas. Either we forget His glory or we forget His love for us, or we forget both of them. Deuteronomy 6 - Moses Reminds Israel of the Commandment and the Warning A. The Commandment: The essence of God’s law. 1. (1-3) Remember the commandment before entering Canaan. Now this is the commandment, and these are the statutes and judgments which the LORD your God has commanded to teach you, that you may observe them in the land which you are crossing over to possess, that you may fear the LORD your God, to keep all His statutes and His commandments which I command you, you and your son and your grandson, all the days of your life, and that your days may be prolonged. Therefore hear, O Israel, and be careful to observe it, that it may be well with you, and that you may multiply greatly as the LORD God of your fathers has promised you; “a land flowing with milk and honey.” a. Now this is the commandment: The Hebrew is emphatic here. Moses called attention to The Commandment. In the following verses, God reduced the law to one ruling principle - one commandment which encompassed all the commandments. b. That your days may be prolonged . . . that it may be well with you: Israel’s fate rested on their obedience to this one great commandment. If they obeyed their commandment, their life would be long and filled with blessing. If they did not obey they could expect to be cursed by God. 2. (4-5) The great commandment: Love the LORD your God. Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one! You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your strength. a. Hear, O Israel: In Hebrew, these verses are known as the Shema (“hear” in Hebrew). It is the classic Hebrew confession of faith, describing who God is and what our duty is towards Him. b. The LORD our God, the LORD is one! This is the essential truth about God. He is a person and not a vague pantheistic force. Being one, He cannot be represented by contradictory images. Since the LORD our God is one, He is not Baal, or Ashtoreth - He is the LORD God, and they are not. i. In the mind of many Jewish people, this verse alone disqualified the New Testament teaching that Jesus is God, and the New Testament teaching of the Trinity - that there is one God, existing in three Persons. At some times and places, as Jewish synagogues said the Shema together, and when the word one (echad) was said, they loudly and strongly repeated that one word for several minutes, as if it were a rebuke to Christians who believed in the Trinity. ii. Christians must come to a renewed understanding of the unity of God. They must appreciate the fact that the LORD is one, not three, as 1 Corinthians 8:6 says: yet for us there is one God. We worship one God, existing in three persons, not three separate gods. iii. Yet, the statement the LORD is one certainly does not contradict the truth of the Trinity. In fact, it establishes that truth. The Hebrew word for one is echad, which speaks most literally of a compound unity, instead of using the Hebrew word yacheed, which speaks of an absolute unity or singularity (Genesis 22:2 and Psalm 25:16). iv. The very first use of echad in the Bible is in Genesis 1:5: So the evening and the morning were the first day. Even here, we see a unity (one day) with the idea of plurality (made up of evening and morning). Genesis 2:24 uses echad in saying the two shall become one flesh. Again, the idea of a unity (one flesh), making a plurality (the two). In Exodus 26:6 and 11, the fifty gold clasps are used to hold the curtains together so the tent would be one (echad) - a unity (one) made up of a plurality (the many parts of the tabernacle). In Ezekiel 37:17 the LORD tells Ezekiel to join together two sticks (prophetically representing Ephraim and Judah) into one (echad), speaking again of a unity (one stick) made up of a plurality (the two sticks). There is no way that echad has the exclusive idea of an absolute singularity; the idea of One God in Three Persons fits just fine with the term echad. c. The LORD our God: In addition, even the name of God in this line suggests the plurality of God. The Hebrew word is Elohim and grammatically, it is a plural word used as if it were singular - the verbs and pronouns used with it are generally in the plural. i. Rabbi Simeon ben Joachi, commenting on the word Elohim: “Come and see the mystery of the word Elohim; there are three degrees, and each degree by itself alone, and yet notwithstanding they are all one, and joined together in one, and are not divided from each other.” Clarke adds: “He must be strangely prejudiced indeed who cannot see that the doctrine of a Trinity, and of a Trinity in unity, is expressed in the above words.” ii. Leupold quoting Luther on Elohim: “But we have clear testimony that Moses aimed to indicate the Trinity or the three persons in the one divine nature.” d. Love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your might: Knowing who God is enables us to act towards Him rightly. We give Him His due. i. God wants a complete love from us. This love is appropriate because He loved us completely: We love Him because He first loved us (1 John 4:19). ii. What God most wants from us is our love. We often think God demands a hundred other things from us - our money, our time, our effort, our will, our submission, and so forth - but what God really wants is our love. When we really love the LORD with all of our heart, soul, and mind, then everything else is freely given to the LORD. If we give the LORD all the rest - money, time, effort, will, and so forth - without giving Him our love, it is all wasted - and perhaps, all is lost. iii. Jesus called this the great commandment (Matthew 22:37-38); and He said the second commandment, you shall love your neighbor as yourself, was like this first, great commandment. When we love the LORD our God with all our heart, soul, and mind, we will find it easy to love our neighbor as ourselves. 3. (6-9) The continual reminder of the Law. And these words which I command you today shall be in your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, when you walk by the way, when you lie down, and when you rise up. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates. a. These words which I command you today shall be in your heart: This great command must first be in our heart. Then it must be communicated to our children, the topic of our conversation, and should always be in front of us - as near as our hand or our forehead, as ever before us as our door posts and gates. b. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand: By the time of Jesus the Jewish people based the practice of wearing phylacteries on this passage. Phylacteries are small boxes holding parchment with scriptures on them, held to the forehead or hand with leather straps. i. Jesus condemned abuse of the wearing of phylacteries among the Pharisees; they would make their phylactery boxes large and ostentatious as a display of greater spirituality (Matthew 23:5). ii. In the end times, there will be a Satanic imitation of this practice, when the number of the Antichrist will be applied to either the hand or forehead of all who will take it (Revelation 13:16). c. You shall write them on the doorposts of your houses: This command leads to the Jewish practice of the mezuzah. This is a small container holding a passage of Scripture that is nailed to a doorpost. B. The danger of disobedience. 1. (10-12) The danger of leaving God in times of prosperity. So it shall be, when the LORD your God brings you into the land of which He swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give you large and beautiful cities which you did not build, houses full of all good things, which you did not fill, hewn-out wells which you did not dig, vineyards and olive trees which you did not plant; when you have eaten and are full; then beware, lest you forget the LORD who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. a. To give you large and beautiful cities which you did not build: God planned to bring Israel into an abundant, prepared land. In this abundant blessing God had for Israel, there was an inherent danger: That they would forget the LORD who brought you out of the land of Egypt. b. Lest you forget the LORD: This cycle would be repeated through the history of Israel, especially in the time of the Judges. God would bless an obedient Israel, and they would prosper; they would begin to set their heart on the blessings instead of the LORD who blessed them; God would allow chastisement to turn Israel’s focus back upon Him; Israel would repent and obey again, and God would again bless and obedient Israel and they would prosper. i. We usually fail to appreciate the danger of success and prosperity; we agree there is a theoretical danger in those things, but rarely think it applies to us. ii. It is just a lot easier to forget the LORD your brought you out . . . from the house of bondage when there are no circumstances forcing you to remember Him. 2. (13-19) How to avoid apostasy in times of prosperity: honoring the LORD in everything we do. You shall fear the LORD your God and serve Him, and shall take oaths in His name. You shall not go after other gods, the gods of the peoples who are all around you (for the LORD your God is a jealous God among you), lest the anger of the LORD your God be aroused against you and destroy you from the face of the earth. You shall not tempt the LORD your God as you tempted Him in Massah. You shall diligently keep the commandments of the LORD your God, His testimonies, and His statutes which He has commanded you. And you shall do what is right and good in the sight of the LORD, that it may be well with you, and that you may go in and possess the good land of which the LORD swore to your fathers, to cast out all your enemies from before you, as the LORD has spoken. a. You shall fear the LORD your God and serve Him: When we do this, the idea is not of a shrinking fear from an angry God. Instead, the idea of fear is more in the concept of an awe-filled respect, an inner repulsion at the idea of offending such a great, loving God who has done so much for us. i. This is the passage of Scripture Jesus quoted back to Satan when tempted by Satan to avoid the cross and win back the world, if He would only bow down and worship Satan. Jesus rightly replies, based on the truth You shall fear the LORD your God and serve Him that it was only right to fear, and worship, and serve God - and it was wrong to bow down to Satan, no matter what might be given Him in return (Matthew 4:8-10). b. And shall take oaths in His name: although the concept of the oath in God’s name can certainly be abused (as Jesus pointed out in Matthew 5:33-37), there certainly is a permissible use of oaths by those who follow God - since God Himself uses oaths (Hebrews 6:13). Here, Israel is being told “you are to swear an oath only in the name of the LORD, not in the name of any other god.” c. You shall not tempt the LORD your God as you tempted Him at Massah: In Exodus 17:1-7, Israel tempted the LORD by doubting His love and concern for them. This was tempting or testing God regarding His love for Israel, something that is not only high-handed against the LORD (because we have no right to administer a test to the Almighty) but also disregarding His previous, and constant demonstrations of love and care for Israel (by demanding that God prove His love for them now by giving them what they want). i. Anytime we deny God’s love for us, or demand He do something for us, we are testing Him as if He must answer to our standards, and tempting Him to judge us. ii. This is the passage of Scripture which Jesus quoted back to Satan in the wilderness, when tempted to make God the Father prove His love for the Son by spectacularly protecting Jesus if He should jump off the pinnacle of the temple (Matthew 4:5-7). Jesus knew it was wrong to demand this sort of “proof” from His Father, since every day was proof of God the Father’s love for the Son! d. And you shall do what is right . . . that it may be well with you: This theme is constantly repeated. Under the Old Covenant, Israel’s blessing was based on their obedience. When they obeyed they would be blessed; when they disobeyed they would be cursed. i. This is not the source of blessing in the New Covenant. In the New Covenant, we are blessed by faith in Jesus, since He fulfills the law in our place (Romans 8:3-4). The watchwords for blessing under the Old Covenant were earning and deserving; under the New Covenant, blessing comes by believing and receiving. ii. The New Covenant system works because when we receive the New Covenant, God sends with it an inner transformation, where the law of God and the desire to do His will is now written on our hearts. Through the New Covenant, God makes us “safe” for His grace by this inner transformation. iii. Under the New Covenant there is no judgment from God for our disobedience, because all the judgment we deserved was put upon Jesus at the cross. However, there may be correction from the hand of a loving God the Father (not in the sense of making us pay for our sin, but in the sense of training us not to continue in sin), and there are the natural consequences of our disobedience, which God has not promised to shield us from. iv. Christians who fear the “freedom” of a New Covenant relationship with God must ask this question: did Israel come to great obedience to God through the Old Covenant? Does the system of earning and deserving blessing make us truly more godly than the system of believing and receiving? Or does it leave us either in total desperation (where one can then look to Jesus), or in total pride in our own works before God (as were the religious leaders of Jesus’ day who had a significant hand in crucifying Him)? 3. (20-25) How to avoid apostasy in times of prosperity: Teach your children to understand and honor the LORD. When your son asks you in time to come, saying, “What is the meaning of the testimonies, the statutes, and the judgments which the LORD our God has commanded you?” then you shall say to your son: “We were slaves of Pharaoh in Egypt, and the LORD brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand; and the LORD showed signs and wonders before our eyes, great and severe, against Egypt, Pharaoh, and all his household. Then He brought us out from there, that He might bring us in, to give us the land of which He swore to our fathers. And the LORD commanded us to observe all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, for our good always, that He might preserve us alive, as it is this day. Then it will be righteousness for us, if we are careful to observe all these commandments before the LORD our God, as He has commanded us.” a. When your son asks you in time to come: Often, the apostasy which comes from prosperity afflicts the next generation more than the present. They grow up expecting such prosperity and blessing, without understanding the repentance and walk with God which led to the prosperity. b. Then you shall say to your son: Therefore, it was essential for Israel to teach and warn their children, so that the blessings given to one generation would not become a curse to the next generation. i. Key to the teaching was the simple recounting of Israel’s testimony - how God saved them from the bondage of Egypt. Parents need to relate to their children how they came to a personal relationship with Jesus, so the children understand that they must come to the same relationship. c. It will be righteousness for us, if we are careful to observe all these commandments: If one will obtain true righteousness through the law, it is simple (though not easy): observe all the commandments. But if you are lacking in observing any commandment, then you need the atonement of a Perfect Sacrifice - Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world. Deuteronomy 7 - Commands to Conquer and Obey A. The Conquest of the Canaanites is commanded. 1. (1-5) The command to completely destroy the Canaanites and their culture. When the LORD your God brings you into the land which you go to possess, and has cast out many nations before you, the Hittites and the Girgashites and the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Hivites and the Jebusites, seven nations greater and mightier than you, and when the LORD your God delivers them over to you, you shall conquer them and utterly destroy them. You shall make no covenant with them nor show mercy to them. Nor shall you make marriages with them. You shall not give your daughter to their son, nor take their daughter for your son. For they will turn your sons away from following Me, to serve other gods; so the anger of the LORD will be aroused against you and destroy you suddenly. But thus you shall deal with them: you shall destroy their altars, and break down their sacred pillars, and cut down their wooden images, and burn their carved images with fire. a. When the LORD your God: Israel wasn’t in the land yet, but Moses still instructed them as if it were a certainty. This was based on the faithful promise of God, but it was also according to His principle of preparation. God prepares us before He brings us into a place. b. Greater and mightier than you: “Sure,” Moses said, “the Canaanite nations are greater and mightier than you. But they are not greater and mightier than God.” God brought Israel to face a challenge that was impossible in their own strength - but entirely possible in Him. c. When the LORD your God delivers them over to you: Not “if,” but when. God could be counted on. d. You shall conquer them and utterly destroy them: Yet, God would not do it all for them. The extent of the work would depend on their faithful response to what God would do. i. Utterly destroy them . . . nor show mercy to them: This principle of battle until absolute victory is the key to victory as we take the Promised Land of blessing and peace God has for us in Jesus. We show no mercy to our enemies in the land, but we destroy them utterly. Many of us, truth be told, simply do not want to completely destroy the sins which keep us from God’s Promised Land of blessing and peace - we want to weaken them, and have some control over them, but we do not want to utterly destroy them. e. Destroy their altars, and break down their sacred pillars, and cut down their wooden images, and burn their carved images: We are especially to destroy anything which would lead us into a false or foreign worship. i. This radical, complete destruction was important because of the depraved nature of the worship of the Canaanites, who worshipped male and female gods of sex and who practiced human sacrifice with their own children. 2. (6-8) Conquer them completely because the LORD loves you. For you are a holy people to the LORD your God; the LORD your God has chosen you to be a people for Himself, a special treasure above all the peoples on the face of the earth. The LORD did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number than any other people, for you were the least of all peoples; but because the LORD loves you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore to your fathers, the LORD has brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you from the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt. a. For you are a holy people to the LORD your God: Israel was holy in their standing before God before they were holy in their conduct. They were set apart unto God by His choosing (God has chosen you to be a people for Himself), and were then called to live as chosen people. b. The LORD did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number: As much as anything, their election meant the LORD set His love on them. Their motivation for such a total obedience was to be that they knew they were loved by God. i. This is the great motivation for obedience: knowing and walking in the love of God. When we really believe God loves us, and live with that belief as a conscious fact, we find it so much easier to obey - and to utterly destroy anything that would damage that relationship of love. 3. (9-11) Conquer them completely because you serve a God of justice. Therefore know that the LORD your God, He is God, the faithful God who keeps covenant and mercy for a thousand generations with those who love Him and keep His commandments; and He repays those who hate Him to their face, to destroy them. He will not be slack with him who hates Him; He will repay him to his face. Therefore you shall keep the commandment, the statutes, and the judgments which I command you today, to observe them. a. He repays those who hate Him to their face: Over many generations the Canaanites had demonstrated their hatred for God, Now, using Israel as His instrument, God will repay them with judgment. B. Blessing on an obedient Israel. 1. (12-16) Abundant blessings for obedience. Then it shall come to pass, because you listen to these judgments, and keep and do them, that the LORD your God will keep with you the covenant and the mercy which He swore to your fathers. And He will love you and bless you and multiply you; He will also bless the fruit of your womb and the fruit of your land, your grain and your new wine and your oil, the increase of your cattle and the offspring of your flock, in the land of which He swore to your fathers to give you. You shall be blessed above all peoples; there shall not be a male or female barren among you or among your livestock. And the LORD will take away from you all sickness, and will afflict you with none of the terrible diseases of Egypt which you have known, but will lay them on all those who hate you. And you shall destroy all the peoples whom the LORD your God delivers over to you; your eye shall have no pity on them; nor shall you serve their gods, for that will be a snare to you. 2. (17-24) Have confidence in God’s strength. If you should say in your heart, “These nations are greater than I; how can I dispossess them?”; you shall not be afraid of them, but you shall remember well what the LORD your God did to Pharaoh and to all Egypt: the great trials which your eyes saw, the signs and the wonders, the mighty hand and the outstretched arm, by which the LORD your God brought you out. So shall the LORD your God do to all the peoples of whom you are afraid. Moreover the LORD your God will send the hornet among them until those who are left, who hide themselves from you, are destroyed. You shall not be terrified of them; for the LORD your God, the great and awesome God, is among you. And the LORD your God will drive out those nations before you little by little; you will be unable to destroy them at once, lest the beasts of the field become too numerous for you. But the LORD your God will deliver them over to you, and will inflict defeat upon them until they are destroyed. And He will deliver their kings into your hand, and you will destroy their name from under heaven; no one shall be able to stand against you until you have destroyed them. a. You shall not be afraid of them, but you shall remember well what the LORD your God did: Their recollection of God’s faithfulness in the past would give them hope for their current struggle. b. You will be unable to destroy them at once: God would go before Israel and fight for them (the great and awesome God, is among you) but He would not drive all the enemies out at once. Perhaps Israel wanted the land all cleared out before them, but God knew it was not best for the land or for them. c. Lest the beast of the field become too numerous for you: The way easiest for Israel was for God to clear all Israel’s enemies out at once. But this easy way had consequences Israel could not see or appreciate. d. Little by little: Sometimes to our frustration, this is the way God often works in our life. He clears things away little by little even though we might prefer it all at once. But God wanted Israel to grow spiritually in the process of taking the Promised Land. i. Doing it all at once might seem easier and better to us, but will have consequences we cannot see or appreciate. God cares that we grow, and so He grows us little by little. 3. (25-26) Do not share in their abominations. You shall burn the carved images of their gods with fire; you shall not covet the silver or gold that is on them, nor take it for yourselves, lest you be snared by it; for it is an abomination to the LORD your God. Nor shall you bring an abomination into your house, lest you be doomed to destruction like it. You shall utterly detest it and utterly abhor it, for it is an accursed thing. Deuteronomy 8 - A Warning Against Pride A. God’s work of building humility in Israel during the wilderness wanderings. 1. (1-2) God humbled and tested Israel. Every commandment which I command you today you must be careful to observe, that you may live and multiply, and go in and possess the land of which the LORD swore to your fathers. And you shall remember that the LORD your God led you all the way these forty years in the wilderness, to humble you and test you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not. a. Every command . . . you must be careful to observe: God called Israel to a complete obedience. This obedience was to be based on remembering what the LORD had done among them in the wilderness. b. To humble you: God humbled Israel. He brought them to a place where all they could do was depend on Him. They had nothing else, and no one else to count on. i. Some think that God’s work of humbling is accomplished just by bringing us into a humble place. But it is where our heart is while we are in the humble place that God is really concerned about. We may be in a humble place, but longing for something different. We may believe that God owes something different to us, and we will soon get it. Instead, God wants us to be content in the humble place He puts us. c. And test you: God tested Israel. It was not because He didn’t know their hearts, but because they didn’t know their hearts. We have to constantly be corrected of our over-estimation of ourselves. 2. (3-5) God’s education of Israel in the wilderness. So He humbled you, allowed you to hunger, and fed you with manna which you did not know nor did your fathers know, that He might make you know that man shall not live by bread alone; but man lives by every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD. Your garments did not wear out on you, nor did your foot swell these forty years. You should know in your heart that as a man chastens his son, so the LORD your God chastens you. a. So He humbled you: All of God’s education begins here. Some never even make it past this first essential step. If we are not humble and not teachable, there is then no point to the rest of any of God’s education. b. Allowed you to hunger, and fed you manna: The next grade of God’s education is total dependence on the LORD. Israel had to rely on God beyond their own knowledge (which you did not know), and beyond their own ability. c. That He might make you know that man shall not live by bread alone: In the negative, this was the lesson God wanted them to learn. In the positive, they had to learn that man lives by every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD. Sadly, many still live by bread alone, living only for material things, for what can be bought or sold or earned or possessed materially. i. This statement is a command; but it is also a simple statement of fact: man shall not live by bread alone. You may exist by material things alone, but you will not live. Anyone thinking they live for bread alone is actually one of the living dead. ii. Some don’t live by God’s word because they fight with God’s word: “The worst impliment with which you can knock a man down, is the Bible; it is intended for us to live upon, - not to be the weapon of our controversies, but our daily food, upon which we rejoice to live.” (Spurgeon) iii. We live by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God, not by every feeling we experience. “You have never received spiritual life by your own feelings. It was when you believed God’s Word that you lived; and you will never get an increase of spiritual life, and grow in grace, by your own feelings or your own doings. It must still be by your believing the promises and feeding on the Word.” (Spurgeon) iv. It is the word of God that is our food and substance, and not our own dreams or imaginations. If you are more excited about some dream or vision than you are about God’s word, then something is wrong. The prophet who has a dream, let him tell a dream; And he who has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What is the chaff to the wheat?” says the LORD. (Jeremiah 23:28) v. We live by every word: “In places where they cut diamonds, they sweep up the dust, because the very dust of diamonds is valuable; and in the Word of God, all the truth is so precious that the very tiniest truth, if there be such a thing, is still diamond dust, and is unspeakably precious.” (Spurgeon) vi. Find life in every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD! “Oh, keep to the Word, my brothers! Keep to it as God’s Word, and as coming out of his mouth. Suck it down into your soul; you cannot have too much of it. Feed on it day and night, for thus will God make you to live the life that is life indeed.” (Spurgeon) 3. (6-10) Blessings in the land for Israel. Therefore you shall keep the commandments of the LORD your God, to walk in His ways and to fear Him. For the LORD your God is bringing you into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and springs, that flow out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey; a land in which you will eat bread without scarcity, in which you will lack nothing; a land whose stones are iron and out of whose hills you can dig copper. When you have eaten and are full, then you shall bless the LORD your God for the good land which He has given you. a. Therefore you shall keep the commandments of the LORD your God: If Israel would put their focus on every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD, then the LORD would take care of all the material things - and bring them into a materially abundant land. i. God is not against material things - except when they come between us and Him. God wanted to materially bless a spiritually obedient Israel. ii. “The reference to iron and copper in the hills is remarkably exact. Ancient copper mines and smelters have been discovered in recent years in the Arabah below the Dead Sea, and geological survey has demonstrated the presence of ores of copper and iron in the nearby hills.” (Thompson) b. Then you shall bless the LORD your God for the good land which He has given you: This is the simple principle of Matthew 6:33 - But seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you. B. A warning against pride. 1. (11-17) The danger of pride in the blessed life. Beware that you do not forget the LORD your God by not keeping His commandments, His judgments, and His statutes which I command you today, lest; when you have eaten and are full, and have built beautiful houses and dwell in them; and when your herds and your flocks multiply, and your silver and your gold are multiplied, and all that you have is multiplied; when your heart is lifted up, and you forget the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage; who led you through that great and terrible wilderness, in which were fiery serpents and scorpions and thirsty land where there was no water; who brought water for you out of the flinty rock; who fed you in the wilderness with manna, which your fathers did not know, that He might humble you and that He might test you, to do you good in the end; then you say in your heart, “My power and the might of my hand have gained me this wealth.” a. Beware that you do not forget the LORD your God by not keeping His commandments: When everything this fine and our lives are filled with abundance, it is not hard to have our hearts lifted up. We can easily forget the LORD Himself and forget it was all His work on our behalf. b. My power and the might of my hand have gained me this wealth: This is rarely said with the lips; it is said instead in the heart. It is easier to say “God did it” or “It’s all the blessing of the LORD” than it is to really mean these words in the heart. 2. (18) The correcting principle against pride in the blessed life. And you shall remember the LORD your God, for it is He who gives you power to get wealth, that He may establish His covenant which He swore to your fathers, as it is this day. a. Remember the LORD your God: In times of abundance, it is easy to forget the LORD, or to at least no longer seek Him with the urgency we once had. b. It is He who gives you power to get wealth: We often thinking highly of our own hard work and brilliance. Yet we must see that God gives us the body, the brain, and the talent. It is all of God. c. That He may establish His covenant: This reminds us why God has blessed us. His plan is that it would ultimately further His eternal purpose. Therefore we have no right to use our material blessing to further selfish purposes; instead, we use our resources to advance His kingdom. 3. (19-20) The penalty of pride in the blessed life. Then it shall be, if you by any means forget the LORD your God, and follow other gods, and serve them and worship them, I testify against you this day that you shall surely perish. As the nations which the LORD destroys before you, so you shall perish, because you would not be obedient to the voice of the LORD your God. a. I testify against you this day that you shall surely perish: Moses loved Israel, but he loved God more. Without hesitation, he would take the witness stand against a disobedient, proud Israel - and warn them before God that they will surely perish because of their pride and disobedience. b. As the nations which the LORD destroys before you, so shall you perish: Israel would be tempted to look at the nations being judged in front of them, and to think, “We’re better than them, so we are safe. God would never deal with us that way.” But God would deal with them that way if they rose up in pride against Him. c. So you shall perish: Pride is the greatest danger in the Christian life. It is the most Satanic of sins, because it was by pride that Satan himself fell. Satan prizes a proud believer over the most notorious sinner, because he looks at the proud believer and says, “Now there’s a man just like me!” i. Pride of face is obnoxious; pride of race is vulgar; but the worst pride is the pride of grace.

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12. I Will Cut You, DevOps & Culture - ITSM weekly the podcast EPISODE 92

I Will Cut You, DevOps & Culture -  ITSM weekly the podcast EPISODE 92

Show Notes and Links: http://www.servicesphere.com/blog/2012/7/9/i-will-cut-you-devops-culture-itsm-weekly-the-podcast-episod.html Show Notes: Amazon Outage Should cloud providers OPEN up to fully disclose their backup systems CNET Article - "Icebergs in the cloud" PDF Link Service Warranty Cloud is a threat to IT Natural Selection isn't pleasant for the non-selected. ServiceNow cloud documentation Are cloud providers by disclosing their ops, for transparency sake, now losing ground with competitive advantage? NIST Cloud Standards Elastic Load Balancing Are we passed the TECH bubble? Best Buy lays off 650 Geek Squad Employees Facebook vs ServiceNow Microsoft / Yammer vs Facebook / Instagram this is a billion dollar battle to be relevant? Salesforce, IBM, Oracle, Microsoft, all racing to be social Perception is a big deal with tech futures, because of Windows 7 $300.00 Windows 8 40.00 licenses costs are changing so fast. MOBILE ONLY SOFTWARE Why HR Still Isn't a Strategic Partner Friction vs Flow John Willis, VP enStratus Devops Movement Cote and John Willis, podcast on ITIL / ITSM with Chris Dancy You own your OWN availability Cloud - Do you need to own a data center? When do standards really work? Devops defined Adam Jacobs – Devops - A professional and cultural movement Kanban Devops is a FAD right now. Damon Edwards, Devop Days Devops = CAMS > Culture, Automation, Measurement and Sharing Tools Devops If you can't get the culture right, skip CHEF or PUPPET Velocity Conference 2012- Facebook Session – Jay Parikh - "How do you get to a billion users!" Eliyahu Goldratt "Beyond the Goal" Devops doesn't fit every cultural organization Who is culture hacking? John Allspaw from Etsy Sun Tzu Toyota - You can copy someone’s process, you can't copy someone's culture Culture is BS.... people don't understand the word. Culture is a NICE way of saying "I'm afraid of people" The CULTURE RANT Spike Morelli In reality no one cares about culture, NO ONE. Tools give us a chance to POINT fingers. Culture failures don't give you a opt out on ego. If you are KILLING yourself at work, maybe the suicide rate is a cultural indicator at your organization. No one is exposing the STRENGTHS of cultures. Big data surfing tied to smiley faces and bug bashing Hornbill Software HACK day (Innovation Day) Velocity Conference and Devops Days There is a TALANET WAR right now. BE BOLD, LEAVE YOUR JOB IF THE CULTURE DOESNT WORK How do you lose employees? Why do good employee leave? Is it EVER OK to fire an employee for making a mistake? Good ITIL / Bad ITIL ITIL is about process over people Devops is about people over process Ben Rockwood Velocity ITIL = Constraint / Devops = Flow Continual Service Improvement is NOT a choice; it's a force of nature. Bank Simple - Banking meets culture Introverts and the abuse of the corp culture (TED Talk) Stupid people suck the life out of me Clouderati are just a bunch of talkers Facebook data centers Netflix Culture vs Facebook culture Ian M. Clayton , Paul Wilkinson are now mainstream tigers and koala bears FILDI - F, it, let's do it Build SLACK into workflow Native RT vs Retweet, why it's important A Robot will take your job Show Transcription: ITSM weekly, the podcast for your news, insight analysis and information from the world of IT service management. Your hosts Matthew Hooper, Chris Anthony and Matt Baron. IT Service Management Weekly, the podcast starts now. Welcome to ITSM weekly. The podcast, episode 92. 9 -2. For the week ending, I don't know, we're not good at week. Guys how you doing? Good, how you doing Chris? Good! I'm wearing my V-neck shirt tonight. Okay. It's nice to see neither of you have melted in the heat. Now it's absolutely ridiculously hot out there. We have a guest today, John Willis. How do you pronounce it, is it machoglupa like surround sound. Mr. DevOps. So he should joining us soon. Reach out to him. So let's go ahead and start off with some News and a stupid surprise, baboon brass news. So, any excuse. I got cloud service. just like blowed away. Okay Hoop what do you got for us? Why NewsGator GIO. NewsGator. NewsGator for Hooper. Yes, news. News from the CAO's perspective. Amazon homage. I think this is huge news. Cloud is a problem when you don't have contingency. Cloud is difficult to build contingency because you don't own the asset so what to do. So its got people thinking about it you know how can we do a better job and understanding what's going on behind the cloud front. And it is starting to beg the question, is this time that cloud providers open up and disclose some of their IT systems and how things are put together? Taking a quote from an article on CNet, it says, this strengthens the argument for cloud providers like Amazon to fully disclose their IT systems to either their customers or independent third party for assessment, testing, and inspection. As Yale academic Brian Ford has argued in his academic paper, "Icebergs in the clouds: the other risks of cloud computing" (and I'll put a link to the pdf in the show notes). This pdf is really good actually. It talks a lot about service warranty. And what we need to do to really evaluate a cloud provider's capabilities in providing us the warranty. The basic question here is, "is cloud " - I guess we have talked about it because we view it as a threat to IT, but do things like this help us to view More of a partner. I don't think I've ever seen those as a threat to IT, that would just be my perspective. And I would say that you did. To me, it's a, It is a form of outsourcing right, so I mean there are jobs displaced when you buy a Cloud technology. So, yeah I think it's a complete threat to IT. As we understand IT from 2010, so I agree with Matt Lupa. You know I just see it as part of the evolution of IT, I don't think it's part of a revolution, I don't think that's happening. Come on, Hooper said it was a threat and evolution is a threat, evolution is a threat, it's a threat to people who didn't evolve. Natural selection isn't pleasant for everyone. Oh, okay. Yes, I think I agree I just have a different perspective than maybe the. No, no you have an evolved perspective You have to stop being so smart. What I found interesting about this, I'm getting phone call during the Podcast. might be John Willis. Give it a shot. Shall we pick it up? All right, you guys carry on with the news while I take the call. Whoever it is, let's bring him on the show. Hello? What if it is someone else. It is kind of interesting. We struggled with this with Service Now. For the first three to five years, they didn't publish anything. In fact, you couldn't even tell the way their data centers were. Or dater centers, if I was saying it with a Boston accent. But now they've got some bigger customers and the customers are starting to demand, where are they, what are we going to do when this goes down? It's business-critical service. I think, or at least IT anyway. And so people need to have the fail order plan and they need to understand that if this thing's going to fail, what are your backup options? I need to know what's supporting those three nines or four nines, and give us some real some real capability to not fail if half of the country is off. Part of that though, you're starting to deal with with that level of transparency are they putting themselves at a risk of losing a technical advantage. Definitely. The higher the transparency the easier would be, let's say they chose New York and L.A., then the people in the middle of the country would be going to get posed for bandwidth because you're further distance away, and maybe another provider chooses Minneapolis and the UK. And so then People in those locations are saying, well that makes sense to do that. It's sort of like you need to look at from both a co-location and a cloud service per se but I think the real point of the story, from Amazon's perspective anyway, is that this needs to be a cloud standard that we agree upon and that people can in this has some cloud standards and I'll put a link in the show notes to that. But this situation's different, right, because Amazon's had outages before, and this outage was caused by some of the storms that were coming up the east coast back last Friday. So, you know, they have some outages that were weather driven and whatever. Failure's going to happen. But the problem here is that this is a pretty big outage for them. I mean, it was substantial and lasted hours in duration. It started some time on the 29th of June and carried over to about the first of July for some folks. And a lot of that was, because they didn't understand the relationship between their assets. The root cause, from what they're saying, is it has something to do with what's called the elastic load balance or ELB's. The way that Amazon's architecture is, you have these things called EC2's which virtual serversRDS , which is your database layer. You can put ELBs in between there so things can fail over and they can scale out and you could be on different virtual platforms at any period of time. There was a bug in their software that didn't allow this to fail over correctly, dependencies weren't mapped appropriately. Traditionally in ITA, I think we understand this, we understand what fail over testing is all about. We understand about availability and high availability point of failure risk analysis, is something we understand well. So if we're going to give these services over to a cloud provider, is it okay for me to ask the questions? What is your algorithm for failing over? What is your validation to. But did we ever ask those questions to the people we hired to manage our data centers when we had them internal? I think it was more common. I did. Sometimes they did. Well, you did. You're exceptional. But again, let's not get too hung up the fact that it's a Cloud outage it's still a human error and that human could have been in our office or some place else. Well it's easier to write a check. Is this outage a red herring for not asking for the right types of redundancies, regardless of who you're getting them for. Well it's like Google says, everything fails at scale. Is it possible to test, like how - You're a quote a minute today. What's that? You're a quote a minute today. well you know you can't test for every possible scenario right and so this something that been Amazon and reality is... you know have they rallied around it and repaired it, the question I always ask is better than I could have, had it been me. Yeah. Unless I am a significantly large and just drenched in money organization I'm not not going to be able to have the use forces to. Hm let's think about significantly large, drenched in money, organizations. The elephant in the room. Facebook had gone down because of it. Netflix did! And Netflix is most people's Facebook. I thought people losing their mind because they couldn't use the toaster filter for too well I mean I think do you use a Instragram helper. I have Instragram. do you? Do you use it? i use it to watch my kids. Do you? Alright I've got another phone call coming in, it might be chance. Keep going with the News. So I think some of the bigger news reading well lately as watching the tech markets it could be that we are past the market bubble. Tech stocks are not doing so hot, as you Noticed over the past few weeks, it looks like it could be heading to a continued downturn, or an adjustment, how the "money-folks" call it. I guess it's a wait and see for some of those market trends, but we definitely are on the Downward side of this bubble in my opinion from where we were in the Spring. Best Buy announced today that they're laying off six-hundred and fifty Geek Squad employees. And look at their market presence all together. They've just got issues all around. But what's interesting to me Is service now just went to our ITO obviously I'm focused because that's what I work with everyday. It's interesting because, number one it wasn't very well pronounced. I worked with a lot of people that work with servers all the time and no one even mentioned it really. Steven Mann was actually the only person that I caught that was actually paying attention to the financial aspects of service now. And It's interesting read how people view everything past Facebook now, like every body was saying in the post Facebook IPO world how are tech stocks going to do and how aren't they doing and I think that maybe drove some of the downward trend in the financial market was the Facebook IPO thing. But I don't know, it almost feels like that's going to be our saving grace. That it's going to stop it from getting so big that we all lose our jobs in one fell swoop. Yeah, but you know what, there's a big difference It's in between service now, and Facebook. And the thing is, Facebook didn't really ever have a solid monitization strategy they simply have momento they were just too big to fail right, where service now is proving themselves to to be a viable entity in the enterprise they continue to sell. They have a clear and present sales and marketing strategy B. Right. It's a business. They brought in a whole Yeah, they've brought in a whole new team; it was a natural of what you've seen tech companies do. It's the type of progression you look at most - from start-up to mature operation. They've walked the progression. Right. You know, they've been around for seven, eight years, so this is a completely different circumstance. I think it's doing good. It's still up, right? Thirty or forty percent from there. Yes, but do you think that Facebook is going to save us from another DotCom burst because of this downward trend now? The tech markets that I'm talking about in particular are your IBMs, your Microsofts, your Oracles, I mean everything's down right now. It's down percentage wise it's anything from four and a half to, you know, twelve percent, I mean, it's pretty significant dips from the highs of four months ago, so, you know those are your kind of latest options look at it as a benchmark right for or more enterprise technology service now coming out at this point is good for them, I think, are different, uh they're and what people who own stocks in those enterprise platforms want to reinvest in something similar to a space that they know. This is a good place for them to find their money. You know, So I think from a Facebook perspective, overall this probably is a consumer side of tech bubble that will that will continue to reset itself from a market standpoint, but I think that's probably ineffective and not so much the start price of Facebook, I really think it's going the position prices, the Instagram purchases, the Yammer purchases, the Skype purchases that we've been seeing, There was a day when you didn't pay over a hundred million dollars for software companies, and now the price is a billion dollars? Yeah. And, I think that's a bit unrealistic, you know, was Instagram really worth a billion dollars? II can't see anybody justifying that that's the case, and when Facebook took the 10% or more tumble, or what is it now twenty-five percent tumble. I think they've lost more. They've lost value. They paid 1% of their cap for Instagram. I don't get it. I get it- they paid one percent of their cap to be relevant. They paid the same amount that Microsoft did for Yammer. We talked about this last time. I don't think anyone realizes how crazy relevance and how expensive it has become. Yeah. I think Yammer It was a better purchase than Instagram though. It depends about what they do with the Empire. Well, yeah. I mean someone's saying, are they going to make it Microsoft Sharepoint mobile social platform. You have to step back though and realize that these are completely sell jobs from the lawyers, the brokers, and all the people who really make conditions on these huge transactions. Because if Microsoft didn't buy Yammer, you gonna tell me that they're gonna be more relevant in six months now because they bought Yammer without buying Yammer? They're not. In a year and a half from now. Say that one more time? In six months from now, Microsoft would not be anymore relevant with not any relevant with Yammer then without Yammer. And in a year and a half they could have paid less for Yammer because by then their would have been 15 other Yammer competitors out there. So, the reality is, it wasn't a transaction of necessity, it was a transaction of fear. Male 1: pressure and timing. Male 2 :Well, all transactions, are transactions of fear. Male 1:Sure. Male2: You buy a house because you're afraid your family is gonna think you're not as mature as you said you were now that it has been two years after the marriage. No one actually buys anything out of shire shrewd planning. That's a type of thinking that doesn't exist in humanity any longer. I do think it was a brilliant purchase for the sheer perception of, Hey we care. I think if it was a me too purchase. Again, we have talked about this on the show a hundred times before, maybe, i feel like we have because I pay attention. But, you know, Oracle pivoted social enterprise, Salesforce pivoted social enterprise. Biggest social software author, IBM. There's not an organization on the planet. ServiceNow has Live Feed. Everybody is racing towards how do we get people to collaborate? Now that people are just collaborating differently. if you put point is and maybe it's because I'm out taking phone calls trying to get John Willis on the show live. If your point is, did it actually do anything real for them? You know, perception is a big deal, I mean Microsoft in my opinion has to really look at a scary future of their licensing remuneration, of their original how they license stuff. They just dropped Windows 8 from the $300 I paid for Windows 7, to $40. Yes, isn't that insane? So, again, I think if you're in IT, if you're in service management, you should be watching these purchases, you should be watching these decisions, you should be saying to yourself: I am in a position to lead my organization toward better decisions because I understand how the cloud outage affected it. I understand, from listening to this podcast, types of information I should be bringing to my organization. I understand from watching Microsoft buy these technologies, from watching Facebook buying these technologies, I should be focused on mobile only. go back to the podcast two years ago, mobile only. Right? Again, but are people doing it? We are in a race against time. And I would say it used to be all about vanity. It was all about saving and looking important. You're now in a race to be relevant so you can feed yourself. Yeah. Right. Right. Well you know, this is a continual change of attitude, right? From where we were and IT even five years ago. It goes well to the tweet that I saw from Shane Carlson. Say a guest first saw this too about HR. Yeah. It's not just IT that doesn't plan itself not to be a strategic partner with the business. The article was pretty funny, I mean I read it and I said you could completely put HR and just take out HR and put IT here, and I think this a common feeling amongst most IT measures. I'll read from the article for just a real quick second. It says that every action you take as a, I'll put what it really says here, HR every action you take as an HR leader, ask a simple question, does it cause friction in the business or does it create flow. Friction is anything that makes it more difficult people in critical roles to win with the customer. Flow on the other hand is doing everything possible to remove barriers to promote better performance. The question applies to virtually any company and any business that will take you farther down the road faster than the hazy, abstract injunction to become a strategic partner. Even in what appeared to In routine HR responsibilities you can inject the business prospectus simply by asking, whether what you are doing is going enhance the flow of the business, or impede it with friction. why is it so difficult to inject the business prospective because HR leaders we feel ourselves to be near the pimple of the organization the organization reports to us it must meet on to for information, documents, and numbers. Boy, I thought IT had a problem. But, I think this is common feeling inside of IT. They want data, they want information, they're going to have to come to us. We're gonna put in command and control to make sure things are protected and things are governed and a lot of the times it's more friction than it is flow, right? Yeah. Look at any ERP system ever. It's always friction, that ain't flow. Speaking of friction and flow, what a way to introduce someone. I'm an idiot, I admit it. Oh, no, you're DevOps, we have you on because you're agile. Welcome, twenty minutes into the show. Yeah. You missed the scumm meeting, I hope you got everything done from yesterday. Yeah, right. Well, I was in the thing and I thought I was on and I was yelling because I was listening to your conversation about the people yell out. Can I go back on one point that you guys were making about the outage now that I'm here? Well can we introduce you? Sure, that'd be good. Why don't you introduce yourself, because you're a much heralded major player in the world of IT and everything that's happening now. Well, thank you I just went from idiot to like miracle worker, so, my name is John Willis, I'm the VP you have customer service enabling. We have the company called Enstratus. I've been doing IT for thirty years, I probably more recently have been heavily involved in this DevOps movement really rocked right from the ground floor. I consider myself kind of part of the tribe that promotes DevOps for all the right reasons and that's about it. We'll talk about all the right reasons in a minute. Welcome. Is this your first live to YouTube hangout? It is, as you can obviously tell, that's right. So, I I'm a big fan. You and Kote had me on your show about two years ago and this show wouldn't exist without you two. So, in some ways you birthed me, how does that make you feel? That's great, that's great. Actually there's a few out there Bert, there's the chef food fight guys they give me credit for sparking them to start their excellent chef podcast as well. Yeah, and congratulations on the weight loss, by the way. Oh, thank you very much, thank you very much. Talk to us a little about your view on the outage because I think some of it should be good. The point I want to make is I do wanna talk about data loss but it's all interrelated. Ben Black says, "You own your own availability." And so one of the things that I think that the cloud has pushed on us is that there is some magic secret syrup here, where you don't have to rethink. You know, what the Klout is, it lose the barrier to entry owning a data center. At the end of the day, you still have a business and you still have a data center. and so it gets tricky at the high end because a lot of things you give up. But, I heard someone in that conversation talking about did we do this before in data centres the good ones did. The good ones had, unfortunately it was a lot more expensive, a lot more complicated but they built high availability DR infrastructures. Some of them had mirrored hidden data centers. Some of them just brought a bunch of tapes over to another building which never worked. But at the end of the day end of the day, the misnomer or the fallacy of Cloud is that you don't need that stuff anymore, and again, take Cloud for what it's good at which is a familiar infrastructure, easy to get, you don't have to rack and stack but the people who think they're getting a cloud at a bargain basement price I used to stop thinking abut how to run the business and make your business; you know the good ones I haven't read the Netflix review yet, but you know the past major outages, you know, the good ones know how to go around this and you know because we spent a lot of money on people. Let's figure out how to get around this. And I see that was my point to Hooper was it doesn't matter where my servers are, it's the people who I hired. Exactly. Yes, questions you ask and you time you really focus on what matters. But where in the NIST standard does it say that the people you hired this way. Oh, that's Idol page, you know, not so much; yeah, yeah. No, that's in the HR article, isn't it? And that other point about like the I'm not a big I mean I love standards, but when do they really, really, really, really, really work? And I think NIST has set some great foundational stuff, but this idea that we're going to get out of this battle, this thing that's moving so fast and so crazy, that the idea of people are just staying around trying to put Dander's on you know, how many colons should go here. How many commas after this phrase. The world has to be very adaptive right now you can do more with something like chess. Did your house tilt in an earth quake John, cause you look crooked. Oh yeah I am kind of I've never watched it - a lot of live videos. I've watched John before and he tells us when he thinks, he's really really really left brained. You've got to get the blood flowing. That's right, it's a new exercise technique. Last week we did a dramatic reading where I read, Did you notice Gross put in dramatic reading music. I listen to the show. Yeah, of course you don't . You don't even run a company, as far as I'm concerned. So I see has become and idiot and brilliant in the same sentence. So we did a dramatic reading of the Wikipedia article DevOps. So I would like a John dramatic interpretation of DevOps. Yeah, you know, I think the simplest starting point is, I've always said it was Adam Jacobs. DevOps is a professional and cultural movement, period. But I think David J. Anderson who's one of the KanBan Frontier guys. I read something of his where he talks more about it being a philosophy. And I think when we look back at the old lean stuff, we see that they talk more about it being a philosophy than anything else. But beyond that and those are cheap definitions but the reason I always like this post to start for them first is it's like anything that has this danger being a fad, which DevOps is definitely a fad right now. And that's a good thing, bad thing. Yeah. But you want to always be able to draw back to some kind of a solid ground, you know? Which is, really let's not forget the cultural aspect of DevOps. It has a lot to do with why this movement is so great. Then the vendors try to take over, and you know, that's just a game. They are. I mean, I've seen vendors with complete marketing programs around 'they enable DevOps'. Of course they do. Yeah. You 're going to see expert speakers show up from all these vendors. I can see then now. Yeah. They do that with Cloud, too. They did that with Cloud and they're still doing it with Cloud. I tell the story, it's just like the stars. They spend their whole life trying to get on camera and getting pictures taken of them and the minute they become famous they start complaining about everybody taking picture of them. Well, if you're in a movement and you're pushing really hard for adoption -- you know, Damon Edwards says you can't complain about who adopts you, you know? That's why I'm all for foster parenting. Yeah, you are. That's right. So, to me I think that one of the things that's probably not in that Wikipedia article, I haven't looked at in a while but me and Damon Edwards a few years ago started this idea, it was after the first DevOps days in the U.S. They had run a couple in Europe and we kinda helped through Velocity and through Damon and myself and a bunch of other people. Tried to get the first days out in Mountainview and it was amazing to see like 300 people show up on a dime and all these people be unbelievably passionate about. One of the things I love about DevOps is you can criticize or not, but most people when I explain it to them, you explain it very simply and it will represent complex ideas and nine or ten will get it from the first explanation you know and it was three hundred people that showed up it kind of got on the first explanation. And after that we did a podcast and we tried to just sift through all the craziness that happened, the the kind of birth of DevOps in our mind and we came out with this acronym called CAMS, culture, automation, measurement and sharing and we just tried to put not to really try to change the world or say hey this is - I like that. So could you break it down for us, culture, automation - Yeah, so culture If you don't get this magic that is DevOps, which I'm drinking the Kool-aid obviously, but none of it works. You are braking few walls in a giant red suit. That's it, but none of it works unless you know... if you nail the behavior patterns that make it work. So you know and some of it is magic, some it is actually black magic but some of it is just you know, there are people like you look at a guy like John Osvar everywhere he goes. He works at Etsy now, he was at Flicker. Where he goes, culture follows. And so culture The misnomer about, the things I don't like about DevOps are the people who say, put in this tool in your DevOps. Now anybody who knows what - That sounds a lot like ITIL. I've heard this before. Well, it is. Well, I do actually wanna talk about iTunes and Hold that thought, before you guys explode and blow up here I'm gonna look for you guys, I wanna give you a couple of my theories, and and you guys either break then down or tell me I'm back to being an idiot and throw me off the show. We don't want to split hairs. There you go. now that's tooling for you. I know how to work a tool. There you go, it's all about the tools. That's the problem with DevOps is there's alot of this Like we're kind of not worrying about, so anyway, cams, I would say if you can't get the culture right, then don't bother putting anything in shaft or puppet, you know that stuff. I mean, I know you guys know this, but, unfortunately, right now in the Devops movement we are very tools-heavy on the conversation. In fact ways it's a fear of mine that DevOps might just become another fad. You know, where our correct gravity is, way too much towards the tools. The companies that have been successful, the poster child's for DevOp commerce will tell you first. it was all about their culture. You know it's all fun and games until you see a headline that reads: DevOps as a service. Right, there you go right? And you know it's at Velocity, I was at Velocity and one of the keynotes was done by Facebook. You can hate Facebook or love Facebook it doesn't matter to me but Facebook's presentation was... the title of the presentation was a question. How do you get to a billion users? And the whole presentation was about their culture and how they and focus on a culture, how they train managers. You know, it's every part of the DNA. And you know what, the Twit stream, was extremely negative. about their presentation, like as if it was one big old job posting or why didn't you talk about the cool technology? And this is velocity, where are you guys supposed to get it? Web operations. Velocity's twitter stream was blowing up, the fact that Facebook came to talk about it, but again if you've got a presentation like the one you're describing. You've got a bunch of people who supposedly espouse cultural change then being negative about it. Did you every really understand the word culture to begin with. I think i've become a big fan of Elliot Goldratt, the original Gold. Yeah we had him on last week. Oh there you go yeah well that's pretty magical cause he's been dead for about a year I think. That's why I said nobody. You guys are awesome man. I try Hey when I die can you bring me back John? Hold hands, we'll light some candles. We'll do the John Willis, two puck for Yeah. I think I'll be really smart once I'm fed. I think I'll come up with then for sure. You want to stick to the point though? You said culture 'cause the reality is that DevOps every cultural organization. I don't want it. Yeah and isn't that why DevOps be successful because out of the gate you're saying this isn't going to work for everybody, so we're going to make it a little bit more prescriptive for the people who are, right? Yeah, I And somebody said to me the other day, and I want to fight this from my core, but you can't ever work unless you it needs for different leadership. And unfortunately, you know, there's just a lot of bad leadership out there. And I gotta believe there are half There are small examples of hacks that work. But you're right, I mean the problem with - I did this gig with a large telco about a year ago and there was a DevOps workshop and their culture is so static. They got ELA's with large vendors that you have to get fourth level approval to get any other product that is a part of the single vent to ELA, right? John, who are you watching that you think is really a espousing, if I can just coin a term that probably has been used. Who's culture hacking? It's actually not enough people. There are people that are very focused on the culture of their business, but there aren't a lot like if you look at somebody like John Allspaw from Etsy. He's a poster child for doing things right. don't show up at presentations and what not, but the truth is lot of people don't--just like the velocity crowd--they don't want to hear the soft stuff. They want to hear, because Etsy is also doing phenomenal stuff with tools. Yeah. And the noise level, even though, again, I'm not accusing them of this, but the noise level of what you'll hear at Etsy is more about tools. And here's the point I want to make about Eliyahu Goldratt. Eliyahu Goldratt has a book called "Beyond the Goal" and he talks about why MRP failed, why ERP failed, why ecommerce failed, and what happens is, the early adapters - That sounds like a thrilling book. Yeah, well it's "Beyond the Goal", but he ties it to the theory of constraints. But more importantly, he says that the early companies get involved in this stuff for reasons pretty much not seen by all the people who copied it. Right. Right, and what you wind it up seeing and I'm watching this in DevOps now, you're looking at the earlier companies that got it all right on their culture. And then people are coupling basically their tool sets. And I think, there's a great quote from the father of Toyota production systems, Ohno Tiachi he says that, you know they asked him, "Aren't you afraid of bringing in American companies and looking at your process and all that?" And he said, "You know what they can copy our process but they can't copy our culture." And I think my fear is that DevOps, we're not focusing on enough on the culture hacking. And I try to because as more and more people move away from Why don't you start tweeting, everything would just a pound sign culture hack. Okay that sounds cool. Dex, you know, one IT fails is great but let's focus on a culture hack, because I've got to be honest with you John, I've only been on this show, I was on a show with you and Kote once this trippy thing for three years now with these two clowns. Which he threw under the bus when he was on your show, John. I remember the show. I am so sick it was a damn good show, I am so sick and tired of people saying culture! culture! culture! to me it's a red state/blue state Red herring, for I don't understand. I can't even swear, because we are live. But I don't understand crap, right? So I am going to use, the word culture is more buzzy. in fatish then DevOps Culture to me is a nice way of saying I'm afraid of people, and I won't want to get over being afraid of people. And be honest and open with where I am in not only my own development, but the development of the organization, the development of my industry and the development of the humans and touch everyday. But you can't. Because you're afraid if you actually were out there and you say "we suck at this", someones gonna step on you and you're gonna lose your job, and you've got a family to So I think, if Culture & DevOps and corporate hacking want to get real and get fierce, we need to be ready to say, "If you stand up, we'll help you get another job". Of course. Because hacking means disruption. I agree. I totally, and you know, I hadn't even thought of this, it's funny but there's this guy Spike Morelli and he's kind of big in DevOps in Europe. Before we did the open spaces at the DevOps days and he wanted to prove a point I actually disagreed with him and he proved me wrong. He said that we should stop using, you know, C and cams because nobody cares about the culture, and I'm like, naw, that's not true Spike. And he said, watch this. So he proposed an open spaces on culture and out of, for the two days there were probably 50 sessions proposed and probably 47 of them were tools days, 3 of them were culture. And in fact, He said that there was a big DevOps presentation. I think this is directly, that you can, it's easy. Most of these people are men, and men are obsessed with tools. I mean let's just look at this at a biological level. But again, if you go back and you start piercing, you look at these companies that are successful They get it, and everybody else is trying to copy the wrong things. What my experience has been is that people with tools for IT folks. It's very easy. Because if it fails, you work within the constraints of the tool. It's the vendor's fault. But if it's culture, the only way that we know how to change culture in IT is to change policy. Mandate. That is not how you change culture. That's right. You can look at some of the I could show you a hundred different presentations from the last 30 ITSM conferences I've been at, and I can point to where it says, policy, procedure the process, work instructions, this is how we change our culture and every time I go, "Oh my god that's completely not how you change your culture." Well, you know how that works. That works at FoxCon. And you know what the FoxCon culture does to people? It kills them. They kill themselves. Yeah, it works in Auschwitz. Right? If you're killing yourself at work, if you're jumping out of those because you've got so much process to put together for the next iPad, maybe the suicide rate is a cultural indicator at this company. Yeah, I mean if you look at the places that are getting it right, and again, Facebook says it right out blatant: "There's no other way to get to a billion users than managing culture." They just can't do it. I mean, that was their, you know, their presentation and I spoke to the guy that runs operations late at the bar. And he was saying like, "We got some pushback on our presentation." You've got to be kidding me? It was a beautiful story. So, the problem is, the guys that, back to your original question, Chris, like how do you do it, who are talking about it. There's nobody exposing the strength of it. If you look at, like, what the Facebook has done, or you look at what Etsy is doing, there's a handful of really interesting companies that are building a lot of types of things in their company, and I think it starts with people having fun, having smiles on their face. There's a guy, there's a guy that did this thing where every day he made all the people, and this may sound silly but wait until you listen to the end of it. At the end of the day he made everybody put, he called it the smiley board face. At the end of the day he made everybody write one of three faces: a smiley face, a blase face, or an angry face. And at the end of every sprint they actually brought it up in the retrospective and tried to correlate some of the bugs. There are companies that run hack days right, this is famous at places like Facebook, where they build into the time, this idea that, some companies as aggressive as every Friday One of our - we have a show in Europe and a show in Australia - but one of the podcast members over in Europe As Patrick Boulder from Hornville. Do you know what they did the other day? You would love this. So, they decided to have an innovation day, kind of like you' re describing. Right. But they broadcast it on all the Social channels so their customers could chime in. Yeah. Not only had an innovation day internally, they made it exposed. So, go to their Google page. I thought to myself that's pretty dangerous. It's transparent, it speaks for the culture. I don't know. There was a company One of the companies I was talking to over the last week, you know last week was pretty much the Mecca for guys that are dev ops. You've got Velocity, and then You have DevOps days for all the people from Logic Motors. One guy was saying that they do their stand-ups, they invite their customers to the stand-ups. That do about being bold. But the point I wanted to make about the having fun is I mean one of the mantras now in DevOps community is if you don't work for a company where you're not having fun and you're not learning stuff, you're not doing something? I don't know if anybody's aware of this, there's like a war for resources right now. Right. Yeah. I mean a war. That 's a lot of talent. There's an all out war for talent. Yeah. And I think that's where people need to be a little bit more brave about being bold at where they work. I'm constantly reminded about allocating my time and fitting into this mold, but I will constantly do what I need to do to have fun. Yeah . So if you're part of that pool which most people who would listen to this show or listen to anything I would have to say would be part of that pool. If you're not having fun, you know, and management. That's another thing why I think in someways this has to succeed because people will lose there employees because they're not doing new technologies and fun stuff. They'll also lose places when they go and hear the attitude of some of these people that are running what I call a DevOps shop, but the model of a DevOps environment. Wow, that sounds like a great place to work. I had this thing with John Aspaugh, this was a great session that we had. Basically, it was an open space session, and it says "Is it ever okay to fire an employee for making a mistake?". And it was a heavy DevOps crowd, so the answer basically across the board, there was maybe one or two people who basically said, it's a horrible say blah blah blah blah blah if it's a banker. If no ones dead there's no mistake that horrible. So then I ask the question. And the obvious reason for not doing that is you don't want to set a tone of the culture. Where you don't want your people to experiment and try things and be bold. The first time someone tries. You tell your boys, "Be Bold." Be bold, be bold. Then you try something and you're fired. So then I asked the question, what about the second time they make the same mistake? Do you fire him then? No. And the answer was no. Now I asked, okay, what about the third time for the same mistake? And his answer was no And I was like, okay, gotta put the T time, C sign up, John, You know, we're. But there's the thing, we kinda ended the session with this, agree to disagree which is weird, because I never disagree with this guy. You know what I mean? Almost everything he talks about is. So is this relief that you just ever fire somebody that they just continually make the same mistake over and over again. Well, here's the point. In the hallway, I went up to him, and I'm like, "John, this is bugging the hell out of me." And that point, I had half the room on my side, right, and not that I was trying to win an argument, but at one point I said, "Am I the only one - When you're keeping track of the room, you're trying to win an argument. Yeah, yeah, that's true. That's true. Okay, so, but anyway so I won half the room. Just take it from someone who constantly tries to win arguments. Okay fair enough. Fair enough but so then I grabbed him in the hallway and then he gave me the example, and this is how core these guys think in culture. He said, "Here's the thing I was trying to explain and we really couldn't get it." You know how in open spaces, everybody's kind of interrupting, and that's just the nature of the beast. But he said, "Here's the thing. In my world, the way this works is somebody makes a mistake, they go out and they figure out what the mistake was. In a retrospective, they go ahead, and they basically explain their mistake to the whole team. And then the team decides how to fix it." And then, if it happens again, so what his point was then they go through that same process and the team decides. So the team says, "Okay. The answer is we didn't do this right so we need to do this and this." And then it turns out the next time that outside. So even when you get to third time, his point was, it's always the team's responsibility. That's beautiful. Now, I don't know how far you can take that, but that is a protection mechanism of culture over anything else. Right? There is a hyper protection measure over culture, over anything else. Right. Because you know in your success that that is the culture that protecting this behavior pattern, or the culture of being bold and be brave will be protected almost any, in almost any scenario. Well, I have a lot of people who question my motives behind a lot of the things that I do. I think Hooper and Beran know me better than anyone on even though they don't spend a lot of time with me. But the culture you're describing there is very similar to what I think we all do, right? So I work inside with my team at my company.then work within side my company but I focused a lot of my time focusing on my net work. Alright. So I work for more for than just my current company, I work for my net work. I think to protect that culture that you're talking about it goes back to this idea of king making. I have to always enable everyone around me, no matter how many mistakes I made to be bigger and better than themselves. 'Cause ultimately, I can't defend myself. But the people around me can. Right. Right? So, if I actually am altruistic enough to leverage the people I trust with my reputation. I never have to worry about making a mistake again. It's all about growing and learning. And if people on your team are growing and learning through mistakes, then you're growing and learning. That's the definition of culture. Yeah. You're one big organism. Look back to tribes. Speaking of one big, unnatural organism. Hold on tribe-head. We gotta get to his comments on ITIL. Yeah, there we go. Stevie Chambers just having a melt down. All right. We're a live show, we try to watch it all, we've got boards over so when you have got time every body serious with you they calm down but so here let me say this for but let me get both of these out because this first one might you know then i will get caught up on that because i want to say this good message bad message ITIL. Nothing really bad. All right, so I want to say I'm both, and then let's discuss it, if that's fair. So the thing I always say I think that. And I've got some ITIL tops. Not as recent, but back in the day. Back in the early days, you know, I worked for problem management. vendor, problem change. I worked a lot with IBM, when they were originally pushing, back when they actually used have vendors certified, which is kind of silly in the space a little bit. So what I say in the DevOps thing, I think is that ITIL is about putting process over people and DevOps is basically about putting people over a process. So when you hit a fork in the road at DevOps, it's always gonna be kind of the people or the culture of the things that work. And the beauty of ITIL was, in my opinion, was that there was a world that had no clue of what it was doing. And then we could argue whether they still do our not, but what ITIL brought to this world was, not perfection, but at least a template for the way that things could be done. But that's the negative point, if that's negative. The positive point is that I personally believe, and I think Ben Rockwood, if you don't follow him, is a firm believer of this. I think that there is a world where ITIL and DevOps will work beautiful. and it's kind of like again if you guys don't follow TOC but you know there's examples of theory. I think Hooper does TOC stuff. Yeah. I taught TOC Troy Dumoulin. There's a good book, it's called Velocity. It's combining Lean Six Sigma and theory of constraints. And the story is basically companies been running a theory constraints and TOC for years. I mean Lean Six Sigma guys come in and rake everything up, smack everything around and the whole thing turns into a mess and the end story is that what they should have done is still filed to your constraint and apply Lean Six Sigma on top of the bottlenecks and, you know, and then focused in on bottlenecks and then went ahead and then applied the institute. And so I think what we're going to find is this, you're going to be a really nice marriage if we figure out that story. But how to apply, we already see examples of it in some ways. But I think thatare correct. The question is going to be figuring out how do they both live, where they're kind of, by my definition, in conflict. Well, I think I want Hooper to answer that 'cause he teaches and he's actually gonna start up and I think that would be very interesting. Beran definitely. But they're in conflict, I believe. Because one begot the other. You couldn't have people over process if you didn't have something that was process over people. To me it's the same thing as just what we talked about from that HR article, right? ITIL to me is about constraint. DevOps to me is about flow. Right. So ITIL is about protection and about preservation, and where DevOps is about action and innovation. Right. So they're coming about it from a different outcome. And that's what I said earlier I think culturally recognizing that DevOps is not for everybody. Listen, do I want DevOps for my bank? Do I want DevOps for the airplane shop for programmers? I don't know that I do. But do I want it for my startup? Absolutely. Do I want it for my social media company and do I want it for my consumer software? Absolutely. I think it just comes down to certain aspects of how fast you want to move, and what levels of risk, and what kind of culture you are building. Do you see first the whole idea of continuous service improving 'cause you can't focus on a constraint and fix it without another one arising. So again, I think if we just, I mean John raised a very straightforward question. How do they exist? What does it look like together in the future? I truly believe that that's, you know, trying to figure out what that looks like it probably is a nice way to spend time that I don't have, when I could just say that they're going to exist, because they can't exist without each other now. You can't have those three people from Crypton who got banished by Jor-El's father there. The big, tall, goofy guy would have been a bad movie. on his own. The Chick with The Bad Attitude would have been a horrific movie on her own, and Zod by himself is just stupid. Right? So what does that movie look like with them all three together? I think building toward a future where they just coexist, not trying to figure out what it looks like or who controls it. I mean worrying about what things are, to me, is almost as bad as worrying about what tools make them happen. We almost need a new movement where it's the theory of acceptance. I'm breathing, and everything will be okay. Well that's the thing, again going back to being a Goldratt nut right now is that all his discussions are about these conflicts that get figured out. You know, there's, you know he talks a lot about They don't have a choice, continual service improvement is not choice. It's a force of nature. That's right. That's right. Now one thing I did want to say is that, I do think, I honestly, I'm so in the Kool-Aid that I do think that fighter pilots and planes and banks and all that. I think that we're gonna find is that when we get people to work in a culture that we're going to find that we make less mistakes. We're going to find that we get more productivity. Personally I'm not rejecting your opinion. But I don't personally accept that. I'm not saying we've figured it out, anywhere as near. But if we can figure it out, and learn how to transform what these companies like Etsy and Facebook are doing to banks that I think we will find higher productivity and quality. I completely I think I agree with you to meet transforming banks to act and Hooper's back to the points about banks and aeroplanes and you want them to have that maturity. You want them to focus on these types of decision making. You don't want them to focus on being innovative. Well, I want them to focus on risk and I want them to focus on constraint. You know, I want the productivity levels high. And to me, I was listening to him say, John, and I was thinking to myself, "That's interesting. Well, what happens if I'd rather fly on a less safe plane that's more exciting, than on a really terribly boring plane that's slower." Which it would be? What happens if I don't value my current state and I've traded all of my worldly possessions into a way of living and sustaining myself that I really don't care if the bank Well on a more dangerous airplane, maybe you actually get into outer space on. Well, but again, I don't even, I mean, there are, like, a good example is this Bank Simple, right? Which is out in Portland right now. As we're waiting, we talked about that on the podcast a few months ago. Yeah. That thing is radically different. Right, but I'm not even saying that. I'm just saying, I'm not a scientist. I'm just saying, I bet you we will find out that we will get better quality, better control, and better productivity by allowing people to do more freedom to work in environments where they're not interrupted. To work in environments where they're allowed to actually explore their ideas and so in that, and again, I'm not saying and we've got that nutted in DevOps by any means. I'm just saying if we can figure out the patterns that induce that. I think we have figured out the patterns. Again, you know, we like to forget the history very quickly. But there's an interesting TED talk on introverts right now that people told me about over the last few months. And the idea is over the last hundred years, that we've gone from an agricultural society into an industrial society. We force people into cities, which then force people into offices, and now we're forcing people into the open offices. Where we've taken at least 40% of the culture who are natural introverts and made them work in this groupthink, right? Right. And they're not used to functioning like that. Most innovation comes from solitary work. There's a reason I prefer to work at home. It's not 'cause I can't get anything done at work. I can't. We all know that I can't get anything done at work. But, I am affected by people's physical energy of stupidity. I can't be around other people emanating stupidity, it literally sucks the life out of me. That's why he dreams up the contest. That's why he has a Ph.D. cleaning his house. She's actually a masters in Physiology but she cleans his house just your energy your vibe of the smartness. And I hate the fact my house cleaner's from behind me while we're doing this. But John, I mean, to your point, how do we get those back? How do we get these things back? We need to respect the fact that some people. There's a doctor right there. need not to be working like we're working. Right. You know some people, introverts, we don't treat very well anymore and you know this Ted Talk made a brilliant point that, just because you're the most charismatic person, you've got everyone's attention, doesn't mean you're probably the brightest. Yeah, no, that's great. I mean I totally see what you're saying. I don't know how to put that in my brain now. I'm sorry. I'm around smart people now. So you're elevating me. I'm got some of your energy. Well, the conversation is awesome, so that's, but what I, now I'm gonna like when do you write me back? I'm starting to worry about when you're going to kick me off the show now. So, having so much fun. So, no, the thing about Insular it's interesting because I mean there's a certain point I need to look at a tad 'cause there's a certain point you're right. We've got a lot of talkers. You know, I love my Clouterati, but they are some bunch of talkers, right? You know, I mean there's some of them that are dear friends of mine But I saw somewhere the other day where somebody asked a question that was just a fundamental thing you would know if you'd ever used Amazon. It was one of the Clouderattis that didn't know it. And so that is a fear of ours, becoming such social nuts that like the real smart people the people actually like me really that can talk a good game. But we need the people like you, who can talk a good game, because the people who actually know the game are too busy focusing on their body, all right? We need, you know, I don't know. You would think I would know, but I think Hooper is kind of a smart introvert who just happens to dance on the I want to get wild extrovert side. Beran, obviously extroverted, doesn't know a grass skirt from high heels. Wouldn 't take him to a dance, but gosh he's fun to hang out and cheat on my wife with. He's the perfect mistress. When it comes right When it comes right down to it, you know, again we need to be respectful then wreck this whole culture BS that. It's not BS but we need just to be respectful that certain things will work themselves out. We've made drastically horrific mistakes in managing people and how we put them together. And oh, we'll remove the cubes and that will fix all the problems. Well actually no, it made 40% of the people more uncomfortable, and they now can't function. Right? So you know, we could, we could do this for another two hours. It's been amazing, I'd love to have you back on. If you'd be willing. Probably one of the more probably shows. Yeah, I know. I can talk about this. I've been trying to figure out. Chris, I do think, I You know, I know you don't like this wag kinda title but I think it is culture over everything else and the companies that I'm watching become nominally successful for starting this set. I think the plumbing. And what I'm hoping is people don't miss the fundamentals of their plumbing. We can make fun of Facebook all day long, but the way they're building data centers now, and the way their people are, you know they built a data center in 12 months, and then they turn around almost double in size, one in ten months you know and they're all appointed at this presentation was. This is not a fool's problem. This is building a culture where people can move fast, adapt, learn how to work with people. I mean Netflix is a little more militant about their culture, but at least they talk about it up front. They say, "If you're not this kind of person and you're not gonna adapt this, this, and this "Do not come work here." And by the way, if you do and you think you're that kind of person you're not, we are probably going to fire you. And I'm not crazy about that, but it works for them. Because, what they wind up having is people that people that stay there. People just really love this, you know, competitive, being the best of the best. So let's end today's show with each of you give me a cultural hack. So give me a line or two. Wait. Can we ask John where he got that awesome Carlos Santana picture? No. Stevie Ray Vaughn, dude. Aw, my man! Stevie Ray Vaughn yeah. Have you guys ever seen John play? No I never see him play. But if he sounds like SRV, I'm tuning in. I'm the only person alive today that pays attention. Guys, we had this jam at Dev Ops Days. I mean, like if we could do one of your service conferences. We can't have Jan at a service management conference. Oh come on, now. Oh please, these people are too busy looking up things in books. Well it's a lot of recipe books in between songs. It took 12 years to get Ian Clayton to be normal, it took him 10 years to get Paul Wilkinson to be acceptable. Oh. It'll take us. I mean, we are so far, it's just ridiculous. I mean, I follow Stevie Chambers. One, because he's an absolute nut, he is absolutely psychotic. I'm convinced of it. Two, Stevie Chambers did something really brave two years ago. He wrote a blog post and his company came after him, wanting to kill him, fire him and everything else. It was basically come across that line. And I thought at that point regardless of what I think about Stevie Chambers' opinion I need to support the people who are stand up and lay their job on the line to say something really ugly, right? No, it's fine. So, that's my culture hack for the day. If you've got it in you, if you can line up three or four jobs for next week, do something radical at work to push someone else forward. Not some process, not some tool, not some project. Find someone who you think has it in them, lay your job on the line and push them forward.forge , a culture act. Who? Yeah, Dave Ramsey, a motivational speaker, a great leadership company, in his book leadership. He talks about two types of people: Tigers and Koala bears. He says tigers are ones who, they live without fear. They don't worry about their job they belief so much on themselves that they will figure in out right they walk the line all the time they will take the risk who look very cute and cuddly, but actually can kill a human instantly. And people don't realize that about koalas, right? So koalas, they might be quiet, they might be reserved, but yet they're powerful and they're usually doped up. How do you say that. But the thing with it is, koalas, what they gravitate toward and what they The excel app is making tiger shine. They are excellent support, like having an administrative, I had an administrative assistant that is vigilant.a koala and I'm more of ice consumers, more the tiger, I take risks. I would not have been successful. I think you're more of a cougar than being a trade show host. Yeah. Oh, whatever. Right. All right. Beran, culture hacks. I tweeted it this week. If you need a tool for something and you've got the ability to use it, just use it we needed a defect tracking tool at our work recently, and we didn't have one so I built one and just started you sing it and sent it to the senior leadership and says, "Look, this is what I'm doing. I think that's a good way to push innovation." Yes and I know I am talking about tools but you can apply that level. So if you think that something is right, and it's working for you, just do it. I think that's one of the best. And what is the, say Frank say? FILDI? F it, let's do it. Yeah, you're my Koala bear. So, I like calling that the do now ask forgiveness later. Yup. I do. That's key. There are certain things that you just have to. Perhaps, John WIllis. I think that the easy ones and then there's my wish list ones. And the easy ones are the ones who are, basically, building slack into the work environment. Which is counter intuitave to most environments. If anything we learn from workflow and all that, that creating slack. Kanban happens to be a good example of a tool, one of many but, that can force slack in the workplace. I think it all boils down to things like hack days and places where you can find innovation through the people's ability to innovate by giving them slack time, and not looking, you know, using kind of efficiency syndromes. On the long-term horizon, after this last week's velocity, and you know, having all these discussions about culture. You know, I want to think more about what are the things that can be measured you know, and now I get into freak science stuff. But other things that we can measure, the soft things we don't even try. We measure everything, but we don't measure that affects our behavior

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13. AVELI - Free Stylez De`elegance V.3

AVELI - Free Stylez De`elegance V.3

This is the special gift ஜ۩۞۩ஜ~▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬­­Yo! Check Out My New Lp Mp3 Dvd Cd Key On T.v in 3D O.G Dee p3 D.O Double Gee "LAST BOSS" is COMING SOON To Consumed Consumers As I Pursue Those Who Prosecute Thus I Shall Lyrically spiritually IMMEDIATE EXECUTE ▬▬A-v-A__Av--A-W-A__ ▬▬▬▬ soundcloud.com/keyon-lambert/keypakaveli-impocalypes-now Save & Press Play!! [>] Then [ Sol Angel Speed Of Light S.O.L shared a link. Is Yall Ready!! Are You Set, Letz Go Go Go Go, ஜ۩۞۩ஜ~▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬­­Yo! Check Out My New Lp Mp3 Dvd Cd Key On T.v in 3D O.G Dee p3 D.O Double Gee "LAST BOSS" is COMING SOON To Consumed Consumers As I Pursue Those Who Prosecute Thus I Shall Lyrically spiritually IMMEDIATE EXECUTE Kamal Mamedov ▬▬ ▬▬▬▬ soundcloud.com/keyon-lambert/keypakaveli-impocalypes-now Save & Press Play!! [>] Then [

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14. Deuteronomy 9-16 (Worshiping God, How to be Blessed, & Living for God and People)

Deuteronomy 9-16 (Worshiping God, How to be Blessed, & Living for God and People)

Deuteronomy 9 - The Battles Ahead and the Failures Behind A. Considering the battles ahead. 1. (1-2) The difficulty of the battles ahead. Hear, O Israel: You are to cross over the Jordan today, and go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than yourself, cities great and fortified up to heaven, a people great and tall, the descendants of the Anakim, whom you know, and of whom you heard it said, “Who can stand before the descendants of Anak?” a. Go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than yourself: God was leading Israel into something too big for them. It was a challenge they could only meet if they trusted in God. b. Cities great and fortified up to heaven: The cities they would battle against were mighty and the people they would battle against were great and tall. Yet God had called them to enter into this seemingly impossible battle. i. There was no way Israel could do this in the flesh, or on their strength. God commanded them to do something that was just beyond their ability to do in themselves. ii. Obviously, God did not inspire Israel with a false sense of confidence or hype. He wanted them to realistically know what the battle ahead would be like. iii. In the same way, Jesus never calls us with hype or false promises that would lead to false confidence. He plainly says, If anyone desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. (Matthew 16:24) Jesus let us know right from the beginning that following Him would require giving God everything. 2. (3) Why victory is possible with the difficult battles ahead. Therefore understand today that the LORD your God is He who goes over before you as a consuming fire. He will destroy them and bring them down before you; so you shall drive them out and destroy them quickly, as the LORD has said to you. a. Understand today: Just as much as Israel had to understand the impossibility of the battle on their own, they also must understand the certainty of victory in the LORD. b. The LORD your God is He who goes before you as a consuming fire. He will destroy them: It was a battle too big for Israel, but not too big for the LORD. Israel could know both facts: That in themselves, the job was impossible (without Me you can do nothing, John 15:5), but in God the battle could not be lost (I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me, Philippians 4;13). c. He will destroy them: God was also calling Israel to a partnership in winning the battles. He will destroy them does not contradict you shall quickly drive them out and destroy them quickly. Was God going to do it, or was Israel going to do it? Both, really - God was calling Israel to workers together with Him (2 Corinthians 6:1). d. Destroy them quickly: God did not want the Israelites to show mercy to the Canaanites. He wanted Israel to be a unique army of judgment against the Canaanites and their culture, which was so depraved that it deserved this kind of judgment. i. Archaeologist William F. Albright, in his book From the Stone Age to Christianity, describes what the primary focus of Canaanite religion was: sex. The featured idols recovered by archaeologists are hundreds of nude female forms in sexually suggestive forms, as well as male idols associated with homosexual cults (From the Stone Age to Christianity, pages 232-235). ii. “Thus the Canaanites, with their orgiastic nature-worship, their cult of fertility in the form of serpent symbols and sensuous nudity, and their gross mythology, were replaced by Israel.” (Albright, page 281). 3. (4-6) The danger of pride when the LORD gives them victory. Do not think in your heart, after the LORD your God has cast them out before you, saying, “Because of my righteousness the LORD has brought me in to possess this land”; but it is because of the wickedness of these nations that the LORD is driving them out from before you. It is not because of your righteousness or the uprightness of your heart that you go in to possess their land, but because of the wickedness of these nations that the LORD your God drives them out from before you, and that He may fulfill the word which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Therefore understand that the LORD your God is not giving you this good land to possess because of your righteousness, for you are a stiff-necked people. a. Do not think in your heart: Israel’s temptation to pride did not come in something they would actually say. Long before we will say proud words we think proud thoughts in our heart. Therefore Israel must not think in their heart that it was because of their righteousness that the LORD has given them the land. i. This is a preview of salvation by grace through faith, in which we cannot think that it is our righteousness that has obtained it. Instead, it is the righteousness we have received in Jesus Christ. ii. When we receive any gift from God, we are tempted to take it and use it to glorify ourselves. Israel must not do this in regard to the gift of the Promised Land, and we must not do it in regard to any gift the LORD would give us. iii. Sayings or proverbs of the ancient world reflect man’s desire to earn his own righteousness and justification before God. “I will not have heaven for nothing” said one, and another said “Give me heaven, for Thou owe it to me.” The same idea is expressed in an old Roman Catholic teaching that dying men should pray, “LORD, join my righteousness with Christ’s righteousness” as if the two together could accomplish something. Instead, we look to the righteousness of Jesus alone. b. For you are a stiff-necked people: The idea is that Israel, like a rebellious domestic animal, would stiffen its neck against the yoke God would put upon it. They would not submit to God’s direction in their life. i. Stiff-necked “is a figurative expression for stubborn, intractable, obdurate, and hardheaded.” (Kalland) B. The stiff-necked character of Israel is demonstrated in their past failures. 1. (7) A call to remember their past rebellions. Remember! Do not forget how you provoked the LORD your God to wrath in the wilderness. From the day that you departed from the land of Egypt until you came to this place, you have been rebellious against the LORD. a. Remember and do not forget: God’s purpose in reminding Israel of their rebellions against Him was not to discourage them or to make them feel defeated. The purpose was so that they would recognize their own weakness and trust in Him. b. You have been rebellious against the LORD: The same idea is communicated in the New Testament at 1 Corinthians 10:12: Therefore let him who things he stands take heed lest he fall. When we remember our sinful nature, we walk in the poverty of spirit Jesus said was essential to a life of blessing (Matthew 5:3). 2. (8-21) Remembering the rebellion at Mount Horeb. Also in Horeb you provoked the LORD to wrath, so that the LORD was angry enough with you to have destroyed you. When I went up into the mountain to receive the tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant which the LORD made with you, then I stayed on the mountain forty days and forty nights. I neither ate bread nor drank water. Then the LORD delivered to me two tablets of stone written with the finger of God, and on them were all the words which the LORD had spoken to you on the mountain from the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly. And it came to pass, at the end of forty days and forty nights, that the LORD gave me the two tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant. Then the LORD said to me, “Arise, go down quickly from here, for your people whom you brought out of Egypt have acted corruptly; they have quickly turned aside from the way which I commanded them; they have made themselves a molded image.” Furthermore the LORD spoke to me, saying, “I have seen this people, and indeed they are a stiff-necked people. Let Me alone, that I may destroy them and blot out their name from under heaven; and I will make of you a nation mightier and greater than they.” So I turned and came down from the mountain, and the mountain burned with fire; and the two tablets of the covenant were in my two hands. And I looked, and behold, you had sinned against the LORD your God; had made for yourselves a molded calf! You had turned aside quickly from the way which the LORD had commanded you. Then I took the two tablets and threw them out of my two hands and broke them before your eyes. And I fell down before the LORD, as at the first, forty days and forty nights; I neither ate bread nor drank water, because of all your sin which you committed in doing wickedly in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger. For I was afraid of the anger and hot displeasure with which the LORD was angry with you, to destroy you. But the LORD listened to me at that time also. And the LORD was very angry with Aaron and would have destroyed him; so I prayed for Aaron also at the same time. Then I took your sin, the calf which you had made, and burned it with fire and crushed it and ground it very small, until it was as fine as dust; and I threw its dust into the brook that descended from the mountain. a. Also in Horeb you provoked the LORD to wrath: This recalls the events at Mount Sinai, where Israel worshipped a golden calf when Moses was gone a long time on Mount Sinai, receiving the law from the LORD (Exodus 19-32). b. Written with the finger of God: The original tablets of the law Moses received on Mount Sinai were actually written by God Himself, and contained the Ten Commandments (all the words which the LORD had spoken to you on the mount from the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly, found in Exodus 20). c. I will make of you a nation mightier and greater than they: God told Moses of His desire to wipe out Israel in judgment, and to start over again with a new nation, descended from Moses himself. d. The mountain burned with fire: The burning fires on Mount Sinai were physical representations of the glory of God and His holy presence. The mountain began to burn when Israel first came to Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:18). Those fires had burned for 40 straight days, and they burned at the very time Israel made a golden calf and began to worship it. e. I took the two tablets and threw them out of my two hands and broke them before your eyes: Moses broke the tablets, “Not by an unbridled passion, but in zeal for God’s honour, and by direction of God’s Spirit, to signify to the people, that the covenant between God and them contained in those tables was broken and made void, and they were now quite cast out of God’s favor, and could expect nothing from him but fiery indignation and severe justice.” (Poole) f. For I was afraid: The Hebrew word here is a rare word, translated in the Septuagint by the strong word ekphobos, which means “exceedingly frightened” or “stricken with terror.” When he saw the sin of Israel and knew the holiness of God, Moses was very afraid for the sake of the people of Israel. g. I prayed for Aaron also: Aaron’s sin, detailed in Exodus 32, was so bad, that he surely would have been destroyed by the LORD - except Moses prayed for him. This shows both the prevailing power of Moses’ prayer and the great love in the heart of Moses. h. Burned it with fire and crushed it and ground it very small: Moses burnt the idol, ground it up, and sprinkled it in the people’s drinking water for three reasons. · To show this god was nothing and could be destroyed easily · To completely obliterate this idol · To make the people pay an immediate consequence of their sin 3. (22-24) Parenthesis: remembering the rebellions at Taberah, Massah, Kibroth Hattaavah, and Kadesh Barnea. Also at Taberah and Massah and Kibroth Hattaavah you provoked the LORD to wrath. Likewise, when the LORD sent you from Kadesh Barnea, saying, “Go up and possess the land which I have given you,” then you rebelled against the commandment of the LORD your God, and you did not believe Him nor obey His voice. You have been rebellious against the LORD from the day that I knew you. a. Also at Taberah: The name Taberah means “burning,” and in Numbers 11, when the people of Israel first left Mount Sinai to head towards Kadesh Barnea and the Promised Land, they immediately complained and God sent fires of judgment against them at a place they called Taberah because of the burning fires of God’s judgment. b. And Massah: Exodus 17:7 describes the naming of a place called Massah, which means “tempted,” because there Israel provoked the LORD by doubting His loving care and concern for them in the wilderness. c. Kibroth Hattaavah: The name means “graves of craving” and was the place where Israel longed for meat instead of manna, and God gave them meat. However, it became plagued in the mouths of those with greedy and discontent hearts (described in Numbers 11). d. When the LORD sent you from Kadesh Barnea: Moses briefly remembered the rebellion at Kadesh Barnea, where Israel doubted God’s love for them and refused to enter the Promised Land by faith - rebelling against the LORD (Numbers 13-14). e. You did not believe Him nor obey His voice: Israel’s disobedience to God began with their unbelief. They did not believe God loved them and was mighty enough to bring them into the Promised Land. 4. (25-29) Moses’ prayer of intercession for Israel when they rebelled at Mount Horeb. Thus I prostrated myself before the LORD; forty days and forty nights I kept prostrating myself, because the LORD had said He would destroy you. Therefore I prayed to the LORD, and said: “O Lord GOD, do not destroy Your people and Your inheritance whom You have redeemed through Your greatness, whom You have brought out of Egypt with a mighty hand. Remember Your servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; do not look on the stubbornness of this people, or on their wickedness or their sin, lest the land from which You brought us should say, ‘Because the LORD was not able to bring them to the land which He promised them, and because He hated them, He has brought them out to kill them in the wilderness.’ Yet they are Your people and Your inheritance, whom You brought out by Your mighty power and by Your outstretched arm.” a. Therefore I prayed to the LORD: This great prayer of intercession from Moses is described more fully in Exodus 32. Moses asked for mercy upon Israel because of God’s past faithfulness to them (whom You have redeemed). b. Remember Your servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: Moses asked for mercy upon Israel because of God’s past faithfulness to the patriarchs. c. Lest the land from which You brought us should say, “Because the LORD was not able”: Moses asked for mercy upon Israel because of concern for the glory of God’s own name and His reputation among the nations. d. Your people . . . Your inheritance . . . You brought out . . . Your mighty power . . . Your outstretched arm: Moses asked for mercy upon Israel because they were God’s people. i. We can seek the mercy and power of God through prayer by praying with the same heart and by pleading the same reasons before the LORD. Prayer on solid reasons like these is far more effective than merely casting wishes up towards heaven. · Because of God’s past faithfulness to us · Because of His past faithfulness to our forefathers · Because of His own glory and reputation among the nations · Because we are His people ii. Keeping these things in mind is also a way to refine our prayers. When we pray only for the things consistent with God’s glory, we have our hearts set on the right things. Deuteronomy 10 - Recovering after a Fall A. God’s plan of recovery for Israel after the rebellion at Mount Sinai. 1. (1-5) Israel had to get back to the Word of God, so God commanded the giving of the new tablets of the law. At that time the LORD said to me, “Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first, and come up to Me on the mountain and make yourself an ark of wood. And I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke; and you shall put them in the ark.” So I made an ark of acacia wood, hewed two tablets of stone like the first, and went up the mountain, having the two tablets in my hand. And He wrote on the tablets according to the first writing, the Ten Commandments, which the LORD had spoken to you in the mountain from the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly; and the LORD gave them to me. Then I turned and came down from the mountain, and put the tablets in the ark which I had made; and there they are, just as the LORD commanded me. a. Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first: Moses broke the tablets of the law, not only out of anger, but also as a powerful visual representation of Israel’s breaking of the law of God. Now God commanded that the law be restored by bringing forth two new tablets of the law. b. He wrote on the tablets according to the first writing: God wanted His written word to be the starting point for Israel’s right walk with Him. Therefore He restored the tablets, even writing on the second tablets with His own hand. i. This is a powerful picture of the inspiration of God’s word; though God did not literally write the Scriptures with His own hand, He did perfectly guide the minds and hands of the writers, so that the Scriptures are “God-breathed” (2 Timothy 3:16), that is, given by the inspiration of God. c. And put the tablets in the ark which I had made; and there they are: Getting right with God after a time of rebellion must always begin and center on God’s word. In the days of Josiah, King of Judah, repentance and revival came to the people of God when they focused on God’s word again (2 Kings 22:8-23:25). 2. (6-9) In order to deal with Israel’s sin problem, God established an enduring priesthood. (Now the children of Israel journeyed from the wells of Bene Jaakan to Moserah, where Aaron died, and where he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered as priest in his stead. From there they journeyed to Gudgodah, and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah, a land of rivers of water. At that time the LORD separated the tribe of Levi to bear the ark of the covenant of the LORD, to stand before the LORD to minister to Him and to bless in His name, to this day. Therefore Levi has no portion nor inheritance with his brethren; the LORD is his inheritance, just as the LORD your God promised him.) a. Where Aaron died, and where he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered as priest in his stead: This parenthesis speaking about the priesthood demonstrated the need for priestly sacrifice and intercession in getting right with God after a time of rebellion. Israel needed the sacrifice, intercession, and blessing that the Levites would bring to the nation. i. The need for a priesthood shouted to Israel: “You can’t do it on your own. You need to come to God through a mediator, who will atone for your sin, pray for you, and bless you. If you refuse your priestly mediator, and trust in your own ability to do these things, you will perish.” b. To stand before the LORD to minister to Him and to bless in His name: Getting right with God after a time of rebellion must always have a focus on the priestly ministry of Jesus on our behalf. This work of Jesus is shown in His atonement for our sin at the cross, on His intercession for us in heaven, and on the blessing that He brings to us from heaven. 3. (10-11) Israel need to move on towards the Promised Land, so God gave Moses the command to go forth. As at the first time, I stayed in the mountain forty days and forty nights; the LORD also heard me at that time, and the LORD chose not to destroy you. Then the LORD said to me, “Arise, begin your journey before the people, that they may go in and possess the land which I swore to their fathers to give them.” a. Arise, begin your journey: Israel’s rebellion at Mount Sinai with the golden calf was significant; it was no small matter. Yet God was not done with them. After they came back to His word and came through His priesthood, it was time to move on. God had a place to take them and they had to get about the business of getting there. b. That they may go in and possess the land: Getting right with God after a time of rebellion must always come to a place of progress again. It does no good to come back to the word, come through God’s priesthood in Jesus, and then remain stuck in the same place. God wants us to move on with Him, and when we are walking right with God again, we will go in and possess the land. B. What God requires of Israel. 1. (12-13) What the LORD requires of His people. And now, Israel, what does the LORD your God require of you, but to fear the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways and to love Him, to serve the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul, and to keep the commandments of the LORD and His statutes which I command you today for your good? a. Fear the LORD your God: God requires from us a reverential honor towards Him; not a fear that would make us shrink back, but a heart that so honors God that we would be hesitant to offend Him. b. To walk in all His ways: God requires us to live our lives after the pattern He has set for us; to walk on His road not on our own. c. To love Him: God requires us to love Him. This means the love He expects isn’t a love that just happens, but it is a love that comes from a decision to set our affection upon Him. d. To serve the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul: God requires us to serve Him, to see all that we do as service unto Him, and to do all that we do as if doing it unto Him. e. To keep the commandments of the LORD and His statutes: God requires us to not only know His word, but to keep it - in the sense of possessing it in ourselves, and in the sense of protecting it. f. For your good: every command of God is given for our good. They are never given so He can exercise His power, or so He can feel important. Every command He makes is with our best interest in mind, even if we cannot sense it or understand it. 2. (14-15) Why God requires this from Israel. Indeed heaven and the highest heavens belong to the LORD your God, also the earth with all that is in it. The LORD delighted only in your fathers, to love them; and He chose their descendants after them, you above all peoples, as it is this day. a. The LORD delighted only in your fathers, to love them: God requires this conduct from His people because they are His special possession. Though heaven and earth belong to God, He set His focus and attention on Israel beginning with their fathers. b. You above all peoples, as it is this day: Being chosen - having the special attention of God focused upon you - is a place of great privilege, but also a place of great responsibility. Israel had a special responsibility to obedience. 3. (16) What it takes to fulfill what God requires. Therefore circumcise the foreskin of your heart, and be stiff-necked no longer. a. Therefore circumcise the foreskin of your heart: All males among Israel had to be circumcised eight days after they were born. But this minor surgery was merely a symbol for the real work of cutting away the flesh God that desired; the work of taking our hearts inclined after the flesh and giving us hearts inclined after the spirit. b. And be stiff-necked no longer: This theme would be repeated later in the prophets. Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your hearts (Jeremiah 4:4). To fulfill God’s law, it takes more than being given a command - it takes an inner transformation, a transformation that only God can bring. i. God command them to do something that only He could do in them to show them the need to have the inner transformation, and to compel them to seek Him for this inner work. ii. Israel is said to have uncircumcised hearts in Leviticus 26:41, Jeremiah 9:26, and Ezekiel 44:7 and 9. 4. (17-22) A call to obedience, reverence, and compassion. For the LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome, who shows no partiality nor takes a bribe. He administers justice for the fatherless and the widow, and loves the stranger, giving him food and clothing. Therefore love the stranger, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve Him, and to Him you shall hold fast, and take oaths in His name. He is your praise, and He is your God, who has done for you these great and awesome things which your eyes have seen. Your fathers went down to Egypt with seventy persons, and now the LORD your God has made you as the stars of heaven in multitude. a. The LORD your God is God of gods and LORD of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome: The basis of this brief section of commands is set in the character of God. b. The great God, mighty and awesome: When God requires us to show justice (no partiality nor takes a bribe), compassion (loves the stranger), and reverence (take oaths in His name), it is because these virtues answer to aspects in God’s own character. c. Who has done for you these great and awesome things: The obedience God calls us to is always set in the context of what He did for us. Our service and obedience unto the LORD is based on what He has done for us, and is to be the grateful response to His goodness. If there is a lack in obedience and reverence, there is almost always a lack of appreciation for what the LORD has done. d. He is your praise: This is true in two senses. First, He is the object of our praise; second, He is also the One who makes us praiseworthy. Any wisdom, beauty, or skill we show is not to our praise - but He is your praise. Deuteronomy 11 - Rewards for Obedience and the Choice A. How to be blessed. 1. (1-7) Remember the ways God has already blessed. Therefore you shall love the LORD your God, and keep His charge, His statutes, His judgments, and His commandments always. Know today that I do not speak with your children, who have not known and who have not seen the chastening of the LORD your God, His greatness and His mighty hand and His outstretched arm; His signs and His acts which He did in the midst of Egypt, to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to all his land; what He did to the army of Egypt, to their horses and their chariots: how He made the waters of the Red Sea overflow them as they pursued you, and how the LORD has destroyed them to this day; what He did for you in the wilderness until you came to this place; and what He did to Dathan and Abiram the sons of Eliab, the son of Reuben: how the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, their households, their tents, and all the substance that was in their possession, in the midst of all Israel; but your eyes have seen every great act of the LORD which He did. a. Therefore you shall love the LORD your God: God commanded Israel to love Him. Love is not a matter left entirely up to our impulse or our feelings. We choose to love the LORD or not. i. Additionally, this reminds us of what the LORD really wants from us - our love. We could give Him a hundred other things, but none of it really matters unless we give Him our love. As Jesus said to the Ephesian church in Revelation 2:4: Nevertheless I have this against you, that you have left your first love. If we lose love, we lose all. b. And keep His charge, His statutes, His judgments, and His commandments: Love for God never goes against His word. Some people think their so-called love for Jesus allows them to disregard His commands, but this isn’t real love at all. i. As Jesus said in John 14:15: If you love Me, keep My commandments. Real love for Jesus always translates into obedience. c. Know today that I do not speak with your children, who have not known and who have not seen: Moses addressed the generation which saw the works of God among Israel, both in blessing and chastening. He spoke to the generation that should know and remember. d. Dathan and Abiram: These were the two key associates - perhaps the instigators - in the rebellion of Korah (Numbers 16), where God vindicated His servant Moses and leader over Israel, when Korah, Dathan, and Abiram challenged Moses’ leadership. e. Which He did . . . what He did . . . how He made . . . how the LORD destroyed them . . . what He did for you . . . what He did . . . every great act of the LORD which He did: Moses called Israel to remember what God did in their history. i. Most of history - both official and personal - is simply concerned with what man has done. But God wants us to look at history and see what He did. We learn far more, and are far more benefited, by looking at what God has done, rather than looking at what man has done. 2. (8-15) Blessings in the new land. Therefore you shall keep every commandment which I command you today, that you may be strong, and go in and possess the land which you cross over to possess, and that you may prolong your days in the land which the LORD swore to give your fathers, to them and their descendants, “a land flowing with milk and honey.” For the land which you go to possess is not like the land of Egypt from which you have come, where you sowed your seed and watered it by foot, as a vegetable garden; but the land which you cross over to possess is a land of hills and valleys, which drinks water from the rain of heaven, a land for which the LORD your God cares; the eyes of the LORD your God are always on it, from the beginning of the year to the very end of the year. “And it shall be that if you earnestly obey My commandments which I command you today, to love the LORD your God and serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul, then I will give you the rain for your land in its season, the early rain and the latter rain, that you may gather in your grain, your new wine, and your oil. And I will send grass in your fields for your livestock, that you may eat and be filled.” a. Therefore you shall keep every commandment: Remembering what God did in history should lead Israel to greater obedience, and enable them to take the Promised Land. b. A land flowing with milk and honey: The sacrifices in obedience were well worth it for Israel. They had the promise of a land which was far superior to Egypt, which did not need to be artificially irrigated, but was watered by rains which God would send upon the obedient nation. i. In calling Egypt a place where they watered by foot, it refers to the system of artificial irrigation, using foot-driven pumps to lift water from the Nile to nearby fields. Canaan was so rich it did not need this kind of irrigation. c. If you earnestly obey My commandments: God simply promised to provide for Israel if chose to obey Him and put Him first. As Jesus said: seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you (Matthew 6:33). i. The promise of the blessing of rain was important, because one of the attractive of the Canaanite gods was Baal - the god who was said to control the weather and rain. Perhaps the Israelites would be tempted to think, “well, we are in Canaan, and if we want rain, we should worship the Canaanite god of rain.” But the LORD makes it clear that if they would worship and obey Him, He would supply abundant rain. d. The early raid and the latter rain: The early rain fell in October and November, and was important to help soften the ground for plowing and preparing the soil for the seed. The latter rain fell about April, and helped the crops come to final harvest. e. A land for which the LORD your God cares; the eyes of the LORD your God are always on it, from the beginning of the year to the very end of the year: God declared His special care for the land of Israel, both then and now. 3. (16-17) The danger of blessing: Turning from God in times of prosperity. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and you turn aside and serve other gods and worship them, lest the Lord’s anger be aroused against you, and He shut up the heavens so that there be no rain, and the land yield no produce, and you perish quickly from the good land which the LORD is giving you. a. Lest your heart be deceived: God had to warn Israel against the deceptions of prosperity. The person who turns from God in prosperity is simply deceived. They believe they are somehow responsible for the blessings received, and become proud and self-reliant. b. He shut up the heavens so that there be no rain: Just such a judgment came upon Israel in the days of Ahab, the wicked king over Israel in the time Elijah was a prophet (1 Kings 17:1). i. The constant need for rain kept Israel in constant dependence on the LORD. It is good for us to have things that keep us in constant dependence on the LORD. We should never despise those things and long for the day when we will no longer need to depend on God as much. 4. (18-21) Blessing is gained by keeping the Word of God always before you. Therefore you shall lay up these words of mine in your heart and in your soul, and bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall teach them to your children, speaking of them when you sit in your house, when you walk by the way, when you lie down, and when you rise up. And you shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates, that your days and the days of your children may be multiplied in the land of which the LORD swore to your fathers to give them, like the days of the heavens above the earth. a. Lay up these words of mine in your heart and in your soul: God called Israel to not only read the Word of God and to know the Word of God, but to treasure it. In the same way, we should love God’s word and miss it when we are separated from the Word of God. We should call it to mind with longing, having laid it up in our heart and soul. b. Speaking of them: God’s Word was to be the topic of their conversation. We can fairly measure our love for God’s word by how much we will talk about it with others. God doesn’t want us to have a secret love relationship with His word. B. The Choice. 1. (22-25) The promise of blessing. For if you carefully keep all these commandments which I command you to do; to love the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways, and to hold fast to Him; then the LORD will drive out all these nations from before you, and you will dispossess greater and mightier nations than yourselves. Every place on which the sole of your foot treads shall be yours: from the wilderness and Lebanon, from the river, the River Euphrates, even to the Western Sea, shall be your territory. No man shall be able to stand against you; the LORD your God will put the dread of you and the fear of you upon all the land where you tread, just as He has said to you. a. To love the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways, and to hold fast to Him: All the commandments are summarized in these three phrases. Each of these speaks of more than a bare, compelled obedience; they speak of a real relationship of love between God and His people, with obedience flowing naturally from that relationship. b. The LORD will drive out . . . and you will dispossess greater and mightier nations: God promised to fight the battles for an obedient Israel. Many desire God to fight their battles, but have little interest in obeying Him - or cultivating the deep relationship of love which obedience grows from. c. Every place on which the sole of your foot treads: God repeated this promise to Joshua, just when Israel was about to cross over the Jordan River into Canaan (Joshua 1:3). d. No man shall be able to stand against you: When Israel walked in love with the LORD and was obedient to Him, they were unbeatable. No man could defeat them. Greater was God who was with them than he who was in the world! (1 John 4:4) 2. (26-28) The choice: Blessing or cursing? Behold, I set before you today a blessing and a curse: the blessing, if you obey the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you today; and the curse, if you do not obey the commandments of the LORD your God, but turn aside from the way which I command you today, to go after other gods which you have not known. a. Behold, I set before you today a blessing and a curse: The three great elements to the Old Covenant were the law, the sacrifice, and the choice. Israel had a choice - to obey and be blessed, or to disobey and be cursed. It was a cause and effect relationship with God. i. It is important to recognize that we, in Jesus Christ, do not have an Old Covenant relationship with God. We expect to be blessed, not because of our obedience, but because of our position in Jesus. The curse we deserved was laid upon Him (Galatians 3:10-14). Though there may be an inherent curse of consequences in our disobedience or even in the correcting hand of God, under the New Covenant, He does not punish us or curse us - because all that we deserved, past, present, and future, was poured out upon Jesus. b. I set before you today: It was up to Israel. If they wanted to be blessed, then they should walk in obedience (as they were in the days of David and Solomon), but if they disobeyed, they would be cursed (as they were in most of the days of the later kings) i. A choice was required. There was no neutral ground. God wouldn’t just “leave them alone.” It would either be blessing or cursing. c. To go after other gods which you have not known: Inherent in Israel’s disobedience was idolatry. Whenever we walk in disobedience, we exalt ourselves against God - and declaring that our rules, our standards, our desires, are all more important than His. This is idolatry in its most base - and common - form. 3. (29-32) Making the choice known unto the people. Now it shall be, when the LORD your God has brought you into the land which you go to possess, that you shall put the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal. Are they not on the other side of the Jordan, toward the setting sun, in the land of the Canaanites who dwell in the plain opposite Gilgal, beside the terebinth trees of Moreh? For you will cross over the Jordan and go in to possess the land which the LORD your God is giving you, and you will possess it and dwell in it. And you shall be careful to observe all the statutes and judgments which I set before you today. a. You shall put the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal: The recitation of the blessings on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal will be detailed in later chapters. Yet it is plain that God wanted the word to get to the entire nation, because the entire nation was part of this covenant with Him. b. Mount Gerizim . . . Mount Ebal: The name Gerizim is supposed to be associated with fruitful harvests, and the name Ebal is supposed to be associated with barrenness. Deuteronomy 12 - The Worship God Commands A. The place of worship. 1. (1-4) The command to destroy Canaanite places of worship. These are the statutes and judgments which you shall be careful to observe in the land which the LORD God of your fathers is giving you to possess, all the days that you live on the earth. You shall utterly destroy all the places where the nations which you shall dispossess served their gods, on the high mountains and on the hills and under every green tree. And you shall destroy their altars, break their sacred pillars, and burn their wooden images with fire; you shall cut down the carved images of their gods and destroy their names from that place. You shall not worship the LORD your God with such things. a. You shall utterly destroy all the places: Before anyone can worship God, there must be some places where he will no longer worship. There must be a destruction of the places where the ungodly worship. i. The practice in the ancient world, which was always short on buildings, was to take a nice building such as a temple previously used to worship a prior god, and simply make it a place to worship one’s own god. The LORD God wanted none of that in His own worship. He commanded that the places of pagan worship be completely destroyed, and that they shall not worship the LORD your God with such things. ii. This is where the worship of many is corrupted. It isn’t that they worship too little; they worship too much. They worship the LORD, and the things of the world. God doesn’t want such worship. It is an abomination to Him. iii. Many could really begin to worship God in Spirit and in truth (John 4:24), if they would only “destroy” in their hearts their pagan places of worship. Because they give their hearts to so many other things, there is little to give to the LORD. b. On the high mountains and on the hills and under every green tree: Since much of the pagan worship of the Canaanites was a sexualized worship of fertility and nature, their shrines and temples were often in beautiful outdoor settings. God didn’t want Israel to adopt this approach of worshipping the creature rather than the Creator (Romans 1:25). 2. (5-9) The command to worship at God’s appointed place. But you shall seek the place where the LORD your God chooses, out of all your tribes, to put His name for His dwelling place; and there you shall go. There you shall take your burnt offerings, your sacrifices, your tithes, the heave offerings of your hand, your vowed offerings, your freewill offerings, and the firstborn of your herds and flocks. And there you shall eat before the LORD your God, and you shall rejoice in all to which you have put your hand, you and your households, in which the LORD your God has blessed you. You shall not at all do as we are doing here today; every man doing whatever is right in his own eyes; for as yet you have not come to the rest and the inheritance which the LORD your God is giving you. a. And there you shall go: Worship was not left to the opinion or whim of the individual Israelite. They had to worship God at His prescribed place, and among other worshippers of God. Worship is not a “do as you please” or a “Lone Ranger” activity. b. You shall seek the place: It may not be easy to find the place where God wants you to worship, but it is out there. There is a place where He wants you to worship. He has not called you to follow Him in isolation. c. There you shall take your burnt offerings, your sacrifices: The place of worship was to be a place of atonement, confession (which was made when hands were laid on the head of the sacrificial victim), and cleansing. d. There you shall take . . . your tithes: The place of worship was to be a place of giving. Of course, there were other places where an Israelite could give and be generous, but giving had to begin at the place of worship God has appointed. i. Some have thought that because Deuteronomy 12:6 mentions your tithes, that this is an additional tithe which was commanded of Israel, on top of the tithe commanded in Numbers 18. Some even call this the “festival tithe.” But in context, this passage is only speaking of where to bring the tithe, not commanding an additional one to be brought. e. There you shall eat before the LORD your God: The place of worship is to be a place of joyful fellowship with God and others. f. Not at all as we are doing here today - every man doing whatever is right in his own eyes: Before Israel crossed over the Jordan, during the wilderness wanderings, each Israelite pretty much conducted their own worship as they pleased. But God was not really pleased with this; worship was not a matter left up to whatever pleased the individual. Real worship is concerned with what pleases God. i. Much of what is called worship in today’s church really isn’t worship. It is self-focused, man-focused, and personal-experience-focused instead of being God focused. Much of today’s worship is measured by how I feel instead of being measured by how God was honored and worshipped. ii. “Singing should be congregational, but it should never be performed for the credit of the congregation. ‘Such remarkable singing! The place is quite renowned for its musical performances!’ This is a poor achievement. Our singing should be such that God hears it with pleasure - singing in which there is not so much art as heart, not so much of musical sound as of spiritual emotion.” (Spurgeon) 3. (10-14) The joy of real worship in God’s appointed place. But when you cross over the Jordan and dwell in the land which the LORD your God is giving you to inherit, and He gives you rest from all your enemies round about, so that you dwell in safety, then there will be the place where the LORD your God chooses to make His name abide. There you shall bring all that I command you: your burnt offerings, your sacrifices, your tithes, the heave offerings of your hand, and all your choice offerings which you vow to the LORD. And you shall rejoice before the LORD your God, you and your sons and your daughters, your male and female servants, and the Levite who is within your gates, since he has no portion nor inheritance with you. Take heed to yourself that you do not offer your burnt offerings in every place that you see; but in the place which the LORD chooses, in one of your tribes, there you shall offer your burnt offerings, and there you shall do all that I command you. a. There will be the place . . . the place which the LORD chooses: A particular place is important to worship. The man who tells himself, “I can worship God just as well out on the golf course” is a man doing whatever is right in his own eyes. It is fine for him to worship God out on the golf course; but there must also be a specific place where he comes to worship with God’s people. i. This goes against the trend of our times. Studies find that among baby-boomers, 70% say that you should attend worship services not out of a sense of duty, but only if it “meets your needs.” 80% say you can be a good Christian without attending church. b. And you shall rejoice before the LORD your God: Worship at God’s appointed place must be marked with joy. It is a good thing to come and honor our God, and should be done with pleasure and joy. i. “All Christian duties should be done joyfully; but especially the work of praising the Lord. I have been in congregations where the tune was dolorous to the very last degree; where the time was so dreadfully slow that one wondered whether they would ever be able to sing through the 119 Psalm; whether, to use Watt’s expression, eternity would not be too short from them to get through it; and altogether, the spirit of the people has seemed to be so damp, so heavy, so dead, that we might have supposed that they were met to prepare their minds for a hanging rather than for blessing the ever-gracious God.” (Charles Spurgeon, Praise Thy God, O Zion) ii. “We ought not to worship God in a half-hearted sort of way; as if it were now our duty to bless God, but we felt it to be a weary business, and we would get it through as quickly as we could, and have done with it; and the sooner the better. No, no; ‘All that is within me, bless his holy name.’ Come, my heart, wake up, and summon all the powers which wait upon thee! Mechanical worship is easy, but worthless. Come rouse yourself, my brother! Rouse thyself, O my own soul!” (Spurgeon) c. And you shall rejoice: The emphasis on shall shows that rejoicing is commanded. It is also commanded in the New Testament; Rejoice always (1 Thessalonians 5:16); Rejoice in the Lord always. Again I will say, rejoice! (Philippians 4:4). If you can’t rejoice out of feeling like it, then rejoice out of being commanded. i. “No one duty is more pressed in both the Testaments, than this of rejoicing in the Lord always, but specially in his immediate services.” (Trapp) B. The practice of worship. 1. (15-28) Things permitted and prohibited in regard to butchering animals, sacrificing animals, and respecting the sanctity of blood. However, you may slaughter and eat meat within all your gates, whatever your heart desires, according to the blessing of the LORD your God which He has given you; the unclean and the clean may eat of it, of the gazelle and the deer alike. Only you shall not eat the blood; you shall pour it on the earth like water. You may not eat within your gates the tithe of your grain or your new wine or your oil, of the firstborn of your herd or your flock, of any of your offerings which you vow, of your freewill offerings, or of the heave offering of your hand. But you must eat them before the LORD your God in the place which the LORD your God chooses, you and your son and your daughter, your male servant and your female servant, and the Levite who is within your gates; and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God in all to which you put your hands. Take heed to yourself that you do not forsake the Levite as long as you live in your land. When the LORD your God enlarges your border as He has promised you, and you say, “Let me eat meat,” because you long to eat meat, you may eat as much meat as your heart desires. If the place where the LORD your God chooses to put His name is too far from you, then you may slaughter from your herd and from your flock which the LORD has given you, just as I have commanded you, and you may eat within your gates as much as your heart desires. Just as the gazelle and the deer are eaten, so you may eat them; the unclean and the clean alike may eat them. Only be sure that you do not eat the blood, for the blood is the life; you may not eat the life with the meat. You shall not eat it; you shall pour it on the earth like water. You shall not eat it, that it may go well with you and your children after you, when you do what is right in the sight of the LORD. Only the holy things which you have, and your vowed offerings, you shall take and go to the place which the LORD chooses. And you shall offer your burnt offerings, the meat and the blood, on the altar of the LORD your God; and the blood of your sacrifices shall be poured out on the altar of the LORD your God, and you shall eat the meat. Observe and obey all these words which I command you, that it may go well with you and your children after you forever, when you do what is good and right in the sight of the LORD your God. a. You may slaughter and eat meat within all your gates: In the ancient world, almost every time an animal was butchered it was sacrificed to a god. Here, the LORD made it clear that not every slaughtered animal was considered a sacrifice to Him. b. You may not eat within your gates the tithe . . . the firstlings of your herd . . . your freewill offerings, or of the heave offerings: This shows that animals which were offered in sacrifice, even if the offerer was to eat a portion, could only be killed at God’s appointed place of worship. c. Only be sure that you do not eat the blood: Since the blood was the picture of life in any animal or man (for the blood is the life), God would not allow Israel to eat meat that had not been properly bled. Instead, it was to be given to God by pouring it out on the earth. 2. (29-32) The worship of God must be pure. When the LORD your God cuts off from before you the nations which you go to dispossess, and you displace them and dwell in their land, take heed to yourself that you are not ensnared to follow them, after they are destroyed from before you, and that you do not inquire after their gods, saying, “How did these nations serve their gods? I also will do likewise.” You shall not worship the LORD your God in that way; for every abomination to the LORD which He hates they have done to their gods; for they burn even their sons and daughters in the fire to their gods. Whatever I command you, be careful to observe it; you shall not add to it nor take away from it. a. That you do not inquire after their gods: Israel was commanded to guard itself against a sinful curiosity (How did these nations serve their gods?). There is an old proverb that says curiosity killed the cat, but ungodly curiosity has also killed many spiritual lives. b. You shall not worship the LORD your God that way: God would not accept just any offering of worship. He had to be worshipped in Spirit and in truth (John 4:24) c. They burn even their sons and daughters in the fire to their gods: This referred to the practice of Molech worship, where Canaanites offered up their children by placing them alive on a burning hot metal statue of Molech, while drum beats drowned out the screams of the tortured infants. i. Israel had a tragic history of following after this horrible god Molech. · At the least, Solomon sanctioned the worship of Molech, building a temple to this idol (1 Kings 11:7). · King Ahaz of Judah gave his own son to Molech (2 Kings 16:3). · One of the great crimes of the northern tribes of Israel was their worship of Molech, leading to the Assyrian captivity (2 Kings 17:17). · King Manasseh of Judah gave his son to Molech (2 Kings 21:6). · Up to the days of King Josiah of Judah, Molech worship continued, because he destroyed a place of worship to that idol (2 Kings 23:10). d. Whatever I command you, be careful to observe it: The standard for worship was reflected in God’s Word - not in human preference or opinion. Deuteronomy 13 - Keeping the Worship of God Pure A. Protecting against those who would entice Israel to serve other gods. 1. (1-3) Protecting against the deceiver who comes with miraculous signs. If there arises among you a prophet or a dreamer of dreams, and he gives you a sign or a wonder, and the sign or the wonder comes to pass, of which he spoke to you, saying, “Let us go after other gods”; which you have not known; “and let us serve them,” you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams, for the LORD your God is testing you to know whether you love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. a. A dreamer of dreams: Dreams can be from God (as in Numbers 12:6, or in Genesis 37:5-11), or they can be false prophesies (as in Jeremiah 23:25-26). We must be careful to not put too much stock in dreams, and instead allow God to bring confirmation to any dream we believe brings a message from Him. It would be very unusual for God speak alone through a dream, without other confirmation. b. And the sign or the wonder comes to pass: Moses warned the people that there may arise from among them prophets or workers of signs who could also produce a sign or a wonder. i. Deuteronomy 18:22 tells what to do with a prophet who speaks a word and it does not come to pass. But this passage tells what to do with a prophet who speaks a word and it comes to pass, but they then speak against what God has already revealed in His word. c. And the sign or the wonder comes to pass: This sobering fact is ignored by many Christians in our age which neglects discernment. The fact is that signs and wonders can never be the evidence of truth or God’s hand. i. Those who are immediately convinced at the sight of supernatural power or reality are in danger of great deception. 2 Thessalonians 2:9 reminds us that the coming of the lawless one is according to the working of Satan, with all power, signs, and lying wonders. ii. This is why Jesus said and these signs will follow those who believe (Mark 16:17). Signs are to follow believers, instead of believers following signs. d. You shall not listen to the words of that prophet or dreamer of dreams: Godly discernment will always carefully examine the message of a spiritual leader, instead of the spiritual experiences which may surround him or her. e. The LORD your God is testing you to know whether you love the LORD your God with all your heart: This explains one of God’s reasons in allowing such deceivers to exist among His people - to allow the hearts of His people to be tested and proven, to see if they really love the God of truth, or are merely seeking a spiritual sign or experience. i. “And particularly there are many signs, yea, such as men may think to be wonders, which may be wrought by evil spirits, God so permitting it for divers wise and just reasons, not only for the trial of the good, as it here follows, but also for the punishment of ungodly men, who would not receive Divine truths, though attested by many evident and unquestionable miracles, and therefore are most justly exposed to these temptations to believe lies.” (Poole) 2. (4-5) The penalty for the deceiver who comes with miraculous signs. You shall walk after the LORD your God and fear Him, and keep His commandments and obey His voice, and you shall serve Him and hold fast to Him. But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he has spoken in order to turn you away from the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt and redeemed you from the house of bondage, to entice you from the way in which the LORD your God commanded you to walk. So you shall put away the evil from your midst. a. You shall walk after the LORD: Israel was first instructed to not let a deceiver succeed in leading them astray. No matter how attractive the deception, they were to keep focused on a faithful walk with God according to His truth. b. But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death: Ancient Israel was a unique situation, where the civil government was also directly appointed by God and charged with maintaining spiritual order as well as civil order. Therefore, such heresy and deception was a capital crime - punishable by execution. i. For many centuries, when the church held political power, it often exercised this penalty also. Heretics were often given over to the civil government for execution. Trapp writes in the mid seventeenth century, “This power is still in the Christian magistrate, to inflict capital punishment on gross heretics.” ii. While we admire their priorities (they judged it much more serious for a heretic to kill men’s eternal souls than to kill their temporal bodies), they were ignorant of an important principle of Jesus’ kingdom in contrast to the ancient kingdom of Israel: Jesus declared that His kingdom was not of this world (John 18:36), while the kingdom of Israel was very much of this world. Never before or since has God appointed such a kingdom as Israel to be His nation in this world as He appointed ancient Israel, so it would be wrong for us to execute heretics today. iii. Still, the church as a community and Christians as individuals should reject and refuse to support such heretics among them. They should use discernment to set aside those who promote themselves as miracle working men and women of anointing and faith, yet who teach heresy in essential doctrines. 3. (6-11) The penalty for a relative who would lead an Israelite to worship other gods. If your brother, the son of your mother, your son or your daughter, the wife of your bosom, or your friend who is as your own soul, secretly entices you, saying, “Let us go and serve other gods,” which you have not known, neither you nor your fathers, of the gods of the people which are all around you, near to you or far off from you, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth, you shall not consent to him or listen to him, nor shall your eye pity him, nor shall you spare him or conceal him; but you shall surely kill him; your hand shall be first against him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people. And you shall stone him with stones until he dies, because he sought to entice you away from the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. So all Israel shall hear and fear, and not again do such wickedness as this among you. a. Brother . . . your son or daughter . . . the wife . . . your friend: If any of these close human relationships would lead one to the worship of other gods, they were not only to be rejected (you shall not consent to him or listen to him), they were to be executed (you shall surely kill him). i. In fact, the relative should be one of the main witnesses against the guilty party: your hand shall be first against him to put him to death. This was the “casting of the first stone,” the initiation of execution by one of the witnesses to the capital crime. ii. This also demonstrates that God never puts highest priority on family relationships; if a family member forsakes the LORD, we are never to follow them away from the LORD. Jesus always comes first, as He said in Matthew 10:37: He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me. And he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. b. Secretly entices you: This demonstrates how seriously God regards leading someone else into idolatry. Even if a sympathetic person entices you, and even if they do it in private, enticement to idolatry is not to be tolerated. i. This brings to mind the words of Jesus in Matthew 18:6: But whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to sin, it would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck, and he were drowned in the depth of the sea. Anyone who leads one of God’s people astray is greatly offending the heart of God. c. So all Israel shall hear and fear: Many modern researchers and pundits say that capital punishment is no deterrent to crime. God says it is a deterrent (properly practiced, of course). B. Protecting the nation as a whole against those who would lead them into idolatry. 1. (12-14a) How to deal with reports of a city given over to idolatry. If you hear someone in one of your cities, which the LORD your God gives you to dwell in, saying, “Corrupt men have gone out from among you and enticed the inhabitants of their city, saying, ‘Let us go and serve other gods’“ which you have not known; then you shall inquire, search out, and ask diligently. a. Then you shall inquire: If reports arose regarding an Israelite city given over to idolatry, there was first to be a careful investigation. b. Search out, and ask diligently: This guarded against a harsh judgment; perhaps there were a few idolaters in the city whom needed to be punished, but perhaps the city was not given over to idolatry. God commanded a careful investigation. 2. (14b-18) The penalty for a city given over to idolatry. And if it is indeed true and certain that such an abomination was committed among you, you shall surely strike the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword; utterly destroying it, all that is in it and its livestock, with the edge of the sword. And you shall gather all its plunder into the middle of the street, and completely burn with fire the city and all its plunder, for the LORD your God. It shall be a heap forever; it shall not be built again. So none of the accursed things shall remain in your hand, that the LORD may turn from the fierceness of His anger and show you mercy, have compassion on you and multiply you, just as He swore to your fathers, because you have listened to the voice of the LORD your God, to keep all His commandments which I command you today, to do what is right in the eyes of the LORD your God. a. Such an abomination: The word abomination here refers to a gross, offensive idolatry. Later in Daniel and in the New Testament, the word is used in the phrase abomination of desolation, which refers to the ultimate idolatry of the Antichrist - the establishing of an idolatrous image of himself in the most holy place (2 Thessalonians 2:3-4). i. “The term abominable thing is used in the Old Testament for something that is totally displeasing to God and denotes something impure, unclean, and totally devoid of holiness.” (Thompson) b. You shall surely strike the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword; utterly destroying it: If the investigation finds that the city is indeed given over to idolatry, it is then to be treated as a Canaanite city. They were to utterly destroy the city, including its property. The property was to be given to the LORD by destroying it, a form of “sacred destruction.” i. This made certain that no one could profit materially by declaring a city given over to idolatry. If this provision were not in the Law of Moses one could imagine a city being plundered under this pretense. ii. “The very same punishment which was inflicted upon the cities of the cursed Canaanites, to whom having made themselves equal in sin, it is but fit and just that God should equal them in punishment.” (Poole) c. It shall be a heap forever; it shall not be built again: The destroyed town was to be left as a heap forever. The word heap is literally tell, and the word tell is used in Arabic for any ruined sight. Throughout Israel today, one w

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15. surah baqara p 2

surah baqara p 2

Surah Al-Baqara In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful Alif. Lam. Mim. (1) This is the Scripture whereof there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off (evil). (2) Who believe in the Unseen, and establish worship, and spend of that We have bestowed upon them; (3) And who believe in that which is revealed unto thee (Muhammad) and that which was revealed before thee, and are certain of the Hereafter. (4) These depend on guidance from their Lord. These are the successful. (5) As for the Disbelievers, Whether thou warn them or thou warn them not it is all one for them; they believe not. (6) Allah hath sealed their hearing and their hearts, and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be an awful doom. (7) And of mankind are some who say: We believe in Allah and the Last Day, when they believe not. (8) They think to beguile Allah and those who believe, and they beguile none save themselves; but they perceive not. (9) In their hearts is a disease, and Allah increaseth their disease. A painful doom is theirs because they lie. (10) And when it is said unto them: Make not mischief in the earth, they say: We are peacemakers only. (11) Are not they indeed the mischief-makers ? But they perceive not. (12) And when it is said unto them: believe as the people believe, they say: Shall we believe as the foolish believe? Beware! They indeed are the foolish? But they know not. (13) And when they fall in with those who believe, they say: We believe; but when they go apart to their devils they declare: Lo! we are with you; verily we did but mock. (14) Allah (Himself) doth mock them, leaving them to wander blindly on in their contumacy. (15) These are they who purchase error at the price of guidance, so their commerce doth not prosper, neither are they guided. (16) Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindleth fire, and when it sheddeth its light around him Allah taketh away their light and leaveth them in darkness, where they cannot see, (17) Deaf, dumb and blind; and they return not. (18) Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder and the flash of lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears by reason of the thunder-claps, for fear of death, Allah encompasseth the disbelievers. (in His guidence) (19) The lightning almost snatcheth away their sight from them. As often as it flasheth forth for them they walk therein, and when it darkeneth against them they stand still. If Allah willed, He could destroy their hearing and their sight. Lo! Allah is able to do all things. (20) O mankind! worship your Lord, Who hath created you and those before you, so that ye may ward off (evil). (21) Who hath appointed the earth a resting-place for you, and the sky a canopy; and causeth water to pour down from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you. And do not set up rivals to Allah when ye know (better). (22) And if ye are in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto Our slave (Muhammad), then produce a surah of the like thereof, and call your witness beside Allah if ye are truthful. (23) And if ye do it not - and ye can never do it - then guard yourselves against the Fire prepared for disbelievers, whose fuel is of men and stones. (24) And give glad tidings (O Muhammad) unto those who believe and do good works; that theirs are Gardens underneath which rivers flow; as often as they are regaled with food of the fruit thereof, they say: this is what was given us aforetime; and it is given to them in resemblance. There for them are pure companions; there for ever they abide. (25) Lo! Allah disdaineth not to coin the similitude even of a gnat or anything above that. Those who believe know that it is the truth from their Lord; but those who disbelieve say: What doth Allah wish (to teach) by such a similitude? He misleadeth many thereby, and He guideth many thereby; and He misleadeth thereby only miscreants; (26) Those who break the covenant of Allah after ratifying it, and sever that which Allah ordered to be joined, and (who) make mischief in the earth: Those are they who are the losers. (27) How disbelieve ye in Allah when ye were dead and He gave life to you! Then He will give you death, then life again, and then unto Him ye will return. (28) He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things. (29) And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth, they said: Wilt thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not. (30) And He taught Adam all the names, then showed them to the angels, saying: Inform Me of the names of these, if ye are truthful. (31) They said: Be glorified! We have no knowledge saving that which Thou hast taught us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower, the Wise. (32) He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names, and when he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I not tell you that I know the secret of the heavens and the earth? And I know that which ye disclose and which ye hide. (33) And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever. (34) And We said: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat ye freely (of the fruits) thereof where ye will; but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrong-doers. (35) But Satan caused them to deflect therefrom and expelled them from the (happy) state in which they were; and We said: Fall down, one of you a foe unto the other! There shall be for you on earth a habitation and provision for a time. (36) Then Adam received from his Lord words (of revelation), and He relented toward him. Lo! He is the relenting, the Merciful. (37) We said: Go down, all of you, from hence; but verily there cometh unto you from Me a guidance; and whoso followeth My guidance, there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. (38) But they who disbelieve, and deny Our revelations, such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein. (39) O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, and fulfil your (part of the) covenant, I shall fulfil My (part of the) covenant, and fear Me. (40) And believe in that which I reveal, confirming that which ye possess already (of the Scripture), and be not first to disbelieve therein, and part not with My revelations for a trifling price, and keep your duty unto Me. (41) Confound not truth with falsehood, nor knowingly conceal the truth. (42) Establish worship, pay the poor-due, and bow your heads with those who bow (in worship). (43) Enjoin ye righteousness upon mankind while ye yourselves forget (to practise it)? And ye are readers of the Scripture! Have ye then no sense? (44) Seek help in patience and prayer; and truly it is hard save for the humble-minded, (45) Who know that they will have to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are returning. (46) O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I favoured you and how I preferred you to (all) creatures. (47) And guard yourselves against a day when no soul will in aught avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be received from it, nor will they be helped. (48) And (remember) when We did deliver you from Pharaoh's folk, who were afflicting you with dreadful torment, slaying your sons and sparing your women: that was a tremendous trial from your Lord. (49) And when We brought you through the sea and rescued you, and drowned the folk of Pharaoh in your sight. (50) And when We did appoint for Moses forty nights (of solitude), and then ye chose the calf, when he had gone from you, and were wrong-doers. (51) Then, even after that, We pardoned you in order that ye might give thanks. (52) And when We gave unto Moses the Scripture and the criterion (of right and wrong), that ye might be led aright. (53) And when Moses said unto his people: O my people! Ye have wronged yourselves by your choosing of the calf (for worship) so turn in penitence to your Creator, and kill (the guilty) yourselves. That will be best for you with your Creator and He will relent toward you. Lo! He is the Relenting, the Merciful. (54) And when ye said: O Moses! We will not believe in thee till we see Allah plainly; and even while ye gazed the lightning seized you. (55) Then We revived you after your extinction, that ye might give thanks. (56) And We caused the white cloud to overshadow you and sent down on you the manna and the quails, (saying): Eat of the good things wherewith We have provided you - They wrong us not, but they did wrong themselves. (57) And when We said: Go into this township and eat freely of that which is therein, and enter the gate prostrate, and say: "Repentance." We will forgive you your sins and will increase (reward) for the right-doers. (58) But those who did wrong changed the word which had been told them for another saying, and We sent down upon the evil-doers wrath from heaven for their evil-doing. (59) And when Moses asked for water for his people, We said: Smite with thy staff the rock. And there gushed out therefrom twelve springs (so that) each tribe knew their drinking-place. Eat and drink of that which Allah hath provided, and do not act corruptly, making mischief in the earth. (60) And when ye said: O Moses! We are weary of one kind of food; so call upon thy Lord for us that He bring forth for us of that which the earth groweth - of its herbs and its cucumbers and its corn and its lentils and its onions. He said: Would ye exchange that which is higher for that which is lower? Go down to settled country, thus ye shall get that which ye demand. And humiliation and wretchedness were stamped upon them and they were visited with wrath from Allah. That was because they disbelieved in Allah's revelations and slew the prophets wrongfully. That was for their disobedience and transgression. (61) Lo! Those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabians - whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right - surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. (62) And (remember, O Children of Israel) when We made a covenant with you and caused the mount to tower above you, (saying): Hold fast that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein, that ye may ward off (evil). (63) Then, even after that, ye turned away, and if it had not been for the grace of Allah and His mercy ye had been among the losers. (64) And ye know of those of you who broke the Sabbath, how We said unto them: Be ye apes, despised and hated! (65) And We made it an example to their own and to succeeding generations, and an admonition to the God-fearing. (66) And when Moses said unto his people: Lo! Allah commandeth you that ye sacrifice a cow, they said: Dost thou make game of us? He answered: Allah forbid that I should be among the foolish! (67) They said: Pray for us unto thy Lord that He make clear to us what (cow) she is. (Moses) answered: Lo! He saith, Verily she is a cow neither with calf nor immature; (she is) between the two conditions; so do that which ye are commanded. (68) They said: Pray for us unto thy Lord that He make clear to us of what colour she is. (Moses) answered: Lo! He saith: Verily she is a yellow cow. Bright is her colour, gladdening beholders. (69) They said: Pray for us unto thy Lord that He make clear to us what (cow) she is. Lo! cows are much alike to us; and Lo! if Allah wills, we may be led aright. (70) (Moses) answered: Lo! He saith: Verily she is a cow unyoked; she plougheth not the soil nor watereth the tilth; whole and without mark. They said: Now thou bringest the truth. So they sacrificed her, though almost they did not. (71) And (remember) when ye slew a man and disagreed concerning it and Allah brought forth that which ye were hiding. (72) And We said: Smite him with some of it. Thus Allah bringeth the dead to life and showeth you His portents so that ye may understand. (73) Then, even after that, your hearts were hardened and became as rocks, or worse than rocks, for hardness. For indeed there are rocks from out which rivers gush, and indeed there are rocks which split asunder so that water floweth from them. And indeed there are rocks which fall down for the fear of Allah. Allah is not unaware of what ye do. (74) Have ye any hope that they will be true to you when a party of them used to listen to the word of Allah, then used to change it, after they had understood it, knowingly? (75) And when they fall in with those who believe, they say: We believe. But when they go apart one with another they say: Prate ye to them of that which Allah hath disclosed to you that they may contend with you before your Lord concerning it? Have ye then no sense? (76) Are they then unaware that Allah knoweth that which they keep hidden and that which they proclaim? (77) Among them are unlettered folk who know the Scripture not except from hearsay. They but guess. (78) Therefore woe be unto those who write the Scripture with their hands and then say, "This is from Allah," that they may purchase a small gain therewith. Woe unto them for that their hands have written, and woe unto them for that they earn thereby. (79) And they say: The Fire (of punishment) will not touch us save for a certain number of days. Say: Have ye received a covenant from Allah - truly Allah will not break His covenant - or tell ye concerning Allah that which ye know not? (80) Nay, but whosoever hath done evil and his sin surroundeth him; such are rightful owners of the Fire; they will abide therein. (81) And those who believe and do good works: such are rightful owners of the Garden. They will abide therein. (82) And (remember) when We made a covenant with the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none save Allah (only), and be good to parents and to kindred and to orphans and the needy, and speak kindly to mankind; and establish worship and pay the poor-due. Then, after that, ye slid back, save a few of you, being averse. (83) And when We made with you a covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your people nor turn (a party of) your people out of your dwellings. Then ye ratified (Our covenant) and ye were witnesses (thereto). (84) Yet ye it is who slay each other and drive out a party of your people from their homes, supporting one another against them by sin and transgression-and if they came to you as captives ye would ransom them, whereas their expulsion was itself unlawful for you - Believe ye in part of the Scripture and disbelieve ye in part thereof? And what is the reward of those who do so save ignominy in the life of the world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be consigned to the most grievous doom. For Allah is not unaware of what ye do. (85) Such are those who buy the life of the world at the price of the Hereafter. Their punishment will not be lightened, neither will they have support. (86) And verily We gave unto Moses the Scripture and We caused a train of messengers to follow after him, and We gave unto Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs (of Allah's sovereignty), and We supported him with the Holy spirit. Is it ever so, that, when there cometh unto you a messenger (from Allah) with that which ye yourselves desire not, ye grow arrogant, and some ye disbelieve and some ye slay? (87) And they say: Our hearts are hardened. Nay, but Allah hath cursed them for their unbelief. Little is that which they believe. (88) And when there cometh unto them a scripture from Allah, confirming that in their possession - though before that they were asking for a signal triumph over those who disbelieved - and when there cometh unto them that which they know (to be the truth) they disbelieve therein. The curse of Allah is on disbelievers. (89) Evil is that for which they sell their souls: that they should disbelieve in that which Allah hath revealed, grudging that Allah should reveal of His bounty unto whom He will of His bondmen. They have incurred anger upon anger. For disbelievers is a shameful doom. (90) And when it is said unto them: Believe in that which Allah hath revealed, they say: We believe in that which was revealed unto us. And they disbelieve in that which cometh after it, though it is the truth confirming that which they possess. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Why then slew ye the prophets of Allah aforetime, if ye are (indeed) believers? (91) And Moses came unto you with clear proofs (of Allah's Sovereignty), yet, while he was away, ye chose the calf (for worship) and ye were wrong-doers. (92) And when We made with you a covenant and caused the Mount to tower above you, (saying): Hold fast by that which We have given you, and hear (Our Word), they said: We hear and we rebel. And (worship of) the calf was made to sink into their hearts because of their rejection (of the covenant). Say (unto them): Evil is that which your belief enjoineth on you, if ye are believers. (93) Say (unto them): If the abode of the Hereafter in the providence of Allah is indeed for you alone and not for others of mankind (as ye pretend), then long for death (for ye must long for death) if ye are truthful. (94) But they will never long for it, because of that which their own hands have sent before them. Allah is aware of evil-doers. (95) And thou wilt find them greediest of mankind for life and (greedier) than the idolaters. (Each) one of them would like to be allowed to live a thousand years. And to live (a thousand years) would be no means remove him from the doom. Allah is Seer of what they do. (96) Say (O Muhammad, to mankind): Who is an enemy to Gabriel! For he it is who hath revealed (this Scripture) to thy heart by Allah's leave, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers; (97) Who is an enemy to Allah, and His angels and His messengers, and Gabriel and Michael! Then, lo! Allah (Himself) is an enemy to the disbelievers. (98) Verily We have revealed unto thee clear tokens, and only miscreants will disbelieve in them. (99) Is it ever so that when they make a covenant a party of them set it aside? The truth is, most of them believe not. (100) And when there cometh unto them a messenger from Allah, confirming that which they possess, a party of those who have received the Scripture fling the Scripture of Allah behind their backs as if they knew not, (101) And follow that which the devils falsely related against the kingdom of Solomon. Solomon disbelieved not; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind magic and that which was revealed to the two angels in Babel, Harut and Marut. Nor did they (the two angels) teach it to anyone till they had said: We are only a temptation, therefore disbelieve not (in the guidance of Allah). And from these two (angles) people learn that by which they cause division between man and wife; but they injure thereby no-one save by Allah's leave. And they learn that which harmeth them and profiteth them not. And surely they do know that he who trafficketh therein will have no (happy) portion in the Hereafter; and surely evil is the price for which they sell their souls, if they but knew. (102) And if they had believed and kept from evil, a recompense from Allah would be better, if they only knew. (103) O ye who believe, say not (unto the Prophet): "Listen to us" but say "Look upon us," and be ye listeners. For disbelievers is a painful doom. (104) Neither those who disbelieve among the people of the Scripture nor the idolaters love that there should be sent down unto you any good thing from your Lord. But Allah chooseth for His mercy whom He will, and Allah is of Infinite Bounty. (105) Such of our revelation as We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but we bring (in place) one better or the like thereof. Knowest thou not that Allah is Able to do all things? (106) Knowest thou not that it is Allah unto Whom belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth; and ye have not, beside Allah, any friend or helper? (107) Or would ye question your messenger as Moses was questioned aforetime? He who chooseth disbelief instead of faith, verily he hath gone astray from a plain road. (108) Many of the people of the Scripture long to make you disbelievers after your belief, through envy on their own account, after the truth hath become manifest unto them. Forgive and be indulgent (toward them) until Allah give command. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things. (109) Establish worship, and pay the poor-due; and whatever of good ye send before (you) for your souls, ye will find it with Allah. Lo! Allah is Seer of what ye do. (110) And they say: None entereth paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian. These are their own desires. Say: Bring your proof (of what ye state) if ye are truthful. (111) Nay, but whosoever surrendereth his purpose to Allah while doing good, his reward is with his Lord; and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. (112) And the Jews say the Christians follow nothing (true), and the Christians say the Jews follow nothing (true); yet both are readers of the Scripture. Even thus speak those who know not. Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they differ. (113) And who doth greater wrong than he who forbiddeth the approach to the sanctuaries of Allah lest His name should be mentioned therein, and striveth for their ruin. As for such, it was never meant that they should enter them except in fear. Theirs in the world is ignominy and theirs in the Hereafter is an awful doom. (114) Unto Allah belong the East and the West, and whithersoever ye turn, there is Allah's Countenance. Lo! Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing. (115) And they say: Allah hath taken unto Himself a son. Be He glorified! Nay, but whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth is His. All are subservient unto Him. (116) The Originator of the heavens and the earth! When He decreeth a thing, He saith unto it only: Be! and it is. (117) And those who have no knowledge say: Why doth not Allah speak unto us, or some sign come unto us? Even thus, as they now speak, spake those (who were) before them. Their hearts are all alike. We have made clear the revelations for people who are sure. (118) Lo! We have sent thee (O Muhammad) with the truth, a bringer of glad tidings and a warner. And thou wilt not be asked about the owners of hell-fire. (119) And the Jews will not be pleased with thee, nor will the Christians, till thou follow their creed. Say: Lo! the guidance of Allah (Himself) is Guidance. And if thou shouldst follow their desires after the knowledge which hath come unto thee, then wouldst thou have from Allah no protecting friend nor helper. (120) Those unto whom We have given the Scripture, who read it with the right reading, those believe in it. And whoso disbelieveth in it, those are they who are the losers. (121) O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I favoured you and how I preferred you to (all) creatures. (122) And guard (yourselves) against a day when no soul will in aught avail another, nor will compensation be accepted from it, nor will intercession be of use to it; nor will they be helped. (123) And (remember) when his Lord tried Abraham with (His) commands, and he fulfilled them, He said: Lo! I have appointed thee a leader for mankind. (Abraham) said: And of my offspring (will there be leaders)? He said: My covenant includeth not wrong-doers. (124) And when We made the House (at Mecca) a resort for mankind and sanctuary, (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael, (saying): Purify My house for those who go around and those who meditate therein and those who bow down and prostrate themselves (in worship). (125) And when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this a region of security and bestow upon its people fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day, He answered: As for him who disbelieveth, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of Fire - a hapless journey's end! (126) And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed): Our Lord! Accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower. (127) Our Lord! And make us submissive unto Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto Thee, and show us our ways of worship, and relent toward us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Relenting, the Merciful. (128) Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a messenger from among them who shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in the Scripture and in wisdom and shall make them grow. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, Wise. (129) And who forsaketh the religion of Abraham save him who befooleth himself? Verily We chose him in the world, and lo! in the Hereafter he is among the righteous. (130) When his Lord said unto him: Surrender! he said: I have surrendered to the Lord of the Worlds. (131) The same did Abraham enjoin upon his sons, and also Jacob, (saying): O my sons! Lo! Allah hath chosen for you the (true) religion; therefore die not save as men who have surrendered (unto Him). (132) Or were ye present when death came to Jacob, when he said unto his sons: What will ye worship after me? They said: We shall worship thy God, the God of thy fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac, One God, and unto Him we have surrendered. (133) Those are a people who have passed away. Theirs is that which they earned, and yours is that which ye earn. And ye will not be asked of what they used to do. (134) And they say: Be Jews or Christians, then ye will be rightly guided. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Nay, but (we follow) the religion of Abraham, the upright, and he was not of the idolaters. (135) Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered. (136) And if they believe in the like of that which ye believe, then are they rightly guided. But if they turn away, then are they in schism, and Allah will suffice thee (for defence) against them. He is the Hearer, the Knower. (137) (We take our) colour from Allah, and who is better than Allah at colouring. We are His worshippers. (138) Say (unto the People of the Scripture): Dispute ye with us concerning Allah when He is our Lord and your Lord? Ours are our works and yours your works. We look to Him alone. (139) Or say ye that Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know best, or doth Allah? And who is more unjust than he who hideth a testimony which he hath received from Allah? Allah is not unaware of what ye do. (140) Those are a people who have passed away; theirs is that which they earned and yours that which ye earn. And ye will not be asked of what they used to do. (141) The foolish of the people will say: What hath turned them from the qiblah which they formerly observed? Say: Unto Allah belong the East and the West. He guideth whom He will unto a straight path. (142) Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that ye may be witnesses against mankind, and that the messenger may be a witness against you. And We appointed the qiblah which ye formerly observed only that We might know him who followeth the messenger, from him who turneth on his heels. In truth it was a hard (test) save for those whom Allah guided. But it was not Allah's purpose that your faith should be in vain, for Allah is Full of Pity, Merciful towards mankind. (143) We have seen the turning of thy face to heaven (for guidance, O Muhammad). And now verily We shall make thee turn (in prayer) toward a qiblah which is dear to thee. So turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship, and ye (O Muslims), wheresoever ye may be, turn your faces (when ye pray) toward it. Lo! Those who have received the Scripture know that (this revelation) is the Truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do. (144) And even if thou broughtest unto those who have received the Scripture all kinds of portents, they would not follow thy qiblah, nor canst thou be a follower of their qiblah; nor are some of them followers of the qiblah of others. And if thou shouldst follow their desires after the knowledge which hath come unto thee, then surely wert thou of the evil-doers. (145) Those unto whom We gave the Scripture recognise (this revelation) as they recognise their sons. But lo! a party of them knowingly conceal the truth. (146) It is the Truth from thy Lord (O Muhammad), so be not thou of those who waver. (147) And each one hath a goal toward which he turneth; so vie with one another in good works. Wheresoever ye may be, Allah will bring you all together. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things. (148) And whencesoever thou comest forth (for prayer, O Muhammad) turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship. Lo! it is the Truth from thy Lord. Allah is not unaware of what ye do. (149) Whencesoever thou comest forth turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship; and wheresoever ye may be (O Muslims) turn your faces toward it (when ye pray) so that men may have no argument against you, save such of them as do injustice - Fear them not, but fear Me! - and so that I may complete My grace upon you, and that ye may be guided. (150) Even as We have sent unto you a messenger from among you, who reciteth unto you Our revelations and causeth you to grow, and teacheth you the Scripture and wisdom, and teacheth you that which ye knew not. (151) Therefore remember Me, I will remember you. Give thanks to Me, and reject not Me. (152) O ye who believe! Seek help in steadfastness and prayer. Lo! Allah is with the steadfast. (153) And call not those who are slain in the way of Allah "dead." Nay, they are living, only ye perceive not. (154) And surely We shall try you with something of fear and hunger, and loss of wealth and lives and crops; but give glad tidings to the steadfast, (155) Who say, when a misfortune striketh them: Lo! we are Allah's and lo! unto Him we are returning. (156) Such are they on whom are blessings from their Lord, and mercy. Such are the rightly guided. (157) Lo! (the mountains) As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the indications of Allah. It is therefore no sin for him who is on pilgrimage to the House (of Allah) or visiteth it, to go around them (as the pagan custom is). And he who doeth good of his own accord, (for him) lo! Allah is Responsive, Aware. (158) Lo! Those who hide the proofs and the guidance which We revealed, after We had made it clear in the Scripture: such are accursed of Allah and accursed of those who have the power to curse. (159) Except such of them -as repent and amend and make manifest (the truth). These it is toward whom I relent. I am the Relenting, the Merciful. (160) Lo! Those who disbelieve, and die while they are disbelievers; on them is the curse of Allah and of angels and of men combined. (161) They ever dwell therein. The doom will not be lightened for them, neither will they be reprieved. (162) Your God is One God; there is no God save Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful. (163) Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of night and day, and the ships which run upon the sea with that which is of use to men, and the water which Allah sendeth down from the sky, thereby reviving the earth after its death, and dispersing all kinds of beasts therein, and (in) the ordinance of the winds, and the clouds obedient between heaven and earth: are signs (of Allah's Sovereignty) for people who have sense. (164) Yet of mankind are some who take unto themselves (objects of worship which they set as) rivals to Allah, loving them with a love like (that which is the due) of Allah (only) - Those who believe are stauncher in their love for Allah - Oh, that those who do evil had but known, (on the day) when they behold the doom, that power belongeth wholly to Allah, and that Allah is severe in punishment! (165) (On the day) when those who were followed disown those who followed (them), and they behold the doom, and all their aims collapse with them. (166) And those who were but followers will say: If a return were possible for us, we would disown them even as they have disowned us. Thus will Allah show them their own deeds as anguish for them, and they will not emerge from the Fire. (167) O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and wholesome in the earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Lo! he is an open enemy for you. (168) He enjoineth upon you only the evil and the foul, and that ye should tell concerning Allah that which ye know not. (169) And when it is said unto them: Follow that which Allah hath revealed, they say: We follow that wherein we found our fathers. What! Even though their fathers were wholly unintelligent and had no guidance? (170) The likeness of those who disbelieve (in relation to the messenger) is as the likeness of one who calleth unto that which heareth naught except a shout and cry. Deaf, dumb, blind, therefore they have no sense. (171) O ye who believe! Eat of the good things wherewith We have provided you, and render thanks to Allah if it is (indeed) He Whom ye worship. (172) He hath forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and swineflesh, and that which hath been immolated to (the name of) any other than Allah. But he who is driven by necessity, neither craving nor transgressing, it is no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (173) Lo! those who hide aught of the Scripture which Allah hath revealed and purchase a small gain therewith, they eat into their bellies nothing else than fire. Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He make them grow. Theirs will be a painful doom. (174) Those are they who purchase error at the price of guidance, and torment at the price of pardon. How constant are they in their strife to reach the Fire! (175) That is because Allah hath revealed the Scripture with the truth. Lo! those who find (a cause of) disagreement in the Scripture are in open schism. (176) It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West; but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the prophets; and giveth wealth, for love of Him, to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask, and to set slaves free; and observeth proper worship and payeth the poor-due. And those who keep their treaty when they make one, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they who are sincere. Such are the God-fearing. (177) O ye who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. And for him who is forgiven somewhat by his (injured) brother, prosecution according to usage and payment unto him in kindness. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. He who transgresseth after this will have a painful doom. (178) And there is life for you in retaliation, O men of understanding, that ye may ward off (evil). (179) It is prescribed for you, when death approacheth one of you, if he leave wealth, that he bequeath unto parents and near relatives in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those who ward off (evil). (180) And whoso changeth (the will) after he hath heard it - the sin thereof is only upon those who change it. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower. (181) But he who feareth from a testator some unjust or sinful clause, and maketh peace between the parties, (it shall be) no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (182) O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, even as it was prescribed for those before you, that ye may ward off (evil); (183) (Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number of other days; and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need - but whoso doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him: and that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know - (184) The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, (let him fast the same) number of other days. Allah desireth for you ease; He desireth not hardship for you; and (He desireth) that ye should complete the period, and that ye should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that peradventure ye may be thankful. (185) And when My servants question thee concerning Me, then surely I am nigh. I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he crieth unto Me. So let them hear My call and let them trust in Me, in order that they may be led aright. (186) It is made lawful for you to go unto your wives on the night of the fast. They are raiment for you and ye are raiment for them. Allah is Aware that ye were deceiving yourselves in this respect and He hath turned in mercy toward you and relieved you. So hold intercourse with them and seek that which Allah hath ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white thread becometh distinct to you from the black thread of the dawn. Then strictly observe the fast till nightfall and touch them not, but be at your devotions in the mosques. These are the limits imposed by Allah, so approach them not. Thus Allah expoundeth His revelation to mankind that they may ward off (evil). (187) And eat not up your property among yourselves in vanity, nor seek by it to gain the hearing of the judges that ye may knowingly devour a portion of the property of others wrongfully. (188) They ask thee, (O Muhammad), of new moons, say: They are fixed seasons for mankind and for the pilgrimage. It is not righteousness that ye go to houses by the backs thereof (as do the idolaters at certain seasons), but the righteous man is he who wardeth off (evil). So go to houses by the gates thereof, and observe your duty to Allah, that ye may be successful. (189) Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors. (190) And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter. And fight not with them at the Inviolable Place of Worship until they first attack you there, but if they attack you (there) then slay them. Such is the reward of disbelievers. (191) But if they desist, then lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (192) And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is for Allah. But if they desist, then let there be no hostility except against wrong-doers. (193) The forbidden month for the forbidden month, and forbidden things in retaliation. And one who attacketh you, attack him in like manner as he attacked you. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is with those who ward off (evil). (194) Spend your wealth for the cause of Allah, and be not cast by your own hands to ruin; and do good. Lo! Allah loveth the beneficent. (195) Perform the pilgrimage and the visit (to Mecca) for Allah. And if ye are prevented, then send such gifts as can be obtained with ease, and shave not your heads until the gifts have reached their destination. And whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head must pay a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or offering. And if ye are in safety, then whosoever contenteth himself with the visit for the pilgrimage (shall give) such gifts as can be had with ease. And whosoever cannot find (such gifts), then a fast of three days while on the pilgrimage, and of seven when ye have returned; that is, ten in all. That is for him whoso folk are not present at the Inviolable Place of Worship. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is severe in punishment. (196) The pilgrimage is (in) the well-known months, and whoever is minded to perform the pilgrimage therein (let him remember that) there is (to be) no lewdness nor abuse nor angry conversation on the pilgrimage. And whatsoever good ye do Allah knoweth it. So make provision for yourselves (Hereafter); for the best provision is to ward off evil. Therefore keep your duty unto Me, O men of understanding. (197) It is no sin for you that ye seek the bounty of your Lord (by trading). But, when ye press on in the multitude from 'Arafat, remember Allah by the sacred monument. Remember Him as He hath guided you, although before ye were of those astray. (198) Then hasten onward from the place whence the multitude hasteneth onward, and ask forgiveness of Allah. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (199) And when ye have completed your devotions, then remember Allah as ye remember your fathers or with a more lively remembrance. But of mankind is he who saith: "Our Lord! Give unto us in the world," and he hath no portion in the Hereafter. (200) And of them (also) is he who saith: "Our Lord! Give unto us in the world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and guard us from the doom of Fire." (201) For them there is in store a goodly portion out of that which they have earned. Allah is swift at reckoning. (202) Remember Allah through the appointed days. Then whoso hasteneth (his departure) by two days, it is no sin for him, and whoso delayeth, it is no sin for him; that is for him who wardeth off (evil). Be careful of your duty to Allah, and know that unto Him ye will be gathered. (203) And of mankind there is he whoso conversation on the life of this world pleaseth thee (Muhammad), and he calleth Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart; yet he is the most rigid of opponents. (204) And when he turneth away (from thee) his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle; and Allah loveth not mischief. (205) And when it is said unto him: Be careful of thy duty to Allah, pride taketh him to sin. Hell will settle his account, an evil resting-place. (206) And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah; and Allah hath compassion on (His) bondmen. (207) O ye who believe! Come, all of you, into submission (unto Him); and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Lo! he is an open enemy for you. (208) And if ye slide back after the clear proofs have come unto you, then know that Allah is Mighty, Wise. (209) Wait they for naught else than that Allah should come unto them in the shadows of the clouds with the angels? Then the case would be already judged. All cases go back to Allah (for judgment). (210) Ask of the Children of Israel how many a clear revelation We gave them! He who altereth the grace of Allah after it hath come unto him (for him), lo! Allah is severe in punishment. (211) Beautified is the life of the world for those who disbelieve; they make a jest of the believers. But those who keep their duty to Allah will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. Allah giveth without stint to whom He will. (212) Mankind were one community, and Allah sent (unto them) prophets as bearers of good tidings and as warners, and revealed therewith the Scripture with the truth that it might judge between mankind concerning that wherein they differed. And only those unto whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come unto them, through hatred one of another. And Allah by His Will guided those who believe unto the truth of that concerning which they differed. Allah guideth whom He will unto a straight path. (213) Or think ye that ye will enter paradise while yet there hath not come unto you the like of (that which came to) those who passed away before you? Affliction and adversity befell them, they were shaken as with earthquake, till the messenger (of Allah) and those who believed along with him said: When cometh Allah's help? Now surely Allah's help is nigh. (214) They ask thee, (O Muhammad), what they shall spend. Say: that which ye spend for good (must go) to parents and near kindred and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer. And whatsoever good ye do, lo! Allah is Aware of it. (215) Warfare is ordained for you, though it is hateful unto you; but it may happen that ye hate a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that ye love a thing which is bad for you. Allah knoweth, ye know not. (216) They question thee (O Muhammad) with regard to warfare in the sacred month. Say: Warfare therein is a great (transgression), but to turn (men) from the way of Allah, and to disbelieve in Him and in the Inviolable Place of Worship, and to expel His people thence, is a greater with Allah; for persecution is worse than killing. And they will not cease from fighting against you till they have made you renegades from your religion, if they can. And whoso becometh a renegade and dieth in his disbelief: such are they whose works have fallen both in the world and the Hereafter. Such are rightful owners of the Fire: they will abide therein. (217) Lo! those who believe, and those who emigrate (to escape the persecution) and strive in the way of Allah, these have hope of Allah's mercy. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (218) They question thee about strong drink and games of chance. Say: In both is great sin, and (some) utility for men; but the sin of them is greater than their usefulness. And they ask thee what they ought to spend. Say: that which is superfluous. Thus Allah maketh plain to you (His) revelations, that haply ye may reflect. (219) Upon the world and the Hereafter. And they question thee concerning orphans. Say: To improve their lot is best. And if ye mingle your affairs with theirs, then (they are) your brothers. Allah knoweth him who spoileth from him who improveth. Had Allah willed He could have overburdened you. Allah is Mighty, Wise. (220) Wed not idolatresses till they believe; for lo! a believing bondwoman is better than an idolatress though she please you; and give not your daughters in marriage to idolaters till they believe, for lo! a believing slave is better than an idolater though he please you. These invite unto the Fire, and Allah inviteth unto the Garden, and unto forgiveness by His grace, and expoundeth His revelations to mankind that haply they may remember. (221) They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times and go not in unto them till they are cleansed. And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah hath enjoined upon you. Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him, and loveth those who have a care for cleanness. (222) Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will, and send (good deeds) before you for your souls, and fear Allah, and know that ye will (one day) meet Him. Give glad tidings to believers, (O Muhammad). (223) And make not Allah, by your oaths, a hindrance to your being righteous and observing your duty unto Him and making peace among mankind. Allah is Hearer, Knower. (224) Allah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths. But He will take you to task for that which your hearts have garnered. Allah is Forgiving, Clement. (225) Those who forswear their wives must wait four months; then, if they change their mind, lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (226) And if they decide upon divorce (let them remember that) Allah is Hearer, Knower. (227) Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three (monthly) courses. And it is not lawful for them that they should conceal that which Allah hath created in their wombs if they are believers in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands would do better to take them back in that case if they desire a reconciliation. And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in kindness, and men are a degree above them. Allah is Mighty, Wise. (228) Divorce must be pronounced twice and then (a woman) must be retained in honour or released in kindness. And it is not lawful for you that ye take from women aught of that which ye have given them; except (in the case) when both fear that they may not be able to keep within the limits (imposed by) Allah. And if ye fear that they may not be able to keep the limits of Allah, in that case it is no sin for either of them if the woman ransom herself. These are the limits (imposed by) Allah. Transgress them not. For whoso transgresseth Allah's limits: such are wrong-doers. (229) And if he hath divorced her (the third time), then she is not lawful unto him thereafter until she hath wedded another husband. Then if he (the other husband) divorce her it is no sin for both of them that they come together again if they consider that they are able to observe the limits of Allah. These are the limits of Allah. He manifesteth them for people who have knowledge. (230) When ye have divorced women, and they have reached their term, then retain them in kindness or release them in kindness. Retain them not to their hurt so that ye transgress (the limits). He who doeth that hath wronged his soul. Make not the revelations of Allah a laughing-stock (by your behaviour), but remember Allah's grace upon you and that which He hath revealed unto you of the Scripture and of wisdom, whereby He doth exhort you. Observe your duty to Allah and know that Allah is Aware of all things. (231) And when ye have divorced women and they reach their term, place not difficulties in the way of their marrying their husbands if it is agreed between them in kindness. This is an admonition for him among you who believeth in Allah and the Last Day. That is more virtuous for you, and cleaner. Allah knoweth; ye know not. (232) Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; (that is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child. No-one should be charged beyond his capacity. A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor should he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) because of his child. And on the (father's) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, it is no sin for them; and if ye wish to give your children out to nurse, it is no sin for you, provide that ye pay what is due from you in kindness. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what ye do. (233) Such of you as die and leave behind them wives, they (the wives) shall wait, keeping themselves apart, four months and ten days. And when they reach the term (prescribed for them) then there is no sin for you in aught that they may do with themselves in decency. Allah is informed of what ye do. (234) There is no sin for you in that which ye proclaim or hide in your minds concerning your troth with women. Allah knoweth that ye will remember them. But plight not your troth with women except by uttering a recognised form of words. And do not consummate the marriage until (the term) prescribed is run. Know that Allah knoweth what is in your minds, so beware of Him; and know that Allah is Forgiving, Clement. (235) It is no sin for you if ye divorce women while yet ye have not touched them, nor appointed unto them a portion. Provide for them, the rich according to his means, and the straitened according to his means, a fair provision. (This is) a bounden duty for those who do good. (236) If ye divorce them before ye have touched them and ye have appointed unto them a portion, then (pay the) half of that which ye appointed, unless they (the women) agree to forgo it, or he agreeth to forgo it in whose hand is the marriage tie. To forgo is nearer to piety. And forget not kindness among yourselves. Allah is Seer of what ye do. (237) Be guardians of your prayers, and of the midmost prayer, and stand up with devotion to Allah. (238) And if ye go in fear, then (pray) standing or on horseback. And when ye are again in safety, remember Allah, as He hath taught you that which (heretofore) ye knew not. (239) (In the case of) those of you who are about to die and leave behind them wives, they should bequeath unto their wives a provision for the year without turning them out, but if they go out (of their own accord) there is no sin for you in that which they do of themselves within their rights. Allah is Mighty, Wise. (240) For divorced women a provision in kindness: a duty for those who ward off (evil). (241) Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His revelations so that ye may understand. (242) Bethink thee (O Muhammad) of those of old, who went forth from their habitations in their thousands, fearing death, and Allah said unto them: Die; and then He brought them back to life. Lo! Allah is a Lord of Kindness to mankind, but most of mankind give not thanks. (243) Fight in the way of Allah, and know that Allah is Hearer, Knower. (244) Who is it that will lend unto Allah a goodly loan, so that He may give it increase manifold? Allah straiteneth and enlargeth. Unto Him ye will return. (245) Bethink thee of the leaders of the Children of Israel after Moses, how they said unto a prophet whom they had: Set up for us a king and we will fight in Allah's way. He said: Would ye then refrain from fighting if fighting were prescribed for you? They said: Why should we not fight in Allah's way when we have been driven from our dwellings with our children? Yet, when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned away, all save a few of them. Allah is aware of evil-doers. (246) Their Prophet said unto them: Lo! Allah hath raised up Saul to be a king for you. They said: How can he have kingdom over us when we are more deserving of the kingdom than he is, since he hath not been given wealth enough? He said: Lo! Allah hath chosen him above you, and hath increased him abundantly in wisdom and stature. Allah bestoweth His Sovereignty on whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing. (247) And their Prophet said unto them: Lo! the token of his kingdom is that there shall come unto you the ark wherein is peace of reassurance from your Lord, and a remnant of that which the house of Moses and the house of Aaron left behind, the angels bearing it. Lo! herein shall be a token for you if (in truth) ye are believers. (248) And when Saul set out with the army, he said: Lo! Allah will try you by (the ordeal of) a river. Whosoever therefore drinketh thereof he is not of me, and whosoever tasteth it not he is of me, save him who taketh (thereof) in the hollow of his hand. But they drank thereof, all save a few of them. And after he had crossed (the river), he and those who believed with him, they said: We have no power this day against Goliath and his hosts. But those who knew that they would meet Allah exclaimed: How many a little company hath overcome a mighty host by Allah's leave! Allah is with the steadfast. (249) And when they went into the field against Goliath and his hosts they said: Our Lord! Bestow on us endurance, make our foothold sure, and give us help against the disbelieving folk. (250) So they routed them by Allah's leave and David slew Goliath; and Allah gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and taught him of that which He willeth. And if Allah had not repelled some men by others the earth would have been corrupted. But Allah is a Lord of Kindness to (His) creatures. (251) These are the portents of Allah which We recite unto thee (Muhammad) with truth, and lo! thou art of the number of (Our) messengers; (252) Of those messengers, some of whom We have caused to excel others, and of whom there are some unto whom Allah spake, while some of them He exalted (above others) in degree; and We gave Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs (of Allah's Sovereignty) and We supported him with the holy Spirit. And if Allah had so wiled it, those who followed after them would not have fought one with another after the clear proofs had come unto them. But they differed, some of them believing and some disbelieving. And if Allah had so willed it, they would not have fought one with another; but Allah doeth what He will. (253) O ye who believe! spend of that wherewith We have provided you ere a day come when there will be no trafficking, nor friendship, nor intercession. The disbelievers, they are the wrong-doers. (254) Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous. (255) There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower. (256) Allah is the Protecting Guardian of those who believe. He bringeth them out of darkness into light. As for those who disbelieve, their patrons are false deities. They bring them out of light into darkness. Such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein. (257) Bethink thee not of him who had an argument with Abraham about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom; how, when Abraham said: My Lord is He Who giveth life and causeth death, he answered: I give life and cause death. Abraham said: Lo! Allah causeth the sun to rise in the East, so do thou cause it to come up from the West. Thus was the disbeliever abashed. And Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk. (258) Or (bethink thee of) the like of him who, passing by a township which had fallen into utter ruin, exclaimed: How shall Allah give this township life after its death? And Allah made him die a hundred years, then brought him back to life. He said: How long hast thou tarried? (The man) said: I have tarried a day or part of a day. (He) said: Nay, but thou hast tarried for a hundred years. Just look at thy food and drink which have not rotted! Look at thine ass! And, that We may make thee a token unto mankind, look at the bones, how We adjust them and then cover them with flesh! And when (the matter) became clear unto him, he said: I know now that Allah is Able to do all things. (259) And when Abraham said (unto his Lord): My Lord! Show me how Thou givest life to the dead, He said: Dost thou not believe? Abraham said: Yea, but (I ask) in order that my heart may be at ease. (His Lord) said: Take four of the birds and cause them to incline unto thee, then place a part of them on each hill, then call them, they will come to thee in haste, and know that Allah is Mighty, Wise. (260) The likeness of those who spend their wealth in Allah's way is as the likeness of a grain which groweth seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains. Allah giveth increase manifold to whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing. (261) Those who spend their wealth for the cause of Allah and afterward make not reproach and injury to follow that which they have spent; their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them, neither shall they grieve. (262) A kind word with forgiveness is better than almsgiving followed by injury. Allah is Absolute, Clement. (263) O ye who believe! Render not vain your almsgiving by reproach and injury, like him who spendeth his wealth only to be seen of men and believeth not in Allah and the Last Day. His likeness is as the likeness of a rock whereon is dust of earth; a rainstorm smiteth it, leaving it smooth and bare. They have no control of aught of that which they have gained. Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk. (264) And the likeness of those who spend their wealth in search of Allah's pleasure, and for the strengthening of their souls, is as the likeness of a garden on a height. The rainstorm smiteth it and it bringeth forth its fruit twofold. And if the rainstorm smite it not, then the shower. Allah is Seer of what ye do. (265) Would any of you like to have a garden of palm-trees and vines, with rivers flowing underneath it, with all kinds of fruit for him therein; and old age hath stricken him and he hath feeble offspring; and a fiery whirlwind striketh it and it is (all) consumed by fire. Thus Allah maketh plain His revelations unto you, in order that ye may give thought. (266) O ye who believe! Spend of the good things which ye have earned, and of that which We bring forth from the earth for you, and seek not the bad (with intent) to spend thereof (in charity) when ye would not take it for yourselves save with disdain; and know that Allah is Absolute, Owner of Praise. (267) The devil promiseth you destitution and enjoineth on you lewdness. But Allah promiseth you forgiveness from Himself with bounty. Allah is All-Embracing, All-knowing. (268) He giveth wisdom unto whom He will, and he unto whom wisdom is given, he truly hath received abundant good. But none remember except men of understanding. (269) Whatever alms ye spend or vow ye vow, lo! Allah knoweth it. Wrong-doers have no helpers. (270) If ye publish your almsgiving, it is well, but if ye hide it and give it to the poor, it will be better for you, and will atone for some of your ill-deeds. Allah is Informed of what ye do. (271) The guiding of them is not thy duty (O Muhammad), but Allah guideth whom He will. And whatsoever good thing ye spend, it is for yourselves, when ye spend not save in search of Allah's Countenance; and whatsoever good thing ye spend, it will be repaid to you in full, and ye will not be wronged. (272) (Alms are) for the poor who are straitened for the cause of Allah, who cannot travel in the land (for trade). The unthinking man accounteth them wealthy because of their restraint. Thou shalt know them by their mark: They do not beg of men with importunity. And whatsoever good thing ye spend, lo! Allah knoweth it. (273) Those who spend their wealth by night and day, by stealth and openly, verily their reward is with their Lord, and their shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. (274) Those who swallow usury cannot rise up save as he ariseth whom the devil hath prostrated by (his) touch. That is because they say: Trade is just like usury; whereas Allah permitteth trading and forbiddeth usury. He unto whom an admonition from his Lord cometh, and (he) refraineth (in obedience thereto), he shall keep (the profits of) that which is past, and his affair (henceforth) is with Allah. As for him who returneth (to usury) - Such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein. (275) Allah hath blighted usury and made almsgiving fruitful. Allah loveth not the impious and guilty. (276) Lo! those who believe and do good works and establish worship and pay the poor-due, their reward is with their Lord and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. (277) O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah, and give up what remaineth (due to you) from usury, if ye are (in truth) believers. (278) And if ye do not, then be warned of war (against you) from Allah and His messenger. And if ye repent, then ye have your principal (without interest). Wrong not, and ye shall not be wronged. (279) And if the debtor is in straitened circumstances, then (let there be) postponement to (the time of) ease; and that ye remit the debt as almsgiving would be better for you if ye did not know. (280) And guard yourselves against a day in which ye will be brought back to Allah. Then every soul will be paid in full that which it hath earned, and they will not be wronged. (281) O ye who believe! When ye contract a debt for a fixed term, record it in writing. Let a scribe record it in writing between you in (terms of) equity. No scribe should refuse to write as Allah hath taught him, so let him write, and let him who incurreth the debt dictate, and let him observe his duty to Allah his Lord, and diminish naught thereof. But if he who oweth the debt is of low understanding, or weak, or unable himself to dictate, then let the guardian of his interests dictate in (terms of) equity. And call to witness, from among your men, two witnesses. And if two men be not (at hand) then a man and two women, of such as ye approve as witnesses, so that if one of the two erreth (through forgetfulness) the one of them will remind. And the witnesses must not refuse when they are summoned. Be not averse to writing down (the contract) whether it be small or great, with (record of) the term thereof. That is more equitable in the sight of Allah and more sure for testimony, and the best way of avoiding doubt between you; save only in the case when it is actual merchandise which ye transfer among yourselves from hand to hand. In that case it is no si

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16. Job 4-7 (Job’s 1st friend Counsels Him; Job Cries Out to God)

Job 4-7 (Job’s 1st friend Counsels Him; Job Cries Out to God)

Job 4 – The First Speech of Eliphaz This begins a long section in the Book of Job where Job’s friends counsel him and he answers them. His friends speak in more or less three rounds, with each speech followed by a reply from Job. At the end of these speeches, God answers Job and his friends and settles the matter. A. The opening comments of Eliphaz. 1. (1-6) Eliphaz calls upon Job to remember the advice he has given to others as a helper of the weak. Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said: “If one attempts a word with you, will you become weary? But who can withhold himself from speaking? Surely you have instructed many, And you have strengthened weak hands. Your words have upheld him who was stumbling, And you have strengthened the feeble knees; But now it comes upon you, and you are weary; It touches you, and you are troubled. Is not your reverence your confidence? And the integrity of your ways your hope?” a. Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered: Eliphaz was from Teman, an Edomite city that was known as a center of wisdom (Jeremiah 49:7). b. If one attempts a word with you, will you become weary? With this tactful beginning, Eliphaz began his speech. We may say that he had earned the right to speak to Job because, in a remarkable display of friendship, he sat wordless with Job through whole week to show his sympathy and brotherhood with the afflicted man (Job 2:11-13). c. But who can withhold himself from speaking? Eliphaz felt compelled to speak; his love and concern for Job strongly motivated him to help his suffering friend. Nevertheless, it will be later found that the advice of Eliphaz and the rest of Job’s counselors was wrong (Job 42:7-8). d. Surely you have instructed many . . . now it comes upon you, and you are weary: Eliphaz began to confront Job with what he saw as his problem. This took a great deal of courage on the part of Eliphaz; he was the first one to speak, and he spoke to a man with an enviable reputation for godliness and one suffering from terrible calamity. i. Yet he pointed at this apparent contradiction in Job’s lament recorded in the previous chapter: That this man who had taught and comforted many in their time of need now seems to despair in his own time of need. ii. “Already there is insinuation that Job is unable to apply to himself what he preached to others.” (Andersen) iii. “This is galling. But hitherto Eliphaz had commended Job; now he dasheth all, and draweth a black line over that he had spoken once. To commend a man with a but is a wound instead of a commendation . . . it sprinkleth black upon white, and so smutteth a man’s good name, which is slander in a high degree.” (Trapp) e. Is not your reverence you confidence? This has the idea of, “Job, does not your despair show that you have lost confidence in your reverence and lost hope in the integrity of your ways?” i. “Men are best known by affliction, and this now showeth of what metal thou art made; for now thou doth cast off thy fear of God, and all thy confidence and hope in him.” (Trapp) ii. This begins a section where Eliphaz (and others) will try to make Job see that his problems have come upon him because of some sin on his part, and that he should confess and repent of his sin in order to be restored. iii. Eliphaz began on the basis of Job’s complaint as recorded in Job 3. He reasoned that Job would not complain in this way unless he was in some way guilty; that his guilty conscience was the root of his suffering. As it turned out, this was a false assumption. Job’s complaint was simply the cry of a life in pain and not because Job consciously or unconsciously understood that he deserved this calamity because of his sin. 2. (7-11) Eliphaz explains what he believed to be the source of Job’s troubles. “Remember now, who ever perished being innocent? Or where were the upright ever cut off? Even as I have seen, Those who plow iniquity And sow trouble reap the same. By the blast of God they perish, And by the breath of His anger they are consumed. The roaring of the lion, The voice of the fierce lion, And the teeth of the young lions are broken. The old lion perishes for lack of prey, And the cubs of the lioness are scattered.” a. Who ever perished being innocent? Here Eliphaz came to the heart of his argument. He boldly said that Job was guilty of some sin because the innocent do not suffer as he had, and the upright are not cut off as he was. i. In this context, cut off means to be forsaken by God and goodness. In later Israel it would often mean to be executed. b. Those who plow iniquity and sow trouble reap the same: Eliphaz spoke convincingly from his own experience (Even as I have seen). Job was reaping trouble, so he must have plowed sin (iniquity) and sown the seeds of trouble. i. The counsel of Eliphaz is full of common sense and rooted in his own observations and experience. We might even say that it is mostly true and can be commonly seen as true. Nevertheless, we also know that in Job’s case he was wrong and this was the wrong counsel (remembering God’s assessment of Eliphaz and Job’s counselors in Job 42:7). ii. Many people today believe the counsel of Eliphaz, and believe it as an absolute spiritual law instead of a general principle. Some take the passage from Galatians 6:7: Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. Yet it is important to understand the context of Paul’s statement, which was encouragement and exhortation for Christians to give materially for the support of their ministers. It is true that the principle of Galatians 6:7 has application beyond giving and supporting teachers and ministers. It has a general application in life; what we get out is often what we put in. Yet Paul did not promote some law of spiritual karma that ensures we will get good when we do good things or always get bad when we do bad things. If there were such an absolute spiritual law it would surely damn us all. Instead, Paul simply related the principle of sowing and reaping to the way we manage our resources before the Lord. He used the same picture in 1 Corinthians 9:11 and 2 Corinthians 9:6-10. iii. Job and his friends have built their whole life on the belief that God helps the good and hinders the bad; that in fact God can be seen as morally good in the affairs of men. “The friends must infer from Job’s suffering that he has sinned; Job must infer from his innocence that God is unjust.” (Andersen) c. By the blast of God they perish: Eliphaz here clearly implied that Job’s suffering came as the judgment of God against him; that the breath of His anger burned against Job. i. The idea is also that the mere breath of His anger is enough to destroy God’s foes. “He puts himself to no great pain to punish them; but blows them away as so many dust-heaps.” (Trapp) d. The teeth of the young lions are broken: Eliphaz painted the picture of how strong the anger of God is, that it is strong enough to humble and defeat even strong young lions. The idea is that the anger of God has also brought Job low. B. A revelation regarding the frailty of man. 1. (12-16) A spirit comes to Eliphaz by night. “Now a word was secretly brought to me, And my ear received a whisper of it. In disquieting thoughts from the visions of the night, When deep sleep falls on men, Fear came upon me, and trembling, Which made all my bones shake. Then a spirit passed before my face; The hair on my body stood up. It stood still, But I could not discern its appearance. A form was before my eyes; There was silence; Then I heard a voice saying: a. A word was secretly brought to me: Eliphaz claimed that he received this word in a dream, when deep sleep falls on men, and he received it by a spirit that passed before his face in his dream. i. “Eliphaz bolstered the authority of his words by an appeal to the supernatural – an eerie and hair-raising experience in which he received a divine oracle.” (Smick) b. A spirit passed before my face: The words in the following section came to Eliphaz from this strange and mysterious spirit. i. “Whether it came from heaven or hell, we know not, for its communication shows and rankles a wound, without providing a cure.” (Clarke) 2. (17-21) What the spirit said. ‘Can a mortal be more righteous than God? Can a man be more pure than his Maker? If He puts no trust in His servants, If He charges His angels with error, How much more those who dwell in houses of clay, Whose foundation is in the dust, Who are crushed before a moth? They are broken in pieces from morning till evening; They perish forever, with no one regarding. Does not their own excellence go away? They die, even without wisdom.’ ” a. Can a mortal be more righteous than God? Eliphaz called attention to the common sinfulness of man. The idea is clear: “Job, we all sin. There is no great shame in admitting that you have sinned and that is why this calamity has come upon you.” b. If He charges His angels with error, how much more those who dwell in houses of clay: Eliphaz made this interesting comment to point out man’s spiritual and moral frailty. He noted that even angels had fallen into error, therefore it should surprise no one that man – including Job – has also fallen into error. i. This statement hit closer to the real truth than Eliphaz could know. It was one of these angels charged with error – Satan himself – who was the real cause of Job’s calamity. Satan also led a large number of angelic beings into rebellion against God (Revelation 12:4, 12:9). The Bible also says that in the age to come, redeemed man will in some way judge these fallen angels (1 Corinthians 6:3). Eliphaz was correct on this point: He charges His angels with error. ii. “It is all very beautiful, but absolutely short-sighted. Eliphaz had no knowledge of those secret councils in heaven, and was making the mistake of attempting to press all things into the compass of his philosophy.” (Morgan) iii. “The speaker seems serenely unconscious that he was saying anything that could drive a knife into the tortured man. He is so carried along on the waves of his own eloquence, and so absorbed in the stringing together the elements of an artistic whole, that he forgets the very sorrows which he came to comfort.” (Maclaren) Job 5 – Eliphaz Explains the Cause of Job’s Troubles A. The fate of the foolish man. 1. (1-7) Eliphaz appeals to common wisdom. “Call out now; Is there anyone who will answer you? And to which of the holy ones will you turn? For wrath kills a foolish man, And envy slays a simple one. a. Call out now; is there anyone who will answer you? Eliphaz begged his friend Job to listen to reason and to agree with the common wisdom regarding Job and his problem. If he would merely consult any godly person, they would tell him the same as Eliphaz did (to which of the holy ones will you turn?) b. For wrath kills a foolish man: Eliphaz did not directly accuse Job; he more suggested that Job do all he could to not be like a foolish man who would be killed by wrath. 2. (3-7) The fate of the foolish man. I have seen the foolish taking root, But suddenly I cursed his dwelling place. His sons are far from safety, They are crushed in the gate, And there is no deliverer. Because the hungry eat up his harvest, Taking it even from the thorns, And a snare snatches their substance. For affliction does not come from the dust, Nor does trouble spring from the ground; Yet man is born to trouble, As the sparks fly upward.” a. His sons are far from safety: These were backhanded references to Job and his own sons. Eliphaz argued that the fact that such great disaster fell upon them proves that they were foolish and in sin. i. Again, we notice Eliphaz’s frame of reference: I have seen. He speaks from his own experience and observation on life. ii. His sons are far from safety, they are crushed in the gate, and there is not deliverer: “There is reference here to a custom which I have often had occasion to notice, that in the Eastern countries the court-house, or tribunal of justice, was at the GATE of the city; here the magistrates attended, and hither the plaintiff and defendant came for justice.” (Clarke) b. Affliction does not come from the dust, nor does trouble spring from the ground: Eliphaz believed that this trouble did not come to Job from nowhere; it didn’t just spring from the ground. The implication is clear: this affliction came upon Job from God. i. “Trouble does not sprout up like weeks in the field. He was implying that one must sow and cultivate trouble.” (Smick) c. Yet man is born to trouble, as the sparks fly upward: This point connects with the one Eliphaz just made. Trouble doesn’t come to man from nowhere; it comes as a judgment from God, or at least because man has sown trouble so now he reaps it. Since just as it is true that as the sparks fly upward, it is also true that man is born to trouble, then it can also be said that all men sin and deserve the affliction and trouble that comes to them. i. As the sparks fly upward: Literally, the Hebrew can be translated, as the sons of Resheph fly upward. “We cannot hope for further progress until we can find out who ‘the sons of Resheph’ are. Since Resheph is a Canaanite god about whom we now know a great deal, the possibility must now be faced that we have here another scrap of imagery from old myths.” (Andersen) B. Eliphaz defends God. 1. (8-16) Eliphaz praises God’s omnipotence and justice. “But as for me, I would seek God, And to God I would commit my cause; Who does great things, and unsearchable, Marvelous things without number. He gives rain on the earth, And sends waters on the fields. He sets on high those who are lowly, And those who mourn are lifted to safety. He frustrates the devices of the crafty, So that their hands cannot carry out their plans. He catches the wise in their own craftiness, And the counsel of the cunning comes quickly upon them. They meet with darkness in the daytime, And grope at noontime as in the night. But He saves the needy from the sword, From the mouth of the mighty, And from their hand. So the poor have hope, And injustice shuts her mouth.” a. As for me, I would seek God, and to God I would commit my cause: Eliphaz said it tactfully, yet he still said it – that Job was not seeking God and was not committing his cause to God in his affliction. b. Who does great things, and unsearchable, marvelous things without number: According to the counsel of Eliphaz, this is why Job should seek God and commit his way to Him. It is because God is a great God, great in both His power over creation (He gives rain on the earth) and in His moral justice (he frustrates the devices of the crafty . . . injustice shuts her mouth). i. Again, the implication is clear. Eliphaz believed that the justice of God, at this present time, worked against Job because Job was in sin and refused to see it. Yet if Job would only see this and repent, perhaps the justice of God would once again work on his behalf. ii. “These lines are a fine example of hymn genre in OT poetry. A similar creedal hymn appears in Isaiah 44:24-28. That is why the apostle Paul could cite a line from Job 5:13 in 1 Corinthians 3:19: ‘He catches the wise in their craftiness.’ But in Eliphaz’s case what is absolutely true is misapplied – the sick from is not the place for theological strictures that may turn out to do more harm than good. . . . Great truths misapplied only hurt more those who are already hurting.” (Smick) iii. He saves the needy from the sword, from the mouth of the mighty: “Thus the meaning is the same as in Psalm 57:4; 55:21; 64:3. . . . ‘Mouth’ is put for the edge of the sword.” (Bullinger) 2. (17-26) Eliphaz attributes Job’s suffering to God’s chastening for sin in his life. “Behold, happy is the man whom God corrects; Therefore do not despise the chastening of the Almighty. For He bruises, but He binds up; He wounds, but His hands make whole. He shall deliver you in six troubles, Yes, in seven no evil shall touch you. In famine He shall redeem you from death, And in war from the power of the sword. You shall be hidden from the scourge of the tongue, And you shall not be afraid of destruction when it comes. You shall laugh at destruction and famine, And you shall not be afraid of the beasts of the earth. For you shall have a covenant with the stones of the field, And the beasts of the field shall be at peace with you. You shall know that your tent is in peace; You shall visit your dwelling and find nothing amiss. You shall also know that your descendants shall be many, And your offspring like the grass of the earth. You shall come to the grave at a full age, As a sheaf of grain ripens in its season.” a. Happy is the man whom God corrects: With poetic power, Eliphaz emphasized his point that Job’s problems are because God corrects His sinful children, and Job is one of those sinful children. b. Therefore do not despise the chastening of the Almighty: Eliphaz did not wish to push Job into despair. He believed that Job should not despise this correcting work in his life, but instead humble himself under it, forsake his sin, and learn from it. c. He bruises, but He binds up . . . He shall deliver you in six troubles: Eliphaz wanted to encourage Job further. “Job, God will heal your wounds and deliver you if you will confess your sin and turn to Him.” Eliphaz continued and described in detail all the blessings of restoration that would come to Job’s life if he would only repent and turn to God (you shall be hidden from the scourge of the tongue . . . you shall laugh at destruction and famine . . . you shall know that your tent is in peace, and so on). i. You shall be hidden from the scourge of the tongue: “Perhaps no evil is more dreadful than the scourge of the tongue: evil-speaking, detraction, backbiting, calumny, slander, tale-bearing, whispering, and scandalizing, are some of the terms which we use when endeavouring to express the baleful influence and effects of that member, which is a world of fire, kindled from the nethermost hell.” (Clarke) ii. Spurgeon preached this sermon on the words “You shall come to the grave at a full age, as a sheaf of grain ripens in its season.” These were his points of development regarding the death of a Christian: · Death is inevitable (You shall come) · Death is acceptable (You shall come) · Death is timely (at a full age) · Death is honorable (as a sheaf of grain ripens in its season) iii. “Even as the color of the wheat is golden, so that it looks more beauteous than when the greenness of its verdure is on it, so the gray-headed man has a crown of glory on his head. He is glorious in his weakness, more than the young man in his strength, or the maiden in her beauty. Is not a shock of corn a beautiful picture of the state of man, moreover, because very soon it must be taken home? The reaper is coming.” (Spurgeon) 3. (27) Eliphaz declares his confidence in his words. “Behold, this we have searched out; It is true. Hear it, and know for yourself.” a. Behold, this we have searched out: Eliphaz wanted to persuade Job, so he gave his statement the authority of communal knowledge (we have searched out). “Job, we all together here – your friends and counselors – have investigated this carefully and know what we are talking about.” i. It is worthy to remember that the Lord singled Eliphaz out at the end of the book for a special rebuke: the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite, “My wrath is aroused against you and your two friends, for you have not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant Job has” (Job 42:7). “Eliphaz’s fault is not that his doctrine is unsound; it is his ineptness as a counselor. True words may be thin medicine for a man in the depths.” (Andersen) ii. “One thing is clear. The words of Eliphaz, however well meant, fall wide of their mark. Truth after truth has been uttered by him. But these truths bring no comfort or conviction to his afflicted friend. To him this wholesome food seems poison.” (Bradley) b. It is true: Eliphaz said this with absolute confidence. “Job, God’s principle of cause and effect together with your reaction to your calamity proves that you were and are in sin and you must repent to be restored.” To Eliphaz and the rest of Job’s friends this was so obvious that it did not need to be proven; he simply confidently explained, “It is true.” i. “It is not what Eliphaz knew that is wrong; it is what he was ignorant of – God’s hidden purpose – that made all his beautiful poetry and grand truth only a snare to Job.” (Smick) ii. “Aspirin is a good and effective medicine. But it is useless against cancer. Similarly, so much of the advice that Eliphaz and the other friends dole out is, in its own right, correct and good and true. But because it is wrongly applied it becomes useless. More than useless, it is a lie.” (Mason) iii. Eliphaz preaches a God who can be figured out. For Eliphaz, there are no unknowns behind the scenes; there is no drama or purpose in the heavens that motivate what God does and what He allows to be done. However, we know this heavenly drama from the first two chapters, and we see how shallow and unknowing the counsel of Eliphaz was. Job didn’t know what we know, but he could feel that the counsel of Eliphaz was wrong in his situation. iv. “Preconceptions exist in our own head; if we start out with the preconception that God will never allow the innocent to perish and then we see a righteous man perishing, we will have to say, ‘You cannot be a righteous man, because my preconception tells me that if you were, God would not allow you to suffer; therefore you are proved to be a bad man.’ ” (Chambers) It was this exact reasoning on the part of the religious authorities of Jesus’ day that motivated them to put him on the cross, and to mock Him at His crucifixion. v. The famous atheist Huxley said, “I object to Christians – they know too much about God.” So did Eliphaz and his friends. “If the study of the Book of Job is making us reverent with what we don’t understand, we are gaining insight. There is suffering before which you cannot say a word . . . all you can do is remain dumb and leave room for God to come in as He likes.” (Chambers) c. Hear it, and know for yourself: In the mind of Eliphaz, Job only needed to accept these obvious truths in order to find the answers to his current crisis. i. “Their persistent mistake was that of attempting to explain everything by their knowledge which, spacious as it was, was altogether too narrow.” (Morgan) ii. “The speech ends with a somewhat self-complacent exhortation to the poor, tortured man: ‘We have searched it, so it is.’ We wise men pledge our wisdom and our reputation that this is true. Great is authority. An ounce of sympathy would have done more to commend the doctrine than a ton of dogmatic self-confidence.” (Maclaren) iii. “It is one of the supreme ironies of this book that only after the arrival of these three bosom friends of his does Job really lose a grip on himself and fall off the edge into despair. Their pedantic theology, their reforming zeal, and their subtle slights are more than the poor man can take, and undoubtedly this backhanded betrayal by his friends is Job’s final and most severe trial.” (Mason) Job 6 – Job Replies to Eliphaz: “What Does Your Arguing Prove?” A. Job laments his affliction. 1. (1-7) Job explains his rash words. Then Job answered and said: “Oh, that my grief were fully weighed, And my calamity laid with it on the scales! For then it would be heavier than the sand of the sea; Therefore my words have been rash. For the arrows of the Almighty are within me; My spirit drinks in their poison; The terrors of God are arrayed against me. Does the wild donkey bray when it has grass, Or does the ox low over its fodder? Can flavorless food be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg? My soul refuses to touch them; They are as loathsome food to me.” a. Then Job answered and said: Job’s friends were kind enough to sit with him in sympathetic silence for some seven days (Job 2:13). Job broke his the silence with an anguished rant (Job 3), and Eliphaz responded with a poetic call to repentance (Job 4-5). Now Job will answer the words of Eliphaz the Temanite. b. Oh, that my grief were fully weighed: Job’s first response to the words of Eliphaz were to complain about the greatness of his suffering, because Eliphaz only made his suffering worse, with his well-intentioned but wrong analysis of Job’s problem. i. This was not only Job’s feeling; it was also the judgment of God as revealed at the end of the Book of Job, where He said of Eliphaz and Job’s other counselors: You have not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant Job has (Job 42:7). c. Therefore my words have been rash: Job’s outburst in Job 3 did not curse God, but it did come close. Job here admitted that his words were indeed rash, but explained that it was because of the excessive heaviness of his grief. i. “Job declared, in effect, that he did not understand the cry because he did not know the pain.” (Morgan) d. The arrows of the Almighty are within me: Job explained why his suffering was so deep and his words were so rash. It was because he felt that God Himself had attacked and cursed him. He felt that God had shot arrows at him; had sent poison against him; and had arrayed His terrors against Job. i. Job both opened (Job 6:4) and closed (Job 7:20) this speech with the picture of God shooting arrows in him. “There is an evident reference here to wounds inflicted by poisoned arrows, and to the burning fever occasioned by such wounds, producing such an intense parching thirst as to dry up all the moisture in the system, stop all the salivary ducts, thicken and inflame the blood, induce putrescency, and terminate in raging mania, producing the most terrifying images, from which the patient is relieved only by death.” (Clarke) ii. “Arrows; so fitly calls his afflictions, because, like arrows, they came upon him swiftly and suddenly, one after another, and that from on high, and they wounded him deeply and deadlily.” (Poole) e. Can flavorless food be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg? Job described how the words of Eliphaz “tasted” to him. They were weak and flavorless, and certainly did not give Job any health or strength. i. “The speech, also, to which Job had listened from Eliphaz the Temanite did not put much sweetness into his mouth; for it was devoid of sympathy and consolation. If you read it at home you will see that it was worthy to be the first of a singular selection of galling utterances. . . . He had spoken as harshly and severely as if he were a judge addressing a criminal who was suffering no more than he deserved.” (Spurgeon) f. Does the wild donkey bray when it has grass? Job insisted that he had reason for his grief. The donkey doesn’t bray and the ox doesn’t low when they have enough food; in the same analogy, Job’s isn’t complaining without reason. i. “The wail is always evident of a want. The wild ass does not bray when he has grass, nor the ox over his fodder.” (Morgan) 2. (8-10) Job longs for God to grant the escape of death. “Oh, that I might have my request, That God would grant me the thing that I long for! That it would please God to crush me, That He would loose His hand and cut me off! Then I would still have comfort; Though in anguish, I would exult, He will not spare; For I have not concealed the words of the Holy One.” a. That it would please God to crush me: Job returns to the theme of his complaint from Job 3, where he mourned the day of his birth and believed he would be better off day. Though Job never seems to have contemplated suicide, he wished God Himself would end his life. i. “When the answer does not come, when instead of the release of cutting off, we have the continuity of pain, and a great silence, then let us remember this story: and remain confident that there is some explanation, and that when it comes, we shall thank God that He did not give us our request.” (Morgan) b. That He would loose His hand and cut me off: The idea may again have God as an archer shooting arrows at Job. He pleads that God might simply launch more arrows and end his life (cut me off). c. I have not concealed the words of the Holy One: Here Job again insists on his basic innocence before God. The calamity in his life was not due to some sin such as concealing the words of the Holy One (perhaps better translated as that I had not denied the words of the Holy One, as in the NIV). i. “With the sense that I have not denied or disobeyed the words of the Holy One. I should die calmly, for I should die innocent.” (Bradley) ii. “He would have one consolation left before he died – that he had not denied the words of the Holy One, though he emphatically rejected the words of Eliphaz.” (Smick) iii. If Job sensed a responsibility to not deny or conceal the words of the Holy One, we have an even greater responsibility. “Did you listen to that splendid sermon? What rhetoric! What oratory! But those poor people in the aisles did not understand a word, or if they did they only comprehended disconnected sentences, and lost the soul of the discourse. Is this right? Is this according to the Scriptural idea of preaching? . . . If the next generation should become more wicked than the present, and still more ignorant of the gospel, the fact will be chargeable upon those who conceal the words of God today.” (Spurgeon) 3. (11-13) Job laments his weakness. “What strength do I have, that I should hope? And what is my end, that I should prolong my life? Is my strength the strength of stones? Or is my flesh bronze? Is my help not within me? And is success driven from me?” a. What strength do I have, that I should hope? Job reflected the sense of hopelessness of the severe and chronic sufferer. Sensing no inner strength to meet the present and future challenges, he felt no hope at all. i. We can sense the depth of Job’s anguish: Is my strength the strength of stones? Is my flesh bronze? b. Is my help not within me? We should not think that Job is like a motivational self-help speaker encouraging himself to looking within for a hidden resource of help. Instead these words from the pain-wracked man sitting on a burned-out place in a garbage dump indicate Job’s absolute sense of helplessness. If Job’s only help is within him, then he has no help. Indeed, all success is driven from him. i. The NIV translation of Job 6:13 is helpful: Do I have any power to help myself, now that success has been driven from me? ii. “The words of Job can bring immense comfort for the simple reason that many sufferers have felt rage but have been too ashamed to express it.” (Smick) B. Job challenges Eliphaz. 1. (14-23) Job criticizes Eliphaz and defends himself. “To him who is afflicted, kindness should be shown by his friend, Even though he forsakes the fear of the Almighty. My brothers have dealt deceitfully like a brook, Like the streams of the brooks that pass away, Which are dark because of the ice, And into which the snow vanishes. When it is warm, they cease to flow; When it is hot, they vanish from their place. The paths of their way turn aside, They go nowhere and perish. The caravans of Tema look, The travelers of Sheba hope for them. They are disappointed because they were confident; They come there and are confused. For now you are nothing, You see terror and are afraid. Did I ever say, ‘Bring something to me’? Or, ‘Offer a bribe for me from your wealth’? Or, ‘Deliver me from the enemy’s hand’? Or, ‘Redeem me from the hand of oppressors’?” a. Kindness should be shown by his friend: Job here made his most basic accusation against Eliphaz. “You should show me kindness, even if were true that I had forsaken the fear of the Almighty.” b. My brothers have dealt deceitfully like a brook: Even though only Eliphaz had previously spoken, Job addressed his brothers collectively. Either this was out of politeness (not wanting to single out Eliphaz), or because Job believed that the attitude and silence of his other companions meant they agreed with Eliphaz. Job accused them of being as unreliable as a snow-fed stream that vanishes when it is hot. i. “Incidentally this touch supports our suspicion that Job’s homeland was to the east of the Lebanon complex, rather than near Edom, where snow waters would not be seen.” (Andersen) ii. “How great a contrast to the love and friendship of Jesus! Not like a brook that dries in the time of drought, but like a well of water springing up within the heart for ever.” (Meyer) iii. For now you are nothing, you see terror and are afraid: “Verse 21 is the climax of Job’s reaction to his friends’ counsel. They offered no help. The verse is like a sermon about the special strength needed to be willing to make oneself available when we see others in a truly dreadful condition. The risk involved makes us afraid.” (Smick) c. Did I ever say: Job wasn’t asking his friends to pay him money or to ransom him from kidnappers. All he wanted was some words of comfort, and he heard none. 2. (24-30) Job challenges his friends to point out his error and lack of discernment. “Teach me, and I will hold my tongue; Cause me to understand wherein I have erred. How forceful are right words! But what does your arguing prove? Do you intend to rebuke my words, And the speeches of a desperate one, which are as wind? Yes, you overwhelm the fatherless, And you undermine your friend. Now therefore, be pleased to look at me; For I would never lie to your face. Yield now, let there be no injustice! Yes, concede, my righteousness still stands! Is there injustice on my tongue? Cannot my taste discern the unsavory?” a. Do you intend to rebuke my words, and the speeches of a desperate one: Job believed that Eliphaz was unduly harsh in his reply and failed to see that his Job’s rant recorded in chapter 3 was made up only of words from a desperate one. i. “Throughout the dialogue they make veiled accusations, deliver general moral pronouncements, hum and haw, and equivocate. But all their insinuations are without substance, and by way of actually identifying and getting at the root of Job’s problem . . . the best they can do is suggest that his ‘attitude’ is all wrong.” (Mason) ii. Eliphaz, in his insensitivity, acted as if Job’s words were as wind. “Do you take me for a desperate and distracted man, who knows not or cares not what he saith, but only speaks what comes first into his mind and mouth? The wind is oft used to express vain words, as Job 15:2; Jeremiah 5:13; and vain things, Job 7:7; Proverbs 11:29.” (Poole) iii. Instead of comforting Job, Eliphaz was as bad as someone who would overwhelm the fatherless and undermine his friend. “Now he seems to retaliate with charges of his own: You would even gamble over an orphan and bargain over your friend. This is pretty rough stuff. There is no more indication that the friends gambled for orphans than there is that Job asked for bribes. Perhaps this is what Job is getting at. But their relationship has certainly deteriorated if they are already swopping insults like this.” (Andersen) b. Now therefore, be pleased to look at me: “Here it appears that throughout Job’s speech the friends have been hanging their heads and refusing to meet his gaze, while in an odd reversal of roles the sick man now holds his head high and looks his sleek and healthy inquisitors straight in the eye.” (Mason) c. Yes, concede, my righteousness still stands! Job very much wanted Eliphaz and his other friends to see that his present calamity was not judgment for some grievous (though hidden) sin. i. The words “teach me,” “cause me,” “what does your arguing prove,” and “concede” are all demands for evidence and proof. “He turns to Eliphaz and says, ‘You say that I’m suffering because of sin, but you’ve never pointed anything out specifically. Teach me and tell me what my sin is. But until you do, there’s no proof of your argument.” (Lawson) ii. Because we know the story-behind-the-story from Job 1 and 2, we understand this to be true. Yet Job’s friends have a very hard time believing this, and will continue the contention with Job over this point. d. Is there injustice on my tongue? Cannot my taste discern the unsavory? Previously in this chapter Job has represented the words of Eliphaz as bits of food; bits that were very unsatisfying to Job in his present suffering. · According to the analogy of animals, if the words of Eliphaz had comforted and satisfied Job, he would not have cried out as he did in Job 3 (Job 6:5) · The words of Eliphaz were like flavorless food (Job 6:6) · The words of Eliphaz were like rotten, loathsome food (Job 6:7) · Job can discern the unsavory character of the words of Eliphaz (6:30) Job 7 – In Response to Eliphaz, Job Cries Out to God A. The comfortless suffering of Job. 1. (1-5) The hard service of Job’s suffering. “Is there not a time of hard service for man on earth? Are not his days also like the days of a hired man? Like a servant who earnestly desires the shade, And like a hired man who eagerly looks for his wages, So I have been allotted months of futility, And wearisome nights have been appointed to me. When I lie down, I say, ‘When shall I arise, And the night be ended?’ For I have had my fill of tossing till dawn. My flesh is caked with worms and dust, My skin is cracked and breaks out afresh.” a. I have been allotted months of futility: Job saw his present suffering like the futile, discouraging work of a servant or a hired man. He felt there was no hope or reward, only weariness. i. The words hard service in Job 7:1 are (according to Adam Clarke and others) descriptive of military service. The Latin Vugate translates, The life of man is a warfare upon earth. The early English Coverdale translation has it, Is not the life of man upon earth a very battle? With this Job communicated both the struggle of life, together with the idea that he has been drafted unwillingly into this battle. b. Wearisome night have been appointed to me: Job described his physical condition in painful terms. He suffered from insomnia and his skin affliction came back again and again. i. Clarke on My flesh is caked with worms: “The figure is too horrid to be farther illustrated.” 2. (6-10) Job mourns the futility of life. “My days are swifter than a weaver’s shuttle, And are spent without hope. Oh, remember that my life is a breath! My eye will never again see good. The eye of him who sees me will see me no more; While your eyes are upon me, I shall no longer be. As the cloud disappears and vanishes away, So he who goes down to the grave does not come up. He shall never return to his house, Nor shall his place know him anymore.” a. My days are swifter than a weaver’s shuttle: Job did not mean this in a positive sense, as in saying “My, look how fast the time is going by.” As described in the previous verses, in this season of affliction time is dragging by for Job through his sleepless and painful nights. Yet when he looked at his life in totality, it seemed to be a meaningless blur, spent without hope and as a breath. i. “Ibn Ezra noted long ago the play on the word [tiqwah, ‘hope’], which can also mean ‘thread.’ Job’s days move fast like a weaver’s shuttle, and they come to an end through want of thread. Both meanings were equally intended. This is the kind of overtone in meaning that cannot be reflected in a translation without a footnote.” (Smick) ii. “Worse than the disease itself, Job lost all hope of being healed. He believed his only release from pain was death.” (Smick) b. So he who goes down to the grave does not come up: This is one of Job’s statements about the afterlife that are sprinkled throughout the book. These statements are a combination of uncertainty (as here) and triumphant confidence (as in Job 19:25-26). B. Job’s complaint to God. 1. (11-16) Job’s anguish: “My soul chooses strangling.” “Therefore I will not restrain my mouth; I will speak in the anguish of my spirit; I will complain in the bitterness of my soul. Am I a sea, or a sea serpent, That You set a guard over me? When I say, ‘My bed will comfort me, My couch will ease my complaint,’ Then You scare me with dreams And terrify me with visions, So that my soul chooses strangling And death rather than my body. I loathe my life; I would not live forever. Let me alone, For my days are but a breath.” a. I will speak in the anguish of my spirit: Job here cried out to God, first wondering if he were not a dangerous creature (as sea, or a sea serpent) that needed to be guarded and restrained by God. i. “We hear of persons being ‘shadowed’ by the police, and certain people feel as if they were shadowed by God; they are mysteriously tracked by the great Spirit, and they know and feel it. Wherever they go, an eye is upon them, and they cannot hide from it.” (Spurgeon) ii. “Listen. To argue from our insignificance is poor pleading; for the little things are just those against which there is most need to watch. If you were a sea, or a whale, God might leave you alone; but as you are a feeble and sinful creature, which can do more hurt than a sea, or a whale, you need constant watching. . . . Do not say, ‘Am I a sea, or a sea-monster, that thou settest a watch over me?’ for the Lord may answer, ‘You are more capacious for evil than a sea, and more wild than a sea-monster.’” (Spurgeon) iii. Indeed, we are more like the sea or the sea-monster than we would like to admit. · The sea is restless, and so is our nature. · The sea can be furious and terrible, and so can we. · The sea can never be satisfied, and neither can sinful man. · The sea is mischievous and destructive, and so is sinful man. · The sea will not obey, and neither will sinful man. iv. Job’s words here remind us of something remarkable. Though his physical suffering was intense and prolonged, as John Trapp wrote, “His greatest troubles were inward.” Job’s spiritual crisis was deeper than his physical or material crisis. b. You scare me with dreams: Job was denied even the comfort of sleep and rest. When he did lay down to sleep (upon his bed or couch), he was disturbed with nightmarish dreams and terrifying visions. i. “He needed rest by sleep, but was afraid to close his eyes because of the horrid images which were presented to his imagination. Could there be a state more deplorable than this?” (Clarke) c. So that my soul chooses strangling . . . I loathe my life: Job’s condition is so miserable that, at this point, his soul would prefer the release of death. i. Job was so miserable that he just said to God, “Let me alone.” “At this moment it appears to Job that God is the tormentor. The reader knows God was using in secondary means and that Job’s conception of God as tormentor was askew.” (Smick) 2. (17-21) Job appeals to God: “Have I sinned?” “What is man, that You should exalt him, That You should set Your heart on him, That You should visit him every morning, And test him every moment? How long? Will You not look away from me, And let me alone till I swallow my saliva? Have I sinned? What have I done to You, O watcher of men? Why have You set me as Your target, So that I am a burden to myself? Why then do You not pardon my transgression, And take away my iniquity? For now I will lie down in the dust, And You will seek me diligently, But I will no longer be.” a. What is man, that You should exalt him . . . And test him every moment?: Job felt at this moment that God’s attention was unwelcome. If all his calamity was from the hand of God, Job wondered why God could not simply leave him alone. i. “The language of verse 17 is too similar to that of Psalm 8 to be a coincidence. Scholars are divided as to which came first.” (Andersen) It would seem best to say that the lines from Job came first, and that David in Psalm 8 re-worked Job’s painful theme into one filled with praise. ii. Job asked, “What is man?” but he didn’t wait for the answer. “Man is more than we guess, else God would never take such time and pains with him. When a lapidary spends years over a single diamond, the most careless observer begins to appraise properly its intrinsic value.” (Meyer) iii. Till I swallow my saliva: “An Arabic idiom, for one instant; Just as we say ‘The twinkling of an eye’ to express the same idea.” (Bullinger) Job wondered why God could not look away from him for just the smallest moment. b. What have I done to You, O watcher of men? “Please God, just leave me alone. How have I wronged You?” Job could not understand why he seemed to be God’s target; and if Job had sinned to cause all his suffering, he asked God “Why then do You not pardon my transgression?” i. Job was so honest with God in passages like Job 7:20 seem to have been altered by Jewish scribes who were uncomfortable with his bold honesty with God. According to Smick, “Ancient scribal tradition and the LXX show the original reading” to be Have I become a burden to you? Most translations, following later Hebrew manuscripts, have it I am burden to myself. Yet the probably original text shows how deep Job’s grief is, feeling himself to be a burden to what feels like an unloving and uncaring God. ii. Job wondered why God bothered with him at all. “Its simple meaning was that God is so great that even if a man did sin, it cannot affect Him. The answer is that this was an altogether too small a thought of God: the truth being that God is so great that He is affected, wounded, robbed by human sin. Job was, like his friends, hindered by a philosophy too narrow.” (Morgan) iii. Once more we benefit from know the story-behind-the-story, which Job and his friends do not know at this point in the narrative. Job believed that God was against him and was punishing him, but it wasn’t true. “Job was not being punished; he was being honored. God was giving to him a name like that of the great ones of the earth. The Lord was lifting him up, promoting him, putting him into the front rank, making a great saint of him, causing him to become one of the fathers and patterns in the ancient Church of God. He was really doing for Job such extraordinarily good things that you or I, in looking back upon his whole history, might well say, ‘I would be quite content to take Job’s afflictions if I might also have Job’s grace, and Job’s place in the Church of God.’” (Spurgeon) c. Now I will lie down in the dust, and You will seek me diligently, but I will no longer be: Job wished he could escape both life and God by going to the dust (his grave). This is one of his obviously pessimistic passages about the afterlife. i. “All Job has known about God he still believes. But God’s inexplicable ways have his mind perplexed to the breaking-point. Job is in the right; but he does not know that God is watching with silent compassion and admiration until the test is fully done and it is time to state His approval publicly (Job 42:8).” (Andersen) ii. “We like to talk about ‘having the faith to be healed,’ but what about having the faith to be sick?” (Mason)

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17. 2 Chronicles 19-27 (Evil Reigns in Israel; The Reign of Uzziah; Jotham’s Godly Reign)

2 Chronicles 19-27 (Evil Reigns in Israel; The Reign of Uzziah; Jotham’s Godly Reign)

2 Chronicles 19 - Jehu’s Rebuke A. The goodness of God to Jehoshaphat. 1. (1) He returns safely after the battle. Then Jehoshaphat the king of Judah returned safely to his house in Jerusalem. a. Then Jehoshaphat the king of Judah returned safely: This was the mercy of God. Jehoshaphat, clothed in the robes of the king targeted for death by the army of Syria, should have been killed in battle. Yet he cried out to the LORD and was preserved, returning safely to his house in Jerusalem. i. “The fact that Jehoshaphat reached home safely is significant. It contrasts his fate with Ahab’s, and testifies to God’s grace given to a person who was almost destroyed by undiscerning folly.” (Selman) 2. (2-3) God rebukes Jehoshaphat through Jehu the prophet. And Jehu the son of Hanani the seer went out to meet him, and said to King Jehoshaphat, “Should you help the wicked and love those who hate the LORD? Therefore the wrath of the LORD is upon you. Nevertheless good things are found in you, in that you have removed the wooden images from the land, and have prepared your heart to seek God.” a. Jehu the son of Hanani: His father was a brave prophet, speaking to king Asa. The son Jehu also prophesied to Baasha the king of Israel (1 Kings 16:1, 16:7). b. Should you help the wicked and love those who hate the LORD? Jehu exposed the sin of too much love in Jehoshaphat. He professed to love God, but he also demonstrated love to those who hate the LORD. He should never have entered his personal and military alliances with Ahab and the kingdom of Israel. i. Jehoshaphat should have read and considered Psalm 97:10: You who love the LORD, hate evil! ii. “Love and hate in this context are formal terms for actions within a covenant or treaty relationship rather than emotional feelings, and help is a typical Chronicles expression for formal support.” (Selman) c. Nevertheless good things are found in you: God did not want Jehoshaphat to be crushed by the rebuke through the words of Jehu, so He included a word of encouragement. · That you have removed the wooden images from the land: God knew that Jehoshaphat did not approve of all evil, so He encouraged the king in the places where he did hate evil and refuse compromise. · And have prepared your heart to seek God: Not only did Jehoshaphat seek God, but he also prepared his heart to do so. This demonstrated the high priority Jehoshaphat placed on seeking God. i. “And this work of preparing or directing his heart is here ascribed to Jehoshaphat, as elsewhere it is attributed to God, Proverbs 16:1; Philippians 2:13, because it is man’s action, but performed by God’s grace, preventing, enabling, and inclining him to do it.” (Poole) B. Jehoshaphat’s response. 1. (4) Jehoshaphat furthers godliness in the kingdom of Judah. So Jehoshaphat dwelt at Jerusalem; and he went out again among the people from Beersheba to the mountains of Ephraim, and brought them back to the LORD God of their fathers. a. So Jehoshaphat dwelt at Jerusalem: This means that he restricted his adventures abroad. He no longer went to the northern kingdom of Israel and was content to stay where he should. b. And brought them back to the LORD God of their fathers: The wording implies that Jehoshaphat did this personally (he went out again). This was wonderful personal work in the cause of godliness on behalf of the king of Judah. i. “These itinerant campaigns have no real equivalent in the Old Testament, and the prophets, even though they traveled about, were not involved in systematic teaching of the word of God. The nearest parallel is in the New Testament, in Jesus’ own itinerant ministry.” (Selman) 2. (5-11) The judicial reforms of Jehoshaphat. Then he set judges in the land throughout all the fortified cities of Judah, city by city, and said to the judges, “Take heed to what you are doing, for you do not judge for man but for the LORD, who is with you in the judgment. Now therefore, let the fear of the LORD be upon you; take care and do it, for there is no iniquity with the LORD our God, no partiality, nor taking of bribes.” Moreover in Jerusalem, for the judgment of the LORD and for controversies, Jehoshaphat appointed some of the Levites and priests, and some of the chief fathers of Israel, when they returned to Jerusalem. And he commanded them, saying, “Thus you shall act in the fear of the LORD, faithfully and with a loyal heart: Whatever case comes to you from your brethren who dwell in their cities, whether of bloodshed or offenses against law or commandment, against statutes or ordinances, you shall warn them, lest they trespass against the LORD and wrath come upon you and your brethren. Do this, and you will not be guilty. And take notice: Amariah the chief priest is over you in all matters of the LORD; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the king’s matters; also the Levites will be officials before you. Behave courageously, and the LORD will be with the good.” a. Take heed to what you are doing, for you do not judge for man but for the LORD, who is with you in the judgment: This was a high and appropriate charge to the judges of Judah. We can understand the interest the Chronicler had in including this material not recorded in 1 or 2 Kings, using the example of Jehoshaphat as an encouragement to the leaders of the rebuilding community of Jerusalem and Judah after the exile. i. “A very solemn and very necessary caution: judges should feel themselves in the place of God, and judge as those who know they shall be judged for their judgments.” (Clarke) b. Behave courageously, and the LORD will be with the good: The prominent theme of courageous obedience is repeated again in Chronicles. It was the job of the judges to courageously do what was good, and to then trust that the LORD will be with the good. i. “WITHOUT good and wholesome laws, no nation can be prosperous; and vain are the best laws if they be not judiciously and conscientiously administered.” (Clarke) 2 Chronicles 20 - Jehoshaphat’s Victory A. Jehoshaphat’s prayer. 1. (1-2) Hostile enemies gather against Judah. It happened after this that the people of Moab with the people of Ammon, and others with them besides the Ammonites, came to battle against Jehoshaphat. Then some came and told Jehoshaphat, saying, “A great multitude is coming against you from beyond the sea, from Syria; and they are in Hazazon Tamar” (which is En Gedi). a. It happened after this: This threat to Jehoshaphat and his kingdom happened after his return to seeking God following his near death when he allied himself with king Ahab of Israel. b. The people of Moab with the people of Ammon, and others with them besides the Ammonites, came to battle against Jehoshaphat: This great multitude was a significant threat against Jehoshaphat, whose last experience on the field of battle was a narrow escape from death. 2. (3-4) The nation gathers to seek God together. And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek the LORD, and proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah. So Judah gathered together to ask help from the LORD; and from all the cities of Judah they came to seek the LORD. a. And Jehoshaphat feared: There was certainly a sense in which Jehoshaphat feared the great multitude coming against him. Yet the sense here is that he feared the LORD, and was more awed at the power and majesty of God than at the destructive force of his enemies. i. “Jehoshaphat feared; partly from human frailty, and partly from the remembrance of his own guilt, and the wrath of God denounced against him for it, 2 Chronicles 19:2.” (Poole) b. And set himself to seek the LORD: Jehoshaphat set the example by his own personal devotion. He would not call upon the people of Judah to seek the LORD in a way that he did not. i. This is a recurring theme in 2 Chronicles: the leaders who seek the LORD. We can expect God to do great things when His people, and especially the leaders of His people, seek the Him. Others who sought the LORD in 2 Chronicles include: · The faithful remnant of Israel (2 Chronicles 11:16) · The people of Judah under king Asa (2 Chronicles 14:4, 15:12-13) · Jehoshaphat in the early part of his reign (2 Chronicles 19:3) · King Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 31:21) · King Josiah (2 Chronicles 34:3) ii. “His attitude is summed up by the word ‘seek’, which occurs twice in Hebrew though it is variously translated. . . . This is a key word in Jehoshaphat’s reign, where it has the basic sense of ‘worship’, but also means to discover God’s will. It shows that Jehoshaphat has a higher trust in God than in his military resources.” (Selman) c. And proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah: Jehoshaphat called the nation to express their humility and total dependence upon God through a public fast – that is, abstaining from all food for a period of time (typically a day or more) and drinking only water. i. In Mark 9:28-29, Jesus explained that prayer and fasting together were a source of significant spiritual power. It isn’t as if prayer and fasting make us more worthy to be blessed or do God’s work; it is that prayer and fasting draw us closer to the heart of God, and they put us more in line with His power. Fasting is a powerful expression of our total dependence on Him. d. So Judah gathered together to ask help from the LORD: This showed the Spirit of God at work among His people, prompting them to respond to the call issued from their king Jehoshaphat. ii. “To get this assistance, it was necessary to seek it; and to get such extraordinary help, they should seek it in an extraordinary way; whence he proclaimed a universal fast, and all the people came up to Jerusalem to seek the Lord.” (Clarke) 3. (5-12) Jehoshaphat leads the assembly in prayer. Then Jehoshaphat stood in the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem, in the house of the LORD, before the new court, and said: “O LORD God of our fathers, are You not God in heaven, and do You not rule over all the kingdoms of the nations, and in Your hand is there not power and might, so that no one is able to withstand You? Are You not our God, who drove out the inhabitants of this land before Your people Israel, and gave it to the descendants of Abraham Your friend forever? And they dwell in it, and have built You a sanctuary in it for Your name, saying, ‘If disaster comes upon us; sword, judgment, pestilence, or famine; we will stand before this temple and in Your presence (for Your name is in this temple), and cry out to You in our affliction, and You will hear and save.’ And now, here are the people of Ammon, Moab, and Mount Seir; whom You would not let Israel invade when they came out of the land of Egypt, but they turned from them and did not destroy them; here they are, rewarding us by coming to throw us out of Your possession which You have given us to inherit. O our God, will You not judge them? For we have no power against this great multitude that is coming against us; nor do we know what to do, but our eyes are upon You.” a. Jehoshaphat stood in the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem: This large assembly representing the gathered kingdom needed a leader, and the godly Jehoshaphat was the logical one to unite the assembly together in prayer. i. Adam Clarke called this “One of the most sensible, pious, correct, and as to its composition one of the most elegant prayers ever offered under the Old Testament dispensation.” ii. “The late renowned Gustavus, king of Sweden, would pray ashipboard, ashore, in the field, in the midst of the battle; as if prayer alone were the surest piece of his whole armour.” (Trapp) b. Are You not God in heaven, and do You not rule over all the kingdoms of the nations: Jehoshaphat began his great prayer by recognizing the power of Yahweh over heaven and all kingdoms of the nations. Other peoples believed in localized deities – as if the Moabites had their god, the Philistines their god, the Ammonites their god, and so on. Jehoshaphat recognized that the God of Israel was in fact the God of all kingdoms, of all nations, of all the earth and indeed of heaven itself. c. Are You not our God, who drove out the inhabitants of this land before Your people Israel: Jehoshaphat also prayed recognizing God’s great works in the past on behalf of His people. The logic is clear: If God had done great things for His people in the past, He can be prevailed upon to do great things for His people at their moment of great need. d. We will stand in this temple and in Your presence: Jehoshaphat stood on the ground of previous prayer and prior answers to prayer. This remembers the prayer Solomon prayed at the dedication of the temple, and calls upon God to answer not only Jehoshaphat’s prayer, but Solomon’s also (2 Chronicles 6:20-25). e. Here are the people of Ammon, Moab, and Mount Seir; whom You would not let Israel invade when they came out of the land of Egypt: Jehoshaphat prayed with both knowledge and understanding of God’s word. He remembered that God did not allow Israel to invade these peoples when they came from Egypt to the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 2:8-9 and 2:19). Since God did not allow Israel to destroy those peoples then, it would be unjust if He allowed them to destroy Judah now. He implicitly prayed that God would not allow His people to suffer for their prior obedience. i. “I like to plunge my hand into the promises, and then I find myself able to grasp with a grip of determination the mighty faithfulness of God. An omnipotent plea with God is: ‘Do as thou hast said.’” (Spurgeon) f. For we have no power against this great multitude that is coming against us; nor do we know what to do, but our eyes are upon You: Here Jehoshaphat – a king standing before his people – openly confessed that he did not have the answer. Their only answer was to trust in God, that His power and goodness would protect Judah when nothing else could. i. “The final phrase, We do not know what to do, but our eyes are upon you, is one of the most touching expressions of trust in God to be found anywhere in the Bible.” (Selman) ii. “They said, ‘Our eyes are upon thee.’ What did they mean by that? They meant, ‘Lord, if help does come, it must come from thee. We are looking to thee for it. It cannot come from anywhere else, so we look to thee. But we believe it will come, men will not look for that which they know will not come. We feel sure it will come, but we do not know how, so we are looking; we do not know when, but we are looking. We do not know what thou wouldest have us to do, but as the servant looks to her mistress, so are we looking to thee, Lord. Lord, we are looking.’” (Spurgeon) B. God answers Jehoshaphat’s prayer. 1. (13-15) The promise is given through a prophet. Now all Judah, with their little ones, their wives, and their children, stood before the LORD. Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jahaziel the son of Zechariah, the son of Benaiah, the son of Jeiel, the son of Mattaniah, a Levite of the sons of Asaph, in the midst of the assembly. And he said, “Listen, all you of Judah and you inhabitants of Jerusalem, and you, King Jehoshaphat! Thus says the LORD to you: ‘Do not be afraid nor dismayed because of this great multitude, for the battle is not yours, but God’s.’” a. Now all Judah, with their little ones, their wives, and their children, stood before the LORD: The sense is that after Jehoshaphat’s great prayer, the people stood silently before the LORD, waiting upon Him for some sense of direction or encouragement. i. “You could have heard the sound even of the wind among the trees at the time, for they were as hushed and as quiet as you were just now. Oh, when you know the Lord means to deliver you, bow your head and just give him the quiet, deep, solemn worship of your spirit.” (Spurgeon) b. Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jahaziel the son of Zechariah . . . in the midst of the assembly: Out of this huge group gathered together, the Spirit of the LORD came upon one man to speak to the entire assembly. This was a spontaneous word of prophecy that came as God’s people waited before Him and sought Him. c. Do not be afraid nor dismayed because of this great multitude, for the battle is not yours, but God’s: The threat was real – there really was a great multitude dedicated to destroying Judah. Yet the command was to not be afraid nor dismayed, because the battle was God’s battle. He would fight on behalf of Judah against this great multitude. 2. (16-17) The command to stand and believe. “‘Tomorrow go down against them. They will surely come up by the Ascent of Ziz, and you will find them at the end of the brook before the Wilderness of Jeruel. You will not need to fight in this battle. Position yourselves, stand still and see the salvation of the LORD, who is with you, O Judah and Jerusalem!’ Do not fear or be dismayed; tomorrow go out against them, for the LORD is with you.” a. Tomorrow go down against them: This was an important command, because one might think that because of the promise of 2 Chronicles 20:15, Judah would not even have to show up at the battle and perhaps God wanted them to stay in Jerusalem and pray. Yet God wanted them to go out to battle against the enemy and He would use their participation in the battle. b. They will surely come up by the Ascent of Ziz: God knew the plans of the attacking armies precisely and He relayed this information to the king and people of Judah. c. You will not need to fight in this battle. Position yourselves, stand still and see the salvation of the LORD: Judah did not need to fight in this battle, yet it did not mean there was nothing for them to do. It was a significant step of faith to position yourselves, to stand still, and to believe that you would see the salvation of the LORD in the face of a large attacking army. d. Tomorrow go out against them: There were any number of ways that God could have defeated these armies assembled against Judah, but He appointed a way that demanded the participation of faith on behalf of Judah. They had to work on a faith-partnership with God. 3. (18-19) The response of worship and praise. And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground, and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem bowed before the LORD, worshiping the LORD. Then the Levites of the children of the Kohathites and of the children of the Korahites stood up to praise the LORD God of Israel with voices loud and high. a. Bowed before the LORD, worshiping the LORD: Both king and people knew that the prophetic word through Jahaziel was true from God. Receiving it as a word from God, they worshipped the LORD who promised to save His people against this terrible threat. It was a logical response. i. “They worshipped, but why did they do it? They were not delivered. No, but they were sure they were going to be delivered. Their enemies were not dead. No, they were all alive, but they were sure they would be dead, so they had worship, and their devotion rose from trustful and grateful hearts.” (Spurgeon) b. Then the Levites of the children of the Kohathites and of the children of the Korahites stood up to praise the LORD God of Israel with voices loud and high: First they worshipped with the posture of their bodies and hearts; then with song led by the chorus of the Levitical worship leaders. 4. (20-21) The battle is led by singing worshippers. So they rose early in the morning and went out into the Wilderness of Tekoa; and as they went out, Jehoshaphat stood and said, “Hear me, O Judah and you inhabitants of Jerusalem: Believe in the LORD your God, and you shall be established; believe His prophets, and you shall prosper.” And when he had consulted with the people, he appointed those who should sing to the LORD, and who should praise the beauty of holiness, as they went out before the army and were saying: “Praise the LORD, For His mercy endures forever.” a. So they rose early in the morning and went: This showed that they really did believe the prophecy from Jahaziel. It was one thing to profess faith among an excited assembly; it was another thing to actually walk out to meet the enemy armies. b. Believe in the LORD your God, and you shall be established; believe His prophets, and you shall prosper: With this exhortation Jehoshaphat considered believing the prophets of God to be equal to believing the LORD your God Himself. This remains true; to believe God’s Word is to believe God Himself. c. And when he had consulted with the people: Jehoshaphat was wise and good enough to know that since this crisis put the people at risk, then the people should be consulted regarding some of the details, including those who should sing to the LORD. i. We should not think that at this moment the monarchy of Israel became a democracy. Instead, it fulfilled what it should have always been: a monarchy that was in touch with and responsive to the people and their needs and opinions. d. Who should praise the beauty of holiness: God’s holiness – His “set-apart-ness” – has a wonderful and distinct beauty about it. It is beautiful that God is God and not man; that He is more than the greatest man or a super-man. His holy love, grace, justice, and majesty are beautiful. e. As they went out before the army: The singers and worshippers led the army into this battle. It was clear that Judah expected a battle, because they brought the army. Yet it was also clear that they expected a supernatural battle because they let the singers and worshippers go before the army. i. These worshippers obviously took a dangerous step of faith. If the unthinkable happened and God did not intervene they would be the first ones slaughtered by a merciless enemy. No wonder king Jehoshaphat consulted with the people about who these singers and worshippers should be. f. And were saying: “Praise the LORD, for His mercy endures forever”: This was the refrain of their song. They did not rest on their own merits or even the merits of Abraham, Moses, or David. They trusted and rested on the enduring mercy of God. 5. (22-30) Victory over the enemy and the plundering of the enemy. Now when they began to sing and to praise, the LORD set ambushes against the people of Ammon, Moab, and Mount Seir, who had come against Judah; and they were defeated. For the people of Ammon and Moab stood up against the inhabitants of Mount Seir to utterly kill and destroy them. And when they had made an end of the inhabitants of Seir, they helped to destroy one another. So when Judah came to a place overlooking the wilderness, they looked toward the multitude; and there were their dead bodies, fallen on the earth. No one had escaped. When Jehoshaphat and his people came to take away their spoil, they found among them an abundance of valuables on the dead bodies, and precious jewelry, which they stripped off for themselves, more than they could carry away; and they were three days gathering the spoil because there was so much. And on the fourth day they assembled in the Valley of Berachah, for there they blessed the LORD; therefore the name of that place was called The Valley of Berachah until this day. Then they returned, every man of Judah and Jerusalem, with Jehoshaphat in front of them, to go back to Jerusalem with joy, for the LORD had made them rejoice over their enemies. So they came to Jerusalem, with stringed instruments and harps and trumpets, to the house of the LORD. And the fear of God was on all the kingdoms of those countries when they heard that the LORD had fought against the enemies of Israel. Then the realm of Jehoshaphat was quiet, for his God gave him rest all around. a. Now when they began to sing and to praise, the LORD set ambushes against the people . . . and they were defeated: Just as God promised, the battle belonged to Him and He won the victory on behalf of Judah. We might say that it was not their praise that won the battle, rather it was their faith; yet their praise was sure evidence of their faith. When one really believes the words and promises of God, they cannot but help to praise Him. i. “The form of the word for ambushes is slightly unusual and really means ‘ambushers’, and since it is said that God sent them, some have thought that they must be supernatural agents.” (Selman) b. For the people of Ammon and Moab stood up against the inhabitants of Mount Seir to utterly kill and destroy them: This describes how God set ambushes against the enemies of Judah. He prompted them to fight amongst themselves so that they defeated one another, and all Judah had to do was to collect the spoil. i. “Some understand this ambushment of the holy angels, sent suddenly in upon them to slay them; whereupon they mistaking the matter, and supposing it had been their own companions, flew upon them, and so sheathed their swords in one another’s bowels.” (Trapp) c. So when Judah came to a place overlooking the wilderness, they looked toward the multitude; and there were their dead bodies: It seems that the army of Judah, led by the singing worshippers, never actually engaged the enemy armies. Perhaps God spared them that particular test of faith and by the time they had actually met the enemy armies, they were already dead and no one had escaped. d. On the fourth day they assembled in the Valley of Berachah, for there they blessed the LORD: They had assembled together to cry out to God for His deliverance; it was appropriate that they also assemble together to thank God and to bless His name, for the LORD had made them rejoice over their enemies. e. And the fear of God was on all the kingdoms of those countries when they heard that the LORD had fought against the enemies of Israel: The victory itself was a warning against the neighboring nations. This gave King Jehoshaphat and his kingdom rest all around. i. We notice that this did not become a pattern for warfare in Judah or an invitation to conquest, led by the “invincible army of praise.” This was in direct response to a specific word from God; to disobey would have been sin, but it would have also been sin to make it a standing pattern for all future warfare in Judah. ii. The principle of God fighting on behalf of His people and the glory of trusting praise before the battle remained; how God wanted His people to participate in the battle would differ from circumstance to circumstance according to the leading of the Holy Spirit in their situation. iii. Most importantly, we can praise God that Jesus Christ has fought the battle for our salvation and to rescue us from the judgment of God that we so rightly deserved. This makes us more than conquerors in Jesus Christ, because He fights the battle and defeats our foe, and we share in the spoil (Romans 8:37). 6. (31-37) The close of Jehoshaphat’s reign. So Jehoshaphat was king over Judah. He was thirty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned twenty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi. And he walked in the way of his father Asa, and did not turn aside from it, doing what was right in the sight of the LORD. Nevertheless the high places were not taken away, for as yet the people had not directed their hearts to the God of their fathers. Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, first and last, indeed they are written in the book of Jehu the son of Hanani, which is mentioned in the book of the kings of Israel. After this Jehoshaphat king of Judah allied himself with Ahaziah king of Israel, who acted very wickedly. And he allied himself with him to make ships to go to Tarshish, and they made the ships in Ezion Geber. But Eliezer the son of Dodavah of Mareshah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying, “Because you have allied yourself with Ahaziah, the LORD has destroyed your works.” Then the ships were wrecked, so that they were not able to go to Tarshish. a. He walked in the way of his father Asa: Asa was a good king and Jehoshaphat his son followed in his footsteps and did what was right in the sight of the LORD. b. Nevertheless the high places were not taken away: Jehoshaphat did not do everything he should have as a king. Yet the Chronicler seems to tell us that this was largely because the people had not directed their hearts to the God of their fathers. Jehoshaphat was a reformer, but the people would not be thoroughly reformed. i. “The fault was not in Jehoshaphat, but in the people, who, thought they did worship the true God, yet would not be confined to the temple, but for their own conveniency, or from their affection to their ancient customs, chose to worship him in the high places.” (Poole) c. And he allied himself with him to make ships to go to Tarshish: 1 Kings 22:48-49 tells us that this initial partnership with Ahaziah king of Israel ended in disaster, when the ships were wrecked at Ezion Geber. It also tells us that after the rebuke from Eliezer the son of Dodavah, king Jehoshaphat refused another offer of alliance with Ahaziah. He had learned his lesson and did not add error upon error. i. “The phrase ‘trading ships’ interprets a more literal rendering of the Hebrew, i.e., ‘ships that could go to Tarshish.’ The thought is that these vessels belonged to the class of ships that went to Tarshish; their actual destination was Ophir (cf. on 2 Chronicles 8:18; 1 Kings 22:48).” (Payne) d. The LORD has destroyed your works: This might seem cruel of God, but it was actually mercy. It prevented Jehoshaphat from another ungodly alliance, and yielding to this temptation had hurt him before. 2 Chronicles 21 - Jehoram’s Evil Reign A. The sins of Jehoram. 1. (1-5) The murder of his brothers. And Jehoshaphat rested with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the City of David. Then Jehoram his son reigned in his place. He had brothers, the sons of Jehoshaphat: Azariah, Jehiel, Zechariah, Azaryahu, Michael, and Shephatiah; all these were the sons of Jehoshaphat king of Israel. Their father gave them great gifts of silver and gold and precious things, with fortified cities in Judah; but he gave the kingdom to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn. Now when Jehoram was established over the kingdom of his father, he strengthened himself and killed all his brothers with the sword, and also others of the princes of Israel. Jehoram was thirty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. a. Then Jehoram his son reigned in his place: The father of Jehoram was the godly king Jehoshaphat. Yet one of the worst things Jehoshaphat ever did was arrange the marriage of his son Jehoram to Athaliah, the daughter of the evil king Ahab and his wife Jezebel (2 Kings 8:16-18; 8:26). b. Their father gave them great gifts . . . with fortified cities: Jehoshaphat followed the same wise policy with his sons that Rehoboam had previously followed (2 Chronicles 11:18-23) – to scatter them throughout the kingdom and away from the capital so they would not be a concentrated threat to his one son to succeed him, Jehoram. i. “Jehoshaphat king of Israel; so he is called, either, 1. Because he was so by right. Or, 2. Because he was king not only of Judah and Benjamin, but of a great number of Israelites, who had come into and settled themselves in his kingdom . . . Or, 3. Because all his subjects were Israelites; and therefore he was king of Israel, though not of all Israel. . . . Some say Israel was foisted into some copies by the transcriber instead of Judah, as it was first written.” (Poole) c. He strengthened himself and killed all his brothers with the sword, and also other princes of Israel: Despite Jehoshaphat’s wise policy of scattering his sons, Jehoram made it a point to murder all his brothers so they would not be any kind of a threat against his reign. i. “Jehoram’s response to God’s goodness, however, was to put not only all his brothers to the sword, but some of his leading ‘officials’ as well. ‘Made himself strong’ therefore, clearly means the violent removal of all other possible claimants to the throne.” (Selman) ii. The wickedness of Jehoram was not a surprise, considering how much he allowed himself to be influenced by the house of Ahab. “Josephus expands on this, indicating that he committed the murders at the prompting of Athaliah.” (Dilday) iii. Perhaps some people thought that the marriage between the royal families of the Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel would lift up the Kingdom of Israel spiritually. It didn’t work that way. Instead, it brought the Kingdom of Judah down spiritually. 2. (6-7) Why God showed mercy to Jehoram. And he walked in the way of the kings of Israel, just as the house of Ahab had done, for he had the daughter of Ahab as a wife; and he did evil in the sight of the LORD. Yet the LORD would not destroy the house of David, because of the covenant that He had made with David, and since He had promised to give a lamp to him and to his sons forever. a. He walked in the way of the kings of Israel: This was not a compliment. While the southern Kingdom of Judah had a mixture of godly and wicked kings, the northern Kingdom of Israel had nothing but evil, God-rejecting kings. i. “This was Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, who was famous for her impieties and cruelty, as was her most profligate mother. It is likely that she was the principle cause of Jehoram’s cruelty and profaneness.” (Clarke) ii. His father Jehoshaphat was a godly man who had a bad and sinful habit of making compromising associations. The worst fruit of this sinful tendency was not evident until after Jehoshaphat’s death. b. Yet the LORD would not destroy the house of David, because of the covenant that He had made with David: The implication is that Jehoram’s evil was great enough to justify such judgment, but God withheld it out of faithfulness to his ancestor David. i. “The lamp was more than a symbol of life and of testimony, it reminded the hearer of the covenant (Psalm 132:17, c.f. 2 Chronicles 21:7).” (Wiseman) ii. When God first made this promise to David it was not formally called a covenant (1 Chronicles 17, 2 Samuel 7). However, it was divinely called a covenant afterwards (2 Samuel 23:5; Psalm 89:3, 89:34; Psalm 132:11-12). (Payne) B. The consequences of his sin 1. (8-11) Jehoram’s sinful compromise and the revolt of Edom and Libnah. In his days the Edomites revolted against Judah’s authority, and made a king over themselves. So Jehoram went out with his officers, and all his chariots with him. And he rose by night and attacked the Edomites who had surrounded him and the captains of the chariots. Thus Edom has been in revolt against Judah’s authority to this day. At that time Libnah revolted against his rule, because he had forsaken the LORD God of his fathers. Moreover he made high places in the mountains of Judah, and caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit harlotry, and led Judah astray. a. In his days the Edomites revolted against Judah’s authority: For some time, Edom was essentially a client kingdom to Judah and owed them tribute (taxes). Under the reign of Jehoram, the leaders of Edom sensed weakness in Judah and their opportunity to free themselves. i. “Nothing else is known of trouble in Libnah, a town of uncertain location on Judah’s western border not far from Lachish.” (Selman) ii. “As long as the kings of Judah remained true to their allegiance to God, they were able to keep in subjection the surrounding nations; but just so soon as they revolted from God these people revolted from there. It was as though power descended into them from the source of all power; and when that link between themselves and God was broken, that between themselves and their subordinates was broken also.” (Meyer) iii. This applies to our passions; when we are properly submitted to God, our passions are properly submitted to us. When we come out from submission to God, we often find our passions flare up in seemingly overwhelming strength. It also applies to the proper exercise of authority in any sphere – home, government, church, society –those who are submitted to God can be trusted to be submitted unto. b. He rose by night and attacked the Edomites who had surrounded him: We aren’t told a specific outcome of this battle; perhaps it was inconclusive. Yet because of the Edom’s continued revolt against Judah, it was evident that Judah did not exert itself over Edom against and they remained somewhat independent. c. Thus Edom has been in revolt against Judah’s authority: This is evidence of the weakness of the kingdom of Jehoram. He thought that the marriage alliance with Ahab and the Kingdom of Israel would make Judah stronger, but this act of disobedience only made them weaker – because he had forsake the LORD God of his fathers. d. Moreover he made high places: It was the policy of both his father Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17:6) and his grandfather Asa (2 Chronicles 14:1-5) to work against these high places. Jehoram promoted them instead. i. “He is the first Judean king who actually constructed high places, among which is probably to be counted a Baal temple in Jerusalem (cf. 2 Chronicles 23:17).” (Selman) e. And caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit harlotry: Their idolatry was likened to harlotry for two reasons. First, the worship of these pagan sex/fertility gods and goddesses often involved immorality with a pagan priestess or priest. Second, since Israel was obligated to be faithful to God as a wife is obligated to be faithful to her husband, their idolatry was like harlotry in a spiritual sense. 2. (12-15) Elijah’s letter of rebuke to Jehoram. And a letter came to him from Elijah the prophet, saying, Thus says the LORD God of your father David: Because you have not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat your father, or in the ways of Asa king of Judah, but have walked in the way of the kings of Israel, and have made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to play the harlot like the harlotry of the house of Ahab, and also have killed your brothers, those of your father’s household, who were better than yourself, behold, the LORD will strike your people with a serious affliction; your children, your wives, and all your possessions; and you will become very sick with a disease of your intestines, until your intestines come out by reason of the sickness, day by day. a. And a letter came to him from Elijah the prophet: Elijah’s main ministry was to the kings of the northern tribes, the kingdom of Israel. Yet on occasion God also used him to speak to kings of Judah, this time through a letter. i. “How could this be, when Elijah was rapt up to heaven in Jehoshaphat’s time, 2 Kings 2; 3:11. Answer. Either, 1. This was Elisha, or some other prophet called Elijah, because he acted in the spirit and the power of Elijah, for which John the Baptist is also called. Or rather, 2. This was really written by Elijah, who by the Spirit did clearly foresee and foretell the reign and acts of Jehoram.” (Poole) ii. “Elijah may, however, have been gone by the time of the delivery of his letter, so that its sentence of doom could have had the force of a voice coming from the dead.” (Payne) b. But have walked in the way of the kings of Israel: This was God’s main complaint against Jehoram. He had refused to follow the pattern of his father and grandfather, and instead decided to follow the example of his father-in-law Ahab. c. Who were better than yourself: God considered the brothers of Jehoram to be more worthy successors to the throne of Judah than Jehoram himself. d. You will become very sick with a disease of your intestines: God promised this painful ailment would come to Jehoram as a punishment for his sins. 3. (16-17) Further troubles of the reign of Jehoram. Moreover the LORD stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines and the Arabians who were near the Ethiopians. And they came up into Judah and invaded it, and carried away all the possessions that were found in the king’s house, and also his sons and his wives, so that there was not a son left to him except Jehoahaz, the youngest of his sons. a. Moreover the LORD stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines and the Arabians: This was another judgment against Jehoram – to bring enemies against him to trouble his reign. b. Also his sons and his wives, so that there was not a son left to him except Jehoahaz, the youngest of his sons: This was a fitting judgment against Jehoram. In trying to protect his own throne he murdered all his brothers, and eventually found that all his sons were taken except one. i. “In the outworkings of God’s justice, the man who began by massacring his own brothers ended by suffering the loss of his sons and wives.” (Payne) 4. (18-20) Jehoram’s gruesome end. After all this the LORD struck him in his intestines with an incurable disease. Then it happened in the course of time, after the end of two years, that his intestines came out because of his sickness; so he died in severe pain. And his people made no burning for him, like the burning for his fathers. He was thirty-two years old when he became king. He reigned in Jerusalem eight years and, to no one’s sorrow, departed. However they buried him in the City of David, but not in the tombs of the kings. a. After all this the LORD struck him in his intestines with an incurable disease: Again, this was a fitting judgment. There was a sense in which Jehoram was rotten spiritually from within; here, God simply caused the physical condition of his body simply corresponded to the spiritual condition of his soul – so he died in severe pain. i. “The Targum seems to intimate that he had a constipation and inflammation in his bowels; and that at last his bowels gushed out.” (Clarke) ii. Apparently he suffered for two years. “This was a long while to lie under so intolerable a disease; and yet all this was but a typical hell, a foretaste of eternal torments, unless he repented.” (Trapp) iii. “Translation problems have increased the difficulty, and the end may have come suddenly, ‘in two days’ (cf. Keil, Dillard), rather than at the end of the second year.” (Selman) b. And, to no one’s sorrow, departed: This compromising and sinful king was not mourned when he died. “He is one of the most unlovely of all the kings of Judah. ‘Exalted by Jehovah,’ he was for his wickedness thrust down to a dishonoured grave.” (Knapp) i. “As he lived wickedly, so he died wishedly.” (Trapp) ii. “He was hated while he lived, and neglected when he died; visibly cursed of God, and necessarily execrate by the people whom he had lived only to corrupt and oppress. No annalist is mentioned has having taken the pains to write any account of his vile life.” (Clarke) iii. “Strange indeed is the human heart. It turns to evil, and pursues it persistently; and yet it never really loves those who lead it in the way of evil. . . . Love is only inspired by goodness. Men will follow those who lead them in the ways of corruption, but such following is always inspired by evil selfishness, and never by admiration or love.” (Morgan) 2 Chronicles 22 - The Evil Reigns of Ahaziah and Athaliah A. Ahaziah’s rise and fall. 1. (1-4) The brief and wicked reign of Ahaziah. Then the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his place, for the raiders who came with the Arabians into the camp had killed all the older sons. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram, king of Judah, reigned. Ahaziah was forty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Athaliah the granddaughter of Omri. He also walked in the ways of the house of Ahab, for his mother advised him to do wickedly. Therefore he did evil in the sight of the LORD, like the house of Ahab; for they were his counselors after the death of his father, to his destruction. a. The inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his place: As will be demonstrated, the son of Jehoram named Ahaziah was an unworthy man. Yet the Chronicler explains why the inhabitants of Jerusalem made him king – because raiding Arabians had killed all the older sons. i. “Men that came with the Arabians; either, 1. A cruel sort of men who came along with the Arabians, and therefore slew those whom the Arabians had spared, and only carried into captivity. Or, 2. The Philistines, who did accompany the Arabians in this expedition, 2 Chronicles 21:16, who lived near the kingdom of Judah, and therefore thought to make as sure work as they could in destroying all the branches of the royal family.” (Poole) b. He reigned one year in Jerusalem: The short life and reign of Jehoram (he reigned only eight years and died at 40 years of age) should have warned Ahaziah. His brief reign (one year) shows he was even less blessed than his father Jehoram. i. “Ahaziah succeeded his father, Jehoram, in the critical year 841 B.C. He was not to survive the momentous waves of the political events that were to inundate the ancient Near East in that year. Indeed, in 841 B.C. Shalmaneser III of Assyria (859-824 B.C.) at last was able to break the coalition of western allies with whom he had previously fought a long series of battles (853, 848, 845).” (Patterson and Austel) ii. Forty-two years old: This is at odds with 2 Kings 8:26 which says that Ahaziah took the throne when 22 years old. “I am satisfied the reading in 2 Chronicles 22:2, is a mistake; and that we should read . . . twenty-two instead of forty-two year. . . . Is there a single ancient author of any kind, but particularly those who have written on matters of history and chronology, whose works have been transmitted to us free of similar errors, owing to the negligence of transcribers?” (Clarke) iii. “The reading found in the LXX and 2 Kings 8:26 fro Ahaziah’s age of ‘twenty-two years’ is to be adopted, rather than the MT’s ‘forty-two,’ which would make him older than his father (cf. 2 Chronicles 21:20).” (Payne) c. He also walked in the ways of the house of Ahab, for his mother advised him to do wickedly: Ahaziah’s mother was the wicked Athaliah, who was the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel of the northern kingdom of Israel and she was given in marriage to Jehoram, the king of Judah. She brought her influence to bear upon her son and made him more of a son of Ahab and Jezebel then a son of David and his godly descendents. i. Through her control of her son and her subsequent reign (2 Chronicles 22:10-12), “During both reigns, therefore, Ahab’s dynasty was in effective control of Judah. The unity of Judah and Israel is eloquently symbolized by the names of their kings. No other Israelite king was called Jehoram or Ahaziah, yet both names are used of successive contemporary rulers in Judah and Israel.” (Selman) 2. (5-9) Ahaziah falls in judgment along with Ahab’s house by Jehu in Israel. He also followed their advice, and went with Jehoram the son of Ahab king of Israel to war against Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth Gilead; and the Syrians wounded Joram. Then he returned to Jezreel to recover from the wounds which he had received at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael king of Syria. And Azariah the son of Jehoram, king of Judah, went down to see Jehoram the son of Ahab in Jezreel, because he was sick. His going to Joram was God’s occasion for Ahaziah’s downfall; for when he arrived, he went out with Jehoram against Jehu the son of Nimshi, whom the LORD had anointed to cut off the house of Ahab. And it happened, when Jehu was executing judgment on the house of Ahab, and found the princes of Judah and the sons of Ahaziah’s brothers who served Ahaziah, that he killed them. Then he searched for Ahaziah; and they caught him (he was hiding in Samaria), and brought him to Jehu. When they had killed him, they buried him, “because,” they said, “he is the son of Jehoshaphat, who sought the LORD with all his heart.” So the house of Ahaziah had no one to assume power over the kingdom. a. Went with Jehoram the son of Ahab king of Israel to war against Hazael king of Syria: Ahaziah’s close association with the wicked house of Ahab developed into a war alliance with Israel against Syria. His connection with his mother’s family (she was a daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, 2 Kings 8:18) was so strong and sympathetic that he paid a visit to the injured and sick King of Israel (Jehoram). b. Then he searched for Ahaziah; and they caught him: Jehu was one of the more interesting men of the Old Testament. God raised him up to bring judgment against the dynasty of Omri that ruled the northern kingdom of Israel (2 Kings 9:1-26). In the course of fulfilling that divine commission, he also came against Ahaziah, king of Judah. i. Jehu had no direct command or commission from God to bring judgment upon the King of Judah, but he did anyway. Consciously or unconsciously, he was guided by God and he killed Ahaziah. ii. And the sons of Ahaziah’s bothers: “The Hebrew calls them ‘sons of the brothers of Ahaziah’, but, since his actual brothers were dead (2 Chronicles 21:17; 22:1) and their sons were probably no more than children, they are best regarded as ‘kinsmen.’” (Selman) c. When they had killed him: Ahaziah was happy to associate himself with the northern Kingdom of Israel and their wicked kings. Therefore he died in the same judgment that came upon the King of Israel through Jehu. i. Ahaziah was also a blood relative of Ahab (Ahab was his grandfather), therefore making him liable under the judgment that came upon Ahab and his descendants. “By failing to separate himself from Jehoram, he made himself liable to suffer the same punishment that God had previously announced against Ahab’s house which he had chosen Hazael and Jehu to carry out.” (Selman) ii. 2 Kings 9:1-26 also records the reign of Ahaziah and his inglorious end at the hands of Jehu. The reconciliation of the details of the death of Ahaziah between 2 Chronicles 22 and 2 Kings 9 is complicated, but definitely possible. Adam Clarke – among other commentators – carefully works out the details. iii. “The final movements of Ahaziah are difficult to trace but may perhaps be reconstructed as follows: he fled south from Jezreel so as to hide in Samaria. He was brought to Jehu, who fatally wounded him near Ibleam (between Jezreel and Samaria); he fled by chariot northwest to Megiddo, where he died (2 Kings 9:27); and his body was carried by Ahaziah’s servants to Jerusalem (2 Kings 9:28), where they buried him.” (Payne) d. They buried him: When Ahaziah was killed in battle, they gave him a dignified burial – not for his own sake, but only because his ancestor Jehoshaphat was a godly man. B. The reign of Queen Athaliah. 1. (10) The evil Queen Athaliah reigns over Judah. Now when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the royal heirs of the house of Judah. a. When Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead: She used the occasion of her son’s death to take power for herself, and she reigned over the land for six years (2 Kings 11:1-3). i. We remember that Athaliah was the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and was given to Jehoram, King of Judah as a bride. She was a bad influence on both her husband (Jehoram of Judah) and her son (King Ahaziah of Judah). b. And destroyed all the royal heirs: Athaliah was from the family of Ahab, and Jehu had completely destroyed all of Ahab’s descendants in Israel. Now, after Jehu’s coup, Athaliah tried to save something for Ahab’s family by trying to eliminate the house of David in Judah. i. “However, no evil anger is sufficient to frustrate divine purpose, and against the wickedness of one woman God set the compassion of another.” (Morgan) ii. Years before, the King of Judah – Jehoshaphat – married his son to this daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, hoping to make an alliance with those wicked and apostate leaders. “And this was the fruit of Jehoshaphat’s marrying his son to a daughter of that idolatrous and wicked house of Ahab, even the extirpation of all his posterity but one.” (Poole) iii. “No character in history, sacred or secular, stands out blacker or more hideous than this daughter-in-law of the godly Jehoshaphat.” (Knapp) 2. (11-12) God uses Jehoshabeath to preserve the royal line of David. But Jehoshabeath, the daughter of the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him away from among the king’s sons who were being murdered, and put him and his nurse in a bedroom. So Jehoshabeath, the daughter of King Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada the priest (for she was the sister of Ahaziah), hid him from Athaliah so that she did not kill him. And he was hidden with them in the house of God for six years, while Athaliah reigned over the land. a. But Jehoshabeath: This little-known woman (known as Jehosheba in 2 Kings 11:2) had an important place in God’s plan of the ages. Through her courage and ingenuity, she preserved the royal line of David through which the Messiah would come. Evil people like Athaliah will begin their work, but God can always raise up a Jehoshabeath. i. “This incident is really a tale of two women.” (Selman) ii. “Thus evil always breaks down. It is extremely clever, it calculates on all the changes, and seems to leave no unguarded place; but with unvarying regularity it fails somewhere to cover up its tracks, or to insure its victory.” (Morgan) iii. She was the sister of Ahaziah: “It is not likely that Jehosheba was the daughter of Athaliah; she was a sister, we find, to Ahaziah the son of Athaliah, but probably by a different mother.” (Clarke) b. He was hidden with her in the house of God for six years: Though Ahaziah was a bad king who made evil alliances, he was still a descendant of David and the successor of his royal line. For the sake of David, God remembered His promise and spared this one young survivor to the massacre of Athaliah. The line of David was almost extinguished and continued only in the presence of a small boy named Joash, but God preserved that flickering flame. i. “Josephus (Antiquities 9.7.1) says that the bedroom where the child and his nurse hid was room where spare furniture and mattresses were stored.” (Wiseman) ii. Like the boy Samuel, Joash grew up in the temple. Like Samuel, he probably found little ways to help the priests, whatever could be done without attracting too much attention. iii. “Nothing but the miraculous intervention of the divine providence could have saved the line of David at this time, and preserved the prophecy relative to the Messiah. The whole truth of that prophecy, and the salvation of the world, appeared to be now suspended on the brittle thread of the life of an infant of a year old, (see 2 Chronicles 24:1,) to destroy whom was the interest of the reigning power! But God can save by few as well as by many. He had purposed, and vain were the counter-exertions of earth and hell.” (Clarke) iv. “There are hours in human history when it seems as though evil were almost all powerful. It entrenches itself in great strength; it builds up great ramparts; it inaugurates policies of the utmost craft and cleverness. It seems to be able to bind together a kingdom which is invincible. All this is false seeming. There is no finality, no security, in the apparent might of iniquity.” (Morgan) 2 Chronicles 23 - Jehoiada and the Crowning of Joash A. The plan is put into practice. 1. (1-7) Jehoiada and his plan to restore Joash to the throne of Judah. In the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself, and made a covenant with the captains of hundreds: Azariah the son of Jeroham, Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, Azariah the son of Obed, Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri. And they went throughout Judah and gathered the Levites from all the cities of Judah, and the chief fathers of Israel, and they came to Jerusalem. Then all the assembly made a covenant with the king in the house of God. And he said to them, “Behold, the king’s son shall reign, as the LORD has said of the sons of David. This is what you shall do: One-third of you entering on the Sabbath, of the priests and the Levites, shall be keeping watch over the doors; one-third shall be at the king’s house; and one-third at the Gate of the Foundation. All the people shall be in the courts of the house of the LORD. But let no one come into the house of the LORD except the priests and those of the Levites who serve. They may go in, for they are holy; but all the people shall keep the watch of the LORD. And the Levites shall surround the king on all sides, every man with his weapons in his hand; and whoever comes into the house, let him be put to death. You are to be with the king when he comes in and when he goes out.” a. Jehoiada strengthened himself, and made a covenant with the captains: Jehoiada was a godly man who was concerned with restoring the throne of David to the line of David, and taking it away from this daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. He was also the husband of Jehoshabeath, the woman who hid the young boy Joash and protected him from the Athaliah’s massacre. i. “The easiest thing for Jehoiada would have been to shut himself up in the temple, and leave things to take their course. The noblest thing was to come forth, and boldly confront the rampant, evil of his time.” (Meyer) ii. “The world is full of Athaliahs, and it is not befitting that the Jehoiadas should remain at their holy rites and services if there is a paramount need for action in the world’s battlefield, in the strife against wrong.” (Meyer) b. Then all the assembly made a covenant with the king in the house of God: From the place where the oath was made and the context of the oath, we learn that the worship of the true God was not dead in Judah. These captains could respond to their responsibility before the LORD. c. Behold, the king’s son shall reign: This was a dramatic moment. For six years everyone believed there were no more surviving heirs of David’s royal line and there was no legitimate ruler to displace the wicked Athaliah. The secret had to be secure, because the king’s son would be immediately killed if his existence were revealed. The captains must have been shocked by the sight of this six-year old heir to the throne. i. One reason Athaliah was able to reign for six years was that no one knew any alternative. Many people live under the reign of Satan because they don’t really know there is a legitimate king ready to take reign in their life. d. This is what you shall do: Jehoiada had a plan to depose the wicked Queen Athaliah and to replace her with the boy king. These leaders needed to follow his plan carefully, and to do it on the Sabbath. Jehoiada chose the Sabbath for the day of the coup, because that was the day when the guards changed their shifts and they could assemble two groups of guards at the temple at the same time without attracting attention. i. “It was a weighty work he went about, and therefore he took the wisest course, the fittest time; on the Sabbath, when the congregation met; and in the temple, wither Athaliah and her courtiers seldom came.” (Trapp) 2. (8-11) Joash is crowned king. So the Levites and all Judah did according to all that Jehoiada the priest commanded. And each man took his men who were to be on duty on the Sabbath, with those who were going off duty on the Sabbath; for Jehoiada the priest had not dismissed the divisions. And Jehoiada the priest gave to the captains of hundreds the spears and the large and small shields which had belonged to King David, that were in the temple of God. Then he set all the people, every man with his weapon in his hand, from the right side of the temple to the left side of the temple, along by the altar and by the temple, all around the king. And they brought out the king’s son, put the crown on him, gave him the Testimony, and made him king. Then Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, “Long live the king!” a. So the Levites and all Judah did according to all that Jehoiada the priest commanded: This was an important plan that had to be followed carefully. Athaliah was a powerful enemy and many had a vested interest in her corrupt reign. b. The spears and the large and small shields which had belonged to King David, that were in the temple of God: These men were equipped with weapons dating from the days of King David. It was fitting for these soldiers who would set the heir of David’s royal line back on the throne of Judah to use these weapons which had belonged to King David. c. Then they brought out the king’s son: First the king’s son had to be revealed. No one could support him and he could not take his rightful throne until he was brought out before the people. d. Put the crown on him: Next the king’s son had to be crowned. This was the public and official recognition of him as king. e. Gave him the Testimony: The king’s son had to come with the Word of God. Joash appeared before the people holding the scrolls of God’s Word. i. Deuteronomy 17:18 says that the king should have his own copy of the Scriptures. “This is the basis for the British custom of presenting the monarch with a copy of the Bible during the coronation service.” (Wiseman) f. And made him king: The king’s son had to be received. He had the royal right to impose his reign, but he instead allowed his rule to be received. g. Anointed him: The king’s son could never fulfill his office without a divine anointing. h. And said, “Long live the king!” The king’s son received praise once he was recognized as their king. i. We can and should follow the same pattern in our reception of Jesus Christ, the true king’s son. ii. “Is not the spiritual condition of too many children of God represented by the condition of the Temple, during the early years of the life of Joash? The king was within its precincts, the rightful heir of the crown and defender of the worship of Jehovah: but as a matter of fact, the crown was on the head of the usurper Athaliah, who was exercising a cruel and sanguinary tyranny. The king was limited to a chamber, and the majority of the priests, with all the people, had not even heard of his existence. There needs to be an anointing, an enthroning, a determination that He shall exercise his power over the entire Temple of our Being.” (Meyer) B. Athaliah’s demise. 1. (12-13) Her distress upon discovering the plot against her. Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people in the temple of the LORD. When she looked, there was the king standing by his pillar at the entrance; and the leaders and the trumpeters were by the king. All the people of the land were rejoicing and blowing trumpets, also the singers with musical instruments, and those who led in praise. So Athaliah tore her clothes and said, “Treason! Treason!” a. When she looked, there was the king: For the usurper queen mother this was a horrifying sight. For six years she ruled because she believed there were no legitimate claimants to the throne of David. Now she sees that one son of Ahaziah – Joash, her own grandson – escaped her murderous intent. b. All the people of the land were rejoicing: They were obviously weary of the wicked reign of Athaliah. c. Treason! Treason! The charge was not unfounded. This was treason against her government, but it was a well-founded and godly treason against a tyrannical, wicked ruler. 2. (14-15) She and her supporters are executed And Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains of hundreds who were set over the army, and said to them, “Take her outside under guard, and slay with the sword whoever follows her.” For the priest had said, “Do not kill her in the house of the LORD.” So they seized her; and she went by way of the entrance of the Horse Gate into the king’s house, and they killed her there. a. Take her outside under guard, and slay with the sword whoever follows her: This was both righteous and prudent. It was a just sentence against this woman who had murdered so many, and prudent precautions were taken so she could not mount a resistance. b. Do not kill her in the house of the LORD: As a priest, Jehoiada had a great concern for the sanctity and reputation of the temple. Yet in the place where horses entered, they killed her there. i. “Her own treason against the true and abiding King of the nation was defeated. Thus, sooner or later, and in ways equally dramatic, the moment arrives when those who plot and plan again

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18. Job 29-31 (Job Remembers The Past, His Present Problems, and Innocence)

Job 29-31 (Job Remembers The Past, His Present Problems, and Innocence)

Job 29 – Job Remembers Better Days A. Job’s blessed relationships. 1. (1-6) Job was blessed in his relationship with God. Job further continued his discourse, and said: “Oh, that I were as in months past, As in the days when God watched over me; When His lamp shone upon my head, And when by His light I walked through darkness; Just as I was in the days of my pr