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1. Minimal Techno remix #1[click "buy" for free download full 320kb]

Minimal Techno remix #1[click

minimal techno track free 01. Jack Back Feat. David Guetta, Nicky Romero, Sia - Wild One Two (Original Mix) 02. Ivan Gough & Feenixpawl feat. Georgi Kay - In My Mind (Axwell Mix) 03. Nicky Romero - Generation 303 (Original Mix) 04. Madeon - Icarus (Original Mix) 05. Bingo Players - L'Amour (Original Mix) 06. Claptone - Cream (Original Mix) 07. Qulinez - Troll (Original Mix) 08. TJR - Funky Vodka (Original Mix) 09. Skrillex & The Doors - Breakn' A Sweat (Zedd Remix) 10. Sander Van Doorn - Chasin' (Original Mix) 11. David Jones - E Samba (Club Mix) 12. David Jones - Heya (Original Mix) 13. Larry Gee - Yo Mamma (Original Mix) (Cut) 14. Starkillers & Dmitry KO - Don't Hold Back (Original Mix) 15. Zenbi - Double Trouble (Stefano Noferini Remix) 16. Hard Rock Sofa - Quasar (Original Mix) 17. Datsik, Kill The Noise - Lightspeed (Original Mix) 18. Otto Knows - Million Voices (Original Mix) 19. Afrojack, Shermanology - Can't Stop Me (Club Mix) 20. Antillas feat. Fiora - Damaged (Main Mix) 21. Wolfgang Gartner - There And Back (Original Mix) 22. Seamus Haji, Cevin Fisher - I Love The Music (Manuel De La Mare, Alex Kenji Remix) 23. Laidback Luke, Arno Cost & Norman Doray – Trilogy (Original Mix) 24. Adam Port - Someone To Love (Original Mix) 25. Nari & Milani vs Maurizio Gubellini - Up (Instrumental) 26. Adana Twins - Everyday (Original Mix) 27. Joe Garston - That's What She Said (Original Mix) 28. Huxley - Let It Go (Original Mix) 29. Coldplay - Charlie Brown (Dave Aude Remix) 30. Tuccillo & Kiki Navarro feat. Amor - Lovery (Original Mix) 31. Mat's Mattara feat Rockman - Let's Party (Instrumental Mix) 32. Lifelike & Kris Menace - Discopolis (David Jones Remix) 33. Mario Ochoa - The Indian Express (Original Mix) 34. DubVision - All By Myself (Original Mix) 35. Disco Stu & John Monkman - Don't Have To Be Beautiful (Original Mix) 36. Gel Abril & Andrea Oliva - Scene (Original Mix) 37. Pirupa - Party Non Stop (Vocal) 38. Sebastien Drums, Niles Mason - French Rules (Muzzaik Remix) 39. Btsound - Sunshine (Federico Scavo Remix) 40. Peruz, Mat's Mattara - Mono (Mat's Mattara, Peruz Mix) 41. Tommy Trash - Cascade (Original Mix) 42. Richard Grey - Lady (Federico Scavo Remix) 43. Luigi Rocca & Manuel De La Mare - Opa-Locka (Original Club Mix) 44. Pavel Petrov - Koral (Metodi Hristov Remix) 45. Mowgli Feat. Amber Jolene - Back In The Day (Original Mix) 46. Noisia - Diplodocus (Kill The Noise Remix) 47. Feed Me - One Click Headshot (Original Mix) 48. Sian, Mladen Tomic - Front Pocket (Nicole Moudaber Remix) 49. DJ PP, Silversix - Fucking Amazing (Original Mix) 50. John Dahlback - Life (Original Mix) 51. Nari & Milani vs. Maurizio Gubellini - Slash (Original Mix) 52. Kellerkind - Backflash (Original Mix) 53. Crazibiza - Hard (Original Mix) 54. Zedd - Stars Come Out (Datsik Remix) 55. Claptone - Good To You (Original Mix) 56. Claude VonStroke, Jaw - Le Fantome (Original Mix) 57. Addy Van Der Zwan, Hithouse, Jerry Beke - Jack To The Sound Of The Underground 2012 (Addy van der Zwan, Jerry Beke Mix) 58. Nicky Romero - Toulouse (Original Mix) 59. Maetrik - The Reason (Original Mix) 60. Jay Lumen - The Drummer (Original Mix) 61. Stefano Noferini - Airscape (Original Mix) 62. Macromism - Rave nu world (Original Mix) 63. Gareth Emery Feat. Christina Novelli - Concrete Angel (Original Mix) 64. Todd Terje - Inspector Norse (Original Mix) 65. Trent Cantrelle - Night Like This (Original Mix) 66. Elef - Tales Of 88 (Huxley Remix) 67. Adana Twins - Strange (Original Mix) 68. Laura Jones - Inner Place (Original Mix) 69. Pan-Pot & G-Tech - Gravity (Original Mix) 70. David Jones - Gigolo (Les Bijoux Remix) 71. Coldplay - Paradise (Fedde Le Grand Remix) 72. Thugfucker, Tale Of Us, Life And Death - Morgana (Original Mix) 73. Rene Amesz & Ruell - Hope (Original Club Mix) 74. Firebeatz - Where's Your Head At (Original Mix 75. Dani Casarano, Felipe Valenzuela, Demian Muller - Hole In The Middle (Original Mix) 76. Hardwell - Spaceman (Original Version) 77. Rebel - Hearing Voices (Original Mix) 78. Mousse T - Horny (Radio Slave, Thomas Gandey Just 17 Mix) 79. Mr Bizz - Bamboo (Original Mix) 80. Louie FRESCO - So Good (Original Mix) 81. Uner - Cocoua (Original Mix) 82. Knife Party - Internet Friends (Original Mix) 83. Jay Lumen - Whatever You Want (Original Mix) 84. Mat Zo - Bipolar (Original Mix) 85. Roger Sanchez, Sidney Samson - Flashing Lights (Kid Massive Remix) 86. 501 - Headrush feat. Belle Humble (Original Mix) 87. Mark Fanciulli - Sacrifice (Original Mix) 88. Robbie Rivera (feat. JES) – Turn It Around (Robbie Rivera's Juicy Beach Mix) 89. Die & Break - Grand Funk Hustle (Original Mix) 90. Gavin Herlihy - Witching Hour (Original Mix) 91. Avesta - Arena (Original Mix) 92. Zedd - Slam The Door (Original Mix) 93. Lucky Date - I Want You (Original Mix) 94. Umek - Sunday at El Row (Original Mix) 95. Stereo Express - Shadoorack (Original Mix) 96. Paul Thomas & Weekend Heroes - Morena (Original Mix) 97. Neuroxyde & Sisko Electrofanatik - Funkalistic (Original Mix) (Cut) 98. Unknown Artist - What You Need (Coat Of Arms Mix) 99. Chuckie - Together (Original Club Mix) 100. Pachanga Boys - Time (Orginal Mix) 1. Nico Dacido & Chrome - Propan (Original Mix) [7:33] 2. Makarov - Give It A Beat [4:7] 3. Spark Taberner & Oliver Kucera - Anoxic Zone [6:13] 4. Perr0 - L!ke That [11:33] 5. Popperman - Enola Gay [5:3] 6. Minitronix & Funky Brize - Out Of Space (Original Mix) [6:52] 7. Alex Brick - Cricis [4:18] 8. Vincent Dacosta - Atmosphere [5:24] 9. Eugene Navatta - Devil Inside (Original Mix) [10:30] 10. Pasquale Maassen - Zypameth [6:45] 11. Alexander Kvitta - Annunaki [6:18] 12. Onassis - At War (Dj T. A. G. Remix) [5:43] 13. Basscraft - Night Rush 2.0 [6:6] 14. Aston Martinez - Seduction (Mixx Labs Remix) [6:5] 15. Dj Emeriq - She Likes It [8:15] 16. Zippie - The Other Face [8:56] 17. Patrice W. - Stop Talking (Teequ Remix) [6:23] 18. Schrei Leben - Looking Monsters (Original Mix) [6:36] 19. Richard Hanno - Land Of The Free (Original Mix) [8:8] 20. Jmix - White Widow [8:16] 21. Benny Lehmann - Booster (Original Mix) [4:37] 22. Slavo Mir - Cultum Deum (Original Mix) [8:32] 23. Freshbass - Rainbow Fixing (Original) [8:56] 24. Ziv Avriel & Diablo - Tired Awake (Original Mix) [7:10] 25. Oleg Shumand - Techno Kolt (Original) [7:58] 26. Pete Van Payne - Pyramids [6:20] 27. Pete Van Payne - Circularism [7:51] 28. Ben Quarman - Alpha 16 [6:53] 29. D-Noise - Last Legs (Original Mix) [6:42] 30. Stana & Qbass - Purple Shit (Johann Stone Remix) [6:49] 31. Ground Spain - Techno Love (Original Mix) [7:12] 32. Brog Dah - Farrow [7:5] 33. Romanolito - Ambush (Original Mix) [5:55] 34. Whilo - Holy Shit (Original Mix) [9:10] 35. Steve Haze - Allright Sex (Trs Remix) [7:55] 1. Adapter - Another Day (Original Mix) underground (6:45) 2. Adapter - Coincidence (Original Mix) underground (8:30) 3. Adapter - Ussio (Original Mix) underground (8:18) 4. Afrobeat Aka Massa - Green Days (Alex Costa Remix) Formula Recs Digital Factomania (7:39) 5. Alessan Main - Tesitura (Original Mix) Station Group Records (6:47) 6. Alessan Main - Voces y Cristales (Original Mix) Station Group Records (6:54) 7. Alex Celler - Sourire Du Sphinx (Original Mix) Leftroom Limited (10:18) 8. Alex Mine - Me & My Soul (Original Mix) Musex Industries (6:32) 9. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Original Mix) Musex Industries (7:01) 10. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Supersobresaturado Remix) Musex Industries (5:14) 11. Alex Tepper, Min, Chriss Vogt - Bourbon Street Swing (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:58) 12. Alexander Gallomoretti - Under The Skin & Over The Head (Original Mix) SDK Klub (6:33) 13. Artful Dice - Early Night (Original Mix) Zelos Deep (6:25) 14. Bas Struik - BM12 (Original Mix) Nightworx (7:23) 15. Bunte Bummler - I Cant Tell You (Original Mix) Mono Recordings (6:59) 16. Bunte Bummler - Mama Said Its Right (Original Mix) Mono Recordings (6:36) 17. Cala Vega - Viva Castro (Nico Camargo Remix) Revenge Records (8:07) 18. Carlo Cavalli, Eros Locatelli - Mexico (Dany Cohiba Remix) Carlo Cavalli Music Group (6:55) 19. Carlo Cavalli, Roby Star - Marimba (Club Mix) Carlo Cavalli Music Group (6:45) 20. Catz 'n Dogz - Mass Confusion (Original Mix) Pets Recordings (5:23) 21. Chapeau Claque - Last Dance (Enliven Deep Acoustics & Kenny Leaven Remix) UNA Music (8:49) 22. Chapeau Claque - Last Dance (Mathias Kaden What Do You Feel Remix) UNA Music (7:54) 23. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Alexis Valencia Remix) LED Records (7:10) 24. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Andres Blows Remix) LED Records (6:17) 25. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Jairo Delli Remix) LED Records (7:37) 26. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Joan Ibanez & Tony Roguez Remix) LED Records (6:16) 27. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Luigi Laner Remix) LED Records (6:12) 28. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Original Mix) LED Records (6:45) 29. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Santi Lafonte Remix) LED Records (8:20) 30. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Crystal Meth Barbie (Original Mix) Highgrade Records Germany (6:59) 31. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Original Mix) Highgrade Records Germany (7:45) 32. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Todd Bodines Bass Edit) Highgrade Records Germany (7:11) 33. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Tom Clark Remix) Highgrade Records Germany (8:29) 34. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Dirty Money Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (7:19) 35. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Illusions Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (7:13) 36. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Lacusta Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (8:42) 37. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - You Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (6:24) 38. Dave Angel & Ken Ishii - Type E (Temma-Teje Remix) Plaza In Crowd (6:56) 39. Dave Angel - Counter Wave (Jamie Anderson Remix V1) Plaza In Crowd (9:13) 40. Dave Angel - Counter Wave (Jamie Anderson Remix V2) Plaza In Crowd (7:06) 41. Dave Angel - On Point (Marco Bailey Remix) Plaza In Crowd (5:48) 42. Dave Angel - Zulu (Satoshi Fumi Remix) Plaza In Crowd (7:36) 43. Dennis Reich - People Run (Original Mix) Simple As That Records (7:07) 44. Dennis Reich - People Run (Sven Tasnadi Remix) Simple As That Records (8:24) 45. Dennis Reich - Queen Jacobi (Kollektiv Ost Remix) Simple As That Records (8:20) 46. Dennis Reich - Queen Jacobi (Original Mix) Simple As That Records (7:00) 47. DFlame - Black Musique (Angel Navarro Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:12) 48. DFlame - Black Musique (Ovidi Adlert Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:11) 49. DFlame - Black Musique (Rob Lamberti Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:44) 50. DJ Simi - Big Rip (Matt Star Remix) Kling Klong (7:06) 51. DJ Simi - Big Rip (Original Mix) Kling Klong (7:55) 52. Dosem - Replicants (Edu Imbernon and Coyu Remix) Suara (7:40) 53. Dosem - Replicants (Johannes Heil Barefoot Remix) Suara (8:39) 54. Dosem - Replicants (Original Mix) Suara (6:39) 55. DrBerger - Housekeeping (Rich Vom Dorf Remix) Tanzbar digital (6:37) 56. El Coyote - Santisimo (Instrumental) Ican Productions (5:26) 57. El Coyote - Santisimo featuring Iris Cepeda (Vocal Mix) Ican Productions (7:10) 58. GgDeX - Disco Wombat (Mario Piu Revisited) Kling Klong (7:27) 59. Gianni Ruocco - Medejean (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (7:10) 60. Gina, Bas Amro - Everywhere - Chris Lattner Remix Katchuli (6:13) 61. Grafiti - Fascination (Dance Disorder Remix) Armada Music (8:20) 62. Guille Placencia, DartDaKman - Tour of London (Original Mix) Looping Records (6:46) 63. House Head - Pacha Desert (Original Mix) Subtone Records (7:52) 64. Ian Dunlop - Vier (Original Mix) Diva Records Italy (6:52) 65. Ian Dunlop - Vier (Ronan Teague Remix) Diva Records Italy (7:30) 66. iMotion - Red Sponge (Original Mix) Soul Industries (6:56) 67. Javi Rodenas, Harry Jason - Bitch Up (Original Mix) Micronecta Records (8:07) 68. Javi Rodenas, Harry Jason - Bitch Up (Original Non Guitar Mix) Micronecta Records (16:49) 69. Jesse Voorn & Pink Fluid - Simply Magic (Fine Touch Remix) Sound Division (5:53) 70. John Lagora - Dink (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (7:20) 71. Jon Rundell - Dubno (Cristian Varela Remix) Pornographic Recordings (5:39) 72. Jon Rundell - Tom Foolery (Original Mix) Pornographic Recordings (7:12) 73. JR Disco - Streets (Banana Groovz Funky Tek Streetz Remix) 4Disco Records (6:08) 74. JUST2 - Fuck Spresso (Original Mix) Trebol Records (7:17) 75. JUST2 - Peace And Quiet (Original Mix) Trebol Records (8:43) 76. Kaum - Manhattan Party (Ahautzab Remix) Music Things (8:11) 77. Marc Rempel - Voices In My Head (Original Mix) Kuess Mich Vinyl (7:47) 78. Marc Romboy - Feelin' (Christian Smith Remix) Tronic (7:20) 79. Marc Romboy - Feelin' (Original Mix) Tronic (7:09) 80. Marcio Kantana - Trenceologie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (8:12) 81. Marcisco, Mikel B - Some (Original Mix) Twisted Shuffle (6:19) 82. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Shakey Solar (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (5:13) 83. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Stars & Shines (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (7:04) 84. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Why Don't You Answer (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (6:44) 85. Marty Lightbody - Only Dancin (Original Mix) Audiablo Records Ltd (7:22) 86. Min, Chriss Vogt - A Matter Of Taste (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:51) 87. Min, Chriss Vogt - All People (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:10) 88. Min, Chriss Vogt - Barcelona City Hop (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (3:56) 89. Min, Chriss Vogt - Comfort Me (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:06) 90. Min, Chriss Vogt - Lazy Floozies SmokinPot (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:37) 91. Min, Chriss Vogt - T Raumstation (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:45) 92. Min, Chriss Vogt - Walkin Away (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:10) 93. Min, Chriss Vogt - With N Egg Feat Wipa (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:49) 94. Min, Ehyun, Chriss Vogt - The Revenge Of The Phunky Ho (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:32) 95. Min, Thorsten Graeber - Open Mind (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:39) 96. Mr Fluff - Chasing Love (Original Mix) Pixelated Waves (6:08) 97. NDKj - Step Back (Original Mix) 303Lovers (6:34) 98. Nick Shepherd - Romantische Strasse (Original Mix) Undeliving Recordings (7:06) 99. Nora En Pure - Pasadena (Original Mix) Enormous Tunes (6:50) 100. NotoMash - Moon Dancer (Original Mix) Unt Records (8:43) 101. Ovr Kill - Ink On My Arm (Douglas Greed Remix) Kling Klong (6:51) 102. Ovr Kill - Ink On My Arm (Original) Kling Klong (7:18) 103. Paul Loraine - Wish You Were (Original Mix) Vitalik Recordings (6:57) 104. Paul Loraine - Wish You Were (Soulade Reconstruction) Vitalik Recordings (7:04) 105. Rhomtec - Umbra (Original Mix) ToolBox House (7:13) 106. Robbert Mendez - You Are DJ (Instrumental) We Love Sounds (7:15) 107. Robbert Mendez - You Are DJ (Vocal) We Love Sounds (7:15) 108. Room 202 - Ghana (Ant Brooks Remix) Redbox Records (7:17) 109. Room 202 - Ghana (Original Mix) Redbox Records (7:40) 110. Sanya Shelest, EscApe - Crazy Town (Original Mix) Skilled Records (6:56) 111. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Analogue System (Abby J Remix) Pild Records (7:39) 112. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Analogue System (Original Mix) Pild Records (7:41) 113. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Funky Peolple (Original Mix) Pild Records (8:36) 114. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Funky Peolple (Ugur Project Remix) Pild Records (7:13) 115. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Hunting Party (Original Mix) Pild Records (9:20) 116. Sebastien Leger - Wesh Wesh Wesh (FormatB Remix) Mistakes Music (6:52) 117. Sebastien Leger - Wesh Wesh Wesh (Original Mix) Mistakes Music (7:24) 118. Sergio Pardo - Lucian Night (Original Mix) Rene Records (7:39) 119. Sergio Pardo - Tribal Party (Original Mix) Rene Records (7:12) 120. Simone Marmellosi - Passion Before Money (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (7:48) 121. Simone Marmellosi - Wearing Black (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (8:24) 122. Smoke Sykes - Pumpin Jumpin (Dandy Hungary & Invoice Remix) Yoruba Grooves (6:50) 123. Smoke Sykes - Pumpin Jumpin (Original Mix) Yoruba Grooves (7:41) 124. Smoke Sykes - Snatch (Dandy Hungary & Invoice Remix) Yoruba Grooves (7:16) 125. Smoke Sykes - Snatch (Original Mix) Yoruba Grooves (7:29) 126. Sofa Tunes - Try (Original Mix) Wanda Recordings (4:59) 127. Solunamanalia - Salvadore (Original Mix) Dutchie Music (5:59) 128. Soulade - On The Side (Paul Loraine Remix) Vitalik Recordings (5:09) 129. Stefano Tropeano - Betty Blue (Original Mix) Rococo Records (7:34) 130. Stefano Tropeano - Flash Mob (Original Mix) Rococo Records (7:52) 131. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Alex Roque & Marcelo Vak Remix) Deep Xperience (7:17) 132. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Original Mix) Deep Xperience (7:56) 133. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Pille & Lushi Remix) Deep Xperience (7:18) 134. UMEK, Olivier Giacomotto - This Sound (Original Mix) 1605 (7:19) 135. Vlada Asanin - Manos Arriba (Original Mix) Definitive Recordings (7:08) 136. Yuman Grogorov - Dorothea (Original Mix) Code2 Records (6:11) 137. Yuman Grogorov - Tempelhofer Damm (Original Mix) Code2 Records (6:23) Techno 1. Alan Live - Intro of Dawn Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (4:48) 2. Alan Live - Post Mortem Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (5:58) 3. Alan Live - Traum Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (7:19) 4. Alex DElia, Nihil Young - Techno Is Ft ANNA (Alex Di Stefano Remix) Frequenza (7:11) 5. Alex DElia, Nihil Young - Techno Is Ft ANNA (Norbert Davenport & MGJ Remix) Frequenza (7:44) 6. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Fat Cat Ilogical Remix) Musex Industries (8:47) 7. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Inaki Kreator Remix) Musex Industries (7:01) 8. Alexey Kuznetsov - Positive (Original Mix) MK60 Records (7:10) 9. Andreas Bergmann - Undo (Original Mix) Moral Fiber (8:04) 10. Andreas Bergmann - Undo (Petar Cvetkovic Remix) Moral Fiber (7:31) 11. Andy P - Vault (Original Mix) Subwoofer Records (7:31) 12. Bas Thomas - Monster In My Closet (Original Mix) Naked Lunch (6:00) 13. Ben Hills - Moog Vs Strat (Berger Mix) Nachtexpress Records (6:44) 14. Ben Hills - Most Wanted (Klingberger Mix) Nachtexpress Records (8:26) 15. Big Show - Here I Am (Dich Remix) Raccoon Records (6:41) 16. Big Show - Here I Am (Micube Remix) Raccoon Records (7:33) 17. Big Show - Here I Am (Original Mix) Raccoon Records (7:56) 18. Big Show - Here I Am (UniTeQ Remix) Raccoon Records (7:22) 19. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Kasey Remix) Harthouse (6:54) 20. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Mazel Source Remix) Harthouse (6:44) 21. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Reblok Acid Remix) Harthouse (6:36) 22. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Tim Engelhardt Nachtglanz Remix) Harthouse (5:51) 23. Carlo Whale - Obvious (Original) Kan Records (8:22) 24. Carlo Whale - Pluck (Original) Kan Records (7:00) 25. Clouds - Optic (Jesper Dahlback Remix) Turbo Recordings (6:16) 26. Clouds - Optic (Original Mix) Turbo Recordings (5:47) 27. David Prap, Willy Real - Lost In Space (Dehix Remix) Inlab Recordings (7:50) 28. David Prap, Willy Real - Lost In Space (Original Mix) Inlab Recordings (6:55) 29. DavidChristoph - Summertime (Original Mix) Nachtstrom Schallplatten (7:56) 30. Deface - Droid (Original Mix) CRUX (6:32) 31. Deface - FAH Q (Original Mix) CRUX (5:20) 32. DKuhl - Sahara (Original Mix) Varianz Records (8:25) 33. DKuhl - Weltenbummler (Original Mix) Varianz Records (7:45) 34. Doctor Trash - Thats The K (Original) Klender Limited (8:07) 35. Ferhat Albayrak - Requiem (Lance Blaise Remix) Jeton Records (8:11) 36. Ferhat Albayrak - Requiem (Original Mix) Jeton Records (5:47) 37. IDigger - Tripping (Original Mix) Eastar Records (6:44) 38. Ivano Bellini, Gianni Ruocco - Rodadero (Original Mix) Black & Purple Recordings (7:43) 39. Jens Guetschow - Unforgotten (Deep Version) KW Music (5:39) 40. Jericho Knox - The Way I Am (Original Mix) Crossing Over Records (7:40) 41. Jim Rivers - Airport Vultures (Original Mix) Intec (7:13) 42. Jim Rivers - Bells Feat Joash (Original Mix) Intec (4:29) 43. Jim Rivers - Miles Away (Original Mix) Intec (3:21) 44. Jim Rivers - Nearly There (Original Mix) Intec (2:57) 45. Jim Rivers - On The Line (Original Mix) Intec (6:53) 46. Jim Rivers - Phoenix (Original Mix) Intec (5:55) 47. Jim Rivers - Product (Original Mix) Intec (3:11) 48. Jim Rivers - Sleepless In Detroit (Original Mix) Intec (5:52) 49. Jim Rivers - Tangent (Original Mix) Intec (6:22) 50. Jim Rivers - The Seventh Degree (Original Mix) Intec (5:44) 51. Jim Rivers - We Can Do This All Night (Original Mix) Intec (8:02) 52. Jim Rivers - When I Needed You Feat Mark Underdown (Original Mix) Intec (6:50) 53. Jim Rivers - Your Love (Original Mix) Intec (6:32) 54. John Lagora - Down (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (8:54) 55. John Lagora - Down (Ramon Tapia Remix) Mindshake Records (8:08) 56. John Lagora - Maersk (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (8:14) 57. Jon Rundell - Dubno (Original Mix) Pornographic Recordings (8:15) 58. Julian Brand - Paranormal (Original Mix) Analogeffekt Records (6:48) 59. Juno 6 - chain (Original Mix) Broque (3:55) 60. Juno 6 - darkonia (Original Mix) Broque (9:04) 61. Juno 6 - deadlock (Original Mix) Broque (8:07) 62. Juno 6 - state of flux (Original Mix) Broque (6:41) 63. Juno 6 - sub rosa (Original Mix) Broque (7:46) 64. Kardinal, Lowkey - Acid Slug (Original Mix) AFULAB (8:18) 65. Kardinal, Lowkey - Purple Wave (Exclusive Track) AFULAB (8:35) 66. Kardinal, Lowkey - Spangle (Original Mix) AFULAB (8:43) 67. Marcio Kantana - Dialogie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (6:34) 68. Mark Dekoda - Music For The People (Original Mix) Bosphorus Underground Recordings (6:35) 69. Milto Serano - Benoized (Thorsten Heiser Remix) Free Spirit Records (8:19) 70. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Antoni Bios Remix) VOL0101 Records (7:18) 71. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Fuskys Dark Tribe Tool) VOL0101 Records (5:58) 72. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Original Mix) VOL0101 Records (6:49) 73. MILU - Marijuana (Original Mix) Chocolate Dealer Records (5:00) 74. NDKj - Step Back (Luigi Rocca Edit) 303Lovers (6:35) 75. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (bandpass Remix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:06) 76. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (Original Mix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:16) 77. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (Smallrice Remix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:00) 78. Oleg Mass - Fragment Scrap (Original Mix) Einwanderer Records (7:05) 79. Ormatie - Only (Original Mix) Hope Recordings (5:27) 80. Perc - Gonkle (Bitten By The Black Dog) Perc Trax (6:22) 81. Perc - My Head Is Slowly Exploding (Ancient Methods Remix) Perc Trax (7:03) 82. Perc - Start Chopping (Tommy Four Seven Remix) Perc Trax (5:53) 83. Perc - You Saw Me (Sigha & Truss Remix) Perc Trax (7:46) 84. Pete Lopez, Marlon D - Shes Obsessed (Antranigs Ocd Instrumental) Lost In House (8:07) 85. Psyk - Second Trail (Original Mix) Figure (6:19) 86. Psyk - Third Trail (Original Mix) Figure (6:19) 87. Reagen - Synthtetic (Original) Microfreak Records (7:27) 88. Rob Belleville - Close The Distance (Original Mix) purebox (6:11) 89. Rob Belleville - From Midnight til Daylight (Original Mix) purebox (6:03) 90. Rob Belleville - Massive Melting (Original Mix) purebox (6:11) 91. Rob Belleville - Massive Melting (Ryogo Yamamoris Purebox Mix) purebox (6:16) 92. Simon Wish - Dreams (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:46) 93. Simon Wish - Over This Lay feat Jesse Michael (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:14) 94. Simon Wish - Passion (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:05) 95. Slad - Notch (Original Mix) Technoland (7:03) 96. Slad - Third Cabinet (Original Mix) Technoland (6:25) 97. Soundmanipulator - Una Preva (Bruno Ledesma & Lucas Ezequiel) NuLabel (9:01) 98. Soundmanipulator - Una Preva (Original Mix) NuLabel (6:03) 99. Soundmanipulator - Want To Play A Game (Original Mix) NuLabel (6:24) 100. Takuya Yamashita - Mars (Original Mix) Outpost Recordings (7:15) 101. Tebler - Komputaa (Original) FIR Records (5:34) 102. The Micronaut - Schleie (MollonoBass Remix) Acker Records (4:49) 103. UMEK, Olivier Giacomotto - This Sound (Sasha Carassi Phobiq Remix) 1605 (6:40) 104. Vince Noog - Vision (Original Mix) purebox (6:48) 105. Vince Noog - Vision (Ryogo Yamamoris Mix) purebox (7:25) 106. Vlada Asanin - Monkey Business (Original Mix) Definitive Recordings (6:06 Minimal 1. Acetato 3, Diezzera - Im Loco (Original Mix) Attary Records (7:39) 2. Acetato 3, Lado B - Minimalna (Original Mix) Attary Records (5:57) 3. Acetato 3, Lado B - Start Game (Original Mix) Attary Records (7:00) 4. Alberto la Torre - First Pop (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:27) 5. Alberto la Torre - Invisible (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:04) 6. Alberto la Torre - Wilderness (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (7:21) 7. Bjoern Efinger - Tropical Drums (Jule Grasz Remix) Starcake Records (6:14) 8. Bjoern Efinger - Tropical Drums (Original Mix) Starcake Records (7:39) 9. Cmore Trix - The Wiggler (Glitter Remix) 4slash4 (6:01) 10. Cmore Trix - The Wiggler (Original Mix) 4slash4 (5:09) 11. Dago DJ - Black Jungle (Endy DJ) Drugstore Records (5:40) 12. Dave Angel & Ken Ishii - Type E (Shin Nishimura Remix) Plaza In Crowd (7:18) 13. Dirt, Nail - Bishop (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:07) 14. Dirt, Nail - Pleasing Plow (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:43) 15. Dirt, Nail - Radio (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:35) 16. Djafar - Rich And Rush (Original) Wald Und Wiese (6:12) 17. Djafar - Saw Dark (Original) Wald Und Wiese (5:42) 18. Dog, off - Star Eksho (Original Mix) Digital Music Labels (6:49) 19. Dog, off - Trill Cat (Randoom Remix) Digital Music Labels (8:17) 20. Double M - Andive (Original Mix) MFR (6:28) 21. Falke, Vogelbein - Papa (Orginal) Get Minimal Music (6:37) 22. Falke, Vogelbein - Smokers (Original) Get Minimal Music (7:06) 23. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Brojanowski Daddy Remix) Der Hut (6:06) 24. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Felix Lorussos Flat Broke Remix) Der Hut (6:58) 25. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Kamika Remix) Der Hut (6:56) 26. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Original Mix) Der Hut (6:26) 27. Joe Dominguez - Boombox (Original Mix) Digital Music Labels (6:44) 28. Juan Ddd, Bedoya - Relik (Original Mix) Starten Music (7:15) 29. Luca Aversano - The Beating of Wings a Butterfly (Original Mix) Unistory Music (7:18) 30. Lyr - Kepler 9b (Original Mix) From A Tree (5:36) 31. Mac Vaughn - Funnel Cloud (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:03) 32. Mac Vaughn - This Is Just A Test Mas (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:20) 33. Marcio Kantana - Analogie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (6:31) 34. Marco Furnari - Nightmare (Original Mix) Infernal Poison Publisher (7:30) 35. Marco Furnari - Rabbithole (Original Mix) Infernal Poison Publisher (6:30) 36. Marco Sapiens - Body 2 Body (Nitro Mix) Groove On (7:29) 37. Marco Sapiens - Body 2 Body (Original Mix) Groove On (7:25) 38. Mark Dekoda - Why Dont You (Original Mix) Bosphorus Underground Recordings (6:02) 39. Matt Funkk - Elephant (Original Mix) Consumed Records (8:19) 40. Matt Funkk - Evolve (Original Mix) Consumed Records (7:42) 41. Michael Lovatt - Howler (Damolh33 Remix) Melonsound (6:30) 42. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Original Mix) Sound Lab (5:46) 43. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Weskors Dream Remix) Sound Lab (5:56) 44. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Wocky Remix) Sound Lab (4:25) 45. Mounsie - Are U Scared (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:46) 46. Mounsie - Black Russian (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:31) 47. Mounsie - Made In Turkey (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:28) 48. Oleg Mass - Interpretation (Original Mix) Einwanderer Records (6:48) 49. Ozen Nouse aka Enzo Porrino - Paper Heart (Original Mix) CibiCaldi Records (6:33) 50. Ozen Nouse aka Enzo Porrino - Sintetic Sky (Original Mix) CibiCaldi Records (7:23) 51. Paul Parsons - Peepin (Jamore Landson Remix) Tall House Digital (8:38) 52. Sadder - Dark Smile (Original Mix) Dser Records (6:52) 53. Sadder - Insane Friend (Original Mix) Dser Records (7:29) 54. Samuele Buselli - Jumping (Original Mix) Milk (5:05) 55. Samuele Buselli - Running (Original Mix) Milk (5:19) 56. Samuele Buselli - Wake Up (Original Mix) Milk (5:09) 57. Steve Fourez, Jason Kebble - Limestone (Original Mix) Syncope Recordz (6:17) 58. The Forest, Stimmhalt - Sunflower (Nemaier Remix) DLab Records (5:58) 59. The Forest, Stimmhalt - Sunflower (Original Mix) DLab Records (7:32) 1. Kamika - Conform [6:18] 2. Heinrichs & Hirtenfellner - Cut Bread [7:9] 3. RenГЁ Bourgeois - Mama San [7:34] 4. Maksim Dark - Die Intellektuelle Idee (Mike Wall Remix) [7:25] 5. Brojanowski - Let Me Be Your Lover [7:10] 6. Urla Ender - 13.0 (Gabriel Le Mar Remix) [6:53] 7. Roberto Mozza - One Night In Palais (Toubi Mcweird Remix) [6:24] 8. Leenn'y - Mr. Orange [6:23] 9. Nadja Lind - Aggregat No.5 [6:36] 10. Miro Pajic - Inter Fear [7:5] 11. Oliver Ton - The Whupp (Rene Bourgeois Whupp Dat Ass Remix) [7:29] 12. SoundApotheke - De De Puuh [4:50] 13. Olaf Over - Psycho Kit [4:48] 14. Norman - Zugang Voll Integriert (Syntax Error Remix) [5:44] 15. Baby Chris - Lesson In Live (Bonus Mix) [7:54] 16. Fallhead - Unten Der HГјgel (Esspapier Special Edit) [6:1] 17. Lampenfieber - The Balls [6:38] 18. f.i.e.l.d.y - High [7:8] 19. Trotzkopf - Monuciani (Nutmann Remix) [6:21] 20. Unknown Option - Once Upon A Time [5:44] 21. Monkeylovers - Hear No Evil [7:25] 22. Flea - Minx [7:38] 23. Demas - Bohnen Herbert (Sebastian Koch's Schoten Remix) [6:14] 24. Michael Burkat & Lars Klein - Das Rockt Auch! [7:3] 25. Aemkay - Hunter [8:7] minimal techno 1. Andy Martin - Ataraxia (Original Mix) (7:03) 2. Andy Martin - Human Circuit (Original Mix) (7:02) 3. Andy Martin - Popol Vuh (Original Mix) (8:18) 4. Andy Martin - Telekinesis (Original Mix) (7:47) 5. Damolh33, Hertzman - Concept (Original Mix) (6:07) 6. Damolh33, Hertzman - Moisture (Original Mix) (6:36) 7. Damolh33, Hertzman - Nimbus (Original Mix) (6:14) 8. Damolh33, Hertzman - Skill (Original Mix) (6:10) 9. Dani Sbert - Moon (Original Mix) (7:29) 10. Dani Sbert - Sun (Original Mix) (7:29) 11. Hertzman - Aeon (Original Mix) (6:07) 12. Hertzman - Fortress (Original Mix) (6:10) 13. Hertzman - Story (Original Mix) (6:13) 14. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Chris Fortier 40oz Drum Dub Tool) (3:25) 15. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Chris Fortier Remix) (7:06) 16. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Hair Band DropOut Remix) (8:39) 17. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Heat Merchantz Remix) (10:28) 18. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Joint Custody Remix) (8:57) 19. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (No Soul To Sell Remix) (8:11) 20. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Original Mix) (8:59) 21. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Alex Young Y2K Remix) (6:48) 22. Marco P - Numb (Landmark Remix) (7:25) 23. Mark Denken - Ducks & (Original Mix) (5:39) 24. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Francesco Bergomi May Go On To Ecuador Remix) (7:03) 25. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Andy Martin Remix) (6:42) 26. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Original Mix) (7:59) 27. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Tomas More Kepler 22b Remix) (7:52) 28. Swallen - OMG (Min & Mal & Doublewave Remix) (8:07) 29. Swallen - OMG (Original Mix) (6:55) 30. Swallen - OMG (Skate Remix) (6:17) 31. Tony Kauffmann, Tinney M - Alien X (Original Mix) (7:52) 32. Tony Kauffmann, Tinney M - Reconstruction (Original Mix) (7:21) 1. Alex Di Stefano - Phase One (Koen Groeneveld Remix) (6:40) 2. Alex Di Stefano - Phase One (Original Mix) (6:38) 3. Alex Villanueva - GoodFellas (Damasko Remix) (6:12) 4. AMochi - Black Reigns (Original Mix) (7:31) 5. AMochi - Phantom (Original Mix) (6:20) 6. AMochi - Stray (Original Mix) (6:05) 7. Bart Skils - Burnin (Nicole Moudaber Remix) (7:41) 8. Bart Skils - Burnin (Original Mix) (7:06) 9. D-Nox & Beckers - Sunner (Dustin Zahn Dub) (6:46) 10. D-Nox & Beckers - You Are (Bushwackas Just Be Remix) (9:13) 11. Ensaime, Alex Guesta - Hands Up (Club Mix) (8:11) 12. Funk D'Void - Counter Cat (Original Mix) (6:14) 13. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Andre Luki Remix) (6:07) 14. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Degasperi Remix) (6:55) 15. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Gabriel Noise Remix) (7:19) 16. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (LSotnas Remix) (4:16) 17. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Mendhelson Remix) (7:10) 18. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Original Mix) (7:19) 19. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Original Mix) (6:20) 20. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Paride Saraceni & Demas Hypnodeep Remix) (7:44) 21. Margot - Liuff Settanta (Florian Meindl Remix) (7:36) 22. MiniCoolBoyz - Excuse Me (Alberto Pascual Remix) (6:24) 23. MiniCoolBoyz - Excuse Me (Marka T Remix) (6:46) 24. MiniCoolBoyz - Feel My Drums (Mladen Tomic Remix) (7:38) 25. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Luigi Madonna Remix) (6:38) 26. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Marka T Remix) (6:55) 27. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Piig & Dan Remix) (7:45) 28. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Sam Paganini Remix) (7:25) 29. MiniCoolBoyz - This Is My Acid House (Black Abstract Acid House Remix) (6:39) 30. Nick Daring - Alliance (Original Mix) (7:20) 31. Paul Mac - The Process (Original Mix) (5:12) 32. Paul Mac - The Process (Paul Mac Stimulus Dub) (6:05) 33. Paul Mac - The Process (Takashi Watanabe After Hours Mix) (8:19) 34. Paul Mac - The Process (Takashi Watanabe Remix) (8:13) 35. Spada - Banga (Original Mix) (7:08) 36. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (ABrothers Remix) (7:15) 37. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Dave The Drummer Remix) (6:54) 38. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Knobs Drill Remix) (7:30) 39. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Original Mix) (5:48) 40. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Spiriakos & Steen Remix) (5:37) 41. Stefanowitz - Atma (Original Mix) (7:17) 42. Stefanowitz - Pfhrwhapp (Original Mix) (6:43) 43. Stefanowitz - Psyche (Original Mix) (6:48) 44. Tintin - Render In (Original Mix) (7:42) A Hvich ?– Survival (Moldavius Remix) A Hvich ?– Survival (Original Mix) A Hvich ?– Survival (Stevie Wilson Remix) Aaron Santos & James Teej ?– Sorry Soul (Nhar Remix) Acidia ?– Street (Acidia Club Mix) Alberto Santana ?– Minus One (Original Mix) Alberto Santana ?– Overload (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez ?– Ghost in the Machine (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez ?– Walkfunk (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– It?’s A Groove (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– Was Great (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– Was Up (Original Mix) Alex D?’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A ?– Techno is (D-Unity Remix) Alex D?’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A ?– Techno is (Gabriel D?’or & Bordoy Remix) Boris Brejcha ?– Picolomini (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha ?– Ruhrschussel (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha ?– We Are Looking For (Original Mix) Chris Lo ?– All Sistem (Original Mix) Chris Lo ?– Bronx Brothers (Original Mix) Chris Majcen ?– Time Spiral (Original Mix) Coma ?– Fiction (Original Mix) Coma ?– Gravity (Original Mix) Coma ?– Total DLY (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton ?– Feng Shui Theory 1 (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton ?– Feng Shui Theory 2 (Original Mix)..... 4 Souls ?– Swing Ya Thing (Original Mix) Affkt, Darlyn Vlys, One Hand aka Darlyn Vlys AFFKT ?– Kohu (Original Mix) Alessio Mereu ?– Hypochondriac (Original Mix) Animal Trainer ?– Alive (Original Mix) Aquarium Punks ?– African Man With A Piano (Original Mix) Beat ?– For The Masses (Original Mix) Brisboys ?– Mercury Groove (Original Mix) Charles Ramierz ?– Heavens Groove (Kabuto Koji Remix) Christian Smith, Florian Meindl ?– Desire (Original Mix) Cristhian Hoffmann ?– Restart The Music (Original Mix) Dave Garcia, Eric Ortega ?– El Pirata (Danny LeBlack Remix) Deep Sound ?– Tech (Original Mix) Dema, Paride Saraceni ?– Semafor (Piatto Remix) DFormation ?– Dont Stop (Julian Poker Remix) DFormation, Oscar L ?– MAD (D-Unity Remix) DFormation,Simon Shaker ?– Get Excited (Javi Colors DJ Garces Remix) Dirtyworx ?– Berliner (Original Mix) DJ Kay ?– Waterfall (Autophase Remix) Dzeko Torres ?– Self Explanatory (Original Mix) Falke, Vogelbein ?– Minimal Smoke (Original) Gino Patricio ?– No Diggity (Original) Groove Man ?– Back In The Game (Original Mix) Isabelle ?– Breakup Jewelry (Original) Ismael Rivas aka Riva ?– El Farol (Original Mix) Jalebee Cartel ?– Funda (Original Mix) Jamie Anderson, Deepgroove ?– Freya (Daniel Steinberg Remix) JDG_Meltek ?– Retrigger (Original Mix) Jhoan Sanchez ?– En Las Alturas (Moizez Ohr Remix) Jochen Pash ?– Voyage (Dj PP Remix) Julian Poker ?– Fever (Original Mix) Libex, Paolo Pellegrino ?– Prika (Original Mix) Marco Lys, Alex Kenji ?– Manaus (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa ?– Athens (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa, Luigi Rocca ?– The Passenger (Original Mix) Mark Diablo ?– 365 (Original Mix) Mark Wheels ?– Theory Of Relativity (Original Mix) Marvell, Too Fresh ?– Hotel Party feat Marvell (Bass Kleph Remix) Maxikool ?– Click (Original Mix) Milton Channels ?– I Want It (Original Mix) Ned Rise ?– Magic Fly (Original Mix) Neverdogs, Brusca ?– Podenco (Original Mix) Nikola Gala ?– A Voice From Outer Space (Original Mix) Nino Bua ?– The Beat Within (Original Mix) Oliver Klein, Kolombo ?– Espionnage (Fusty Delights Remix) Peeta ?– Gandhis Flip Flop (Original Mix) Pizeta ?– Ocra (Original Mix) Ron Carroll, Superfunk ?– Lucky Star (Kolombo 303 Dub) RPO ?– The First Time In My Life (Joy Marquez Remix) Sharam Jey ?– Attention (Eats Everything Jay Robinsons Remix) Sharam Jey, Deadbots ?– Obey (Polymath Remix) Stan Kolev ?– Rescue Me (Original Mix) Sweet N Candy ?– Deep Water (Florian Meindl Edit) System F, Marc Almond ?– Soul On Soul (Elektrochemie LK Mix) Tamer Fouda ?– Bitch (Minimal Bitch Mix) The Selph ?– An Anxious Friend (Original Mix) Thomas Schumacher, Florian Meindl ?– Satisfaction (Original Mix) Vlada Asanin, Cuartero ?– Pincel (Original Mix) Xar Lee ?– Te Da Igual (Tony Dee Remix) Yan Oxygen ?– Ghost (Original Mix) Agaric ?– Run. Ostern Jam Beatfunk ?– Pump (Original Mix) BNZO-El Chupacabra Original Mix Hollen ?– Mamy Groovy (Tony Dee Remix) Lewis Ryder ?– Kaffee-Monster Schief Gegangen (Nathan Coles & David Cokers Spanish Fly Mix) Mark Reeve-Lichtkleid Original Mix Maximan ?– Jail View (Scan Mode Remix) Rohrer & Siegel ?– BigBertha The Martinez Brothers ?– Issshhh (Beats) Alberto Pascual ?– Drive (Original Mix) Dektend & Dfndr ?– Rococco Cake Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris Altogether Lost Ben Klock S Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jon Reynolds & Tomas Rubeck ?– Union Street Car Park (Original Mix) Markantonio, Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati ?– My Tisana (Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati Remix) Patrick Kunkel and M.in ?– I Know feat. Harold Todd (Original Mix) VA-Maximan Jail View Scan Mode Remix Flug -13c Tool Mix Glimpse ?– Work That Body (Kehakuma Remix) Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jeff Mills ?– Gadd Luigi Madonna-Enigma Four mike parker ?– ringing bass Paul Ritch ?– Shake It (Original Mix) Timmo Comb Of Mermaid ?– Original Mix Tom Flynn ?– Budgie Smuggler (Original Mix) Atesh K. ?– Simple Trap Avilo-Missio Daniele Papini ?– Astanti Titta Remix David Phillips ?– The Batch Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris-Altogether Lost Ben Klock s Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Roland M. Dill ?– I?’ll be There (Sam Ball Remix) TechGroup Maurizio Vitiello-MusicOn Original Mix Aquarius Heaven-Universe Drumfunk (Original Mix) Hollen ?– Alfio (Original Mix) Javier Carballo ?– Islands (Djohnny Remix) Javier Carballo ?– Low (Original Mix) Jon Gurd and Dave Robertson-Never Do That (Original Mix) Luca Lozano ?– Heaven & Hell (Penner & Muder Remix LuLu Rouge ?– Bless You (Minilogue rmx) RAY OKPARA- MODERN DANCE (Original mix) agaric-drifter Agaric-Who Made Up The Rules Original Mix Benny Royal ?– Go Bump (Original Mix) Daelo ?– Move On (Zack Marullo Remix) Djulz ?– Da Madness (Original Mix) Kaiserdisco ?– Amalfino (2000 And One & DJ Madskillz Remix) Kernel Key ?– Pallets (Original Mix) leonardo_gonnelli-not_again_(sammy_remix) Mihalis Safras ?– San trope (Oxia remix) Yoshitaca And Ittetsu And Jun Akimoto ?– Just Lay Back (Ittetsu And Jun Akimoto Remix) Alberto Pascual ?– Drive (Original Mix) Dektend & Dfndr ?– Rococco Cake Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris Altogether Lost Ben Klock S Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jon Reynolds & Tomas Rubeck ?– Union Street Car Park (Original Mix) Markantonio, Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati ?– My Tisana (Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati Remix) Patrick Kunkel and M.in ?– I Know feat. Harold Todd (Original Mix) VA-Maximan Jail View Scan Mode Remix Flug -13c Tool Mix Glimpse ?– Work That Body (Kehakuma Remix) Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jeff Mills ?– Gadd Luigi Madonna-Enigma Four mike parker ?– ringing bass Paul Ritch ?– Shake It (Original Mix) Timmo Comb Of Mermaid ?– Original Mix Tom Flynn ?– Budgie Smuggler (Original Mix) Alex DElia -Moogerfooger Mladen Tomic Remix Bryan Zentz ?– Double R (Original Mix) Daniel Dubb ?– Wound Up (Original Mix) Lazy M ?– Ready To Rock (Marco Lansi Remix) Mooryc ?– Turn Left (Douglas Greeds ?– from here to poznan rmx) Timmo ?– Locust (Alex Di Stefano Remix) Victor Calderone ?– Pleasure Grip (Original Mix) Vogue. Victor Ruiz. Barudi ?– Playboy (Dub Mix) Xircus ?– Rolf Harris (Ronan Portela Remix) Aquarius_Heaven_-_Universe_(Original_Mix) Bruch & Junior ?– Seat No Fastbelt (Original Mix) Frann delice & Xuzav ?– Run Ran Run (Original mix) Kernel Key ?– Pallets (Original Mix) Smart Wave ?– Mind mazes(DJ Raid detroits dub mix) The Evil Amigos ?– Playa Bossa Veerus & Maxie Devine ?– 1976 (Original Mix) Xircus ?– Rolf Harris (Ronan Portela Remix) Broombeck ?– Wtfai (Wehbba Remix) Bryan Zentz ?– Double R (Original Mix) D Julz-Da Madness Daniel Dubb ?– Wound Up (Original Mix) Electric Indigo & Irradiation ?– Phytoplankton NiCe7 ?– In Between (Supernova Remix) Yoshitaca ?– Just Lay Back (Jun Akimoto & Ittetsu Remix) 01. Piatto - Saturn 8 (Original Mix) 02. Paul Nazca - Scale Of Sky (Original Mix) 03. Ant Brooks - What's Mine (Original Mix) 04. Whitenoize - The Underground (TJR Remix) 05. Roy RosenfelD - Coin Flip (Original Mix) 06. PHNTM - Flash Dance (Original Mix) 07. Ahmet Sendil - I Still Have A Dream (Original Mix) 08. Balthazar, Jackrock - Puerto Rico (Alex Di Stefano Remix) 09. Andre Walter, Chris Hope - Mania (Original Mix) 10. Andrea Roma - Just A Loop (Original Mix) 11. Vladimir Acic - Mr. Joe Gideon (Original Mix) 12. 777 Systems - Noms (Original Mix) 13. Rub A Dub - TM (Original Mix) 14. Dualfunk - Rolling (Original Mix) 15. A.K.O. - Say Hello (Original Mix) 16. Alex Long - Magenta (Original Mix) 17. Mario Ochoa - La Noche (Original Mix) 18. Frank Sonic, Mike Maass - Butan (Original Mix) 19. Juan Ddd - Mad Dog (Original Mix) 20. The Scumfrog - In Love (Original Mix) 21. Juan Ddd, Johan Dresser, Stereomono - Ant Man (Original Mix) 22. SoNa, Simia - Dimply (Original Mix) 23. Hellomonkey - My Seven Favorite Sharpshooters (Original Mix) 24. Dima German - Physical Reaction (Original Mix) 25. Darryl Green - Warning (Original Mix) 26. W10 - Five O'Clock Love (Original Mix) 27. Montblank - Shuffle (Original Mix) 28. Denis Underground - Feel Free (Original Mix) 29. Kyfu - Trop Cale (Original Mix) 30. Miguel Bastida - Rezolution (Original Mix) 31. Daniel Kaufman - Stalled (Original Mix) Alex Mine – Don’t Look Back (Original Mix) Alex Mine – Teraphy (Original Mix) Aumrec – Anouka (Original Mix) Aumrec – Aumrec (Original Mix) Aumrec – Lapislazul (Ninth Camomile Remix) Catatonic Overload – Death Before Disco (Original Mix) Catatonic Overload – Environment (Delete Remix) Catatonic Overload – Environment (Original Mix) Dani Sbert – Otherside (Original Mix) Dani Sbert – Ready (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – Moonflower (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – Smoker (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – When the Sunshine Goes Down (Original Mix) Daniele Kama – Last Request (Original Mix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (German Valley Remix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (Gion Remix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (Original Mix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Cristiano Casiraghi Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Loko Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Original Mix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Ricardo Espino Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Sotisfaction Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Ferdi L Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Giuseppe Antonino Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Joe Kendut Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Original Mix) Ian O’Donovan – Redemption (Original Mix) Ian O’Donovan – Relieve (Original Mix) Jacob Dannyl – Where Is My Mind (Killer Session) Leechi Alexej – Hubbub (Original Mix) Leechi Alexej – Turk Kizi (Original Mix) Leo R – Amber Light (Original Mix) Leo R – Drill Bit (Original Mix) Leo R – Room 237 (Original Mix) Loud Noize – Dark Distortion (Original Mix) Loud Noize – Distorted Reality (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Hidden Empire (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Knavish (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Sphinx (Original Mix) Marco Lys – Kama (Original) Marco Lys – Kama (Solo Remix) Mario Ochoa – Take A Look (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa – The Rooster (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Promzona (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Regroover (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Wave Of Resonance Timework (Original Mix) Mike Huckaby – The Tresor Track (Original Mix) NHB & Fabrizio Pettorelli – Bad Habits (Original Mix) Nice Deejay – Miss Nice (Original Mix) Nice Deejay – Ndrom (Original Mix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Mike Ban & Dietmar Wohl Remix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Original Mix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Torsten Kanzler Remix) Oliver Kucera – Lightning Bolt (Spark Taberner Remix) Oliver Kucera – Stop Sequencer (Original Mix) Oliver Kucera & Souris – Lightning Bolt (Original Mix) People Get Real – Bleep Spectro (Original Mix) People Get Real – Pachino (Original Mix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Ditto Remix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Don Ruijgrok Remix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Original Mix) Psyk – Lowdown (Original Mix) Psyk – Repeat (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Inertia (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Mobility (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Rhythm (Original Mix) Ramon Zenker & Harada – Rappelkiste (Original Mix) Repton – I Was Here (Nikkolas Research Remix) Repton – I Was Here (Original) Repton – I Was Here (Simon Firth Remix) Sasha Carassi – Lateral Pressure (Original Mix) Sintex Music – Bangkok (Original Mix) Sintex Music – Diffuse (Original Mix) Spoiled Kid – The ONE! (Original Mix) Spoiled Kid – You Can Take It (Original Mix) Synthetic Technology – Fatal Error (Original Mix) Synthetic Technology – Placenta (Original Mix) The Abductors – Stevige Track (Original Mix) The Advent – Distract (Original Mix) The Advent – Higher Learning (Original Mix) The Advent – Nexus 22 (Original Mix) The Collectorz – Blood (Original Mix) The Collectorz – Blood (Raw Mix) Tomas More – Flesh (Original Mix) Tomas More – Persona (Original Mix) Tomas More – The Kiss (Original Mix) Tomas More – The Unknown Word (Original Mix) Tony Kairom – Popeye (Original Mix) Tony Kairom – The Addams Family (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Atom (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Flux (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Kaleidoscope (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Changes (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Changes (Romar Remix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Make You Wet (Karim Rajhi Remix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Make You Wet (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Underground (Micro on Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Underground (Original Mix) Zenbi – Gezuar (Original Mix) Zenbi – Minimalistic (Original Mix) A Hvich – Survival (Moldavius Remix) A Hvich – Survival (Original Mix) A Hvich – Survival (Stevie Wilson Remix) Aaron Santos & James Teej – Sorry Soul (Nhar Remix) Acidia – Street (Acidia Club Mix) Alberto Santana – Minus One (Original Mix) Alberto Santana – Overload (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez – Ghost in the Machine (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez – Walkfunk (Original Mix) Alex Costa – It’s A Groove (Original Mix) Alex Costa – Was Great (Original Mix) Alex Costa – Was Up (Original Mix) Alex D’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A – Techno is (D-Unity Remix) Alex D’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A – Techno is (Gabriel D’or & Bordoy Remix) Boris Brejcha – Picolomini (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha – Ruhrschussel (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha – We Are Looking For (Original Mix) Chris Lo – All Sistem (Original Mix) Chris Lo – Bronx Brothers (Original Mix) Chris Majcen – Time Spiral (Original Mix) Coma – Fiction (Original Mix) Coma – Gravity (Original Mix) Coma – Total DLY (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton – Feng Shui Theory 1 (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton – Feng Shui Theory 2 (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Eta Carinae (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Husaria (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Magma (Original Mix) Dave Spritz – Salvia (Original Mix) David Temessi & Hiab – Imotape (Original Mix) David Temessi & Hiab – Powertape (Original Mix) Davidchristoph – Fear Frequency (Bodyscrub Remix) Davidchristoph – Fear Frequency (Original Mix) Davidchristoph – Ghost Raider (Loco & Jam Remix) Davidchristoph – Ghost Raider (Original Mix) Deep Future – Do it All Night (Hugo Remix) Deep Future – Do it All Night (Original Mix) Deep Future – Flying Colours (Lazaro Casanova Miami Vice Refix) Deep Future – Flying Colours (Original Mix) DJ Milectro & Jonny Calypso – Direction (Original Mix) DJ Milectro & Jonny Calypso – Rise & Fall (Original Mix) Dorian Chavez & Mobius Strum – MAE (Original Mix) Dorian Chavez & Mobius Strum – Rainforest (Original Mix) Franck Valat – Landscape 010 (Original Mix) Franck Valat – Mindie (Original Mix) Gepy – Baby Dinosaur (Original Mix) Gepy – Pippo (Original Mix) Glitter, Nytron – Freak Chick (Original Mix) Johnny Kaos & Hunzed – Emociones De La Vida (Original Mix) Koer – Fobos (Original Mix) Koer – Moonlight (Original Mix) Luthier – Prevent Hearing (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – Infinity (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – Roundabout (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – You Know (Original Mix) Maximiljan – Backlash (Egal 3 Remix) Maximiljan – Backlash (Original Mix) Maximiljan – Funky Mary (Original Mix) Mechanique – Island Of Stability – (Original Mix) Mechanique – Karoshi – (Original Mix) Mendo & Yvan Genkins – Capture (Original Mix) Mendo & Yvan Genkins – Witness (Original Mix) Mike Spaccavento – Game Over (Original Mix) Mike Spaccavento – Vocal Round (Original Mix) Morry – Minimal Baby (Original Mix) Morry – Shit Happiness (Original Mix) Nytron – House You (Original Mix) Oliver Schories – The Deal (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Bitter Rucker (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Dumb House (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Timeline (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Zulu (Original Mix) Paolo Driver – Good Afternoon (Los Suruba 90′s Remix) Paolo Driver – Good Afternoon (Original Mix) Paolo Driver & Roby J – Fusion (Original Mix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Funk D’void Remix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Lewis Ryder Remix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Original Mix) Paul Loraine – Once Again (Original Mix) Phonokemi – 2000 Eyes (Original Mix) Phonokemi – Black Comes the Day (Original Mix) Phonokemi – Smile (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Babylon (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Bumbaclat (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Got Me Down (Original Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Alexander Kowalski Remix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Benny Grauer Remix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Digital Bonus Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Original Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Skai & Joel Armstrong Remix) SIS – Aires (Original Mix) SIS – Boogie Nights (Original Mix) Sivesgaard – Unorthodox (Ricardo Tobar Remix) Solee & Joxe – Abundance (Original Mix) Sven Jaeger – Casta Uela (Original Mix) Sven Jaeger – Cicilon (Original Mix) Ted Dettman – Normal Life (Original Mix) Tim J – 7 Faktors of Awakenings (Original Mix) Tim J – Beat Down (Original Mix) Tim J – Tresor (Original Mix) Tom Hades – Pitched to the Max (Original Mix) Tom Hades – Pitched to the Max (Sasha Carassi Remix) Tom Hades – React (Original Mix) Tomas More – Scopic Drive (Original Mix) Tomas More – Scopic Drive (Roman Fluegel Remix) Tomas More – That Thing (Original Mix) Wally Stryk – Mon Amour (Max Jacobson & Jason Patrick Remix) Wally Stryk – Mon Amour (Original Mix) Wally Stryk – Palermo Soho (Do Santos Remix) Wally Stryk – Palermo Soho (Original Mix) 01. Robert Noise & Ploughman – Chennai (Original Mix) (7:07) 02. Glen & Adrian – Microchip (Original Mix) (7:05) 03. Ray Valentine – Turkey Turist (Original Mix) (6:11) 04. Ruiz Sierra – Turn Off The Lights (Original Mix) (7:01) 05. Emanuele Sorgato – Go (Original Mix) (5:11) 06. BenyOne – Machine (Original Mix) (6:37) 07. Secret Groovers – Inversion (Original Mix) (9:12) 08. Cristian Glitch – Dispersion (Original Mix) (6:36) 09. Rodrigo Diaz – Sexstars (Original Mix) (7:24) 10. Stephen Advance & Roland Weber – Instant Reaction (Original Mix) (6:15) 11. Italianbeat Guys – Thunderstorm (Original Mix) (9:05) 12. Stephen Advance & Droplex – Predator (Original Mix) (6:00) 13. Luix Spectrum – Define (Original Mix) (7:07) 14. Miniroom & Red Pig Flower – Red [email protected] (Original Mix) (6:20) 01. London Exchange – Forever (Dura Remix) (6:36) 02. Dura – Anti Pink (Original Mix) (6:36) 03. Azzimov – Penetrator (Oziriz Remix) (6:02) 04. Jackson White – Back (Original Mix) (6:28) 05. Jackson White – Wrong Out (Original Mix) (6:13) 06. Dura – Outswise (Original Mix) (5:50) 07. Dura – Eyes On The Prize (Brutal Kids Remix) (6:06) 08. Dura, Sasha Check – Ritas Groove (Original Mix) (6:55) 09. Twist – Rockfeller Fcuk (Original Mix) (7:05) 10. Jackson White – Beat In Beat (Original Mix) (5:36) 11. Lee Poulson – For A Kiss Or Two (Original Mix) (6:37) 12. Lee Poulson – Kuka (Original Mix) (6:21) 13. Oziriz, Jackson White – Back To Cube (Original Mix) (6:28) 14. Oziriz – Motions (Original Mix) (8:05) 15. Twist – Hidden Place (Original Mix) (8:19) 16. Oziriz – Saxy Waxy (Original Mix) (7:09) 17. Oziriz – Strings As The Ropes (Original Mix) (6:06) 18. Dura – Get Smart (Original Mix) (6:54) 19. Oleg Kostrow – Nemo’s Song (Dura Remix) (3:46) 20. London Exchange – We Are Not Together (Azzimov Remix) (7:13) A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Accapella).mp3 A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Instrumental).mp3 A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Original Mix).mp3 Aeon Flux – We Will Be Free – Original Mix).mp3 Airwolf – Rebels – Original Mix).mp3 Alessio Arcangeli – 1000 Miles – Original Mix).mp3 Alessio Arcangeli – Honefoss – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Life S. – Fuck Off – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Shaje – Bourre – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Shaje – Bourre – Sums 4 Am Remix).mp3 Alex Vandoff – Casino Flamingo – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Verano, Jim Marlaud – Make Me Real – Radio Edit).mp3 Alex Xela – Are You Ready – Original Mix).mp3 Alexander Seretti – Broken – Original Mix).mp3 Alive Me – Something Wrong In The System Control – Original Mix).mp3 Almaru – One Step – Original Mix).mp3 Alvin Tech – Hey – Original Mix).mp3 Alvin Tech – Rhythm Of The Night – Original Mix).mp3 Amadeo, Process P – Agua Fresca – Original Mix).mp3 Ambient P – Music Keeps Me Dancing – Original Mix).mp3 Andhim – Afrikadelle – Original Mix).mp3 Andlee – Trackformers – Original Mix).mp3 Andre Slater – Metamorfosis – Original Mix).mp3 Andrea Pisapia – Scala Reale – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Jupiter Planet – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Mercury Planet – 4ndr375-73k Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Planet Neptune – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Uranus Planet – 4ndr375-73k Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Assembled In – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Audio Delta – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Apartamento – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Casa – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Finca – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – My Fly Mind – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Santana – Trafalgar – Original Mix).mp3 Andrew Phillips – The Saxophonist – Criminal Vibes Remix).mp3 Anthony Grant – 1-2-3-4 – Original Mix).mp3 Anthonydee – Annoyed – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Becouse – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Fantastic – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – God’s Grace – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Kick – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Rhodet – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – This Is The Beat – Original).mp3 Arc, Kalls – U Got It – Radio Edit).mp3 Art Pleasure – You Feat. Jessy Howe – Original Mix).mp3 Arts, Leni – One Pub One Tony – Original.mp3 Arts, Leni – One Pub One Tony – Original).mp3 Audiosweep – Cell Up – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Debug – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Five – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Four – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall One – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Three – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Two – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Room – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Touch – Original Mix).mp3 Aumrec – Apregunno – Mogahertz Remix).mp3 Aumrec – Apregunno – Original Mix).mp3 Aumrec – Rumade – Alfred Mc Remix).mp3 Aumrec – Rumade – Original Mix).mp3 Autarc – Toolfunk013-1 – Original).mp3 B. Vivant – House Muzik – Original Mix).mp3 B.B Project – Big Party – Original Mix).mp3 Balthazar, Deepzone – Dj, Take Me Away – Radio Club Mix).mp3 Basilica – Somebody Calling You – Original Mix).mp3 Bassbeatz – I Love This Beat – Original Mix).mp3 Bastique, Romee – The Godfather – Original Mix).mp3 Beat Syndrome – Salasa Jar – Original Mix).mp3 Beatjunk – Grinning Bass – Original Mix).mp3 Ben Murray – Next Level – Original Mix).mp3 Benhams – Psychosis In A Dream – Original Mix).mp3 Benn Lian – Because I Called Her – Original Mix).mp3 Bifath – Natural Part 2 – Magru Remix).mp3 Blacksoul – Dancin Feat. Marcya – Joey Aka Jozsef Keller & Pete-R Instrumental).mp3 Bollen, Fichtner – Osama’s Groove – Original Mix).mp3 1. Adam Jace – Deepfusion (7:52) 2. Aki Bergen – M.u.s.i.c. (7:42) 3. Alexander Fog – Black Carnival (6:58) 4. Babak Shayan – Azadi Nist (5:54) 5. Basti Pieper – Orient (12:33) 6. Bucher & Kessidis – Live On (7:47) 7. Coskun & Ak – Take Me (7:45) 8. Deepgroove & Jamie Anderson – Voix (Minicoolboys Remix) (7:41) 9. Dzeta N Basile – One Of A Kind (8:48) 10. Freaks – 2 Please U (Losoul’s Surreal Visits Dub) (6:57) 11. Green Rabbit – Primal Self (4:18) 12. Hardy Heller & Alex Connors – Fred, The Pink Elephant (C-rock Wild Pitch Mix) (7:11) 13. Jerome Noak – I love L.A. (Sasha Kaktus Remix) (6:28) 14. Junior Gee – On The Floor (6:23) 15. Lazo – Caroussell (Lukas Greenberg Mix) (7:42) 16. Lukas Greenberg – The Flash (Jimmy & Fer Ferrari Mix) (8:35) 17. Markus Wesen – Soulful House Music (Original) (9:10) 18. Minoru – 68.71 Per Cent (8:35) 19. Nick Curly – Deep Breath (6:56) 20. Nicole Moudaber – Dilemma (7:36) 21. Nikola Gala – Bring In ‘da Funk (6:08) 22. Nikola Gala – Timeless City (6:41) 23. Pelle Buys – Kiss The Ground (6:37) 24. Roberto Rodriguez – Whisper (7:58) 25. Sebastian Porter – Labamba (Original) (8:04) 26. Sven Kegel & Heino Helck – Wellenbrecher (8:11) 27. The Timewriter – HERE COMES THE SUN (Stryke’s Sunshine State of Mind Remix) (8:16)1. Carl Cox – Nexus (Original Mix) (6:14) 2. Carl Cox – Nexus (Foamo Mix) (6:15) 3. Carl Cox – Nexus (Foamo Dub Mix) (6:15) 4. Carl Cox – Nexus (Tomy De Clerque Mix) (7:52) Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Kronic Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Mobin Master & Tate Strauss Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Rave Radio Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Rocket Pimp Remix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Bass Threat – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Call To 911 – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Deadly Crash – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Fashion Factory – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Get Down Low – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Glance In The Future – Original Mix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Digital Department Remix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Erdi Irmak Remix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Original Mix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Reelaux Not So Dirty Remix).mp3 Brian Bloom, Franky Malloy, Mc G – We Live 4 The Weekend – Original Mix).mp3 Bruno Nasty – Ablana – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt – Get Told – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt – Locked In Trip – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt, Yemi – Music Takes Me Higher – Original Mix).mp3 Camilo Picon – Isotonico – Original Mix).mp3 Chirik Burnlive, Fenix Modest – Acid Smith – Original Mix).mp3 Chris Blum – Extrascharf – Patrick Arbez Remix).mp3 Chris Blum – Josephine – Original).mp3 Chris Blum – Knock Out – Original).mp3 Chris Blum – Sonnenwende – Original).mp3 Chriss Ortega, Christian Hinzer – The Groove – Nicola Fasano, Steve Forest Mix).mp3 City Capture – Any Kind Of Season – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Collide – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Crossfire – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Mirror Surface – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – The Cube – Original Mix).mp3 Coming Out – Start Again – Datamotion Edit Remix).mp3 Coopa – Stutter – 1 Fish, Two Fish Remix).mp3 Coopa – Stutter – Original Mix).mp3 Crazy House Dj’s, Joseph One – Supulo – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Exploited, Alan Lockwood – On Road – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Vecchi – Chinatown – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Vecchi – Confusion – Original Mix).mp3 Da Groovemakers – On The Road Again – Original Mix) – 1).mp3 Da Groovemakers – On The Road Again – Original Mix).mp3 Daily – Kalavalier – Original Mix).mp3 Damian William – Qulove – Original Mix).mp3 Damien J. Carter, Matt Devereaux, Michael Maze – Ticket To Somewhere Feat. Andy P – Claudio Lari Remix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Around Of Consciousness – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Dark Room Of The Earth – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Minimal Injection – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Underwater – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti & Stenli Tong – Impulse Of Sound – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Steinberg – Tansania – Original Mix).mp3 Danny Darko, Toni Lewis – Full Moon – Original Mix).mp3 Dapayk & Padberg – Island Feat. Caro – Florian Meindl Remix).mp3 Dapayk Solo – Child Of The Night – Formatb Remix).mp3 Dario Ruzzier – Commit – Original Mix).mp3 Darwin & Backwall – Ask For More – Maxime Zarcone Remix).mp3 Data Mc – Fever – K-Paul Remix).mp3 Dave Copp, Tommy Mckinley – Coca – Original Mix).mp3 Dave Dumper, Sim Wiener – P.B.S. – Original Mix).mp3 Dave Rose, Alexei & Carlos Kinn – Get The Funky – Original Mix).mp3 David Costa – Lost In The Space – Original Mix).mp3 David Del Olmo, Christian Hard, Andy Cardenas – Take Me Higher – Original).mp3 David Hopperman, Automann – Crytical Feat. Ollie James – Nick Waters & Stephane Karl Remix).mp3 David Kriss – Break Tha Da – Radio Edit).mp3 Davizzino Barretti – Tiro Al Gato – Adi Granth Remix).mp3 Davizzino Barretti – Tiro Al Gato – Alejandro Fernandez Remix).mp3 Davizzino Barretti – Tiro Al Gato – Original Mix).mp3 Davizzino Barretti – Tiro Al Gato – Samuel Plasencia Remix).mp3 D-Becker – Hasten – Vlad Saber Remix).mp3 Deenos B. – Moonpol – Original Mix).mp3 Deenos B. – Panktak – Original Mix).mp3 Deenos B. – Sol – Original Mix).mp3 Denis Underground – I Am Alien Composer – Original Mix).mp3 Denis Underground – Ufo Electro Club – Original Mix).mp3 Deprogres, Droplex – We Return From Physical – Original Mix).mp3 Deprogres, Droplex – We Return From Physical – Stephen Advance Remix).mp3 Diego Quintero – Ficken Herz – Original Mix).mp3 Dietrich, Strolch – Dismission – Canson Remix).mp3 Dirk Dreyer –

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Techno track #6 [click

techno track free 01. Jack Back Feat. David Guetta, Nicky Romero, Sia - Wild One Two (Original Mix) 02. Ivan Gough & Feenixpawl feat. Georgi Kay - In My Mind (Axwell Mix) 03. Nicky Romero - Generation 303 (Original Mix) 04. Madeon - Icarus (Original Mix) 05. Bingo Players - L'Amour (Original Mix) 06. Claptone - Cream (Original Mix) 07. Qulinez - Troll (Original Mix) 08. TJR - Funky Vodka (Original Mix) 09. Skrillex & The Doors - Breakn' A Sweat (Zedd Remix) 10. Sander Van Doorn - Chasin' (Original Mix) 11. David Jones - E Samba (Club Mix) 12. David Jones - Heya (Original Mix) 13. Larry Gee - Yo Mamma (Original Mix) (Cut) 14. Starkillers & Dmitry KO - Don't Hold Back (Original Mix) 15. Zenbi - Double Trouble (Stefano Noferini Remix) 16. Hard Rock Sofa - Quasar (Original Mix) 17. Datsik, Kill The Noise - Lightspeed (Original Mix) 18. Otto Knows - Million Voices (Original Mix) 19. Afrojack, Shermanology - Can't Stop Me (Club Mix) 20. Antillas feat. Fiora - Damaged (Main Mix) 21. Wolfgang Gartner - There And Back (Original Mix) 22. Seamus Haji, Cevin Fisher - I Love The Music (Manuel De La Mare, Alex Kenji Remix) 23. Laidback Luke, Arno Cost & Norman Doray – Trilogy (Original Mix) 24. Adam Port - Someone To Love (Original Mix) 25. Nari & Milani vs Maurizio Gubellini - Up (Instrumental) 26. Adana Twins - Everyday (Original Mix) 27. Joe Garston - That's What She Said (Original Mix) 28. Huxley - Let It Go (Original Mix) 29. Coldplay - Charlie Brown (Dave Aude Remix) 30. Tuccillo & Kiki Navarro feat. Amor - Lovery (Original Mix) 31. Mat's Mattara feat Rockman - Let's Party (Instrumental Mix) 32. Lifelike & Kris Menace - Discopolis (David Jones Remix) 33. Mario Ochoa - The Indian Express (Original Mix) 34. DubVision - All By Myself (Original Mix) 35. Disco Stu & John Monkman - Don't Have To Be Beautiful (Original Mix) 36. Gel Abril & Andrea Oliva - Scene (Original Mix) 37. Pirupa - Party Non Stop (Vocal) 38. Sebastien Drums, Niles Mason - French Rules (Muzzaik Remix) 39. Btsound - Sunshine (Federico Scavo Remix) 40. Peruz, Mat's Mattara - Mono (Mat's Mattara, Peruz Mix) 41. Tommy Trash - Cascade (Original Mix) 42. Richard Grey - Lady (Federico Scavo Remix) 43. Luigi Rocca & Manuel De La Mare - Opa-Locka (Original Club Mix) 44. Pavel Petrov - Koral (Metodi Hristov Remix) 45. Mowgli Feat. Amber Jolene - Back In The Day (Original Mix) 46. Noisia - Diplodocus (Kill The Noise Remix) 47. Feed Me - One Click Headshot (Original Mix) 48. Sian, Mladen Tomic - Front Pocket (Nicole Moudaber Remix) 49. DJ PP, Silversix - Fucking Amazing (Original Mix) 50. John Dahlback - Life (Original Mix) 51. Nari & Milani vs. Maurizio Gubellini - Slash (Original Mix) 52. Kellerkind - Backflash (Original Mix) 53. Crazibiza - Hard (Original Mix) 54. Zedd - Stars Come Out (Datsik Remix) 55. Claptone - Good To You (Original Mix) 56. Claude VonStroke, Jaw - Le Fantome (Original Mix) 57. Addy Van Der Zwan, Hithouse, Jerry Beke - Jack To The Sound Of The Underground 2012 (Addy van der Zwan, Jerry Beke Mix) 58. Nicky Romero - Toulouse (Original Mix) 59. Maetrik - The Reason (Original Mix) 60. Jay Lumen - The Drummer (Original Mix) 61. Stefano Noferini - Airscape (Original Mix) 62. Macromism - Rave nu world (Original Mix) 63. Gareth Emery Feat. Christina Novelli - Concrete Angel (Original Mix) 64. Todd Terje - Inspector Norse (Original Mix) 65. Trent Cantrelle - Night Like This (Original Mix) 66. Elef - Tales Of 88 (Huxley Remix) 67. Adana Twins - Strange (Original Mix) 68. Laura Jones - Inner Place (Original Mix) 69. Pan-Pot & G-Tech - Gravity (Original Mix) 70. David Jones - Gigolo (Les Bijoux Remix) 71. Coldplay - Paradise (Fedde Le Grand Remix) 72. Thugfucker, Tale Of Us, Life And Death - Morgana (Original Mix) 73. Rene Amesz & Ruell - Hope (Original Club Mix) 74. Firebeatz - Where's Your Head At (Original Mix 75. Dani Casarano, Felipe Valenzuela, Demian Muller - Hole In The Middle (Original Mix) 76. Hardwell - Spaceman (Original Version) 77. Rebel - Hearing Voices (Original Mix) 78. Mousse T - Horny (Radio Slave, Thomas Gandey Just 17 Mix) 79. Mr Bizz - Bamboo (Original Mix) 80. Louie FRESCO - So Good (Original Mix) 81. Uner - Cocoua (Original Mix) 82. Knife Party - Internet Friends (Original Mix) 83. Jay Lumen - Whatever You Want (Original Mix) 84. Mat Zo - Bipolar (Original Mix) 85. Roger Sanchez, Sidney Samson - Flashing Lights (Kid Massive Remix) 86. 501 - Headrush feat. Belle Humble (Original Mix) 87. Mark Fanciulli - Sacrifice (Original Mix) 88. Robbie Rivera (feat. JES) – Turn It Around (Robbie Rivera's Juicy Beach Mix) 89. Die & Break - Grand Funk Hustle (Original Mix) 90. Gavin Herlihy - Witching Hour (Original Mix) 91. Avesta - Arena (Original Mix) 92. Zedd - Slam The Door (Original Mix) 93. Lucky Date - I Want You (Original Mix) 94. Umek - Sunday at El Row (Original Mix) 95. Stereo Express - Shadoorack (Original Mix) 96. Paul Thomas & Weekend Heroes - Morena (Original Mix) 97. Neuroxyde & Sisko Electrofanatik - Funkalistic (Original Mix) (Cut) 98. Unknown Artist - What You Need (Coat Of Arms Mix) 99. Chuckie - Together (Original Club Mix) 100. Pachanga Boys - Time (Orginal Mix) 1. Nico Dacido & Chrome - Propan (Original Mix) [7:33] 2. Makarov - Give It A Beat [4:7] 3. Spark Taberner & Oliver Kucera - Anoxic Zone [6:13] 4. Perr0 - L!ke That [11:33] 5. Popperman - Enola Gay [5:3] 6. Minitronix & Funky Brize - Out Of Space (Original Mix) [6:52] 7. Alex Brick - Cricis [4:18] 8. Vincent Dacosta - Atmosphere [5:24] 9. Eugene Navatta - Devil Inside (Original Mix) [10:30] 10. Pasquale Maassen - Zypameth [6:45] 11. Alexander Kvitta - Annunaki [6:18] 12. Onassis - At War (Dj T. A. G. Remix) [5:43] 13. Basscraft - Night Rush 2.0 [6:6] 14. Aston Martinez - Seduction (Mixx Labs Remix) [6:5] 15. Dj Emeriq - She Likes It [8:15] 16. Zippie - The Other Face [8:56] 17. Patrice W. - Stop Talking (Teequ Remix) [6:23] 18. Schrei Leben - Looking Monsters (Original Mix) [6:36] 19. Richard Hanno - Land Of The Free (Original Mix) [8:8] 20. Jmix - White Widow [8:16] 21. Benny Lehmann - Booster (Original Mix) [4:37] 22. Slavo Mir - Cultum Deum (Original Mix) [8:32] 23. Freshbass - Rainbow Fixing (Original) [8:56] 24. Ziv Avriel & Diablo - Tired Awake (Original Mix) [7:10] 25. Oleg Shumand - Techno Kolt (Original) [7:58] 26. Pete Van Payne - Pyramids [6:20] 27. Pete Van Payne - Circularism [7:51] 28. Ben Quarman - Alpha 16 [6:53] 29. D-Noise - Last Legs (Original Mix) [6:42] 30. Stana & Qbass - Purple Shit (Johann Stone Remix) [6:49] 31. Ground Spain - Techno Love (Original Mix) [7:12] 32. Brog Dah - Farrow [7:5] 33. Romanolito - Ambush (Original Mix) [5:55] 34. Whilo - Holy Shit (Original Mix) [9:10] 35. Steve Haze - Allright Sex (Trs Remix) [7:55] 1. Adapter - Another Day (Original Mix) underground (6:45) 2. Adapter - Coincidence (Original Mix) underground (8:30) 3. Adapter - Ussio (Original Mix) underground (8:18) 4. Afrobeat Aka Massa - Green Days (Alex Costa Remix) Formula Recs Digital Factomania (7:39) 5. Alessan Main - Tesitura (Original Mix) Station Group Records (6:47) 6. Alessan Main - Voces y Cristales (Original Mix) Station Group Records (6:54) 7. Alex Celler - Sourire Du Sphinx (Original Mix) Leftroom Limited (10:18) 8. Alex Mine - Me & My Soul (Original Mix) Musex Industries (6:32) 9. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Original Mix) Musex Industries (7:01) 10. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Supersobresaturado Remix) Musex Industries (5:14) 11. Alex Tepper, Min, Chriss Vogt - Bourbon Street Swing (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:58) 12. Alexander Gallomoretti - Under The Skin & Over The Head (Original Mix) SDK Klub (6:33) 13. Artful Dice - Early Night (Original Mix) Zelos Deep (6:25) 14. Bas Struik - BM12 (Original Mix) Nightworx (7:23) 15. Bunte Bummler - I Cant Tell You (Original Mix) Mono Recordings (6:59) 16. Bunte Bummler - Mama Said Its Right (Original Mix) Mono Recordings (6:36) 17. Cala Vega - Viva Castro (Nico Camargo Remix) Revenge Records (8:07) 18. Carlo Cavalli, Eros Locatelli - Mexico (Dany Cohiba Remix) Carlo Cavalli Music Group (6:55) 19. Carlo Cavalli, Roby Star - Marimba (Club Mix) Carlo Cavalli Music Group (6:45) 20. Catz 'n Dogz - Mass Confusion (Original Mix) Pets Recordings (5:23) 21. Chapeau Claque - Last Dance (Enliven Deep Acoustics & Kenny Leaven Remix) UNA Music (8:49) 22. Chapeau Claque - Last Dance (Mathias Kaden What Do You Feel Remix) UNA Music (7:54) 23. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Alexis Valencia Remix) LED Records (7:10) 24. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Andres Blows Remix) LED Records (6:17) 25. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Jairo Delli Remix) LED Records (7:37) 26. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Joan Ibanez & Tony Roguez Remix) LED Records (6:16) 27. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Luigi Laner Remix) LED Records (6:12) 28. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Original Mix) LED Records (6:45) 29. Christian Baez - Circo Loco (Santi Lafonte Remix) LED Records (8:20) 30. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Crystal Meth Barbie (Original Mix) Highgrade Records Germany (6:59) 31. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Original Mix) Highgrade Records Germany (7:45) 32. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Todd Bodines Bass Edit) Highgrade Records Germany (7:11) 33. Claire Ripley, Zeitgeist - Need You (Tom Clark Remix) Highgrade Records Germany (8:29) 34. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Dirty Money Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (7:19) 35. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Illusions Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (7:13) 36. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - Lacusta Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (8:42) 37. Daniel Pscheid, Gene Richards Adnew - You Original (Original) Session Deluxe Recordings (6:24) 38. Dave Angel & Ken Ishii - Type E (Temma-Teje Remix) Plaza In Crowd (6:56) 39. Dave Angel - Counter Wave (Jamie Anderson Remix V1) Plaza In Crowd (9:13) 40. Dave Angel - Counter Wave (Jamie Anderson Remix V2) Plaza In Crowd (7:06) 41. Dave Angel - On Point (Marco Bailey Remix) Plaza In Crowd (5:48) 42. Dave Angel - Zulu (Satoshi Fumi Remix) Plaza In Crowd (7:36) 43. Dennis Reich - People Run (Original Mix) Simple As That Records (7:07) 44. Dennis Reich - People Run (Sven Tasnadi Remix) Simple As That Records (8:24) 45. Dennis Reich - Queen Jacobi (Kollektiv Ost Remix) Simple As That Records (8:20) 46. Dennis Reich - Queen Jacobi (Original Mix) Simple As That Records (7:00) 47. DFlame - Black Musique (Angel Navarro Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:12) 48. DFlame - Black Musique (Ovidi Adlert Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:11) 49. DFlame - Black Musique (Rob Lamberti Remix) Darkside Digital Records (7:44) 50. DJ Simi - Big Rip (Matt Star Remix) Kling Klong (7:06) 51. DJ Simi - Big Rip (Original Mix) Kling Klong (7:55) 52. Dosem - Replicants (Edu Imbernon and Coyu Remix) Suara (7:40) 53. Dosem - Replicants (Johannes Heil Barefoot Remix) Suara (8:39) 54. Dosem - Replicants (Original Mix) Suara (6:39) 55. DrBerger - Housekeeping (Rich Vom Dorf Remix) Tanzbar digital (6:37) 56. El Coyote - Santisimo (Instrumental) Ican Productions (5:26) 57. El Coyote - Santisimo featuring Iris Cepeda (Vocal Mix) Ican Productions (7:10) 58. GgDeX - Disco Wombat (Mario Piu Revisited) Kling Klong (7:27) 59. Gianni Ruocco - Medejean (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (7:10) 60. Gina, Bas Amro - Everywhere - Chris Lattner Remix Katchuli (6:13) 61. Grafiti - Fascination (Dance Disorder Remix) Armada Music (8:20) 62. Guille Placencia, DartDaKman - Tour of London (Original Mix) Looping Records (6:46) 63. House Head - Pacha Desert (Original Mix) Subtone Records (7:52) 64. Ian Dunlop - Vier (Original Mix) Diva Records Italy (6:52) 65. Ian Dunlop - Vier (Ronan Teague Remix) Diva Records Italy (7:30) 66. iMotion - Red Sponge (Original Mix) Soul Industries (6:56) 67. Javi Rodenas, Harry Jason - Bitch Up (Original Mix) Micronecta Records (8:07) 68. Javi Rodenas, Harry Jason - Bitch Up (Original Non Guitar Mix) Micronecta Records (16:49) 69. Jesse Voorn & Pink Fluid - Simply Magic (Fine Touch Remix) Sound Division (5:53) 70. John Lagora - Dink (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (7:20) 71. Jon Rundell - Dubno (Cristian Varela Remix) Pornographic Recordings (5:39) 72. Jon Rundell - Tom Foolery (Original Mix) Pornographic Recordings (7:12) 73. JR Disco - Streets (Banana Groovz Funky Tek Streetz Remix) 4Disco Records (6:08) 74. JUST2 - Fuck Spresso (Original Mix) Trebol Records (7:17) 75. JUST2 - Peace And Quiet (Original Mix) Trebol Records (8:43) 76. Kaum - Manhattan Party (Ahautzab Remix) Music Things (8:11) 77. Marc Rempel - Voices In My Head (Original Mix) Kuess Mich Vinyl (7:47) 78. Marc Romboy - Feelin' (Christian Smith Remix) Tronic (7:20) 79. Marc Romboy - Feelin' (Original Mix) Tronic (7:09) 80. Marcio Kantana - Trenceologie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (8:12) 81. Marcisco, Mikel B - Some (Original Mix) Twisted Shuffle (6:19) 82. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Shakey Solar (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (5:13) 83. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Stars & Shines (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (7:04) 84. Marco Bailey, Tom Hades - Why Don't You Answer (Original Mix) Bedrock Records (6:44) 85. Marty Lightbody - Only Dancin (Original Mix) Audiablo Records Ltd (7:22) 86. Min, Chriss Vogt - A Matter Of Taste (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:51) 87. Min, Chriss Vogt - All People (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:10) 88. Min, Chriss Vogt - Barcelona City Hop (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (3:56) 89. Min, Chriss Vogt - Comfort Me (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (7:06) 90. Min, Chriss Vogt - Lazy Floozies SmokinPot (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:37) 91. Min, Chriss Vogt - T Raumstation (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:45) 92. Min, Chriss Vogt - Walkin Away (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:10) 93. Min, Chriss Vogt - With N Egg Feat Wipa (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (5:49) 94. Min, Ehyun, Chriss Vogt - The Revenge Of The Phunky Ho (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:32) 95. Min, Thorsten Graeber - Open Mind (Original Mix) Yellow Tail (6:39) 96. Mr Fluff - Chasing Love (Original Mix) Pixelated Waves (6:08) 97. NDKj - Step Back (Original Mix) 303Lovers (6:34) 98. Nick Shepherd - Romantische Strasse (Original Mix) Undeliving Recordings (7:06) 99. Nora En Pure - Pasadena (Original Mix) Enormous Tunes (6:50) 100. NotoMash - Moon Dancer (Original Mix) Unt Records (8:43) 101. Ovr Kill - Ink On My Arm (Douglas Greed Remix) Kling Klong (6:51) 102. Ovr Kill - Ink On My Arm (Original) Kling Klong (7:18) 103. Paul Loraine - Wish You Were (Original Mix) Vitalik Recordings (6:57) 104. Paul Loraine - Wish You Were (Soulade Reconstruction) Vitalik Recordings (7:04) 105. Rhomtec - Umbra (Original Mix) ToolBox House (7:13) 106. Robbert Mendez - You Are DJ (Instrumental) We Love Sounds (7:15) 107. Robbert Mendez - You Are DJ (Vocal) We Love Sounds (7:15) 108. Room 202 - Ghana (Ant Brooks Remix) Redbox Records (7:17) 109. Room 202 - Ghana (Original Mix) Redbox Records (7:40) 110. Sanya Shelest, EscApe - Crazy Town (Original Mix) Skilled Records (6:56) 111. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Analogue System (Abby J Remix) Pild Records (7:39) 112. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Analogue System (Original Mix) Pild Records (7:41) 113. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Funky Peolple (Original Mix) Pild Records (8:36) 114. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Funky Peolple (Ugur Project Remix) Pild Records (7:13) 115. Saverio Celestri, Tausend - Hunting Party (Original Mix) Pild Records (9:20) 116. Sebastien Leger - Wesh Wesh Wesh (FormatB Remix) Mistakes Music (6:52) 117. Sebastien Leger - Wesh Wesh Wesh (Original Mix) Mistakes Music (7:24) 118. Sergio Pardo - Lucian Night (Original Mix) Rene Records (7:39) 119. Sergio Pardo - Tribal Party (Original Mix) Rene Records (7:12) 120. Simone Marmellosi - Passion Before Money (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (7:48) 121. Simone Marmellosi - Wearing Black (Original Mix) Steel Ground Records (8:24) 122. Smoke Sykes - Pumpin Jumpin (Dandy Hungary & Invoice Remix) Yoruba Grooves (6:50) 123. Smoke Sykes - Pumpin Jumpin (Original Mix) Yoruba Grooves (7:41) 124. Smoke Sykes - Snatch (Dandy Hungary & Invoice Remix) Yoruba Grooves (7:16) 125. Smoke Sykes - Snatch (Original Mix) Yoruba Grooves (7:29) 126. Sofa Tunes - Try (Original Mix) Wanda Recordings (4:59) 127. Solunamanalia - Salvadore (Original Mix) Dutchie Music (5:59) 128. Soulade - On The Side (Paul Loraine Remix) Vitalik Recordings (5:09) 129. Stefano Tropeano - Betty Blue (Original Mix) Rococo Records (7:34) 130. Stefano Tropeano - Flash Mob (Original Mix) Rococo Records (7:52) 131. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Alex Roque & Marcelo Vak Remix) Deep Xperience (7:17) 132. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Original Mix) Deep Xperience (7:56) 133. Tony Thomas - Speedy T (Pille & Lushi Remix) Deep Xperience (7:18) 134. UMEK, Olivier Giacomotto - This Sound (Original Mix) 1605 (7:19) 135. Vlada Asanin - Manos Arriba (Original Mix) Definitive Recordings (7:08) 136. Yuman Grogorov - Dorothea (Original Mix) Code2 Records (6:11) 137. Yuman Grogorov - Tempelhofer Damm (Original Mix) Code2 Records (6:23) Techno 1. Alan Live - Intro of Dawn Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (4:48) 2. Alan Live - Post Mortem Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (5:58) 3. Alan Live - Traum Original Mix (Original Mix) Flatlife Wired (7:19) 4. Alex DElia, Nihil Young - Techno Is Ft ANNA (Alex Di Stefano Remix) Frequenza (7:11) 5. Alex DElia, Nihil Young - Techno Is Ft ANNA (Norbert Davenport & MGJ Remix) Frequenza (7:44) 6. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Fat Cat Ilogical Remix) Musex Industries (8:47) 7. Alex Mine - Music Sounds Better (Inaki Kreator Remix) Musex Industries (7:01) 8. Alexey Kuznetsov - Positive (Original Mix) MK60 Records (7:10) 9. Andreas Bergmann - Undo (Original Mix) Moral Fiber (8:04) 10. Andreas Bergmann - Undo (Petar Cvetkovic Remix) Moral Fiber (7:31) 11. Andy P - Vault (Original Mix) Subwoofer Records (7:31) 12. Bas Thomas - Monster In My Closet (Original Mix) Naked Lunch (6:00) 13. Ben Hills - Moog Vs Strat (Berger Mix) Nachtexpress Records (6:44) 14. Ben Hills - Most Wanted (Klingberger Mix) Nachtexpress Records (8:26) 15. Big Show - Here I Am (Dich Remix) Raccoon Records (6:41) 16. Big Show - Here I Am (Micube Remix) Raccoon Records (7:33) 17. Big Show - Here I Am (Original Mix) Raccoon Records (7:56) 18. Big Show - Here I Am (UniTeQ Remix) Raccoon Records (7:22) 19. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Kasey Remix) Harthouse (6:54) 20. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Mazel Source Remix) Harthouse (6:44) 21. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Reblok Acid Remix) Harthouse (6:36) 22. Boris Brejcha - Schaltzentrale (Tim Engelhardt Nachtglanz Remix) Harthouse (5:51) 23. Carlo Whale - Obvious (Original) Kan Records (8:22) 24. Carlo Whale - Pluck (Original) Kan Records (7:00) 25. Clouds - Optic (Jesper Dahlback Remix) Turbo Recordings (6:16) 26. Clouds - Optic (Original Mix) Turbo Recordings (5:47) 27. David Prap, Willy Real - Lost In Space (Dehix Remix) Inlab Recordings (7:50) 28. David Prap, Willy Real - Lost In Space (Original Mix) Inlab Recordings (6:55) 29. DavidChristoph - Summertime (Original Mix) Nachtstrom Schallplatten (7:56) 30. Deface - Droid (Original Mix) CRUX (6:32) 31. Deface - FAH Q (Original Mix) CRUX (5:20) 32. DKuhl - Sahara (Original Mix) Varianz Records (8:25) 33. DKuhl - Weltenbummler (Original Mix) Varianz Records (7:45) 34. Doctor Trash - Thats The K (Original) Klender Limited (8:07) 35. Ferhat Albayrak - Requiem (Lance Blaise Remix) Jeton Records (8:11) 36. Ferhat Albayrak - Requiem (Original Mix) Jeton Records (5:47) 37. IDigger - Tripping (Original Mix) Eastar Records (6:44) 38. Ivano Bellini, Gianni Ruocco - Rodadero (Original Mix) Black & Purple Recordings (7:43) 39. Jens Guetschow - Unforgotten (Deep Version) KW Music (5:39) 40. Jericho Knox - The Way I Am (Original Mix) Crossing Over Records (7:40) 41. Jim Rivers - Airport Vultures (Original Mix) Intec (7:13) 42. Jim Rivers - Bells Feat Joash (Original Mix) Intec (4:29) 43. Jim Rivers - Miles Away (Original Mix) Intec (3:21) 44. Jim Rivers - Nearly There (Original Mix) Intec (2:57) 45. Jim Rivers - On The Line (Original Mix) Intec (6:53) 46. Jim Rivers - Phoenix (Original Mix) Intec (5:55) 47. Jim Rivers - Product (Original Mix) Intec (3:11) 48. Jim Rivers - Sleepless In Detroit (Original Mix) Intec (5:52) 49. Jim Rivers - Tangent (Original Mix) Intec (6:22) 50. Jim Rivers - The Seventh Degree (Original Mix) Intec (5:44) 51. Jim Rivers - We Can Do This All Night (Original Mix) Intec (8:02) 52. Jim Rivers - When I Needed You Feat Mark Underdown (Original Mix) Intec (6:50) 53. Jim Rivers - Your Love (Original Mix) Intec (6:32) 54. John Lagora - Down (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (8:54) 55. John Lagora - Down (Ramon Tapia Remix) Mindshake Records (8:08) 56. John Lagora - Maersk (Original Mix) Mindshake Records (8:14) 57. Jon Rundell - Dubno (Original Mix) Pornographic Recordings (8:15) 58. Julian Brand - Paranormal (Original Mix) Analogeffekt Records (6:48) 59. Juno 6 - chain (Original Mix) Broque (3:55) 60. Juno 6 - darkonia (Original Mix) Broque (9:04) 61. Juno 6 - deadlock (Original Mix) Broque (8:07) 62. Juno 6 - state of flux (Original Mix) Broque (6:41) 63. Juno 6 - sub rosa (Original Mix) Broque (7:46) 64. Kardinal, Lowkey - Acid Slug (Original Mix) AFULAB (8:18) 65. Kardinal, Lowkey - Purple Wave (Exclusive Track) AFULAB (8:35) 66. Kardinal, Lowkey - Spangle (Original Mix) AFULAB (8:43) 67. Marcio Kantana - Dialogie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (6:34) 68. Mark Dekoda - Music For The People (Original Mix) Bosphorus Underground Recordings (6:35) 69. Milto Serano - Benoized (Thorsten Heiser Remix) Free Spirit Records (8:19) 70. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Antoni Bios Remix) VOL0101 Records (7:18) 71. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Fuskys Dark Tribe Tool) VOL0101 Records (5:58) 72. Milto Serano - Loco Tribe (Original Mix) VOL0101 Records (6:49) 73. MILU - Marijuana (Original Mix) Chocolate Dealer Records (5:00) 74. NDKj - Step Back (Luigi Rocca Edit) 303Lovers (6:35) 75. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (bandpass Remix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:06) 76. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (Original Mix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:16) 77. NOSIGNAL - New Delhi (Smallrice Remix) Chocolate Dealer Records (6:00) 78. Oleg Mass - Fragment Scrap (Original Mix) Einwanderer Records (7:05) 79. Ormatie - Only (Original Mix) Hope Recordings (5:27) 80. Perc - Gonkle (Bitten By The Black Dog) Perc Trax (6:22) 81. Perc - My Head Is Slowly Exploding (Ancient Methods Remix) Perc Trax (7:03) 82. Perc - Start Chopping (Tommy Four Seven Remix) Perc Trax (5:53) 83. Perc - You Saw Me (Sigha & Truss Remix) Perc Trax (7:46) 84. Pete Lopez, Marlon D - Shes Obsessed (Antranigs Ocd Instrumental) Lost In House (8:07) 85. Psyk - Second Trail (Original Mix) Figure (6:19) 86. Psyk - Third Trail (Original Mix) Figure (6:19) 87. Reagen - Synthtetic (Original) Microfreak Records (7:27) 88. Rob Belleville - Close The Distance (Original Mix) purebox (6:11) 89. Rob Belleville - From Midnight til Daylight (Original Mix) purebox (6:03) 90. Rob Belleville - Massive Melting (Original Mix) purebox (6:11) 91. Rob Belleville - Massive Melting (Ryogo Yamamoris Purebox Mix) purebox (6:16) 92. Simon Wish - Dreams (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:46) 93. Simon Wish - Over This Lay feat Jesse Michael (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:14) 94. Simon Wish - Passion (Original Mix) Circle Music (7:05) 95. Slad - Notch (Original Mix) Technoland (7:03) 96. Slad - Third Cabinet (Original Mix) Technoland (6:25) 97. Soundmanipulator - Una Preva (Bruno Ledesma & Lucas Ezequiel) NuLabel (9:01) 98. Soundmanipulator - Una Preva (Original Mix) NuLabel (6:03) 99. Soundmanipulator - Want To Play A Game (Original Mix) NuLabel (6:24) 100. Takuya Yamashita - Mars (Original Mix) Outpost Recordings (7:15) 101. Tebler - Komputaa (Original) FIR Records (5:34) 102. The Micronaut - Schleie (MollonoBass Remix) Acker Records (4:49) 103. UMEK, Olivier Giacomotto - This Sound (Sasha Carassi Phobiq Remix) 1605 (6:40) 104. Vince Noog - Vision (Original Mix) purebox (6:48) 105. Vince Noog - Vision (Ryogo Yamamoris Mix) purebox (7:25) 106. Vlada Asanin - Monkey Business (Original Mix) Definitive Recordings (6:06 Minimal 1. Acetato 3, Diezzera - Im Loco (Original Mix) Attary Records (7:39) 2. Acetato 3, Lado B - Minimalna (Original Mix) Attary Records (5:57) 3. Acetato 3, Lado B - Start Game (Original Mix) Attary Records (7:00) 4. Alberto la Torre - First Pop (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:27) 5. Alberto la Torre - Invisible (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:04) 6. Alberto la Torre - Wilderness (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (7:21) 7. Bjoern Efinger - Tropical Drums (Jule Grasz Remix) Starcake Records (6:14) 8. Bjoern Efinger - Tropical Drums (Original Mix) Starcake Records (7:39) 9. Cmore Trix - The Wiggler (Glitter Remix) 4slash4 (6:01) 10. Cmore Trix - The Wiggler (Original Mix) 4slash4 (5:09) 11. Dago DJ - Black Jungle (Endy DJ) Drugstore Records (5:40) 12. Dave Angel & Ken Ishii - Type E (Shin Nishimura Remix) Plaza In Crowd (7:18) 13. Dirt, Nail - Bishop (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:07) 14. Dirt, Nail - Pleasing Plow (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:43) 15. Dirt, Nail - Radio (Original Mix) Psicodelica (6:35) 16. Djafar - Rich And Rush (Original) Wald Und Wiese (6:12) 17. Djafar - Saw Dark (Original) Wald Und Wiese (5:42) 18. Dog, off - Star Eksho (Original Mix) Digital Music Labels (6:49) 19. Dog, off - Trill Cat (Randoom Remix) Digital Music Labels (8:17) 20. Double M - Andive (Original Mix) MFR (6:28) 21. Falke, Vogelbein - Papa (Orginal) Get Minimal Music (6:37) 22. Falke, Vogelbein - Smokers (Original) Get Minimal Music (7:06) 23. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Brojanowski Daddy Remix) Der Hut (6:06) 24. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Felix Lorussos Flat Broke Remix) Der Hut (6:58) 25. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Kamika Remix) Der Hut (6:56) 26. Felix Bernhardt - Rombola (Original Mix) Der Hut (6:26) 27. Joe Dominguez - Boombox (Original Mix) Digital Music Labels (6:44) 28. Juan Ddd, Bedoya - Relik (Original Mix) Starten Music (7:15) 29. Luca Aversano - The Beating of Wings a Butterfly (Original Mix) Unistory Music (7:18) 30. Lyr - Kepler 9b (Original Mix) From A Tree (5:36) 31. Mac Vaughn - Funnel Cloud (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:03) 32. Mac Vaughn - This Is Just A Test Mas (Original Mix) Berlin Aufnahmen (6:20) 33. Marcio Kantana - Analogie (Original Mix) Aspekt Records (6:31) 34. Marco Furnari - Nightmare (Original Mix) Infernal Poison Publisher (7:30) 35. Marco Furnari - Rabbithole (Original Mix) Infernal Poison Publisher (6:30) 36. Marco Sapiens - Body 2 Body (Nitro Mix) Groove On (7:29) 37. Marco Sapiens - Body 2 Body (Original Mix) Groove On (7:25) 38. Mark Dekoda - Why Dont You (Original Mix) Bosphorus Underground Recordings (6:02) 39. Matt Funkk - Elephant (Original Mix) Consumed Records (8:19) 40. Matt Funkk - Evolve (Original Mix) Consumed Records (7:42) 41. Michael Lovatt - Howler (Damolh33 Remix) Melonsound (6:30) 42. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Original Mix) Sound Lab (5:46) 43. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Weskors Dream Remix) Sound Lab (5:56) 44. Minitronik - Flash Forward (Wocky Remix) Sound Lab (4:25) 45. Mounsie - Are U Scared (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:46) 46. Mounsie - Black Russian (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:31) 47. Mounsie - Made In Turkey (Original Mix) Piso Records (6:28) 48. Oleg Mass - Interpretation (Original Mix) Einwanderer Records (6:48) 49. Ozen Nouse aka Enzo Porrino - Paper Heart (Original Mix) CibiCaldi Records (6:33) 50. Ozen Nouse aka Enzo Porrino - Sintetic Sky (Original Mix) CibiCaldi Records (7:23) 51. Paul Parsons - Peepin (Jamore Landson Remix) Tall House Digital (8:38) 52. Sadder - Dark Smile (Original Mix) Dser Records (6:52) 53. Sadder - Insane Friend (Original Mix) Dser Records (7:29) 54. Samuele Buselli - Jumping (Original Mix) Milk (5:05) 55. Samuele Buselli - Running (Original Mix) Milk (5:19) 56. Samuele Buselli - Wake Up (Original Mix) Milk (5:09) 57. Steve Fourez, Jason Kebble - Limestone (Original Mix) Syncope Recordz (6:17) 58. The Forest, Stimmhalt - Sunflower (Nemaier Remix) DLab Records (5:58) 59. The Forest, Stimmhalt - Sunflower (Original Mix) DLab Records (7:32) 1. Kamika - Conform [6:18] 2. Heinrichs & Hirtenfellner - Cut Bread [7:9] 3. RenГЁ Bourgeois - Mama San [7:34] 4. Maksim Dark - Die Intellektuelle Idee (Mike Wall Remix) [7:25] 5. Brojanowski - Let Me Be Your Lover [7:10] 6. Urla Ender - 13.0 (Gabriel Le Mar Remix) [6:53] 7. Roberto Mozza - One Night In Palais (Toubi Mcweird Remix) [6:24] 8. Leenn'y - Mr. Orange [6:23] 9. Nadja Lind - Aggregat No.5 [6:36] 10. Miro Pajic - Inter Fear [7:5] 11. Oliver Ton - The Whupp (Rene Bourgeois Whupp Dat Ass Remix) [7:29] 12. SoundApotheke - De De Puuh [4:50] 13. Olaf Over - Psycho Kit [4:48] 14. Norman - Zugang Voll Integriert (Syntax Error Remix) [5:44] 15. Baby Chris - Lesson In Live (Bonus Mix) [7:54] 16. Fallhead - Unten Der HГјgel (Esspapier Special Edit) [6:1] 17. Lampenfieber - The Balls [6:38] 18. f.i.e.l.d.y - High [7:8] 19. Trotzkopf - Monuciani (Nutmann Remix) [6:21] 20. Unknown Option - Once Upon A Time [5:44] 21. Monkeylovers - Hear No Evil [7:25] 22. Flea - Minx [7:38] 23. Demas - Bohnen Herbert (Sebastian Koch's Schoten Remix) [6:14] 24. Michael Burkat & Lars Klein - Das Rockt Auch! [7:3] 25. Aemkay - Hunter [8:7] minimal techno 1. Andy Martin - Ataraxia (Original Mix) (7:03) 2. Andy Martin - Human Circuit (Original Mix) (7:02) 3. Andy Martin - Popol Vuh (Original Mix) (8:18) 4. Andy Martin - Telekinesis (Original Mix) (7:47) 5. Damolh33, Hertzman - Concept (Original Mix) (6:07) 6. Damolh33, Hertzman - Moisture (Original Mix) (6:36) 7. Damolh33, Hertzman - Nimbus (Original Mix) (6:14) 8. Damolh33, Hertzman - Skill (Original Mix) (6:10) 9. Dani Sbert - Moon (Original Mix) (7:29) 10. Dani Sbert - Sun (Original Mix) (7:29) 11. Hertzman - Aeon (Original Mix) (6:07) 12. Hertzman - Fortress (Original Mix) (6:10) 13. Hertzman - Story (Original Mix) (6:13) 14. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Chris Fortier 40oz Drum Dub Tool) (3:25) 15. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Chris Fortier Remix) (7:06) 16. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Hair Band DropOut Remix) (8:39) 17. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Heat Merchantz Remix) (10:28) 18. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Joint Custody Remix) (8:57) 19. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (No Soul To Sell Remix) (8:11) 20. Joe Morgan - I Know What You Want From Me (Original Mix) (8:59) 21. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Alex Young Y2K Remix) (6:48) 22. Marco P - Numb (Landmark Remix) (7:25) 23. Mark Denken - Ducks & (Original Mix) (5:39) 24. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Francesco Bergomi May Go On To Ecuador Remix) (7:03) 25. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Andy Martin Remix) (6:42) 26. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Original Mix) (7:59) 27. Miro Pajic - Saturn Love (Tomas More Kepler 22b Remix) (7:52) 28. Swallen - OMG (Min & Mal & Doublewave Remix) (8:07) 29. Swallen - OMG (Original Mix) (6:55) 30. Swallen - OMG (Skate Remix) (6:17) 31. Tony Kauffmann, Tinney M - Alien X (Original Mix) (7:52) 32. Tony Kauffmann, Tinney M - Reconstruction (Original Mix) (7:21) 1. Alex Di Stefano - Phase One (Koen Groeneveld Remix) (6:40) 2. Alex Di Stefano - Phase One (Original Mix) (6:38) 3. Alex Villanueva - GoodFellas (Damasko Remix) (6:12) 4. AMochi - Black Reigns (Original Mix) (7:31) 5. AMochi - Phantom (Original Mix) (6:20) 6. AMochi - Stray (Original Mix) (6:05) 7. Bart Skils - Burnin (Nicole Moudaber Remix) (7:41) 8. Bart Skils - Burnin (Original Mix) (7:06) 9. D-Nox & Beckers - Sunner (Dustin Zahn Dub) (6:46) 10. D-Nox & Beckers - You Are (Bushwackas Just Be Remix) (9:13) 11. Ensaime, Alex Guesta - Hands Up (Club Mix) (8:11) 12. Funk D'Void - Counter Cat (Original Mix) (6:14) 13. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Andre Luki Remix) (6:07) 14. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Degasperi Remix) (6:55) 15. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Gabriel Noise Remix) (7:19) 16. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (LSotnas Remix) (4:16) 17. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Mendhelson Remix) (7:10) 18. Gustavo D - Never Stop the Party (Original Mix) (7:19) 19. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Original Mix) (6:20) 20. Konstantin Yoodza - Asia (Paride Saraceni & Demas Hypnodeep Remix) (7:44) 21. Margot - Liuff Settanta (Florian Meindl Remix) (7:36) 22. MiniCoolBoyz - Excuse Me (Alberto Pascual Remix) (6:24) 23. MiniCoolBoyz - Excuse Me (Marka T Remix) (6:46) 24. MiniCoolBoyz - Feel My Drums (Mladen Tomic Remix) (7:38) 25. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Luigi Madonna Remix) (6:38) 26. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Marka T Remix) (6:55) 27. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Piig & Dan Remix) (7:45) 28. MiniCoolBoyz - Lost In Lodz (Sam Paganini Remix) (7:25) 29. MiniCoolBoyz - This Is My Acid House (Black Abstract Acid House Remix) (6:39) 30. Nick Daring - Alliance (Original Mix) (7:20) 31. Paul Mac - The Process (Original Mix) (5:12) 32. Paul Mac - The Process (Paul Mac Stimulus Dub) (6:05) 33. Paul Mac - The Process (Takashi Watanabe After Hours Mix) (8:19) 34. Paul Mac - The Process (Takashi Watanabe Remix) (8:13) 35. Spada - Banga (Original Mix) (7:08) 36. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (ABrothers Remix) (7:15) 37. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Dave The Drummer Remix) (6:54) 38. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Knobs Drill Remix) (7:30) 39. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Original Mix) (5:48) 40. Spiros Kaloumenos - Second Skin (Spiriakos & Steen Remix) (5:37) 41. Stefanowitz - Atma (Original Mix) (7:17) 42. Stefanowitz - Pfhrwhapp (Original Mix) (6:43) 43. Stefanowitz - Psyche (Original Mix) (6:48) 44. Tintin - Render In (Original Mix) (7:42) A Hvich ?– Survival (Moldavius Remix) A Hvich ?– Survival (Original Mix) A Hvich ?– Survival (Stevie Wilson Remix) Aaron Santos & James Teej ?– Sorry Soul (Nhar Remix) Acidia ?– Street (Acidia Club Mix) Alberto Santana ?– Minus One (Original Mix) Alberto Santana ?– Overload (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez ?– Ghost in the Machine (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez ?– Walkfunk (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– It?’s A Groove (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– Was Great (Original Mix) Alex Costa ?– Was Up (Original Mix) Alex D?’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A ?– Techno is (D-Unity Remix) Alex D?’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A ?– Techno is (Gabriel D?’or & Bordoy Remix) Boris Brejcha ?– Picolomini (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha ?– Ruhrschussel (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha ?– We Are Looking For (Original Mix) Chris Lo ?– All Sistem (Original Mix) Chris Lo ?– Bronx Brothers (Original Mix) Chris Majcen ?– Time Spiral (Original Mix) Coma ?– Fiction (Original Mix) Coma ?– Gravity (Original Mix) Coma ?– Total DLY (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton ?– Feng Shui Theory 1 (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton ?– Feng Shui Theory 2 (Original Mix)..... 4 Souls ?– Swing Ya Thing (Original Mix) Affkt, Darlyn Vlys, One Hand aka Darlyn Vlys AFFKT ?– Kohu (Original Mix) Alessio Mereu ?– Hypochondriac (Original Mix) Animal Trainer ?– Alive (Original Mix) Aquarium Punks ?– African Man With A Piano (Original Mix) Beat ?– For The Masses (Original Mix) Brisboys ?– Mercury Groove (Original Mix) Charles Ramierz ?– Heavens Groove (Kabuto Koji Remix) Christian Smith, Florian Meindl ?– Desire (Original Mix) Cristhian Hoffmann ?– Restart The Music (Original Mix) Dave Garcia, Eric Ortega ?– El Pirata (Danny LeBlack Remix) Deep Sound ?– Tech (Original Mix) Dema, Paride Saraceni ?– Semafor (Piatto Remix) DFormation ?– Dont Stop (Julian Poker Remix) DFormation, Oscar L ?– MAD (D-Unity Remix) DFormation,Simon Shaker ?– Get Excited (Javi Colors DJ Garces Remix) Dirtyworx ?– Berliner (Original Mix) DJ Kay ?– Waterfall (Autophase Remix) Dzeko Torres ?– Self Explanatory (Original Mix) Falke, Vogelbein ?– Minimal Smoke (Original) Gino Patricio ?– No Diggity (Original) Groove Man ?– Back In The Game (Original Mix) Isabelle ?– Breakup Jewelry (Original) Ismael Rivas aka Riva ?– El Farol (Original Mix) Jalebee Cartel ?– Funda (Original Mix) Jamie Anderson, Deepgroove ?– Freya (Daniel Steinberg Remix) JDG_Meltek ?– Retrigger (Original Mix) Jhoan Sanchez ?– En Las Alturas (Moizez Ohr Remix) Jochen Pash ?– Voyage (Dj PP Remix) Julian Poker ?– Fever (Original Mix) Libex, Paolo Pellegrino ?– Prika (Original Mix) Marco Lys, Alex Kenji ?– Manaus (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa ?– Athens (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa, Luigi Rocca ?– The Passenger (Original Mix) Mark Diablo ?– 365 (Original Mix) Mark Wheels ?– Theory Of Relativity (Original Mix) Marvell, Too Fresh ?– Hotel Party feat Marvell (Bass Kleph Remix) Maxikool ?– Click (Original Mix) Milton Channels ?– I Want It (Original Mix) Ned Rise ?– Magic Fly (Original Mix) Neverdogs, Brusca ?– Podenco (Original Mix) Nikola Gala ?– A Voice From Outer Space (Original Mix) Nino Bua ?– The Beat Within (Original Mix) Oliver Klein, Kolombo ?– Espionnage (Fusty Delights Remix) Peeta ?– Gandhis Flip Flop (Original Mix) Pizeta ?– Ocra (Original Mix) Ron Carroll, Superfunk ?– Lucky Star (Kolombo 303 Dub) RPO ?– The First Time In My Life (Joy Marquez Remix) Sharam Jey ?– Attention (Eats Everything Jay Robinsons Remix) Sharam Jey, Deadbots ?– Obey (Polymath Remix) Stan Kolev ?– Rescue Me (Original Mix) Sweet N Candy ?– Deep Water (Florian Meindl Edit) System F, Marc Almond ?– Soul On Soul (Elektrochemie LK Mix) Tamer Fouda ?– Bitch (Minimal Bitch Mix) The Selph ?– An Anxious Friend (Original Mix) Thomas Schumacher, Florian Meindl ?– Satisfaction (Original Mix) Vlada Asanin, Cuartero ?– Pincel (Original Mix) Xar Lee ?– Te Da Igual (Tony Dee Remix) Yan Oxygen ?– Ghost (Original Mix) Agaric ?– Run. Ostern Jam Beatfunk ?– Pump (Original Mix) BNZO-El Chupacabra Original Mix Hollen ?– Mamy Groovy (Tony Dee Remix) Lewis Ryder ?– Kaffee-Monster Schief Gegangen (Nathan Coles & David Cokers Spanish Fly Mix) Mark Reeve-Lichtkleid Original Mix Maximan ?– Jail View (Scan Mode Remix) Rohrer & Siegel ?– BigBertha The Martinez Brothers ?– Issshhh (Beats) Alberto Pascual ?– Drive (Original Mix) Dektend & Dfndr ?– Rococco Cake Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris Altogether Lost Ben Klock S Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jon Reynolds & Tomas Rubeck ?– Union Street Car Park (Original Mix) Markantonio, Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati ?– My Tisana (Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati Remix) Patrick Kunkel and M.in ?– I Know feat. Harold Todd (Original Mix) VA-Maximan Jail View Scan Mode Remix Flug -13c Tool Mix Glimpse ?– Work That Body (Kehakuma Remix) Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jeff Mills ?– Gadd Luigi Madonna-Enigma Four mike parker ?– ringing bass Paul Ritch ?– Shake It (Original Mix) Timmo Comb Of Mermaid ?– Original Mix Tom Flynn ?– Budgie Smuggler (Original Mix) Atesh K. ?– Simple Trap Avilo-Missio Daniele Papini ?– Astanti Titta Remix David Phillips ?– The Batch Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris-Altogether Lost Ben Klock s Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Roland M. Dill ?– I?’ll be There (Sam Ball Remix) TechGroup Maurizio Vitiello-MusicOn Original Mix Aquarius Heaven-Universe Drumfunk (Original Mix) Hollen ?– Alfio (Original Mix) Javier Carballo ?– Islands (Djohnny Remix) Javier Carballo ?– Low (Original Mix) Jon Gurd and Dave Robertson-Never Do That (Original Mix) Luca Lozano ?– Heaven & Hell (Penner & Muder Remix LuLu Rouge ?– Bless You (Minilogue rmx) RAY OKPARA- MODERN DANCE (Original mix) agaric-drifter Agaric-Who Made Up The Rules Original Mix Benny Royal ?– Go Bump (Original Mix) Daelo ?– Move On (Zack Marullo Remix) Djulz ?– Da Madness (Original Mix) Kaiserdisco ?– Amalfino (2000 And One & DJ Madskillz Remix) Kernel Key ?– Pallets (Original Mix) leonardo_gonnelli-not_again_(sammy_remix) Mihalis Safras ?– San trope (Oxia remix) Yoshitaca And Ittetsu And Jun Akimoto ?– Just Lay Back (Ittetsu And Jun Akimoto Remix) Alberto Pascual ?– Drive (Original Mix) Dektend & Dfndr ?– Rococco Cake Emptyset Feat Cornelius Harris Altogether Lost Ben Klock S Glowing Clap Mix Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jon Reynolds & Tomas Rubeck ?– Union Street Car Park (Original Mix) Markantonio, Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati ?– My Tisana (Paco Osuna, Joseph Capriati Remix) Patrick Kunkel and M.in ?– I Know feat. Harold Todd (Original Mix) VA-Maximan Jail View Scan Mode Remix Flug -13c Tool Mix Glimpse ?– Work That Body (Kehakuma Remix) Itamar Sagi ?– Spirals Jeff Mills ?– Gadd Luigi Madonna-Enigma Four mike parker ?– ringing bass Paul Ritch ?– Shake It (Original Mix) Timmo Comb Of Mermaid ?– Original Mix Tom Flynn ?– Budgie Smuggler (Original Mix) Alex DElia -Moogerfooger Mladen Tomic Remix Bryan Zentz ?– Double R (Original Mix) Daniel Dubb ?– Wound Up (Original Mix) Lazy M ?– Ready To Rock (Marco Lansi Remix) Mooryc ?– Turn Left (Douglas Greeds ?– from here to poznan rmx) Timmo ?– Locust (Alex Di Stefano Remix) Victor Calderone ?– Pleasure Grip (Original Mix) Vogue. Victor Ruiz. Barudi ?– Playboy (Dub Mix) Xircus ?– Rolf Harris (Ronan Portela Remix) Aquarius_Heaven_-_Universe_(Original_Mix) Bruch & Junior ?– Seat No Fastbelt (Original Mix) Frann delice & Xuzav ?– Run Ran Run (Original mix) Kernel Key ?– Pallets (Original Mix) Smart Wave ?– Mind mazes(DJ Raid detroits dub mix) The Evil Amigos ?– Playa Bossa Veerus & Maxie Devine ?– 1976 (Original Mix) Xircus ?– Rolf Harris (Ronan Portela Remix) Broombeck ?– Wtfai (Wehbba Remix) Bryan Zentz ?– Double R (Original Mix) D Julz-Da Madness Daniel Dubb ?– Wound Up (Original Mix) Electric Indigo & Irradiation ?– Phytoplankton NiCe7 ?– In Between (Supernova Remix) Yoshitaca ?– Just Lay Back (Jun Akimoto & Ittetsu Remix) 01. Piatto - Saturn 8 (Original Mix) 02. Paul Nazca - Scale Of Sky (Original Mix) 03. Ant Brooks - What's Mine (Original Mix) 04. Whitenoize - The Underground (TJR Remix) 05. Roy RosenfelD - Coin Flip (Original Mix) 06. PHNTM - Flash Dance (Original Mix) 07. Ahmet Sendil - I Still Have A Dream (Original Mix) 08. Balthazar, Jackrock - Puerto Rico (Alex Di Stefano Remix) 09. Andre Walter, Chris Hope - Mania (Original Mix) 10. Andrea Roma - Just A Loop (Original Mix) 11. Vladimir Acic - Mr. Joe Gideon (Original Mix) 12. 777 Systems - Noms (Original Mix) 13. Rub A Dub - TM (Original Mix) 14. Dualfunk - Rolling (Original Mix) 15. A.K.O. - Say Hello (Original Mix) 16. Alex Long - Magenta (Original Mix) 17. Mario Ochoa - La Noche (Original Mix) 18. Frank Sonic, Mike Maass - Butan (Original Mix) 19. Juan Ddd - Mad Dog (Original Mix) 20. The Scumfrog - In Love (Original Mix) 21. Juan Ddd, Johan Dresser, Stereomono - Ant Man (Original Mix) 22. SoNa, Simia - Dimply (Original Mix) 23. Hellomonkey - My Seven Favorite Sharpshooters (Original Mix) 24. Dima German - Physical Reaction (Original Mix) 25. Darryl Green - Warning (Original Mix) 26. W10 - Five O'Clock Love (Original Mix) 27. Montblank - Shuffle (Original Mix) 28. Denis Underground - Feel Free (Original Mix) 29. Kyfu - Trop Cale (Original Mix) 30. Miguel Bastida - Rezolution (Original Mix) 31. Daniel Kaufman - Stalled (Original Mix) Alex Mine – Don’t Look Back (Original Mix) Alex Mine – Teraphy (Original Mix) Aumrec – Anouka (Original Mix) Aumrec – Aumrec (Original Mix) Aumrec – Lapislazul (Ninth Camomile Remix) Catatonic Overload – Death Before Disco (Original Mix) Catatonic Overload – Environment (Delete Remix) Catatonic Overload – Environment (Original Mix) Dani Sbert – Otherside (Original Mix) Dani Sbert – Ready (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – Moonflower (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – Smoker (Original Mix) Daniel Greenx – When the Sunshine Goes Down (Original Mix) Daniele Kama – Last Request (Original Mix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (German Valley Remix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (Gion Remix) Daniele Kama – Tessi Dance (Original Mix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Cristiano Casiraghi Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Loko Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Original Mix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Ricardo Espino Remix) Dave Kurtis – Sundari (Sotisfaction Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Ferdi L Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Giuseppe Antonino Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Joe Kendut Remix) Domy Castellano – KZ (Original Mix) Ian O’Donovan – Redemption (Original Mix) Ian O’Donovan – Relieve (Original Mix) Jacob Dannyl – Where Is My Mind (Killer Session) Leechi Alexej – Hubbub (Original Mix) Leechi Alexej – Turk Kizi (Original Mix) Leo R – Amber Light (Original Mix) Leo R – Drill Bit (Original Mix) Leo R – Room 237 (Original Mix) Loud Noize – Dark Distortion (Original Mix) Loud Noize – Distorted Reality (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Hidden Empire (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Knavish (Original Mix) Marcel Fengler – Sphinx (Original Mix) Marco Lys – Kama (Original) Marco Lys – Kama (Solo Remix) Mario Ochoa – Take A Look (Original Mix) Mario Ochoa – The Rooster (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Promzona (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Regroover (Original Mix) Michael Miller – Wave Of Resonance Timework (Original Mix) Mike Huckaby – The Tresor Track (Original Mix) NHB & Fabrizio Pettorelli – Bad Habits (Original Mix) Nice Deejay – Miss Nice (Original Mix) Nice Deejay – Ndrom (Original Mix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Mike Ban & Dietmar Wohl Remix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Original Mix) Niereich – Stromausfall (Torsten Kanzler Remix) Oliver Kucera – Lightning Bolt (Spark Taberner Remix) Oliver Kucera – Stop Sequencer (Original Mix) Oliver Kucera & Souris – Lightning Bolt (Original Mix) People Get Real – Bleep Spectro (Original Mix) People Get Real – Pachino (Original Mix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Ditto Remix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Don Ruijgrok Remix) Point Zero – Milf & Cookies (Original Mix) Psyk – Lowdown (Original Mix) Psyk – Repeat (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Inertia (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Mobility (Original Mix) Raiz & Truncate – Rhythm (Original Mix) Ramon Zenker & Harada – Rappelkiste (Original Mix) Repton – I Was Here (Nikkolas Research Remix) Repton – I Was Here (Original) Repton – I Was Here (Simon Firth Remix) Sasha Carassi – Lateral Pressure (Original Mix) Sintex Music – Bangkok (Original Mix) Sintex Music – Diffuse (Original Mix) Spoiled Kid – The ONE! (Original Mix) Spoiled Kid – You Can Take It (Original Mix) Synthetic Technology – Fatal Error (Original Mix) Synthetic Technology – Placenta (Original Mix) The Abductors – Stevige Track (Original Mix) The Advent – Distract (Original Mix) The Advent – Higher Learning (Original Mix) The Advent – Nexus 22 (Original Mix) The Collectorz – Blood (Original Mix) The Collectorz – Blood (Raw Mix) Tomas More – Flesh (Original Mix) Tomas More – Persona (Original Mix) Tomas More – The Kiss (Original Mix) Tomas More – The Unknown Word (Original Mix) Tony Kairom – Popeye (Original Mix) Tony Kairom – The Addams Family (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Atom (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Flux (Original Mix) Vince Watson – Kaleidoscope (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Changes (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Changes (Romar Remix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Make You Wet (Karim Rajhi Remix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Make You Wet (Original Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Underground (Micro on Mix) Vinyl Speed Adjust – Underground (Original Mix) Zenbi – Gezuar (Original Mix) Zenbi – Minimalistic (Original Mix) A Hvich – Survival (Moldavius Remix) A Hvich – Survival (Original Mix) A Hvich – Survival (Stevie Wilson Remix) Aaron Santos & James Teej – Sorry Soul (Nhar Remix) Acidia – Street (Acidia Club Mix) Alberto Santana – Minus One (Original Mix) Alberto Santana – Overload (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez – Ghost in the Machine (Original Mix) Alejandro Vivanco & Dorian Chavez – Walkfunk (Original Mix) Alex Costa – It’s A Groove (Original Mix) Alex Costa – Was Great (Original Mix) Alex Costa – Was Up (Original Mix) Alex D’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A – Techno is (D-Unity Remix) Alex D’elia & Nihil Young Feat A-N-N-A – Techno is (Gabriel D’or & Bordoy Remix) Boris Brejcha – Picolomini (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha – Ruhrschussel (Original Mix) Boris Brejcha – We Are Looking For (Original Mix) Chris Lo – All Sistem (Original Mix) Chris Lo – Bronx Brothers (Original Mix) Chris Majcen – Time Spiral (Original Mix) Coma – Fiction (Original Mix) Coma – Gravity (Original Mix) Coma – Total DLY (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton – Feng Shui Theory 1 (Original Mix) Conrad Van Orton – Feng Shui Theory 2 (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Eta Carinae (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Husaria (Original Mix) Dastin & Static Sense – Magma (Original Mix) Dave Spritz – Salvia (Original Mix) David Temessi & Hiab – Imotape (Original Mix) David Temessi & Hiab – Powertape (Original Mix) Davidchristoph – Fear Frequency (Bodyscrub Remix) Davidchristoph – Fear Frequency (Original Mix) Davidchristoph – Ghost Raider (Loco & Jam Remix) Davidchristoph – Ghost Raider (Original Mix) Deep Future – Do it All Night (Hugo Remix) Deep Future – Do it All Night (Original Mix) Deep Future – Flying Colours (Lazaro Casanova Miami Vice Refix) Deep Future – Flying Colours (Original Mix) DJ Milectro & Jonny Calypso – Direction (Original Mix) DJ Milectro & Jonny Calypso – Rise & Fall (Original Mix) Dorian Chavez & Mobius Strum – MAE (Original Mix) Dorian Chavez & Mobius Strum – Rainforest (Original Mix) Franck Valat – Landscape 010 (Original Mix) Franck Valat – Mindie (Original Mix) Gepy – Baby Dinosaur (Original Mix) Gepy – Pippo (Original Mix) Glitter, Nytron – Freak Chick (Original Mix) Johnny Kaos & Hunzed – Emociones De La Vida (Original Mix) Koer – Fobos (Original Mix) Koer – Moonlight (Original Mix) Luthier – Prevent Hearing (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – Infinity (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – Roundabout (Original Mix) Marek Hemmann – You Know (Original Mix) Maximiljan – Backlash (Egal 3 Remix) Maximiljan – Backlash (Original Mix) Maximiljan – Funky Mary (Original Mix) Mechanique – Island Of Stability – (Original Mix) Mechanique – Karoshi – (Original Mix) Mendo & Yvan Genkins – Capture (Original Mix) Mendo & Yvan Genkins – Witness (Original Mix) Mike Spaccavento – Game Over (Original Mix) Mike Spaccavento – Vocal Round (Original Mix) Morry – Minimal Baby (Original Mix) Morry – Shit Happiness (Original Mix) Nytron – House You (Original Mix) Oliver Schories – The Deal (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Bitter Rucker (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Dumb House (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Timeline (Original Mix) Ordinary Subject – Zulu (Original Mix) Paolo Driver – Good Afternoon (Los Suruba 90′s Remix) Paolo Driver – Good Afternoon (Original Mix) Paolo Driver & Roby J – Fusion (Original Mix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Funk D’void Remix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Lewis Ryder Remix) Paul Loraine – Envy (Original Mix) Paul Loraine – Once Again (Original Mix) Phonokemi – 2000 Eyes (Original Mix) Phonokemi – Black Comes the Day (Original Mix) Phonokemi – Smile (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Babylon (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Bumbaclat (Original Mix) Pig & Dan – Got Me Down (Original Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Alexander Kowalski Remix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Benny Grauer Remix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Digital Bonus Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Original Mix) Rene Onze – Flip A Switch (Skai & Joel Armstrong Remix) SIS – Aires (Original Mix) SIS – Boogie Nights (Original Mix) Sivesgaard – Unorthodox (Ricardo Tobar Remix) Solee & Joxe – Abundance (Original Mix) Sven Jaeger – Casta Uela (Original Mix) Sven Jaeger – Cicilon (Original Mix) Ted Dettman – Normal Life (Original Mix) Tim J – 7 Faktors of Awakenings (Original Mix) Tim J – Beat Down (Original Mix) Tim J – Tresor (Original Mix) Tom Hades – Pitched to the Max (Original Mix) Tom Hades – Pitched to the Max (Sasha Carassi Remix) Tom Hades – React (Original Mix) Tomas More – Scopic Drive (Original Mix) Tomas More – Scopic Drive (Roman Fluegel Remix) Tomas More – That Thing (Original Mix) Wally Stryk – Mon Amour (Max Jacobson & Jason Patrick Remix) Wally Stryk – Mon Amour (Original Mix) Wally Stryk – Palermo Soho (Do Santos Remix) Wally Stryk – Palermo Soho (Original Mix) 01. Robert Noise & Ploughman – Chennai (Original Mix) (7:07) 02. Glen & Adrian – Microchip (Original Mix) (7:05) 03. Ray Valentine – Turkey Turist (Original Mix) (6:11) 04. Ruiz Sierra – Turn Off The Lights (Original Mix) (7:01) 05. Emanuele Sorgato – Go (Original Mix) (5:11) 06. BenyOne – Machine (Original Mix) (6:37) 07. Secret Groovers – Inversion (Original Mix) (9:12) 08. Cristian Glitch – Dispersion (Original Mix) (6:36) 09. Rodrigo Diaz – Sexstars (Original Mix) (7:24) 10. Stephen Advance & Roland Weber – Instant Reaction (Original Mix) (6:15) 11. Italianbeat Guys – Thunderstorm (Original Mix) (9:05) 12. Stephen Advance & Droplex – Predator (Original Mix) (6:00) 13. Luix Spectrum – Define (Original Mix) (7:07) 14. Miniroom & Red Pig Flower – Red [email protected] (Original Mix) (6:20) 01. London Exchange – Forever (Dura Remix) (6:36) 02. Dura – Anti Pink (Original Mix) (6:36) 03. Azzimov – Penetrator (Oziriz Remix) (6:02) 04. Jackson White – Back (Original Mix) (6:28) 05. Jackson White – Wrong Out (Original Mix) (6:13) 06. Dura – Outswise (Original Mix) (5:50) 07. Dura – Eyes On The Prize (Brutal Kids Remix) (6:06) 08. Dura, Sasha Check – Ritas Groove (Original Mix) (6:55) 09. Twist – Rockfeller Fcuk (Original Mix) (7:05) 10. Jackson White – Beat In Beat (Original Mix) (5:36) 11. Lee Poulson – For A Kiss Or Two (Original Mix) (6:37) 12. Lee Poulson – Kuka (Original Mix) (6:21) 13. Oziriz, Jackson White – Back To Cube (Original Mix) (6:28) 14. Oziriz – Motions (Original Mix) (8:05) 15. Twist – Hidden Place (Original Mix) (8:19) 16. Oziriz – Saxy Waxy (Original Mix) (7:09) 17. Oziriz – Strings As The Ropes (Original Mix) (6:06) 18. Dura – Get Smart (Original Mix) (6:54) 19. Oleg Kostrow – Nemo’s Song (Dura Remix) (3:46) 20. London Exchange – We Are Not Together (Azzimov Remix) (7:13) A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Accapella).mp3 A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Instrumental).mp3 A0, Impermetic – Revolution In A Bottle – Original Mix).mp3 Aeon Flux – We Will Be Free – Original Mix).mp3 Airwolf – Rebels – Original Mix).mp3 Alessio Arcangeli – 1000 Miles – Original Mix).mp3 Alessio Arcangeli – Honefoss – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Life S. – Fuck Off – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Shaje – Bourre – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Shaje – Bourre – Sums 4 Am Remix).mp3 Alex Vandoff – Casino Flamingo – Original Mix).mp3 Alex Verano, Jim Marlaud – Make Me Real – Radio Edit).mp3 Alex Xela – Are You Ready – Original Mix).mp3 Alexander Seretti – Broken – Original Mix).mp3 Alive Me – Something Wrong In The System Control – Original Mix).mp3 Almaru – One Step – Original Mix).mp3 Alvin Tech – Hey – Original Mix).mp3 Alvin Tech – Rhythm Of The Night – Original Mix).mp3 Amadeo, Process P – Agua Fresca – Original Mix).mp3 Ambient P – Music Keeps Me Dancing – Original Mix).mp3 Andhim – Afrikadelle – Original Mix).mp3 Andlee – Trackformers – Original Mix).mp3 Andre Slater – Metamorfosis – Original Mix).mp3 Andrea Pisapia – Scala Reale – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Jupiter Planet – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Mercury Planet – 4ndr375-73k Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Planet Neptune – Original Mix).mp3 Andreas-Tek – Uranus Planet – 4ndr375-73k Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Assembled In – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Audio Delta – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Apartamento – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Casa – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – Mi Finca – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Gil – My Fly Mind – Original Mix).mp3 Andres Santana – Trafalgar – Original Mix).mp3 Andrew Phillips – The Saxophonist – Criminal Vibes Remix).mp3 Anthony Grant – 1-2-3-4 – Original Mix).mp3 Anthonydee – Annoyed – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Becouse – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Fantastic – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – God’s Grace – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Kick – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – Rhodet – Original).mp3 Anthonydee – This Is The Beat – Original).mp3 Arc, Kalls – U Got It – Radio Edit).mp3 Art Pleasure – You Feat. Jessy Howe – Original Mix).mp3 Arts, Leni – One Pub One Tony – Original.mp3 Arts, Leni – One Pub One Tony – Original).mp3 Audiosweep – Cell Up – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Debug – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Five – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Four – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall One – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Three – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Hall Two – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Room – Original Mix).mp3 Audiosweep – Touch – Original Mix).mp3 Aumrec – Apregunno – Mogahertz Remix).mp3 Aumrec – Apregunno – Original Mix).mp3 Aumrec – Rumade – Alfred Mc Remix).mp3 Aumrec – Rumade – Original Mix).mp3 Autarc – Toolfunk013-1 – Original).mp3 B. Vivant – House Muzik – Original Mix).mp3 B.B Project – Big Party – Original Mix).mp3 Balthazar, Deepzone – Dj, Take Me Away – Radio Club Mix).mp3 Basilica – Somebody Calling You – Original Mix).mp3 Bassbeatz – I Love This Beat – Original Mix).mp3 Bastique, Romee – The Godfather – Original Mix).mp3 Beat Syndrome – Salasa Jar – Original Mix).mp3 Beatjunk – Grinning Bass – Original Mix).mp3 Ben Murray – Next Level – Original Mix).mp3 Benhams – Psychosis In A Dream – Original Mix).mp3 Benn Lian – Because I Called Her – Original Mix).mp3 Bifath – Natural Part 2 – Magru Remix).mp3 Blacksoul – Dancin Feat. Marcya – Joey Aka Jozsef Keller & Pete-R Instrumental).mp3 Bollen, Fichtner – Osama’s Groove – Original Mix).mp3 1. Adam Jace – Deepfusion (7:52) 2. Aki Bergen – M.u.s.i.c. (7:42) 3. Alexander Fog – Black Carnival (6:58) 4. Babak Shayan – Azadi Nist (5:54) 5. Basti Pieper – Orient (12:33) 6. Bucher & Kessidis – Live On (7:47) 7. Coskun & Ak – Take Me (7:45) 8. Deepgroove & Jamie Anderson – Voix (Minicoolboys Remix) (7:41) 9. Dzeta N Basile – One Of A Kind (8:48) 10. Freaks – 2 Please U (Losoul’s Surreal Visits Dub) (6:57) 11. Green Rabbit – Primal Self (4:18) 12. Hardy Heller & Alex Connors – Fred, The Pink Elephant (C-rock Wild Pitch Mix) (7:11) 13. Jerome Noak – I love L.A. (Sasha Kaktus Remix) (6:28) 14. Junior Gee – On The Floor (6:23) 15. Lazo – Caroussell (Lukas Greenberg Mix) (7:42) 16. Lukas Greenberg – The Flash (Jimmy & Fer Ferrari Mix) (8:35) 17. Markus Wesen – Soulful House Music (Original) (9:10) 18. Minoru – 68.71 Per Cent (8:35) 19. Nick Curly – Deep Breath (6:56) 20. Nicole Moudaber – Dilemma (7:36) 21. Nikola Gala – Bring In ‘da Funk (6:08) 22. Nikola Gala – Timeless City (6:41) 23. Pelle Buys – Kiss The Ground (6:37) 24. Roberto Rodriguez – Whisper (7:58) 25. Sebastian Porter – Labamba (Original) (8:04) 26. Sven Kegel & Heino Helck – Wellenbrecher (8:11) 27. The Timewriter – HERE COMES THE SUN (Stryke’s Sunshine State of Mind Remix) (8:16)1. Carl Cox – Nexus (Original Mix) (6:14) 2. Carl Cox – Nexus (Foamo Mix) (6:15) 3. Carl Cox – Nexus (Foamo Dub Mix) (6:15) 4. Carl Cox – Nexus (Tomy De Clerque Mix) (7:52) Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Kronic Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Mobin Master & Tate Strauss Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Rave Radio Remix).mp3 Bombs Away – Super Soaker – Rocket Pimp Remix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Bass Threat – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Call To 911 – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Deadly Crash – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Fashion Factory – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Get Down Low – Original Mix).mp3 Brain Blast Creators – Glance In The Future – Original Mix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Digital Department Remix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Erdi Irmak Remix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Original Mix).mp3 Breeze & Quadrat – Dirty Dance – Reelaux Not So Dirty Remix).mp3 Brian Bloom, Franky Malloy, Mc G – We Live 4 The Weekend – Original Mix).mp3 Bruno Nasty – Ablana – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt – Get Told – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt – Locked In Trip – Original Mix).mp3 Butler & Murt, Yemi – Music Takes Me Higher – Original Mix).mp3 Camilo Picon – Isotonico – Original Mix).mp3 Chirik Burnlive, Fenix Modest – Acid Smith – Original Mix).mp3 Chris Blum – Extrascharf – Patrick Arbez Remix).mp3 Chris Blum – Josephine – Original).mp3 Chris Blum – Knock Out – Original).mp3 Chris Blum – Sonnenwende – Original).mp3 Chriss Ortega, Christian Hinzer – The Groove – Nicola Fasano, Steve Forest Mix).mp3 City Capture – Any Kind Of Season – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Collide – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Crossfire – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – Mirror Surface – Original Mix).mp3 City Capture – The Cube – Original Mix).mp3 Coming Out – Start Again – Datamotion Edit Remix).mp3 Coopa – Stutter – 1 Fish, Two Fish Remix).mp3 Coopa – Stutter – Original Mix).mp3 Crazy House Dj’s, Joseph One – Supulo – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Exploited, Alan Lockwood – On Road – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Vecchi – Chinatown – Original Mix).mp3 Cristian Vecchi – Confusion – Original Mix).mp3 Da Groovemakers – On The Road Again – Original Mix) – 1).mp3 Da Groovemakers – On The Road Again – Original Mix).mp3 Daily – Kalavalier – Original Mix).mp3 Damian William – Qulove – Original Mix).mp3 Damien J. Carter, Matt Devereaux, Michael Maze – Ticket To Somewhere Feat. Andy P – Claudio Lari Remix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Around Of Consciousness – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Dark Room Of The Earth – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Minimal Injection – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti – Underwater – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Casseti & Stenli Tong – Impulse Of Sound – Original Mix).mp3 Daniel Steinberg – Tansania – Original Mix).mp3 Danny Darko, Toni Lewis – Full Moon – Original Mix).mp3 Dapayk & Padberg – Island Feat. Caro – Florian Meindl Remix).mp3 Dapayk Solo – Child Of The Night – Formatb Remix).mp3 Dario Ruzzier – Commit – Original Mix).mp3 Darwin & Backwall – Ask For More – Maxime Zarcone Remix).mp3 Data Mc – Fever – K-Paul Remix).mp3 Dave Copp, Tommy Mckinley – Coca – Original Mix).mp3 Dave Dumper, Sim Wiener – P.B.S. – Original Mix).mp3 Dave Rose, Alexei & Carlos Kinn – Get The Funky – Original M

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3. Lil B - White Gold House Flame (Sparta Bitch Mob)

  • Published: 2012-02-05T08:10:01Z
  • By FilyPusha
Lil B - White Gold House Flame (Sparta Bitch Mob)

Deep House 1. Alla Farmer - Take 2 (Original Mix) [Electronica] (6:28) 2. ArkadiuszS - Winter Street City (Original Mix) [Minimalistyczni E] (7:29) 3. Chmara Winter - Bonk (Original Mix) [Your Mamas Friend] (6:12) 4. Chmara Winter - Roast B (Original Mix) [Your Mamas Friend] (6:36) 5. Chmara Winter - Szajba (Original Mix) [Your Mamas Friend] (7:53) 6. Christian Reich - Western Wall (Original Mix) [Asymmetric Dip] (5:54) 7. Christian Reich - Western Wall (Tom Ellis Remix) [Asymmetric Dip] (7:08) 8. Dimi Wilson - Astadiala (Original Mix) [DeepClass Records] (8:03) 9. Dimi Wilson - Giorikas (Original Mix) [DeepClass Records] (7:26) 10. Dimi Wilson - Kostikas (Original Mix) [DeepClass Records] (6:34) 11. dOP & Masomenos - Hello (Original Mix) [Connaisseur Recordings] (4:17) 12. dOP - Rave Forever Together (Original Mix) [Connaisseur Recordings] (8:44) 13. Eric Redd - 54 (Mike Matthews Club Mix) [Carrillo Music LLC] (6:01) 14. Felipe L - Kind Soul (Original Mix) [AK Tek Records] (7:35) 15. Felipe L - Pim Pla (Original Mix) [AK Tek Records] (7:32) 16. Jon Delerious - Asend (Original Mix) [Lost My Dog] (5:52) 17. Jon Delerious - Believe In You (Giom Remix) [Lost My Dog] (5:49) 18. Jon Delerious - Believe In You (Huxley Remix) [Lost My Dog] (6:25) 19. Jon Delerious - Believe In You (Original Mix) [Lost My Dog] (6:49) 20. Jon Delerious - Remember (Original Mix) [Lost My Dog] (6:13) 21. Magit Cacoon, Nunu - Soul Motion (Original Mix) [Girl Scout] (6:51) 22. Marc Smith - Stepping Back (Its OK Dub) [Chillin Music] (7:50) 23. Marc Smith - Stepping Back (Sleazzy McQueen Remix) [Chillin Music] (7:36) 24. Marc Smith - Stepping Back (Space Throwback Remix) [Chillin Music] (7:48) 25. Marc Smith - You Want To (Lance De Sardi Remix) [Chillin Music] (7:04) 26. Mauro Basso - Drone (Ariane Blank Remix) [Auditive] (6:44) 27. Mauro Basso - Drone (Dreher & Smart Remix) [Auditive] (6:29) 28. Mauro Basso - Drone (Original Mix) [Auditive] (7:46) 29. Mauro Basso - Drone (Tim Engelhardt Remix) [Auditive] (7:52) 30. Michel Laurent - Orion (Original Mix) [Noze] (6:13) 31. Mockbeat - City Lights (Ian Metty Dub Mix) [MIDI Life Records] (6:05) 32. Moe Turk, Fat Boy Pym - Beachin (Original Mix) [Vibe Lebanon Records] (6:08) 33. Moe Turk - Time Machine (Original Mix) [Vibe Lebanon Records] (7:25) 34. Patrick Chardronnet - Source Of Life (Original Mix) [Connaisseur Recordings] (8:31) 35. Pol On, Chmara Winter - Bonk (Pol On Rmx) [Your Mamas Friend] (5:46) 36. Randal Soeung - What Its For (Jesus Pablo Remix) [Headset Recordings] (6:17) 37. Randal Soeung - What Its For (Original Mix) [Headset Recordings] (7:34) 38. Sonny Joey Waschington - Deep Garden (Deep Mix) [Integrity Records] (4:46) 39. Sonny Joey Waschington - Moving Forward (Original Mix) [Integrity Records] (5:35) 40. Sonny Joey Waschington - Moving Forward (Voice Mix) [Integrity Records] (5:35) 41. Steve Mill & Luke Fair - Beaches (Original Mix) [Add2Basket Records] (6:44) 42. Steve Mill & Luke Fair - Beaches (Peter Horrevorts Remix) [Add2Basket Records] (8:48) 43. Storm Queen - Look Right Through (Jamie Jones Remix) [Defected] (6:14) 44. Tatoine - Sometimes (Kevin McKay Remix) [Repressure Recordings] (7:39) 45. V i v i d - Nobody But Her (Original Mix) [Greelpound] (5:31) 46. V i v i d - Nunna Yo Bidness (Original Mix) [Greelpound] (5:40) Electro House 1. Amy B, Warehouse - You And Me Tonight (Danny Merx Remix) [3am Jam] (6:52) 2. Amy B, Warehouse - You And Me Tonight (TJR Remix) [3am Jam] (5:41) 3. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Harikus Arcade Riot Mix) [Blow Out Records] (7:31) 4. Brotha Berry - Dance All Night (Original Mix) [Soul Shift Music] (6:15) 5. BSharry - Are You Ready (Original Mix) [Gardenia Records] (5:07) 6. BSharry - Stoned Is Breaking (Original Mix) [Gardenia Records] (5:29) 7. Damian William - The Chameleon (Original Mix) [Couture] (6:30) 8. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel The Sun (Iron Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (6:25) 9. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel the Sun (Revolution Dj Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (5:56) 10. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel The Sun (Steve Weaver & Jocix Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (6:48) 11. David Far3ll - Freedom (Original Mix) [Balkan Delights] (6:48) 12. David Far3ll - Freedom (Stanisha Reversed Elephants Remix) [Balkan Delights] (8:22) 13. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Jam Xpress Remix) [Yes Yes Records] (5:06) 14. Digital Project - Love Me (Original Mix) [General Records] (6:19) 15. Digital Project - Love Me (Vocal Dub Mix) [General Records] (5:49) 16. DJ Cross, Drop Dead Red, Adam Savage - UFO (Axis Mix) [Murky Beatz] (5:20) 17. Eric Redd - 54 (Carvelo Pill Poppin Mix) [Carrillo Music LLC] (6:00) 18. Footjam - N.S.B. (Original Mix) [THaF Records] (5:22) 19. Footjam - Sneakerz (G0ldt0p Remix) [THaF Records] (5:17) 20. Footjam - Sneakerz (Jackiroqs Remix) [THaF Records] (6:20) 21. Footjam - Sneakerz (Original Mix) [THaF Records] (6:38) 22. Footjam - Toechdown (Original Mix) [THaF Records] (5:57) 23. Hot Mess - No Requests (Original Mix) [Heavy Artillery Recordings] (5:17) 24. Hotel Stereo - Out Of My Mind (Extended) [Bikini Sounds] (6:41) 25. Hotel Stereo - Out Of My Mind (Instrumental) [Bikini Sounds] (6:41) 26. In Cahoots - Yeti (Original Mix) [Macro Records] (5:12) 27. Jakatorre - Focus (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (4:31) 28. Jakatorre - Going (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (6:14) 29. Jakatorre - Grrr (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (3:43) 30. Jakatorre - Open (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (6:05) 31. Jakatorre - Space To Earth (Original Mix) [Bonds Records] (5:34) 32. Jay Costa - Pianor (Myles James remix) [Juuhch] (5:03) 33. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Alex Greed Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (5:31) 34. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Danny T Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (6:45) 35. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Original Mix) [Clone 21 Records] (4:18) 36. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Rob Estell Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (5:37) 37. Kishin - Ticking Clocks (Subject Delta Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (4:20) 38. MC Complex, HER - Go (Perfect Cell vs The Amp Jackers Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (5:32) 39. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Cheeky D Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (6:30) 40. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Original Mix) [Digital Dope Records] (4:49) 41. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Perfect Cell vs The Amp Jackers Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (6:01) 42. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Scott Thomas Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (4:05) 43. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (The Funk Out Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (5:17) 44. MC Cyanide, HER - Go (Woncka Remix) [Digital Dope Records] (6:26) 45. Nofx, Reat Kay - Treelectrick (Club Mix) [Rich & Glorious] (5:30) 46. Probe - Baila (Original Mix) [Plasmapool] (7:43) 47. Sesa - KICK IT (Original Mix) [Do The Hip Recordings] (6:44) 48. The Catevari - Vesuvius (Original Mix) [Dirty Wave] (4:41) 49. The Catevari - Vesuvius (Ver 2) [Dirty Wave] (4:18) House 1. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (Aba & Simonsen Remix) [discowax] (4:36) 2. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (Chukie & Mastiksoul Remix) [discowax] (6:42) 3. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (G&C Remix) [discowax] (6:18) 4. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (Jorgensen Remix) [discowax] (6:12) 5. Aba, Simonsen - Soul Bossa Nova (Original Mix) [discowax] (3:36) 6. Amy B, Warehouse - You And Me Tonight (Original Mix) [3am Jam] (5:37) 7. Andrew Phillips - False Vibration (Ramon Castells Remix) [The Mansion Recordings] (6:08) 8. Aquarell - Roots & Culture (Jackie Misfit Remix) [Echolette Records] (7:52) 9. Aquarell - Roots & Culture (Santos Resiak Remix) [Echolette Records] (7:36) 10. Aquarell - Roots & Culture (Shaun Ingham Hedley & Frank House Remix) [Echolette Records] (8:22) 11. Born To Funk - Kenya [Copyright] (6:58) 12. Born To Funk - La Scoica [Copyright] (7:33) 13. CJ Reign - Brand New Life (CJs Urban Groove Dub) [Bass Machine] (5:48) 14. CJ Reign - Brand New Life (Original Mix) [Bass Machine] (6:10) 15. CJ Reign - Brand New Life (Reigns Energize Dub) [Bass Machine] (6:28) 16. Coqui Selection - Dissko (Jorge Montia Marfil Remix) [PornoStar Records] (5:47) 17. Coqui Selection - Dissko (Original Mix) [PornoStar Records] (7:04) 18. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel the Sun (Adam Jetrack remix) [Music Pirates Records] (7:20) 19. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel the Sun (Hathor Dj Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (4:35) 20. Dave Jr, Gyongyossy Fanni - Feel the Sun (NorbEEBoy & Fabio Costa Acoustic Remix) [Music Pirates Records] (3:48) 21. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Club Mix) [Yes Yes Records] (4:52) 22. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Original Mix) [Yes Yes Records] (4:17) 23. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Willy Joy Remix) [Yes Yes Records] (4:36) 24. Diavlo - Swat (Original Mix) [MAR186] (6:21) 25. Dishop - Felicidad (Klash Rivera Latin Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:33) 26. Ebbo Riginal - Its Getting Funky (Original Mix) [Big Toy Music] (6:41) 27. Ebbo Riginal - Less Stress (Original Mix) [Big Toy Music] (6:41) 28. Garrett & Ojelay - Hey Mr. DJ (Original Mix) [Beatdown] (6:36) 29. Garrett & Ojelay - Hey Mr. DJ (Sonny Fodera Remix) [Beatdown] (5:37) 30. Giacomo Dati - Dance Into Traffic (Dagrab Mix) [Nplaymusic] (8:22) 31. Giacomo Dati - Dance Into Traffic (Original Mix) [Nplaymusic] (9:02) 32. Gorje Hewek, Izhevski - Aureol (Original Mix) [ProTez] (9:50) 33. Gorje Hewek, Izhevski - Inspire (Original Mix) [ProTez] (8:50) 34. Japain - Cross Towns (Hideout Remix) [19Box Recordings] (6:05) 35. Kadasma, XyO - Cool Breeze (Original Mix) [Kadasma Records] (6:39) 36. Lucas, Daniel Malker, Hugo Sanches - Saturday Night (Original Mix) [ADS Records] (7:21) 37. Matt Everson - Chopper (Original Mix) [Bamboo Music] (7:12) 38. Michael Ruris - Glow (Original) [Handmade Recordings] (6:33) 39. Michael Ruris - Glow (Power Bass Line Mix) [Handmade Recordings] (6:33) 40. Mike Deluxe - Let It Out (Extended Mix) [Strawberry Flavor] (5:30) 41. Only Children - Be The One (Original Mix) [Nuclear Family] (6:01) 42. Plastik Funk, Dave Kurtis - Shake (Original Mix) [Tiger Records] (6:21) 43. Raul Duran - Line All (Original Mix) [Hipnotika Recordings] (8:18) 44. Sebastian Roter, Dan Lewis - I Believe (Roter & Lewis Mix) [Whitepromo] (6:52) 45. Sebastian Roter, Dan Lewis - People (Original Mix) [Whitepromo] (6:56) 46. SoundSAM - That Language (Original Mix) [Phat Fuel Records] (8:21) 47. SoundSAM - Them Rhodes (Original Mix) [Phat Fuel Records] (10:03) 48. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Angger Dimas Remix) [Ultra] (4:08) 49. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Autoerotique Remix) [Ultra] (5:41) 50. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Pixel Cheese Remix) [Ultra] (6:30) 51. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Tommy Trash Remix) [Ultra] (5:14) 52. Steve Aoki, Wynter Gordon - Ladi Dadi (Tommy Trash Remix Instrumental) [Ultra] (5:00) 53. Tomascom - My Name Is (Moduloktopus Is My Name Remix) [Sundown Records] (6:58) 54. Vadim Shuttle - Twisted (Sergio Navarro & Blas Marin Remix) [Fever Sound Records] (6:59) 55. Yuriy Poleg, Phillipo Blake, V.Ray - Dont Give Up (Original Mix) [Muza Music] (6:52) Indie Dance_Nu Disco 1. Chordashian - Dont Wait Up (Downtown Party Network Remix) [Mullet Records] (5:54) 2. Chordashian - Dont Wait Up [Mullet Records] (4:53) 3. Chordashian - Sea Crest (Sportloto Remix) [Mullet Records] (5:50) 4. Chordashian - Sea Crest [Mullet Records] (6:02) 5. Chordashian - The Jam (Slow Hands Remix) [Mullet Records] (6:10) 6. Chordashian - The Jam [Mullet Records] (4:42) 7. Moon Boots - Aretha (ColeCo Remix) [Nurvous Records] (7:07) 8. Moon Boots - Aretha (Kid Colors 88 Cruiser Remix) [Nurvous Records] (7:35) 9. Moon Boots - Aretha (Original Dub) [Nurvous Records] (4:53) 10. Moon Boots - Aretha (Original Mix) [Nurvous Records] (4:21) 11. Moon Boots - Aretha (Zimmer Remix) [Nurvous Records] (5:04) 12. Of Norway - Song For Ava (Original Mix) [Connaisseur Recordings] (5:28) 13. Storm Queen - Look Right Through (Aeroplane Remix) [Defected] (5:13) 14. Storm Queen - Look Right Through (Dimitri From Paris Erodiscomix) [Defected] (7:01) 15. V i v i d - Everybody But Me (Original Mix) [Greelpound] (7:00) 16. Zarkoff - Lost Joys Of Youth (Original Mix) [Adriatiko Recordings] (4:50) 17. Zarkoff - Seven Sins Of Memory (Borgie Remix) [Adriatiko Recordings] (6:35) 18. Zarkoff - Seven Sins Of Memory (Original Mix) [Adriatiko Recordings] (6:20) Minimal 1. Display FM - Crikets (The Missing Link Remix) [Emote Music] (12:51) 2. Flexb - Call Me (Original Mix) [Delato Records] (7:00) 3. Flexb - Donna Gnini & Villar (Original Mix) [Delato Records] (7:00) 4. Flexb - Flex (Original Mix) [Delato Records] (7:01) 5. Gymmy J - Breaking The Habit (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (5:56) 6. Gymmy J - Dear Fabrizio (Feat The Rebby Show) [Different Is Better] (6:47) 7. Kane Roth - Little Helper 301 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:45) 8. Kane Roth - Little Helper 303 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:52) 9. Kane Roth - Little Helper 304 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:47) 10. Kane Roth - Little Helper 305 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:28) 11. Kane Roth - Little Helper 306 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (6:46) 12. Larry Baaaam - Power Of Cocaine 2k12 (Carlo Ruetz Remix) [040 Recordings] (7:14) 13. Santini, Tellez - Lost Thoughts (Alicia Hushs Buckaroo Remix) [Thoughtless Music] (6:40) 14. Sebastian Pena - In The Mind (Du Sant Remix) [Krad Records] (7:24) 15. Sebastian Pena - In The Mind (Original Mix) [Krad Records] (7:52) 16. Sebastian Pena - Little Drops (Original Mix) [Krad Records] (7:33) 17. Sebastian Pena - Sperm Race (Ochu LaRoss Remix) [Krad Records] (6:44) 18. Sebastian Pena - Sperm Race (Original Mix) [Krad Records] (7:17) 19. Sebastian Pena - Sperm Race (Ungar Remix) [Krad Records] (7:25) Progressive House 1. Alberto Matz - The Things I Left Behind (Original Mix) [WeRecommendRecords WRR] (8:03) 2. Alberto Matz - Your Sweetest Mistake (Original Mix) [WeRecommendRecords WRR] (8:03) 3. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Dub 2012 ReMaster) [Blow Out Records] (7:34) 4. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Instrumental 2012 ReMaster) [Blow Out Records] (8:32) 5. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Original 2012 ReMaster) [Blow Out Records] (8:32) 6. Brotha Berry - Hot Nights (Original Mix) [Soul Shift Music] (6:29) 7. Cora Novoa - Calypso (Original Mix) [Mesmeric] (7:36) 8. Cora Novoa - Miami Affairs (Original Mix) [Mesmeric] (8:05) 9. Cora Novoa - Miami Affairs (Tigerskins Epic Version) [Mesmeric] (8:32) 10. David Far3ll - Freedom (Loquai Remix) [Balkan Delights] (5:52) 11. David Far3ll - Freedom (Stanisha Remix) [Balkan Delights] (9:30) 12. Fred Hyas - I Love You (Elev8 Remix) [Pure Magic Recordings] (6:11) 13. Housemonster - Perfect Match (Jonathan EQ Remix) [Family Business Records] (6:11) 14. Housemonster - Perfect Match (Original Mix) [Family Business Records] (5:56) 15. Imprezaboys - Sky Blue (Imprezaboys Adrenaline Remix) [Ib Digital] (7:32) 16. Javah, Mimi Boheme - Waiting (Altego Remix) [Redux Recordings] (6:34) 17. Jay Costa - Pianor (Original mix) [Juuhch] (5:10) 18. Lab Of Music - First Contact (Club Mix) [Labofmusic Records] (6:30) 19. Lab Of Music - First Contact (Dj Friendly) [Labofmusic Records] (6:53) 20. Lab Of Music - First Contact (Original Mix) [Labofmusic Records] (6:46) 21. Linas - Desire (Original Mix) [Progressive Tone Digital] (7:29) 22. Markeight - Line Up (Original Mix) [LAD Publishing & Records] (6:41) 23. Markeight - Shinobi (Original Mix) [LAD Publishing & Records] (7:05) 24. Massimo Cassini - God Mode (Guido Durante Remix) [Keep On] (9:03) 25. Matias Spataro - Their Illustrated Moment (Original Mix) [No Signal Records] (7:48) 26. Rich Gior - Mirage (Original Mix) [Southside Recordings] (6:47) 27. Rich Gior - New York New York (Original Mix) [Southside Recordings] (6:25) 28. rLINE - Anfibionic (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (8:59) 29. rLINE - Blind Also Dream (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (6:43) 30. rLINE - Nestdia (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (6:07) 31. rLINE - The Acid Milk (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (6:21) 32. rLINE - Vengeance (Original Mix) [Speedsound] (6:26) 33. Sedi - In Time (Original Mix) [NRG Dance Records] (8:55) 34. Spectromanski - Absinthe (Original Mix) [Journees Music] (9:13) 35. Spectromanski - Faded Memories (Original Mix) [Journees Music] (8:30) 36. Spectromanski - Il Volo Della Sirena (Original Mix) [Journees Music] (6:48) 37. Ville Nikkanen - Dizkomuzik (Original Mix) [4House Digital] (5:35) 38. Ville Nikkanen - Neon (Original Mix) [4House Digital] (7:31) 39. Ville Nikkanen - Night Flight (Original Mix) [4House Digital] (6:56) 40. Yuriy Poleg, Phillipo Blake, V.Ray - Dont Give Up (Felix Young Remix) [Muza Music] (8:09) Soulful House/Jackin 1. Brotha Berry - Ice Shock Proto2 (Original Mix) [Soul Shift Music] (5:38) 2. DJ Volcano - Mi Son (Original Mix) [El Buho] (5:07) 3. DJ Volcano - Mojito Cha (Original Mix) [El Buho] (5:04) 4. DJ Volcano - Sabroso Party (Original Mix) [El Buho] (5:04) 5. Jeff Service - All Dekked Out (Original Mix) [Flosshatt Digital] (6:44) 6. Jeff Service - Just A Little (Original Mix) [Flosshatt Digital] (6:29) 7. Jeff Service - My 92 (Original Mix) [Flosshatt Digital] (6:42) 8. Storm Queen - Look Right Through (Vocal Mix) [Defected] (7:29) Tech House 1. Amy B, Warehouse - You And Me Tonight (Hey Sam Remix) [3am Jam] (5:24) 2. Asle & Anne - Lucky You (Minilogue Remix) [Blow Out Records] (9:05) 3. Astronivo - The Porges (Henek Remix) [Sounds Of Earth] (8:12) 4. Dagrab - Voodoo Market (Original) [Nplaymusic] (6:46) 5. Dagrab - Voodoo Market (Soft Mix) [Nplaymusic] (6:29) 6. Diamond Lights, Anna Lunoe - Stronger (Solo Remix) [Yes Yes Records] (6:47) 7. Diavlo - Stereotype (Original Mix) [MAR186] (7:09) 8. Dishop - Felicidad (Alfonso Llovera Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (8:03) 9. Dishop - Felicidad (Dyan K Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (7:15) 10. Dishop - Felicidad (Jabu David Cut Aacini Gomez Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:42) 11. Dishop - Felicidad (Jair Ydan Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:54) 12. Dishop - Felicidad (Karlos Kastillo Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:39) 13. Dishop - Felicidad (Original Mix) [Technotitlan Records] (6:54) 14. Dishop - Felicidad (Sam Koen Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (7:42) 15. Dishop - Felicidad (Tone 15 Felicidad Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (8:38) 16. DJ Boris - La Musica (Cristian Arango Remix) [Nervous Records] (7:01) 17. DJ Boris - La Musica (Jean Pierre Lost In Queens Remix) [Nervous Records] (6:53) 18. DJ Boris - La Musica (Miss Jennifer Remix) [Nervous Records] (7:03) 19. DJ Boris - La Musica (Original Mix) [Nervous Records] (8:03) 20. Donato Bilancia, Joseph DL - Build Up (Original Mix) [Stendhal Records] (8:10) 21. Donato Bilancia, Joseph DL - Build Up (Paride Saracenis Abyssal Remix) [Stendhal Records] (7:48) 22. Emilio Picazo, Pechan DJ - Sucking Glass (SOS Fundation Original Mix) [Darkside Digital Records] (7:20) 23. Fabian Argomedo - Nordic (Redondo Remix) [Sanity] (7:25) 24. Kane Roth - Little Helper 302 (Original Mix) [Little Helpers] (7:01) 25. Magit Cacoon, Nunu - Soul Motion (P Toile & Tigerskin) [Girl Scout] (7:17) 26. Matt Everson - Love Chant (Original Mix) [Bamboo Music] (6:54) 27. Phonic Funk - Under [Strom] (7:38) 28. Phonic Funk - Utopia [Strom] (6:10) 29. Rickzor, Rumme - Gods Last (Original Mix) [Rogue Recordings] (7:18) 30. Rickzor, Rumme - How You Feel (Original Mix) [Rogue Recordings] (7:46) 31. Rickzor, Uf0 - Rompiendo Olas (Original Mix) [Rogue Recordings] (8:01) 32. Style Of Eye, Magnus the Magnus - Antidote (Highbloo Remix) [Horehaus] (5:37) 33. Style Of Eye, Magnus the Magnus - Antidote (NT89 Remix) [Horehaus] (5:21) 34. Style Of Eye, Magnus the Magnus - Antidote (Sebjak Remix) [Horehaus] (6:58) 35. Style Of Eye, Magnus the Magnus - Antidote (Tony Senghore Remix) [Horehaus] (5:29) 36. Yuriy Poleg, Phillipo Blake, V.Ray - Dont Give Up (Sanya Shelest Remix) [Muza Music] (6:45) Techno 1. AnGy KoRe, Daniele Crocenzi, Gymmy J - Danger (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (6:15) 2. AnGy KoRe - Hi (Gymmy J Remix) [Different Is Better] (7:00) 3. Astronivo - The Porges (Forza Remix) [Sounds Of Earth] (7:21) 4. Astronivo - The Porges (Original Mix) [Sounds Of Earth] (7:42) 5. Audio Louis - Jeff Is Locked (Original) [Glider Records] (7:00) 6. Audio Louis - Ugo Day (Original) [Glider Records] (6:40) 7. Audio Louis - Wet (Analog Peoples Streampunk) [Glider Records] (7:32) 8. Audio Louis - Wet (Original) [Glider Records] (6:43) 9. Balthazar, Jackrock - Das Zimmer (DJ Baly Remix) [Renesanz] (7:53) 10. Balthazar, Jackrock - Das Zimmer (George Yammine Remix) [Renesanz] (7:40) 11. Balthazar, Jackrock - Das Zimmer (Original Mix) [Renesanz] (7:04) 12. Balthazar, Jackrock - Das Zimmer (Skymate Remix) [Renesanz] (6:26) 13. Diavlo - Stereotype (Danny Nagels & Erez Only Remix) [MAR186] (6:51) 14. Dishop - Felicidad (AxHz Remix) [Technotitlan Records] (7:16) 15. Gymmy J - El Cholo (APaul Remix) [Different Is Better] (6:32) 16. Gymmy J - Karasho (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (7:23) 17. Gymmy J - No King (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (5:43) 18. Gymmy J - Punch (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (7:07) 19. Gymmy J - Recycle (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (7:13) 20. Gymmy J - Sharp (Original Mix) [Different Is Better] (7:03) 21. Jay Davis - Babel (Kaj Tyszka Remix) [Refuge Records] (7:06) 22. Jay Davis - Babel (Original) [Refuge Records] (7:44) 23. Jay Davis - Babel (Shannon Remix) [Refuge Records] (8:29) 24. Kyle Geiger - Final Chapter (Original) [Cubera Records] (7:18) 25. Kyle Geiger - Mimetic Desire (Original Mix) [Cubera Records] (6:41) 26. Kyle Geiger - Mimetic Desire (Warehouse Edit) [Cubera Records] (6:23) 27. Magit Cacoon, Nunu - Soul Motion (ME) [Girl Scout] (7:58) 28. Marka T, Devid Dega - The Grass Age (Guido Durante Remix) [Keep On] (7:13) 29. Mike Shannon - Walter Winchell (Original Mix) [Cynosure Recordings] (7:08) 30. Minimo - Loss (Original Mix) [Dropkick Records] (6:24) 31. Minimo - Sox (Original Mix) [Dropkick Records] (8:53) 32. Mr Bizz - Bamboo (Original Mix) [Beat Therapy Records] (7:56) 33. Mr Bizz - Olivia (Original Mix) [Beat Therapy Records] (7:10) 34. Santini, Tellez - Lost Thoughts (Fairmont Remix) [Thoughtless Music] (5:09) 35. Santini, Tellez - Lost Thoughts (Original Mix) [Thoughtless Music] (8:41) 36. Shannon & El Lobo - Bong Are The Days (Original Mix) [Cynosure Recordings] (7:35) 37. Sosa Ibiza - Wind Force (Michele Pinna Acid Techno Reinterpretation) [The Triangle Records] (8:14) 38. WayWork - Flipout (Original Mix) [Funktripes Music] (8:07) 39. WayWork - Miss Takes (Original Mix) [Funktripes Music] (8:34) 40. WayWork - Out of My Bed (Original Mix) [Funktripes Music] (7:07) 41. WayWork - Slow (Original Mix) [Funktripes Music] (8:00) Deep House 1. Afroseeds, Soul Maestro - Changes (Intrumental) [Housegrown] (8:08) 2. Afroseeds, Soul Maestro - Changes (Main Vocal) [Housegrown] (8:08) 3. Afroseeds, Soul Maestro - Changes (Remix) [Housegrown] (8:06) 4. Allan Zax - Come To The Sky (Album Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (7:15) 5. Allan Zax - Is It Midnight Already (Original Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (8:20) 6. Allan Zax - Remember Novermber (Original Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (9:05) 7. Allan Zax - Stylish Black (Album Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (8:32) 8. Allan Zax - Unspoken Words (Album Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (6:29) 9. Allan Zax - We Love The Music (Instrumental Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (7:25) 10. Amine Edge - I Love You (Original Mix) [Katchuli] (7:14) 11. Amine Edge - The Rythm (Chris Minus & SKAI Remix) [Katchuli] (7:38) 12. Amine Edge - The Rythm (Original Mix) [Katchuli] (7:19) 13. Bicycle Corporation - Citylight Safari (Original Mix) [WL77 1744] (5:41) 14. Bicycle Corporation - Someone Needs Me Back (Original Mix) [WL77 1744] (7:12) 15. Bicycle Corporation - Sunrise On The People (Original Mix) [WL77 1744] (6:23) 16. David Lazzari - Bird (Intro Mix) [DIP Recordings] (7:50) 17. David Lazzari - Star Final (Original Mix) [DIP Recordings] (9:15) 18. DTakerz, Jean Jeak - It Makes A Difference (Fathead Johnson Remix) [Grouper Recordings] (6:36) 19. DTakerz, Jean Jeak - It Makes A Difference (Leoesco Remix) [Grouper Recordings] (7:40) 20. DTakerz, Jean Jeak - It Makes A Difference (Original Mix) [Grouper Recordings] (7:23) 21. DTakerz, Jean Jeak - Orange Camomille (Original Mix) [Grouper Recordings] (6:54) 22. Gavin Herlihy - Endless Feeling (Larse Remix) [Culprit] (7:25) 23. Gavin Herlihy - Tell Me What You Need (Geddes 928 Remix) [Culprit] (7:03) 24. Gavin Herlihy - Tell Me What You Need (Inxec & Shaun Reeves Remix) [Culprit] (7:19) 25. Gordon Lyu - Lost Visions (Original Mix) [Officina Sonora] (4:35) 26. Hooved - Queen Of Flowers (Markus Homm Queens Way Remix) [Keep On] (8:15) 27. Hooved - Queen Of Flowers (Original Mix) [Keep On] (7:03) 28. Hooved - Queen Of Flowers (Sasch BBC & Caspar Remix) [Keep On] (6:51) 29. Jerry K - Hoot (Dirty Culture Remix) [Seta Label] (7:59) 30. Jerry K - Hoot (Original Mix) [Seta Label] (7:05) 31. Jerry K - What Do You Thing (Original Mix) [Seta Label] (6:41) 32. John Collins - Alone (Original Mix) [Vision Collective Recordings] (7:40) 33. John Collins - Deep Inside (Raw Mix) [Vision Collective Recordings] (6:26) 34. John Collins - Freestylin (Original Mix) [Vision Collective Recordings] (6:32) 35. John Collins - Roll With You (Original Mix) [Vision Collective Recordings] (6:57) 36. Kasper Winding - Chinatown To Chinatown (Acid Washed Remix) [Sound Of Copenhagen] (6:43) 37. Koolfunk - Eastway (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:48) 38. Kriece - The Squid From Madrid (Junk Yard Rhythm Section Mix) [Illegal Ninja Moves] (6:22) 39. Kruse & Nuernberg - Mesmerized (CRock & Brett Johnson Remix) [Moodmusic] (7:52) 40. Kruse & Nuernberg - Mesmerized (Original Mix) [Moodmusic] (6:47) 41. Kruse & Nuernberg - Reminiscence (Julien Chaptal Remix) [Moodmusic] (8:07) 42. Kruse & Nuernberg - Reminiscence (Michelle Owen Remix) [Moodmusic] (6:07) 43. Kruse & Nuernberg - Reminiscence (Original Mix) [Moodmusic] (6:18) 44. Martines - Around Sound (Mend Remix) [Deep Plastic Records] (7:10) 45. Martines - Around Sound (Mrkino Remix) [Deep Plastic Records] (7:00) 46. Martines - Around Sound (Original Mix) [Deep Plastic Records] (8:48) 47. Mercury - Candlelight feat Robert Owens (Original Mix) [Gomma Dance Tracks] (3:42) 48. Mercury - NY Feeling (Original Mix) [Gomma Dance Tracks] (5:49) 49. Mercury - Running Back To You feat Christopher McCray (Original Mix) [Gomma Dance Tracks] (5:55) 50. Milty Evans - Gregorian (Original) [Look At You Records] (7:10) 51. Nurhee - Dan (Jay Tripwire Remix) [Rip N Burn] (7:22) 52. Nurhee - Dan (Original Mix) [Rip N Burn] (7:19) 53. Olej - Dreams (Original Mix) [Deep Digital Recordings] (8:46) 54. Olej - Retromobil (Original Mix) [Deep Digital Recordings] (7:52) 55. Paul Mad - Undes (Original mix) [Deep Beep Records] (6:38) 56. Rene Breitbarth - East (Original Mix) [Deep Data] (7:06) 57. Rene Breitbarth - North (Original Mix) [Deep Data] (6:36) 58. Rene Breitbarth - South (Original Mix) [Deep Data] (7:58) 59. Rene Breitbarth - West (Original Mix) [Deep Data] (8:59) 60. Rishi K - Nomadic (Original Mix) [Dalam Muzika] (7:52) 61. Rishi K - San Pedro Dreaming (Original Mix) [Dalam Muzika] (9:56) 62. Sterling - Banana Shark (Festival Mix) [Unvirtual Music] (6:23) 63. Sterling - Banana Shark (Original Mix) [Unvirtual Music] (5:44) 64. Sterling - So Why Did They (Agrande Remix) [Unvirtual Music] (7:11) 65. Sterling - So Why Did They (Original Mix) [Unvirtual Music] (6:03) 66. Yeray Herrera, Vicious Beats - Special Deep (Original Mix) [Vicious Music Records] (6:39) 67. Yeray Herrera, Vicious Beats - The Truth (Original Mix) [Vicious Music Records] (6:45) 68. Yeray Herrera - Sound Of The Night (Dan Styles Remix) [Vicious Music Records] (7:21) 69. Yeray Herrera - Sound Of The Night (Original Mix) [Vicious Music Records] (7:17) Electro House 1. Abduction Live - Life Is Like (Original Mix) [Proto Records] (6:09) 2. Abduction Live - The Rise (Original Mix) [Proto Records] (5:45) 3. Abduction Live - Vocalizer (Original Mix) [Proto Records] (5:54) 4. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Back To The Roots Mix) [Clone 21 Records] (7:48) 5. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Kishin Vs Ice Climbers Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (4:29) 6. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Original Mix) [Clone 21 Records] (7:01) 7. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Raw N Holgerson Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (5:50) 8. Alex Greed, Matt Ace - Phosphor (Stereoliner Remix) [Clone 21 Records] (7:06) 9. Astro Raph - Da House Dewn Boots Feat DJ La Rage (Original Mix) [Busted Beats] (6:20) 10. Bassive - New School (Cool Project Remix) [Funkk Sound Recordings] (5:54) 11. Bassive - New School (Enrique Navarrete Remix) [Funkk Sound Recordings] (4:21) 12. Bassive - New School (Most Freedom Remix) [Funkk Sound Recordings] (4:29) 13. Bassive - New School (Original Mix) [Funkk Sound Recordings] (3:44) 14. Christian VilaCosme Martin - The Green Way (Adrian Villaverde Remix) [Mylo Records] (6:00) 15. Chunks - Get Down To Miami (General Tosh Remix) [Tiger Records] (5:22) 16. Chunks - Get Down To Miami (Nuff Remix) [Tiger Records] (5:18) 17. Dafter - Bang Bang (Original Mix) [Gigabeat Records] (5:52) 18. Dafter - Guess This (Original Mix) [Gigabeat Records] (5:11) 19. Dafter - Up To Your Mind (Original Mix) [Gigabeat Records] (5:47) 20. DDeiEstate - Revolver (Original Mix) [Betty Beat Records] (6:56) 21. Divine X - Akasha (Original Mix) [Heavy Artillery Recordings] (5:58) 22. Divine X - Extermination (Original Mix) [Heavy Artillery Recordings] (6:44) 23. Divine X - Ride (Original Mix) [Heavy Artillery Recordings] (6:12) 24. Dj Mark Power - Comon Baby Bounce (Moodyboy Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (8:44) 25. DJ Neogame - Blue Blood (Original Mix) [Electrico Records] (4:33) 26. DJ Neogame - Difficult load (Original Mix) [Electrico Records] (5:41) 27. Electroshock, DJ Neogame - Great Impression (Original Mix) [Electrico Records] (5:44) 28. Electroshock - Arabesco (DJ Neogame Remix) [Electrico Records] (4:39) 29. Gioshi - Fire (Bonus Track) [Smilax Records] (4:24) 30. Isis Signum - Electromagnetica (Original Mix) [Sango Music] (6:13) 31. Ivan The Muru - Memories Of Sensations (Original Mix) [Magic Beatz Records] (6:11) 32. Johnny Beast - Bonfire For A Witch (Original Mix) [Rezone Records] (8:33) 33. Johnny Beast - Go (Original Mix) [Rezone Records] (8:41) 34. JTrick, JayyFresh - Diablo (Original Mix) [Club Cartel] (5:55) 35. JTrick, JayyFresh - Shakedown (Original Mix) [Club Cartel] (5:30) 36. Kredo - One Of A Kind (Tommie Keeston Remix) [Bonerizing Records] (4:29) 37. makina - Bounce (Original Mix) [Get It On Records] (7:37) 38. Malcolm Funktion, Secret Groovers - The Secret Funktion (Da GobliNN Remix) [Absolutely Records] (5:07) 39. Malcolm Funktion, Secret Groovers - The Secret Funktion (KrisCuk Remix) [Absolutely Records] (4:38) 40. Malcolm Funktion, Secret Groovers - The Secret Funktion (Original Mix) [Absolutely Records] (5:16) 41. Markus Voorn - Another Day (Original Mix) [Unilife Records] (9:01) 42. Markus Voorn - Zodiac (Original Mix) [Unilife Records] (7:46) 43. Noisestorm - Backlash (Original Mix) [Monstercat] (5:22) 44. Noisestorm - Let It Roar (Original Mix) [Monstercat] (5:46) 45. Noisestorm - Renegade (Original Mix) [Monstercat] (6:10) 46. Rokas M, Ignas Petru, Martyna - Juicy Beach (Miami Album Mix) [Soundwaves] (5:22) 47. Switch Cook - Planete 51 (Original Mix) [Royal Music Paris] (7:52) 48. Teamtek - Elektrofunt (Original Mix) [Evolution Recordings] (5:32) 49. TonC - Almost There (Original Mix) [Young Guns] (4:33) House 1. Allan Zax - Me Me Me & Me Too (Original Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (7:44) 2. AlX - Tasty (Millok & Dark Beat Remix) [Straight Music] (7:14) 3. Astro Raph - Happiness And Pain (Original Mix) [Busted Beats] (5:16) 4. Astro Raph - No Worry (Original Mix) [Busted Beats] (7:15) 5. Atesh K - Nicosia (Gilbert Van Haasen RMX) [Regular Beats Records] (6:14) 6. Barry Fore - 4Ya (Dizkodude Remix) [Essentials] (7:24) 7. Barry Fore - 4Ya (Nene Dasile Remix) [Essentials] (7:01) 8. Barry Fore - 4Ya (Original Mix) [Essentials] (6:38) 9. Barry Fore - 4Ya (Sem Thomasson Remix) [Essentials] (6:19) 10. Bertie Bassett - Kinda Beat (Beat Mix) [Total Wipes] (7:46) 11. Bertie Bassett - Kinda Beat (Kinda Mix) [Total Wipes] (7:08) 12. Bertie Bassett - To The Rhythm (Original Mix) [Total Wipes] (6:24) 13. Brandon Steel - Other Side (Andy LaToggo Remix) [Nachtaktiv Records] (6:18) 14. Brandon Steel - Other Side (Diego Diaz Remix) [Nachtaktiv Records] (6:05) 15. Brotha Berry - Ice Shock Proto2 (Original Mix) [Soul Shift Music] (5:38) 16. BSC - What You Do To Me Ft Jessi Colosante (Boddhi Satva Afriki Soul Inst Remix) [NY Soul Records] (6:45) 17. BSC - What You Do To Me Ft Jessi Colosante (Boddhi Satva Afriki Soul Remix) [NY Soul Records] (6:45) 18. BSC - What You Do To Me Ft Jessi Colosante (Original) [NY Soul Records] (6:50) 19. BSC - What You Do To Me Ft Jessi Colosante (Rob Lamont Remix) [NY Soul Records] (6:20) 20. CCO - And I Love Her (Original Mix) [Dustpan Recordings] (5:09) 21. CCO - Dont Care 4 Me (Original Mix) [Dustpan Recordings] (6:29) 22. CCO - Old Buddy Bolden (Original Mix) [Dustpan Recordings] (6:10) 23. Chris Count - 4 Your Love (Club Mix) [Upsoul] (6:56) 24. Chris Count - 4 Your Love (Original Mix) [Upsoul] (6:48) 25. Chunks - Get Down To Miami (DJ Falk Remix) [Tiger Records] (5:58) 26. David Herrero - Groove Pressure (Original Mix) [Nirvana Recordings] (5:37) 27. David Mayl, Aisha Bordas - La Fete feat Aisha Bordas (Original Mix) [Playmusic Recordings] (5:55) 28. Daviddance - Danger feat Miss Danger (Original Mix) [Daviddance] (7:37) 29. DDeiEstate - That Easy (Original Mix) [Betty Beat Records] (6:07) 30. Diego Sanchez, Mary Row - JUST LISTEN Feat Mary Row (Edu Iglesias Remix) [Evolution Senses Records] (7:09) 31. DJ Smilk - Police (Original Mix) [Dum A Dum Records] (6:38) 32. DLayna, Juan K Paul - I Feel The Music (ArkadiuszS Remix) [Housearth Records] (7:44) 33. Do Shock Booze - Jah is not dead (Makotrax Remix) [Totem Traxx] (7:41) 34. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Jan Areno Remix) [Disc Doctor] (5:39) 35. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Original Mix) [Disc Doctor] (7:12) 36. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Treitl Hammond Remix) [Disc Doctor] (7:12) 37. Electric Avenue - Jupiter (Original Mix) [Groove Life Records] (6:08) 38. Frank Cherryman, Danny Ulman, Jesus Amo - Hold Back The Tears (Original Mix) [Moorgate Records] (5:13) 39. Freddy D - Loves Gone Behind (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:20) 40. Fresh, Ali Algranati - Change Your Mind (Original Mix) [Bikini Records] (6:30) 41. George Llanes Jr. - Soul Ascension (Original Mix) [Street King] (6:56) 42. Ghettochild - Jaymis Street (Original Mix) [Oxi2 Records] (8:26) 43. iAma - THE GAME (EXTENDED MIX) [Melodica] (6:21) 44. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Disco Lights (Original Mix) [Disko Zoo Records] (5:03) 45. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Disco Lights (Wise D & Kobe Remix) [Disko Zoo Records] (6:36) 46. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Dynomite (MarkFunk Old School Remix) [Disko Zoo Records] (6:36) 47. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Dynomite (Original Mix) [Disko Zoo Records] (5:05) 48. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Evil Woman (Bryan Jones Remix) [Disko Zoo Records] (7:40) 49. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Evil Woman (Jazzys PLFT Remix) [Disko Zoo Records] (6:43) 50. Jean Jacques Smoothie - Evil Woman (Original Mix) [Disko Zoo Records] (5:33) 51. Jerry M & DrPJ - Hold Me (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (5:36) 52. Jerry M & DrPJ - Holiday Club Mix (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (6:01) 53. Jerry M & DrPJ - Holiday Orijinal Mix (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (4:33) 54. Jerry M & DrPJ - Speak Up 99 (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (7:00) 55. Jerry M & DrPJ - Wind Like (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (5:54) 56. KKlass - Bad Boy (Original Mix) [Hotfingers] (6:26) 57. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (Alex Guerrero Remix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (8:28) 58. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (Alex Myna Remix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (6:44) 59. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (D-Unitys Big Room Mix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (7:07) 60. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (D-Unitys Remix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (6:33) 61. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (Extended Mix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (5:18) 62. Kourosh Tazmini, Anda Adam - Can U Feel Love (ZAD Remix) [Exklusive Records Vidisco] (6:54) 63. Leisuregroove, Kevin Andrews - Came To Fk (Club Mix) [Housesession Records] (7:59) 64. Leisuregroove, Kevin Andrews - Do The Shit My Way & feat Joe Le Groove (Original Mix) [Housesession Records] (7:42) 65. Leslie Carter, Slow Motion Replay - Tell Me Bedtime Story (Soul Source Remix) [Soulab] (5:55) 66. Linka, MondelloG - Happy Day (Original Mix) [Essentials] (5:37) 67. Little Nancy - World Vision (Fingers Clear Remix) [Aquasound] (7:56) 68. Little Nancy - World Vision (Original Mix) [Aquasound] (6:06) 69. Lyya Rokk, Michael Donato - Get Out (Original Mix) [Moozaa Records] (7:16) 70. Lyya Rokk, Michael Donato - Get Out (Rayart Minor Mix) [Moozaa Records] (6:46) 71. Marksell - New Season (Club Mix) [2DJS4LOVE Recordings] (7:23) 72. Marksell - New Season (Electric Mix) [2DJS4LOVE Recordings] (6:17) 73. Marksell - New Season (Extended Mix) [2DJS4LOVE Recordings] (7:24) 74. Marksell - New Season (Original Mix) [2DJS4LOVE Recordings] (5:54) 75. Milty Evans - Bet On Black (Original) [Look At You Records] (6:58) 76. Mitchell Niemeyer - Botox (Delivio Reavon & Aaron Gill Remix) [Steel Music] (6:05) 77. Mitchell Niemeyer - Botox (Giancarlo Remix) [Steel Music] (5:19) 78. Mitchell Niemeyer - Botox (Nene Dasile Remix) [Steel Music] (5:45) 79. Mitchell Niemeyer - Botox (Original Mix) [Steel Music] (6:00) 80. Oscar L - Woman On Fire (Rikard Remix) [TKC Music] (7:18) 81. Parfenov, Anton Balkov - Day By Day (Duher Remix) [Essentials] (5:10) 82. Project 99 - Bubbles (Jane Klos Remix) [Electro Top] (5:16) 83. Raffa Garcia - Element Beautiful feat Bismarck Sax (Latin House Mix) [Playmusic Recordings] (7:30) 84. Raffa Garcia - Element Beautiful feat Bismarck Sax (Original Mix) [Playmusic Recordings] (7:29) 85. Rick Silva - El Beat (Original Mix) [Progresiva Records & Grooves] (7:21) 86. Ruben Zurita - Nothing Is True (Angelo Ferreri On Discours Mix) [Station Group Records] (7:08) 87. Sebastian Moreno - Back To The Roots (Original Mix) [Seen Records] (5:10) 88. Subban - Paris Bebe feat JEF K (Dub Digital Only) [Silver Network] (8:27) 89. Subban - Paris Bebe feat JEF K (Jef K Gwen Maze & PIRRES Dub Version Digital Only) [Silver Network] (7:14) 90. Subban - Paris Bebe feat JEF K (Jef K Gwen Maze & PIRRES Version) [Silver Network] (7:13) 91. Subban - Paris BeBe feat JEF K (Original Mix) [Silver Network] (8:29) 92. Tomy Montana - What U Want (Modaal & Discojack Rmx) [Gramma Rec] (6:54) 93. Tomy Montana - What U Want (Original Mix) [Gramma Rec] (6:07) 94. Uppercut - Turn The Music To Your Head (Mikel Curcio Remix) [KULT] (6:10) 95. Victor Vera - Planet Cool (Original Mix) [Apsides Records] (6:46) 96. Victor Vera - Vendetta (Original Mix) [Apsides Records] (8:06) 97. Volkoder, Darocha - For You (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:06) 98. Volkoder, Darocha - Wanna Dance (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:06) 99. Yogi Man - Fat Kid Dancing (Original Mix) [Groove Life Records] (6:28) 100. Yogi Man - My Hands Are On Fire (Original Mix) [Groove Life Records] (6:24) 101. Yuriy Poleg, Phillipo Blake, VRay - Dont Give Up (Zetandel Chill Remix) [Muza Music] (5:05) Indie Dance/Nu Disco 1. David Mariscal - Mil Flores (Instrumental) [POLKA] (8:12) 2. David Mariscal - Mil Flores (Rychy Martin Vision) [POLKA] (6:57) 3. David Mariscal - Mil Flores (Vox) [POLKA] (8:12) 4. Dean Sutton - American Dreams (Original Mix) [4House Digital] (5:03) Minimal 1. Aiho - Playground (Lucents Playtime Remix) [Bosphorus Underground Recordings] (6:52) 2. Aiho - Playground (Original Mix) [Bosphorus Underground Recordings] (7:03) 3. Andy Mart - Drop & Run (Original Mix) [Ready 2 Rock] (6:50) 4. Andy Mart - Gameplay (Original Mix) [Ready 2 Rock] (7:34) 5. Bombilla - I Think I Spider (Original Mix) [Shufflemood] (6:51) 6. Bombilla - No Comment (Coeters Dark Edit) [Shufflemood] (6:58) 7. Bombilla - No Comment (Original Mix) [Shufflemood] (6:36) 8. CPixel - Future Artefact (Philo Sci Mix) [Pulsed Recordings] (7:03) 9. Damolh33, Hertzman - Analysis (Original Mix) [NuLabel] (6:10) 10. Damolh33, Hertzman - Density (Original Mix) [NuLabel] (6:33) 11. Damolh33, Hertzman - Magus (Original Mix) [NuLabel] (6:14) 12. Damolh33, Hertzman - Steel Tongue (Original Mix) [NuLabel] (6:18) 13. Dano Cube - Abstract (Original Mix) [Minimized Records] (7:24) 14. Dano Cube - Liquid (Original Mix) [Minimized Records] (8:03) 15. Giuseppe Bottone - Anomaly (Original Mix) [Berlin Aufnahmen] (7:31) 16. Giuseppe Bottone - End Of The World (Original Mix) [Berlin Aufnahmen] (7:37) 17. Giuseppe Bottone - Il Trapezio (Original Mix) [Berlin Aufnahmen] (8:11) 18. Giuseppe Francaviglia - Ping Pong (Original Mix) [FHD Records] (7:15) 19. Ill Boy Phil - Bierzeltnintendo (Orginal) [Signal] (10:29) 20. Ill Boy Phil - Get Angry (Orginal) [Signal] (7:03) 21. Ill Boy Phil - Get Angry (Remix) [Signal] (6:33) 22. Jepy Jey - Plastic Fantastic (Giuseppe Francaviglia & Davix Remix) [JJ Records] (6:15) 23. Jepy Jey - Plastic Fantastic (Original Mix) [JJ Records] (6:03) 24. Jepy Jey - Plastic Fantastic (Redub Remix) [JJ Records] (7:48) 25. Jepy Jey - Plastic Fantastic (Tony Kairom Remix) [JJ Records] (6:56) 26. Jorge Savoretti - Sul Meno (Original Mix) [Love Letters From Oslo] (7:48) 27. Kachas - Dream (Original Mix) [Octane Recordings] (6:52) 28. Kachas - No No (Original Mix) [Octane Recordings] (8:01) 29. Kachas - Respect (Original Mix) [Octane Recordings] (9:52) 30. KINEZzzz - Capture This (Original Mix) [New Era Recordings] (5:00) 31. Michael Melchner - Sumu (Original Mix) [Love Letters From Oslo] (8:06) 32. Michele Flore - Celest June (Original Mix) [Emmestudio Records] (5:40) 33. Michele Flore - Trem (Original Mix) [Emmestudio Records] (5:12) 34. Pitt Larsen - Phenomenal (Original Mix) [Specktral Blue] (6:11) 35. Pitt Larsen - Presure (Original Mix) [Specktral Blue] (6:35) 36. Sebastian Pena - Black Souvenir (Original Mix) [Manege] (7:23) 37. Sebastian Pena - Black Souvenir (Sudok Remix) [Manege] (5:21) 38. Sebastian Pena - In Black (Felix Lorusso Remix) [Manege] (6:57) 39. Sebastian Pena - In Black (Original Mix) [Manege] (8:11) 40. Stealth Slap - Ummmbeck (Original Mix) [EON5] (7:06) 41. Zombie In Progress - Project Alexia (Richie Med Remix) [Tekx Records] (7:52) Progressive House 1. Allan Zax - No Fear (Original Mix) [Dutchie Worldwide] (8:47) 2. Andrew M, Sonny G - Kidney (Original Mix) [Squeeze Music] (4:32) 3. Andy Piney - Blue Inside (Original Mix) [DLab Records] (8:22) 4. Andy Piney - What The DJ (Original Mix) [DLab Records] (9:37) 5. Austin - Picture (Bob Fanzidon Remix) [Panda Recordings] (7:46) 6. Austin - Picture (Dontknower Deep Remix) [Panda Recordings] (9:00) 7. Austin - Picture (Original Mix) [Panda Recordings] (6:38) 8. Austin - Picture (Shaddike Remix) [Panda Recordings] (5:39) 9. C2U - Drama (Original Mix) [T & T Records] (5:27) 10. C2U - Fire of the Night (Original Mix) [T & T Records] (5:17) 11. C2U - Fluffy Bunny Feet (Original Mix) [T & T Records] (5:59) 12. C2U - Rodeo Drive (Original Mix) [T & T Records] (5:15) 13. Carlo Lucca, Diane Morgan - Magic Of The Place (Original Mix) [Livelife Digital Records] (6:28) 14. Cheerocky, 82 Drones - Prophetess (Original Mix) [SoHo Beats Recordings] (6:58) 15. Christian Falero, Adrian Villaverde - Control Feat Ashley Kirk (Instrumental Mix) [Pink Rabbit] (7:04) 16. Christian Falero, Adrian Villaverde - Control Feat Ashley Kirk (Mednas Dub Mix) [Pink Rabbit] (5:09) 17. Christian Falero, Adrian Villaverde - Control Feat Ashley Kirk (Original Mix) [Pink Rabbit] (7:04) 18. Chunks - Get Down To Miami (Original Mix) [Tiger Records] (5:33) 19. Coherent - Archetypal (Original Mix) [Particles] (8:51) 20. Coherent - Archetypal (Tvardovsky Remix) [Particles] (7:06) 21. Disfunktion - Lapogee (Jake Shanahan & Sebastian Lintz Remix) [S2 Records] (5:57) 22. Disfunktion - Lapogee (Ludvig Holm fk Melodies Remix) [S2 Records] (6:52) 23. Disfunktion - Lapogee (Original Mix) [S2 Records] (6:52) 24. Dj Mark Power - Comon Baby Bounce (Club Mix Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (5:43) 25. Dj Mark Power - Comon Baby Bounce (Steve Murrell Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (5:52) 26. DJ Mojito - Lucky (Original Mix) [Le Night Club] (7:44) 27. DJ Tommy One - With Love in Heart (Original Mix) [Bullhorn Records] (4:16) 28. DLayna, Juan K Paul - I Feel The Music (DJ Bounce Remix) [Housearth Records] (5:54) 29. DLayna, Juan K Paul - I Feel The Music (Jose Uceda Remix) [Housearth Records] (5:50) 30. Do Shock Booze - Jah is not dead (Fumihiro Hoshi & DJ FREAK Remix) [Totem Traxx] (7:18) 31. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Dreamway & Gabi Oprea Remix) [Disc Doctor] (6:40) 32. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Seedy Jazz & Eeemus Remix) [Disc Doctor] (5:44) 33. Dr Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 40 (Tim Engelhardt Remix) [Disc Doctor] (6:41) 34. Ed Lee - Pancakes (Original Mix) [Stripped Digital] (6:45) 35. EDX, Nadia Ali - This Is Your Life (Original Club Mix) [PinkStar Records] (5:25) 36. Elvis K - They All Know You (Original Mix) [Jill Recordings] (6:02) 37. Evave - Free Tonight (Original Mix) [Digital Motion] (5:57) 38. Evave - Start Again (Original Mix) [Digital Motion] (7:01) 39. Evave - Time To Go (Original Mix) [Digital Motion] (7:39) 40. Fabio Perpetua - Bio (Original Mix) [Love That Sound Records] (5:18) 41. Fabio Perpetua - Bio (Rework) [Love That Sound Records] (6:13) 42. Fyono - Cut Me Loose (Originak Mix) [Vurtical] (7:10) 43. Fyono - Three Bottles Of Ballantines (Original Mix) [Vurtical] (6:31) 44. Hairdryer - Back To The Sunshine (Alfacentaurus Remix) [Trancepole] (5:04) 45. Hairdryer - Back To The Sunshine (Igor Zaharov amp Sober System Remix) [Trancepole] (6:37) 46. Hairdryer - Back To The Sunshine (Original Mix) [Trancepole] (6:35) 47. Hakan Akcan - Impossible Love (Original Mix) [Silvana Records] (8:23) 48. Hakan Akcan - Son Of The Wind (Original Mix) [Silvana Records] (8:23) 49. Hakan Akcan - Youre In My Dream (Original Mix) [Silvana Records] (8:20) 50. Hugcaro, Rafael de Alba - ShangriLa (The Other Side Instrumental Mix) [SYCDmusic] (7:44) 51. Hugcaro, Rafael de Alba - ShangriLa (The Other Side Mix) [SYCDmusic] (7:44) 52. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Dj Emil Mainstream Mix) [Dextrous Records] (8:15) 53. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Evgeny KoTT Remix) [Dextrous Records] (7:19) 54. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Incognet Remix) [Dextrous Records] (7:05) 55. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Original Mix) [Dextrous Records] (6:59) 56. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Platinum Monkey Remix) [Dextrous Records] (7:47) 57. Igor Voevodin - Baku Night (Sezer Uysal Loves Baku Remix) [Dextrous Records] (7:11) 58. Igor Zaharov, Sober System - Kill Killer (Original Mix) [Flash Records] (6:07) 59. Inkfish - Procrastination (Original Mix) [Inkfish Recordings] (6:35) 60. Italo Roldo - The Bee (Thanos Kous Remix) [Stigma Recordings] (6:50) 61. Jason Brooks - Control The World (Christian Poow Remix) [Futuro Sounds] (6:58) 62. Johnny Beast, Kenzou Kumei - Keep Busted (Original Mix) [Rezone Records] (8:29) 63. Marwan Jaafreh - Moments Of Remembering (Original Mix) [Impressed Recordings] (7:06) 64. MatricK - I Will Tech You Sucker (Original Mix) [Cyber Donkey] (6:47) 65. MatricK - The World Can Be Better (Original Mix) [Cyber Donkey] (5:47) 66. Millaway - Bluescreen (Original Mix) [Anatolian Deep] (7:10) 67. Millaway - Everlast (Artem Zlobin Remix) [Anatolian Deep] (6:36) 68. Millaway - Everlast (Coreye Remix) [Anatolian Deep] (7:19) 69. Millaway - Everlast (Original Mix) [Anatolian Deep] (7:23) 70. Monogamma, Eugene - Shine (KavProject Remix) [System Recordings] (7:27) 71. Monogamma, Eugene - Shine (Original Mix) [System Recordings] (6:14) 72. Niko Trade Mark - Unexpected (Original Mix) [Dancefloor Dreams] (6:39) 73. Oscar L - Woman On Fire (Original Mix) [TKC Music] (6:36) 74. Paduraru - Bedtime Stories (Burche Deephouse Mix) [Worldwide Exclusive Records] (6:42) 75. Paduraru - Dynamicfaith (Archie JD Proghouse Mix) [Worldwide Exclusive Records] (6:28) 76. Paduraru - Movational Melodies (Inspiring House Mix) [Worldwide Exclusive Records] (7:22) 77. Paduraru - Progside Dub (Proghouse Mix) [Worldwide Exclusive Records] (7:01) 78. Raffa Vergara - Africa (Luis Ache Remix) [Tulum Records] (6:37) 79. Raffa Vergara - Africa (Maiax Tribalism Remix) [Tulum Records] (6:53) 80. Raffa Vergara - Africa (Mark Alvarado Remix) [Tulum Records] (5:23) 81. Raffa Vergara - Africa (Original Mix) [Tulum Records] (7:08) 82. Robero - Youre In My Heart (Extended Mix) [Digital Gunsta] (5:37) 83. Sid Mehra - Inference As Usual (4llucinex Remix) [Eltronic Fusion Records] (7:14) 84. Solesystem pres Melomaniacs - American Dream (DEye Remix) [Mistique Digital] (7:59) 85. Solesystem pres Melomaniacs - American Dream (Original Mix) [Mistique Digital] (7:37) 86. Solesystem pres Melomaniacs - American Dream (XSector Remix) [Mistique Digital] (8:52) 87. Sugarshaker, Leeroy K - Afraid To Close My Eyes (Moodyboy Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (8:25) 88. Sugarshaker, Leeroy K - Afraid To Close My Eyes (Steve Murrell Remix) [RedSeaDanceRecords] (6:44) 89. Switch Cook - Nothing Is Real (Original Mix) [Royal Music Paris] (7:48) 90. Switch Cook - So Strong (Original Mix) [Royal Music Paris] (7:49) 91. Syzthaime - Duodenum (Original Mix) [Beardy Bird] (7:29) 92. Syzthaime - Neptune (Original Mix) [Beardy Bird] (8:37) 93. Syzthaime - Withconde (Original Mix) [Beardy Bird] (8:23) 94. T. Tommy, Blas Marin, Patrizze, Jose Del Barrio - Try (Original Mix) [Morumbi Recordings] (6:07) 95. The Digital Monkey - Needs A Name (Original Mix) [KornerHouseRecords] (6:52) 96. The Digital Monkey - Rhapsodic (Original Mix) [KornerHouseRecords] (8:59) 97. The Digital Monkey - Undisclosed (Original Mix) [KornerHouseRecords] (7:10) 98. The Digital Monkey - Unnamed (Original Mix) [KornerHouseRecords] (7:22) 99. Tone Ranger - Hold On Tight (Original Mix) [Mena Music] (6:50) 100. TPe3 - Lost (Original Mix) [Junior The Clubbers] (7:30) 101. Uppercut - Turn The Music To Your Head (Original Mix) [KULT] (8:27) 102. Vincent Martini - Passion (Instrumental Mix) [Passion Night Records] (6:14) 103. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Club Martini Rework) [Passion Night Records] (6:03) 104. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Edoardo EDR Rosellini) [Passion Night Records] (5:26) 105. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Extended Mix) [Passion Night Records] (5:49) 106. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Jessie Pink Remix) [Passion Night Records] (5:44) 107. Vincent Martini - Passion feat Ailin (Jozef C Remix) [Passion Night Records] (4:41) Tech House 1. Acirne - Circle Of Us (Original Mix) [Memento] (7:30) 2. Alex Hentze - Side Walk (Chris Fortier 40oz. Dub) [CUBEREC] (5:50) 3. Alex Hentze - Side Walk (Chris Fortier 40oz. Remix) [CUBEREC] (6:36) 4. Allan Ramirez - Junior (Original Mix) [Good Feeling] (7:14) 5. Atesh K - Dark Tension (Barish Baron Remix) [Regular Beats Records] (8:08) 6. Black Criss - Liqued (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:44) 7. Blue Mondays - Holes (Original Mix) [Memento] (8:39) 8. Blue Mondays - Holes Dub (Dub) [Memento] (8:55) 9. Boza - Welcome To The Party (Original Mix) [Modified Records] (6:10) 10. Dani Casarano, Felipe Valenzuela, Yvan Genkins - Earth & Sun (Remix) [Melisma] (7:43) 11. Dany Cohiba - Kapurtala (Original Mix) [Gabbana Records] (6:13) 12. Dany Cohiba - Kapurtala (The Macbrothers Remix) [Gabbana Records] (6:17) 13. Datasend - Push It Dude (Bastian Knop Remix) [Meleon Music] (8:09) 14. David Herrero - Groove Pressure (Cuartero Remix) [Nirvana Recordings] (6:51) 15. Davis Gruss, Celic - This Story (DJ Smilk Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:33) 16. Davis Gruss, Celic - This Story (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:36) 17. Davis Gruss - Lamur (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:09) 18. Davis Gruss - Lovinger (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:10) 19. Dhaze - Locked Out (Original Mix) [Low Pressings] (7:03) 20. Dhaze - The Trap (Original Mix) [Low Pressings] (7:40) 21. DJ Smilk, Black Criss - Estuphira (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (8:22) 22. DJ Smilk, Black Criss - Is The True (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:18) 23. DJ Smilk, Davis Gruss, Black Criss - Indonesia (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:36) 24. DJ Smilk, Davis Gruss - So Club (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (7:34) 25. Gas - Nighthawk (Original Mix) [Memento] (6:29) 26. Gomo - Bandelay (Mikel Ayerra & Ismael Alonso Remix) [Dum A Dum Records] (6:14) 27. Gomo - Bandelay (Original Mix) [Dum A Dum Records] (7:10) 28. Hector Couto, Danny Serano - Jet Lag (Original Mix) [Brise Records] (7:10) 29. iO, Goshva - Getaway (Original Mix) [Mulen Records] (7:54) 30. iO, Goshva - Lazy Time (Original Mix) [Mulen Records] (7:54) 31. iO, Goshva - Salamander (Alex Celler Spaced Out Dub) [Mulen Records] (7:20) 32. iO, Goshva - Salamander (Original Mix) [Mulen Records] (7:26) 33. Jerry M & DrPJ - Smooth Over (Original Mix) [Bpm Bros] (6:57) 34. Jewel Kid - Double E (Original Mix) [Alleanza] (8:07) 35. Julian Collazos - Adventure (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:35) 36. Julian Collazos - Long Life (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:24) 37. Julian Collazos - Toxic (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:00) 38. Julian M - Full (DJ WLD Remix) [Catwash Records] (8:08) 39. Julian M - Full (Gauthier DM Remix) [Catwash Records] (8:01) 40. Julian M - Full (Original Mix) [Catwash Records] (6:46) 41. Kolokol Production - Meri Fon Lele (Changes Mix) [Kolokol Digital] (6:12) 42. Kolokol Production - Meri Fon Lele (Original Mix) [Kolokol Digital] (6:11) 43. Kolokol Production - Meri Fon Lele (Pawas Remix) [Kolokol Digital] (8:41) 44. Kolokol Production - Meri Fon Lele (Rene Breitbarth Remix) [Kolokol Digital] (6:50) 45. Kuca - What Happpened (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (5:32) 46. Luca Donzelli - Bottle Of Truth (Original Mix) [Kaapro Rec] (6:27) 47. Luca Donzelli - Cimelicus (Original Mix) [Kaapro Rec] (7:08) 48. Luca Donzelli - Play The Mind (Joop Juniors Intoxicated Rework) [Kaapro Rec] (5:45) 49. Luca Donzelli - Play The Mind (Original Mix) [Kaapro Rec] (7:17) 50. Marcelo Castelli, Tom Sawyer - Is This Love (Tom Sawyer Remix) [Atsuo Records] (6:43) 51. MatricK - Trollolo (Original Mix) [Cyber Donkey] (7:11) 52. Max Cue - Medicine Man (Original Mix) [Sonoptix] (7:30) 53. Max Cue - Satellite (Original Mix) [Sonoptix] (7:44) 54. Max Tocci - Panic Room (Original Club Mix) [Nasimus Records] (7:29) 55. Michael Knop - Crash Prophet (Original Mix) [Green Fiction] (6:44) 56. Michael Knop - Milk (Original Mix) [Green Fiction] (6:36) 57. Michael Senna, Peter Zohdy - All In Vain (Blondish Remix) [Two Birds] (8:07) 58. Michael Senna, Peter Zohdy - All In Vain (Original Mix) [Two Birds] (5:22) 59. Michael Senna, Peter Zohdy - DirtyTalk (Digital Only) [Two Birds] (6:20) 60. Mike Rivera - Landscape (Original Mix) [Kore Music] (8:26) 61. Mike Rivera - Sila (Original Mix) [Kore Music] (8:11) 62. Mike Rivera - Solo Dieces (Original Mix) [Kore Music] (7:44) 63. Mike Rivera - TresCuartos (Original Mix) [Kore Music] (7:07) 64. Milty Evans - Goldar Saved Us (Original) [Look At You Records] (7:04) 65. Nik Allen - Geometric Logic (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (6:27) 66. Nik Allen - I Dont Give A (Original Mix) [Soulman Music] (5:47) 67. Nurhee - Dan (Manna-Croup Remix) [Rip N Burn] (7:20) 68. Oscar L - Woman On Fire (DJ Deka & Dave Rose Remix) [TKC Music] (7:15) 69. Oscar L - Woman On Fire (GoldnAnt Remix) [TKC Music] (6:48) 70. Paul Mad - Undes (Alex Piccini remix) [Deep Beep Records] (6:20) 71. Piek, Danny Serano - We Feel House Music (Original Mix) [Brise Records] (6:23) 72. Reflect Grace - Im A Robot Not A Human (Original Mix) [Happy Groove Trax] (4:48) 73. Ruben Zurita - Nothing Is True (Neosoto Remix) [Station Group Records] (6:48) 74. Ruben Zurita - Nothing Is True (Original Mix) [Station Group Records] (7:08) 75. Ruben Zurita - Nothing Is True (Robert Garcia Remix) [Station Group Records] (8:25) 76. Serious Beat - Andromeda Galaxy (Original Mix) [GramolaRec] (9:43) 77. SL Curtiz, Damir Pushkar - Get With Yourself (ACK & Mr Norberto Remix) [NumberOneBeats Records] (6:21) 78. SL Curtiz, Damir Pushkar - Get With Yourself (Edy Valiant Remix) [NumberOneBeats Records] (6:43) 79. The Boy That Could - Yzarc (Original Version) [Swoop Records] (9:59) 80. Tom Sawyer - Nirvana Monkey Man (Marengo Edit) [Atsuo Records] (5:59) 81. Tom Sawyer - Southamerican (Enrico Caschetta Remix) [Atsuo Records] (8:26) 82. Uppercut - Turn The Music To Your Head (Zoltan Kontes 4Hours Dub) [KULT] (7:13) 83. Uppercut - Turn The Music To Your Head (Zoltan Kontes 4Hours Remix) [KULT] (7:13) 84. Vicente Belenguer, Blas Marin, Antonio Jimenez - Black Point (Original Mix) [Tormenta Records] (8:22) 85. Vincent Villani, Kevin G, Chriis Cruz - Planet Underground (Original Takeover Mix) [Dark Vibe Productions] (7:18) 86. Volkoder, Darocha - Get On (Original Mix) [Bedroom Muzik] (6:03) Techno 1. Aiho - Playground (Balthazar & JackRock Remix) [Bosphorus Underground Recordings] (7:06) 2. Alessandro Verdi - Carousel (Original Mix) [SampleTune Records] (6:04) 3. Alessandro Verdi - Salt & Sugar (Original Mix) [SampleTune Records] (6:00) 4. Apostolis Lamda - Hitmans (Original Mix) [Misdeed Records] (6:40) 5. Apostolis Lamda - Serial Code (Original Mix) [Misdeed Records] (5:58) 6. Coherent - Archetypal (Stimpack Strange Mix) [Particles] (6:37) 7. Dani Casarano, Felipe Valenzuela, Yvan Genkins - Earth & Sun (Dance Floor Mix) [Melisma] (7:50) 8. Darkko - Fancy Ride (Original Mix) [Progrezo Records] (6:43) 9. Datasend - Push It Dude (Bastian Knop & Loop My Life Freakmix) [Meleon Music] (6:54) 10. Do Shock Booze - Jah is not dead (DJ AX Fresh Mix) [Totem Traxx] (6:16) 11. Do Shock Booze - Jah is not dead (Gary BeMore Remix) [Totem Traxx] (4:28) 12. Electrorites - Never Back Down (Feyser & Hroft Rmix) [Naughty Pills Records] (7:17) 13. Electrorites - Never Back Down (Original Mix) [Naughty Pills Records] (9:10) 14. Electrorites - Never Back Down (Stiv & Vallo Remix) [Naughty Pills Records] (7:19) 15. Gabeen - Psychoanalysis (Albert Kraner Remix) [Elektrax Recordings] (6:27) 16. Ground Spain - Minuendo (Original Mix) [Hexil Creative Records] (7:25) 17. Ground Spain - Road (Original Mix) [Hexil Creative Records] (7:54) 18. Jewel Kid - Kukz (Original Mix) [Alleanza] (8:37) 19. John Lorvs, James Kentaro - Eleven (Original Mix) [Lorvs Records] (7:11) 20. Justy - Lost Control (Doctor Trash Remix) [Thats Hot Records] (7:53) 21. Justy - Lost Control (Lewis Fautzi Remix) [Thats Hot Records] (5:42) 22. Justy - Lost Control (Morgan Tomas Remix) [Thats Hot Records] (8:16) 23. Justy - Lost Control (Original Mix) [Thats Hot Records] (6:50) 24. Lefo X - Celebrate The End (Vanishs End Of Days Remix) [Velcro City Records] (5:21) 25. Oldiendo - Around The Carousel (Hadji Remix) [Armatura Bonus] (7:06) 26. Oldiendo - Around The Carousel (Original) [Armatura Bonus] (6:17) 27. Oldiendo - Help Me (Bojan Vukmirovic Remix) [Armatura Bonus] (8:10) 28. Oldiendo - Help Me (Original) [Armatura Bonus] (5:11) 29. Pedro Romero - Chromakey (Original Mix) [Equim Recordings] (6:11) 30. Pedro Romero - Lumakey (Original Mix) [Equim Recordings] (7:35) 31. Pierre Deutschmann - Warp08 (Original) [Klender Limited] (6:52) 32. Poy Poy - Thereversepath (Alessandro Spaiani Remix) [Criminal Zone Records] (9:21) 33. Poy Poy - Thereversepath (Original Mix) [Criminal Zone Records] (6:37) 34. Ripperton - For All The Wrong Reasons (Original 12 Mix) [Tamed Musiq] (9:27) 35. Ripperton - For All The Wrong Reasons (Skudge Remix) [Tamed Musiq] (8:26) 36. Tom Freak - Fck (Original Mix) [Picche Records Ltd] (6:26) 37. Tom Freak - Milf (Original Mix) [Picche Records Ltd] (6:28) 38. Vegim - Anoda (Original Mix) [Take More Music Records] (6:35) 39. Vegim - Drop It (Original Mix) [Take More Music Records] (7:20) 40. Vegim - Get On (Original Mix) [Take More Music Records] (7:46) 41. Vegim - Turn Back (Original Mix) [Take More Music Records] (7:50) Ferry Corsten Simon Patterson Sander Van Doorn Paul Van Dyke David Guetta Feed Me DJ Solovey Korn Tommy Lee Limp Bizkit Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike Swedish House Mafia Steve Angello Sebastian Bennett Prodigy Chemical Brothers Crystal Method Tiesto Armin Van Bureen DJ Feel Arty Bobina Chris Brown Daft Punk Kesha Pitbull Fedde Le Grand Judge Jules & Roger Shah Timbaland David Guetta Lady Gaga Ronski Speed Snoop Dogg Kid Cudi Bingo Players Chocolate Puma Britney Spears Axwell Girlicious Laidback Luke Dirty South Rihanna Spencer & Hill The Black Eyed Peas Boys Noize Akon Javi Mula Ludacris Vandalism & Angger Dimas Robert Miles Alicia Keys Bimbo Jones Cher Eric Prydz Inna Linkin Park Paul Van Dyk Sean Kingston Busta Rhymes Rolvario SHM Ian Van Dahl Rio Sidney Samson Wizard Sleeve Riverside Benny Benassi Clockwork Cyberpunkers Kelis Mason Nic Chagall Hy2rogen & Fr3cky Justin Timberlake Avril Lavigne Darude Delirium Edward Maya Empire Of The Sun Jay Sean Madonna Tiesto Xzibit Katy Perry Depeche ModeAlice Deejay Basshunter Gigi D'agostino Temper Trap Modern Talking Marco V Robbie Rivera Mastiksoul Dr. Dre Cascada Gorillaz Real 2 Real DJ Solovey The Pussycat Dolls Shakira Queen Atb Dave Aude Ian Carey Michael Jackson Mariah Carey Syke N Sugarstarr 2Pac Wiz Khalifa Martin Solveig & Dragonette Brooklyn Bounce Eminem Justin Bieber Rebecca Black royksopp Skrillex Elvis Presley wolfgang gartner sean tyas Bloody Beetroots Sean Paul Bob Sinclar R3hab Da Fresh Cosmic Gate Arty Far East Movement EasyTech The Cataracs Dev Chew Fu Lil Jon Taio Cruz Kylie Minogue Apster & Bassjackers Hardwell Jay Z Fast Foot Steve Angello Kanye West & Twista Pendulum Dada Life Deadmau5 Salt n Pepa Uppermost Quintino Avicii Bob Marley Cee Lo Green Duck Sauce Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike Hyper Crush Klaas Leona Lewis Mustard Pimp Mike Candys Jack Holiday Porter Robinson Hard Rock Sofa Swedish House Mafia The Prodigy The White Panda Tim Berg Congorock FTampa Lazy Rich Diplo Cazzette Mohombi Soundprank The Partysquad Clinton Sparks Beyonce Funkerman Shermanology Kelly Rowland Oliver Twizt Nicole Scherzinger 50 Cent Vanilla Ice Faithless Example Kaskade Pleasurekraft Swanky Tunes Snow Patrol Dirtyloud The Game DJ Fresh Dash Berlin Bruno Mars Lil Wayne Drake ATB A&B Armin Only Alesso Soulja Boy SODMG Lil B Based God

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4. Lamentations 1-5 (Destroying Our Lives & How To Ask God For Help)

Lamentations 1-5 (Destroying Our Lives & How To Ask God For Help)

The book of Lamentations in the Hebrew Bible does not appear in the same place that it appears in our Bibles. In the Hebrew Bible it appears with a group of books: Esther, and Ruth, Job, and Ezra. It was written by Jeremiah, and that is why in our Bibles they inserted it after the book of Jeremiah, because it is almost sort of an epilogue to the book of Jeremiah, in that it follows the destruction of the city of Jerusalem. There is on the site of Golgotha a cave that is called Jeremiah's Grotto. This cave known as Jeremiah's Grotto comprises a part of the face of the skull; hence the name Golgotha. Because as you look at the cliff, with these caves that are there in the cliff, they take the appearance of a skull. One of these caves is called Jeremiah's Grotto. It is interesting that from those caves there on the site of Golgotha, you have a tremendous view of the city of Jerusalem, for Golgotha is actually the top of what was once Mount Moriah. And it looks down over the city of Jerusalem. Tradition declares that Jeremiah sat in this grotto when he wrote the book of Lamentations, and there he wept and cried over the desolation of the city of Jerusalem as he saw its ruins, as he saw the walls destroyed, as he saw the buildings leveled. And from this vantage, he wrote this book. In the Septuagint, which is a translation of the scriptures into Greek that was done by seventy Hebrew scholars about 200 B.C., they prefaced the book of Lamentations with these words, "And it came to pass, that after Israel had been carried away captive, and Jerusalem made desolate, Jeremiah sat weeping and lamented this lament over Jerusalem and said, 'How doth the city sit solitary.'" So, they have that as a prologue to the book of Lamentations, and it was picked up and put in the Vulgate. The book of Lamentations is a favorite style of Hebrew poetry in four of the chapters. They are as known as an acrostic, and they were written in order to facilitate the memorization, in that you'll notice that in the first three chapters there are twenty two verses in each chapter. In the original Hebrew poetry, these twenty two verses were actually twenty two lines of the poem, and each line began with a succeeding letter of the Hebrew alphabet. So the first line began with Aleph, and then with Beth, and then with Gimel, and then with Daleth, and on through the Hebrew alphabet, each line with the succeeding letter of the Hebrew alphabet in the first three chapters...in the first two chapters. In the third chapter, you'll notice that there are sixty six verses. The first three lines begin with Aleph, the next three with Beth, the next three with Gimel. And so it was in triplets, actually, thus the sixty six verses. The fourth chapter, again each line beginning with the succeeding letter of the Greek alphabet. And even though the fifth chapter has twenty two verses, it is not in an acrostic. It doesn't follow this same pattern of each line beginning with the successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. But they would often write their poems that way in order to help you in memorizing the poem, because you knew that the next line began with the next letter of the alphabet in succeeding order. This is a funeral dirge. It is a lament of Jeremiah over Jerusalem after the destruction. And the book of Lamentations is read each year in the synagogue on the fourth day of the ninth month. So, around August the fourth, this particular lament or book is read in the Jewish synagogues as they commemorate the anniversary of the destruction of Solomon's temple in 586 B.C. With that as a background, let us go into the first chapter, as Jeremiah declares, How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people! how is she become as a widow! she that was great among the nations, and the princess among the providences, how is she become a tributary! (Lam 1:1) The city is empty. It is now sitting solitary. The inhabitants have either been slain or carried away captive. There is a weird silence over this once prosperous, beautiful city, as it lies there now in rubble. She weepeth sore in the night, and her tears are on her cheeks: among all her lovers she hath none to comfort her: all her friends have dealt treacherously with her, they are become her enemies (Lam 1:2). Jerusalem was once as a princess. Actually, tribute was paid to Solomon and to his kingdom, but now Jerusalem has become a tributary paying tribute to others. Those that she trusted in, Egypt and others have now become her enemies. Judah is gone into captivity because of affliction, and because of great servitude: she dwells among the heathen, she finds no rest: in all of her persecutors overtook her between the straits. The ways [or the paths] on the way to Zion do mourn, because none come to her solemn feasts (Lam 1:3-4): It must be a weird, awesome feeling to look over the ruins of a once great and prosperous city. Can you imagine, say sitting on Mount Wilson and overlooking the Los Angeles basin and nobody living there? No freeways jammed with cars. No industries belching out their smoke, just everything with a deathly silence. Imagine how you would feel, you know, having seen all of the activities and all, that go on in that great basin, and suddenly to look at it and see the whole thing silent and empty. It must be an awesome kind of a feeling to see such a thing. That's what Jeremiah... he had grown up in this city. He had seen the streets full of people. He had watched the worshippers at the temple and all. He had seen the pilgrims gather for their feasts, but now it's all silent. Now it's empty and the ways or the paths on the way to Jerusalem are mourning because no one is coming to the solemn feasts anymore. all of her gates are desolate (Lam 1:4): The gates of Jerusalem are interesting places because there is always so many people passing in and out of the gates. A lot of times in Jerusalem just... if you don't have anything to do, it's interesting just to go at the gates of the city and just watch the people come and go through the gates. They're always just bustling with activity, and now it's silent. The gates are desolate. her priests sigh, her virgins are afflicted, she is in bitterness. Her adversaries are the chief, her enemies prosper, for the LORD hath afflicted her (Lam 1:4-5) And then he gives the reason: for the multitude of her transgressions: her children are gone into captivity before the enemy. And from the daughter of Zion all of her beauty is departed: her princes are become like harts that find no pasture, they are gone without strength before the pursuer. Jerusalem remembered in the days of her affliction and her miseries all of her pleasant things that she had in the days of old, when her people fell into the hand of the enemy, and none did help her: the adversaries saw her and did mock at her sabbaths. Jerusalem has grievously sinned; therefore she is removed (Lam 1:5-8): Again, not blaming God, which is so often our mistake when calamity comes. "Why did God allow this to happen to us?" But recognizing that the blame was upon the people because of their transgression and because they had grievously sinned against God. "Therefore she is removed." all that honored her despise her, because they have seen her nakedness: yea, she sighed, and turned backward. Her filthiness is in her skirts; she remembered not her last end; therefore she came down wonderfully: she had no comforter. O LORD, behold my affliction: for the enemy has magnified himself. The adversary has spread out his hand upon all of her pleasant things: for she has seen the heathen entered into her sanctuary, whom thou didst command that they should not enter into thy congregation (Lam 1:8-10). And so the heathen came right into the temple, into the Holy of Holies and they destroyed the temple of God. A stranger wasn't to come within the sanctuary, and yet they have seen them come in and destroy it. All of her people sigh, they seek bread; they have given their pleasant things for meat to relieve the soul: see, O LORD, and consider; for I am become vile (Lam 1:11). They spent all of their money, actually, and given all of their treasures for bread. Is it nothing to you, all ye that pass by? behold, and see if there be any sorrow like unto my sorrow, which is done unto me, wherewith the LORD hath afflicted me in the day of his fierce anger. From above hath he set fire into my bones, and it prevaileth against them: he hath spread a net for my feet, he hath turned me back: and he hath made me desolate and faint all the day. The yoke of my transgressions is bound by his hand: they are wreathed, and come up upon my neck: he hath made my strength to fall, the Lord hath delivered me into their hands, from whom I am not able to rise up. The Lord hath trodden under foot all my mighty men in the midst of me: he hath called an assembly against me to crush my young men: the Lord hath trodden the virgin, the daughter of Judah, as a winepress. For these things I weep (Lam 1:12-16); Thus, the lamentation, the weeping of Jeremiah as he sees the destruction that has come, the mighty men destroyed, the virgins ravished by the enemy, the young men crushed and the young girls trodden. "For these things I weep." my eye runs down with water, because the comforter that should relieve my soul is far from me: my children are desolate, because the enemy prevailed. Zion spread forth her hands, and there is none to comfort her: the LORD hath commanded concerning Jacob, that his adversaries should be round about him: Jerusalem is as a menstruous woman among them. The LORD is righteous; for I have rebelled against his commandments: hear, I pray you, all the people, and behold my sorrow, my virgins and my young men are gone into captivity (Lam 1:16-18). And so he sort of personifies Jerusalem, and lets Jerusalem cry out declaring the righteousness of God in judgment, "The Lord is righteous." For they were guilty of having rebelled against God. The Lord is always righteous in judgment, and yet it seems that that is an area where we always want to fault God. And we always hear sort of insinuations that God is unrighteous in judgment. "How can a God of love condemn a man to hell?" You know, and you've heard the rest of it. And the idea is that God is not really righteous when He judges. But that's one thing you can be certain of, and that is the righteousness of God in judgment. In the book of Revelation, as God is bringing His judgment upon the earth, there are voices that come from the altar saying, "Holy and true art Thy judgments, oh Lord." And then in one place where God turns the fresh water upon the earth to blood, there are voices that declare, "Oh, that's great. They shed the blood of Your saints so You've given them blood to drink," and testifying of the properness of that particular judgment that God brings upon the earth at that time. But God will judge. God has declared He will judge. And thus you can be sure that God is going to judge this world. God is going to judge the wicked. But God, when He judges the wicked, will be absolutely righteous in His judgment. People may complain about it now, but when God makes His judgment there can be no complaint, for the Lord is righteous. They had rebelled against the Lord. They rebelled against His commandment. He said, I called for my lovers, but they deceived me: my priests and my elders gave up the ghost in the city, while they sought their meat to relieve their souls (Lam 1:19). They died of starvation while they were looking for food. Behold, O LORD, for I am in distress: my bowels are troubled; mine heart is turned within me; for I have grievously rebelled: abroad the sword bereaveth, at home there is as death. They have heard that I sigh: there is none to comfort me: all my enemies have heard of my trouble; they are glad that you have done it: and thou will bring the day that thou has called, and they shall be like unto me. Let all their wickedness come before thee; and do unto them, as thou has done unto me for all my transgressions: for my sighs are many, and my heart is faint (Lam 1:20-22). Chapter 2 The second lamentation: How hath the Lord covered the daughter of Zion with a cloud in his anger, and he has cast down from heaven unto the earth the beauty of Israel, and remembered not his footstool in the day of his anger! The Lord has swallowed up all the habitations of Jacob, and has not pitied: he hath thrown down in his wrath the strongholds of the daughter of Judah; he hath brought them down to the ground: he hath polluted the kingdom and the princes thereof. He has cut off in his fierce anger all of the horn of Israel: he has drawn back his right hand from before the enemy, he has burned against Jacob like a flaming fire, which devours round about. He has bent his bow like an enemy: he stood with his right hand as an adversary, and slew all that were pleasant to the eye in the tabernacle of the daughter of Zion: he poured out his fury like fire (Lam 2:1-4). It must have been an awesome and a very traumatic experience to have seen the destruction that was wrecked upon Jerusalem by the Babylonian army. When, after eighteen months of siege, they finally broke into the city and began to slay with the sword. Even before they broke the walls and came in, people were already starving to death within the city. It was a horrible scene. Jeremiah can't get it out of his mind, the thoughts and the sights that he saw. They were imprinted in his mind. And now, as he sees it lying desolate, he reflects over these things. And he tells some of the things that were happening, and they are so horrible that they would make those kind of impressions in your mind that cause you to shudder whenever you think of them. And they are those mental images that you just can't seem to remove. As you see the people starving to death, falling on the streets, faint, weak, once mighty people, once a proud people, but now so defeated and destroyed. The Lord was as an enemy: he swallowed up Israel, he has swallowed up all of her palaces: he has destroyed the strongholds, he has increased in the daughter of Judah mourning and lamentation. He hath violently taken away the tabernacle, as if it were of a garden; he hath destroyed his places of the assembly: the LORD has caused the solemn feasts and the sabbaths to be forgotten in Zion, and hath despised in the indignation of his anger the king and the priest. The Lord hath cast off his altar, he has abhorred his sanctuary, he hath given up in the hand of the enemy the walls of her palaces; they have made a noise in the house of the LORD, as in the day of the solemn feast (Lam 2:5-7). That is, the enemies were in there cheering and yelling and all as they were destroying it, much as the voices and cheers and all that once went up in the days of their solemn feasts. The LORD hath purposed to destroy the wall of the daughter of Zion: he hath stretched out a line, he has not withdrawn his hand from destroying: therefore he made the rampart and the wall to lament; they languished together. Her gates are sunk into the ground; he has destroyed and broken her bars: her king and her princes are now among the Gentiles: there is no more law; her prophets also find no vision from the LORD. The elders of the daughters of Zion sit on the ground, and keep silent: they have cast dust upon their heads; they have girded themselves with sackcloth: and the virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to the ground. And my eyes do fail because of the tears, my bowels are troubled, my liver is poured out upon the earth, for the destruction of the daughter of my people; because the children and the sucklings swoon in the streets of the city (Lam 2:7-11). It's almost more than he can bear. He sees these little children and little nursing babies fainting because of the lack of food. He sees them as they are swooning, just staggering through the streets. Young girls, their heads bowed down to the ground. The old men just sitting there staring blankly in sackcloth with dust, with dirt. They've just covered themselves with dirt and there is no place to go. There's no hope. It's all gone. The little children say to their mothers, Where is the corn and the wine? when they swooned as the wounded in the streets of the city, when their soul was poured out into their mothers' bosom. What thing shall I take to witness for thee? what thing shall I liken to thee, O daughter of Jerusalem? what shall I equal to thee, that I may comfort thee, O virgin daughter of Zion? for thy breach is great like the sea: who can heal thee? Your prophets have seen vain and foolish things for you: and they have not discovered your iniquity, to turn away your captivity; but they have seen for thee false burdens and causes of banishment. All that pass by clap their hands at thee; they hiss and wag their head at the daughter of Jerusalem, saying, Is this the city that men call The perfection of beauty, The joy of the whole earth? (Lam 2:12-15) Desolate, destroyed, ravaged city, once the perfection of beauty. Once the joy of the whole earth, and now it's being hissed at as people walk by, clapping their hands and shaking their heads. All of your enemies have opened their mouth against thee: they hiss, gnash the teeth: they say, We have swallowed her up: certainly this is the day that we have looked for; we have found, and we have seen. The LORD hath done that which he had devised; he has fulfilled his word that he commanded in the days of old (Lam 2:12-17): God was faithful to His warnings. He had told them if they did not turn from their wickedness, if they did not turn from their idolatry, that He was going to bring their enemies against them and they would be destroyed. God has done that which He had purposed. he has fulfilled his word that he commanded in the days of old: he has thrown down, he's not pitied: he has caused your enemies to remove joy over thee, he has set up the horn of your adversaries [the power of your adversaries]. Their heart cried unto the Lord, O wall of the daughter of Zion, let tears run down like a river day and night: give thyself no rest; let not the apple of thine eye cease (Lam 2:17-18). He's calling them for intercession to weep before God until God does a work again. Arise, cry out in the night: in the beginning of the watches pour out your heart like water before the face of the Lord: lift up your hands toward him for the life of thy young children, that faint for hunger in the top of every street (Lam 2:19). "Isn't this enough," Jeremiah is saying, "to challenge you to seek God, to seek God all night long? Look at your little children swooning in the streets. Pray for them that God will somehow work His work again among the people." They were living in an extremely desperate time, but they were not yet really desperate before the Lord. They were just plain desperate, but really not seeking God. You wonder what will it take to cause men to really seek God, to really cry out? The Bible says, "The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much" (James 5:16). My mom tells me how that one time when I was a little kid and I was sick, and she came into the bedroom and laid hands on me, and I was running a fever. And she prayed, "Oh Lord, touch Charles, you know, and heal him." And when she was through praying, I said to her, "Mom, now pray like you really mean it." And I wonder how many times our prayers aren't just sort of perfunctory type of activities, you know. There is no real heart behind it. "The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much." God said to Jeremiah, "And in the day that you seek Me with your whole heart, in that day I will be found of you." And Jeremiah is saying, "Hey, go for it. Cry in the night, in the beginning of the watches, pour out your heart like water before the face of the Lord. Lift up your hands toward Him. At least for the life of the young children that are fainting for hunger on every street." Behold, O LORD, and consider to whom thou hast done this: Shall the women eat their fruit (Lam 2:20), That is, the women eat their own little babies, which they were doing. shall children be born who are only a span long? (Lam 2:20) The women were so malnourished that as their children were being born they were only seven or eight inches long at birth. Horrible. shall the priest and the prophet be slain in the sanctuary of the Lord? The young and the old lie on the ground in the streets: my virgins and my young men are fallen by the sword; thou hast slain them in the day of your anger; you have killed, and not pitied. You have called us in a solemn day my terrors round about me, so that in the day of the LORD'S anger none escaped nor remained: those that I have swaddled and brought up hath my enemy consumed (Lam 2:20-22). Chapter 3 In this third lamentation he begins from the depth of depression and despair. He begins with hopelessness, and hopelessness is always the experience behind depression. Depression is the loss of hope, no way out, nothing I can do. Hopelessness leads to depression. I am the man that hath seen affliction by the rod of his wrath. He has led me, and brought me into darkness, but not into light (Lam 3:1-2). It seems like God has turned against the prophet. "I have seen the wrath of God. God's brought me into darkness, not into light." Surely against me is he turned; he's turned his hand against me all the day. My flesh and my skin hath he made old: he hath broken my bones. He's built against me, and circled me with gall and travail. He has set me in dark places, as they that be dead of old. He hedged me about, that I cannot get out: he has made my chain heavy. Also when I cry and shout, he shuts out my prayer (Lam 3:3-8). God isn't listening to my prayer. God seems to have closed every door of escape. There is no way out. I'm in the hole and there is no place to go. I'm in this darkness, and God isn't listening to my prayers. [It's like] he has enclosed me with hewn stone (Lam 3:9); That is, he's built a wall around me. and he's made my paths crooked. He was unto me as a bear lying in wait, and as a lion in secret places. He has turned aside my ways, and pulled me in pieces: he has made me desolate. He has bent his bow, and set me as a mark (Lam 3:9-12). I'm a target for God's arrows. He has caused the arrows of his quiver to enter into my reins. I was a derision to all my people; and their song all the day. He has filled me with bitterness, he has made me drunken with wormwood. He has also broken my teeth with gravel stones, he has covered me with ashes. You have removed my soul far off from peace: I forgot prosperity. And I said, my strength and my hope is perished from the LORD: Remembering mine affliction and my misery, the wormwood and the gall. My soul hath them still in remembrance, and is humbled in me (Lam 3:9-20). Boy, that is about as low as you can get. That's the bottom, that's the pits. He's down, just the bottom. And out of the depths of his despair and depression, suddenly there is a dramatic change. That dramatic change is explained; the reason for it is explained in verse 21. In the midst of his hopelessness, in the midst of his despair, when it seems that all is forsaken, there is no way out, that God isn't even listening, and God isn't ready to help me, in the midst of this place of total despair, he said, This I recall to my mind, therefore I have hope (Lam 3:21). He changed his whole mindset. The Bible speaks about our renewing our minds. The Bible speaks about our bringing every thought into captivity unto the obedience of Jesus Christ. And we can think ourselves into a miserable mood. We can think ourselves into despair and hopelessness. You can think yourself into the grave. Or, by setting your mind upon the Lord, renewing your mind in Him, you can come into a whole new state of consciousness. No longer one of total despair and hopelessness, but one now of victory and hope. And that's what Jeremiah did. He changed the thought patterns from, "Oh, woe is me. Oh, this is the end. Oh, there is no hope. Oh, I've had it. Oh, there's no one to help. Oh, I'm boxed in," to thinking about the Lord. As we think about ourselves, we often become depressed, because none of us are all of what we would like to be. We, each of us, have a divergence between our ego and our super ego, the real me and the ideal me. Oh, but you see yourself in an ideal way. "This is what I really am," providing everything is all right. It's only because of these other factors that you see me like this, this nastiness isn't the real me. I'm very sweet, and generous, and kind, and benevolent, and loving, and marvelous, and a very lovable person. The person that you see is what has happened to me, because of, you know, what you've done. But that's not the real me, you see. So, there is this idealization, the ideal me, the super ego, and then there's the real me. Now if there is a vast difference between your super ego and your ego, then you're going to have real problems of mental instability. The more well adjusted a person is, is in measure to the distance between his ego and super ego. If your ego is close to your super ego, then you're a well adjusted person. If there is a wide divergence between your ego and super ego, then you're very maladjusted in your life. Now the psychologist says, "Bring your super ego down. You've got too high of ideals. You've got too high of standards. No one can live to those. You've got to lower your ideals." The Lord says, "Bring your ego up, through the power of the Spirit, through My help. Become the person that I want you to be. Receive My strength, receive My ability, and I will make you that person that is pleasing and glorifying unto God. That person who is loving, who is kind, who is compassionate, who is filled with joy." So, he came to a change of mental attitude. No longer thinking about himself, but now thinking about the Lord. It made such a great difference. Oh, if we could only get our minds off of ourselves and onto the Lord. In the times of discouragement, in the times of defeat, in the times of depression, if we could only get our minds off of ourselves and onto the Lord. That's the secret of the way out. Rather than wallowing in this self pity. Just get our minds and hearts... "Thou will keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on Thee" (Isaiah 26:3). Keep your minds stayed on the Lord and God will keep you in perfect peace. Get your mind on yourself and you're going to have all kinds of turmoil and depression. [So when I recall to my mind,] this I recall to my mind (Lam 3:21), What does he recall to his mind? First of all, It's the LORD'S mercies that we're not consumed (Lam 3:22), Things are bad, but they could be worse. It's God's mercies that we're still here. The fact that I wake up in the morning is proof that God is merciful. You see, God is under no obligation to keep me around. It's only by His mercies that I've not been consumed. Secondly, because his compassions fail not (Lam 3:22). In First Corinthians 13, as Paul is describing agape, he said, "Love never fails." God's love never fails. God has never stopped loving you. God does not love you when you are good and hate you when you are bad. God's love for you is unchanging. It doesn't fail. God's love is continually being poured out upon your life. God's love is not contingent upon what you are, but upon what He is. "His compassions they fail not." Love is not love that alters when it alteration finds. "Oh, I love you. You're my dream come true. I'd swim the Pacific to be by your side. I'd fly to the moon to be close to you. Yikes. You have bad breath. I change my mind." That's not true love. Love is not love that alters when it alteration finds. We have in our minds, again, an idealization, the perfect man, the perfect woman. And we meet someone and fall in love, not with them but with our idealization. And when it comes that they don't meet up to the standards of our idealization, then we're no longer in love. That's ridiculous. You never were in love to begin with. Love is not love that alters when it alteration finds. Therefore, true love is hard to find among men. And that's using it in a generic sense, talking of the Homo Sapien. True love can only really be found with God. You see, He isn't deceived by an idealization. You haven't fooled Him with your smooth, suave manners: the opening of the doors, and the genteel, gallant ways. Hasn't deceived Him at all. He knows what a rat you are from the beginning. But He loves you; that's the amazing thing. "His compassions they fail not." And God knowing me as well as He knows me, still loving me is one of the great miracles. God's compassions fail not. He never stops loving you. You need to remember that. Now Jeremiah was thinking that God had forsaken him completely. "God's hedged me in. He's not listening to my prayers." But when he really adjusts his thinking, he knows that God's love is unfailing. God continues, never stops His loving me. They are new every morning (Lam 3:23): The mercy and the love of God, fresh every day. oh great is thy faithfulness (Lam 3:23). God is so faithful. As Jeremiah was looking at this devastated city, that desolation was a testimony of God's faithfulness. God had said to those people, "If you continue in your wickedness, if you continue in your idolatry, I am going to bring the Babylonian army against you, and they're going to destroy you, and they're going to break down the walls of this city. And those that aren't killed by the famine will be killed by the sword. And those that aren't killed by the sword will be killed by the pestilence. But I'm going to destroy you out of this holy mountain." And now God has kept His word and Jeremiah is looking at the faithfulness of God to His word. "Great is Thy faithfulness." God, You said You would do it, and You did it. Now the faithfulness of God can be a glorious thought and blessing, or it can be a horrendous thought. It all depends on what side you are. If you're a child of God, then God's faithfulness to His promises of that which He is going to do for His children, a believer in Jesus Christ, all that God has promised us. Oh, and we can rest and hope for God is faithful. He will do what He said. If you're not a child of God, then the faithfulness of God is an awesome prospect, because you can be sure that God will do exactly what He said He is going to do to all of the sinners, those that reject Him. "Great is Thy faithfulness." God is faithful in keeping His word. The LORD is my portion (Lam 3:24), Now he's thinking upon the faithfulness of God, the love of God, the mercies of God, and now, "The Lord is my portion." Everything else has been taken away. My house is destroyed. All of my possessions are gone. I've been stripped, but I have the Lord. And if I have the Lord, that's all I really need. The LORD is my portion, saith my soul; therefore will I hope in him (Lam 3:24). Those who do not have the Lord as their portion have very little hope. But my hope is in Him. The LORD is good unto them that wait for him, the soul that seeks him (Lam 3:25). If you'll wait upon God, if you'll seek God, God is good, so good to those that wait upon Him and seek Him. It is good that a man should both hope and quietly wait for the salvation of the LORD (Lam 3:26). What else can I do? It is good for a man that he bears the yoke of his youth. He sits alone and keeps silence, because he has borne it upon him. He puts his mouth in the dust; if so be there may be hope. He giveth his cheek to him that smiteth him: he is filled full with reproach (Lam 3:27-30). A prophecy of Jesus Christ in the midst of this, even as Christ always is there in the time of suffering to bear the burdens and the reproach that we bear for Him. The Lord will not cast off for ever (Lam 3:31): This judgment isn't going to last forever. This forsaking of the people by God isn't going to last forever. But though he has caused grief, yet he's going to have compassion according to the multitude of his mercies (Lam 3:32). God will change in His actions towards us. For he does not afflict willingly, nor grieve the children of men (Lam 3:33). In other words, it doesn't really please God to have to deal in such stringent ways with his children. I've often said, you can make it easy on yourself or make it hard on yourself. And any time you fight God, you're making it hard on yourself. That's the lesson that Jonah learned. He fought God and ended up in the belly of a whale in a miserable condition. Three days and three nights in that hot mammal. Ninety eight degrees with high humidity. He talks about the waves rolling over his head and the seaweed twined around him. Probably stinky at that. And when he came out of that horribly miserable experience, he shared the lesson that he learned. They that observe lying vanities, forsake their own mercies. If you think you can run from God or hide from God, you're only making it hard on yourself. You're heading for trouble. You're heading for misery. He thought he could hide from God. He thought he could run from God, that he could escape the call of God. It's a lie. There is no way. You're just going to be miserable, friend. Try to fight God; you're heading for misery. He doesn't afflict willingly. He doesn't want to lay the rod on you. He gets no delight in the chastising of His children, but because He loves us. He is faithful and will chastise. To crush under his feet all the prisoners of the earth, To turn aside the right of a man before the face of the Most High, To subvert a man in his cause, the Lord approves not. Who is he that saith, and it cometh to pass, when the Lord commanded it not? Out of the mouth of the Most High proceeds not evil and good? (Lam 3:34-38) God doesn't talk out of both sides of His mouth. James speaks about the double minded man, unstable in all of his ways. Jesus speaks of how the same fountain cannot bring forth bitter and sweet waters. God doesn't speak both good and evil. Wherefore doth a living man complain, a man for the punishment of his sins? (Lam 3:39) Rather than complain of the chastisement. Let us search and try our ways, and turn again unto the LORD. Let us lift up our heart with our hands unto the God in the heavens. For we have transgressed and have rebelled: and you have not pardoned. You have covered with anger, and persecuted us: and you have slain, and you have not pitied (Lam 3:40-43). And now he goes back into the dirge. You see, he came out for a while into the light. You have covered yourself with a cloud, that our prayers should not pass through (Lam 3:44). It seems like, you know, people say, "Well, it seems like, you know, the ceilings were of brass." But Jeremiah sees the, you know, like the prayers are just being closed off by a cloud between God and me. Thou has made us as the offscouring and refuse in the midst of the people. All of our enemies have opened their mouths against us. Fear and a snare is come upon us, desolation and destruction. My eye runs down with rivers of water for the destruction of the daughter of my people. My eye trickles down, and ceases not, without any intermission, Till the LORD looks down, and beholds from heaven. My eye affecteth my heart, because of all of the daughters of my city. My enemies chased me sore, like a bird, without cause. They have cut off my life in the dungeon, and cast a stone upon me. Waters flowed over my head; then I said, I'm cut off. And I called upon thy name, O LORD, out of the low dungeon. And you have heard my voice: hide not your ear at my breathing, at my cry. For you drew near in the day that I called upon thee: and you said, Fear not. O Lord, thou has pleaded the causes of my soul; thou hast redeemed my life. O Lord, thou has seen my wrong: judge thou my cause. For thou has seen all their vengeance and their imaginations against me. You heard their reproach, O LORD, and all of the imaginations against me; The lips of those that rose up against me, and the device against me all the day. Behold their sitting down, their rising up; I am their music. Render unto them a recompense, O LORD, according to the work of their hands. Give them sorrow of heart, thy curse unto them. Persecute and destroy them in the anger from under the heavens of the LORD (Lam 3:45-66). Here again is sort of a David type of a prayer against his enemies. Jeremiah doesn't ask God to bless his enemies, but to really do them in. It is in the New Testament that Jesus taught us to bless those that curse you. Bless and curse not. Chapter 4 The fourth lamentation: How is the gold become dim! the most fine gold changed! the stones of the sanctuary are poured out in the top of every street. The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold, how are they esteemed as earthen pitchers, the work of the hands of the potter! Even the sea monsters draw out the breast, and they give suck to their young ones (Lam 4:1-3): The mammals in the sea nurse their little ones. the daughter of my people is become cruel, like the ostriches of the wilderness (Lam 4:3). Now, the ostrich totally forsakes its eggs. It lays its eggs and leaves them; it has nothing to do with the raising of its kids, just has no concern. Doesn't even know the eggs ever hatched and doesn't really care if the egg ever hatched. It just lays its eggs in the sand and that's it, forgets all about them. If they make it, they make it on their own. The mother ostrich has no mothering instincts. But the mammals in the sea nurse the little ones. But the daughter of my people, the young mothers in Jerusalem had become like ostriches in that they weren't concerned with their offspring anymore. The tongue of the nursing child cleaves to the roof of his mouth for thirst: the young children ask for bread, and no man breaks it unto them. They that did feed delicately (Lam 4:4-5) Those that used to dine at Gulliver's are desolate in the streets: they that were brought up in scarlet embrace dunghills. For the punishment of the iniquity of the daughter of my people is greater than the punishment of the sin of Sodom, because at least they were overthrown in a moment [they were destroyed], no hands stayed on her (Lam 4:4-6). Theirs was an instant death. That is much better than death by starvation. Her Nazarites were purer than snow, they were whiter than milk, they were more ruddy in body than rubies, their polishing was of sapphire (Lam 4:7): The young men who had made their commitments, the Nazarite vows to God, but now, Their visage is blacker than a coal; they are not known in the streets: their skin is cleaving to their bones (Lam 4:8); They're like walking skeletons. it is withered, it is become like a stick. They that are slain with the sword are really better off than those that are slain with hunger: for these pine away, stricken through for the want of the fruits of the field. The hands of the pitiful women have boiled their own children: and they were their meat in the destruction of the daughter of my people. The LORD has accomplished his fury, he has poured out his fierce anger, he has kindled a fire in Zion, and it has devoured the foundations thereof. The kings of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world, would not have believed that the adversary and the enemy should have entered into the gates of Jerusalem (Lam 4:7-12). It was thought to be impregnable. It sits there on the hill with the walls around it. They thought that the city was impregnable. The inhabitants of the earth would never have believed that Jerusalem could be taken. And yet it is now destroyed. For the sins of her prophets, and the iniquities of her priests, that have shed the blood of the just in the midst of her, They have wandered as blind men in the streets, they have polluted themselves with blood, so that men could not touch their garments. They cried unto them, Depart ye; it is unclean; depart, depart, don't touch: when they fled away and wondered, they said among the heathen, They shall no more sojourn there. The anger of the LORD hath divided them; he will no more regard them: they respected not the persons of the priests, they favored not the elders. As for us, our eyes as yet failed for our vain help: in our watching we have watched for a nation that could not save us. They hunt our steps, that we cannot go in the streets: our end is near, our days are fulfilled; for our end is come. Our persecutors are swifter than eagles of heaven: they have pursued us on the mountains, they laid wait for us in the wilderness. The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the LORD, was taken in their pits, of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall live among the heathen. Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom [that is their perennial enemy], that dwells in the land of Uz; the cup also shall pass through unto thee: thou shalt be drunken, and shall make thyself naked. The punishment of thine iniquity is accomplished, O daughter of Zion; he will no more carry thee away into captivity: he will visit thine iniquity, O daughter of Edom; he will discover thy sins (Lam 4:13-22). So Edom is rejoicing, but just wait, yours is coming. Chapter 5 Fifth lamentation: Remember, O LORD, what is come upon us: consider, and behold our reproach. Our inheritance is turned to strangers, our houses to aliens. We are orphans, fatherless, our mothers are as widows. We have drunken our water for money (Lam 5:1-4); We had to pay for a drink of water. and our wood is sold to us. Our necks are under persecution: we labor, we have no rest. We have given the hand to the Egyptians and to the Assyrians, to be satisfied with bread. Our fathers have sinned, and are not; and we have borne their iniquities. Servants have ruled over us: there is none that doth deliver us out of their hand. We got our bread with the peril of our lives, because of the sword of the wilderness. Our skin was black like an oven, because of the terrible famine (Lam 5:4-10). As a result of the starvation that the skin just turning black and leathery. They ravished the women in Zion, and the maids in the cities of Judah (Lam 5:11). The enemies had come in. It must have been a horrible thing. The fathers to see their wives and their young daughters ravished by the enemy, raped and all and then murdered. Princes have been hung by their thumbs: the faces of elders were not honored. They took the young men to grind in bondage, and the children had to carry the wood. The elders have ceased from the gate, the young men from their music. The joy of our heart is ceased; our dance is turned into mourning. The crown is fallen from our head: woe unto us, that we have sinned! For this our heart is faint; for these things our eyes are dim. Because of the mountain of Zion, which is desolate, the foxes walk upon it. Thou, O LORD, remains for ever; thy throne from generation to generation. Wherefore does thou forget us for ever, and forsake us so long a time? Turn thou us unto thee, O LORD, and we shall be turned; renew our days as of old (Lam 5:12-21). Therein is the answer, "Oh God, turn our hearts to Thee. Renew that relationship that we once had with You." You remember Jesus said to the church of Ephesus, "I have this against thee, in that you have left your first love. Remember from whence you have fallen and repent and do thy first works over." Oh God, return us to that first love. Lord, return us unto thee. But he ends with a sad note of dejection. But thou hast utterly rejected us; thou art very angry against us (Lam 5:22). What a sad, tragic book that never needed to be written had the people only hearkened unto the voice of God. This whole black period of history needed not to be. God warned them over and over and over again. He sent His prophets, warning them over and over of the destruction that was going to come, but they would not give heed to the word of God or to the warnings from God. But God is faithful, and that which God declared He did. And today God is warning this world of His judgment, which is going to fall. And that which happened to Jerusalem is going to happen to this whole godless world. There is coming a devastation, a holocaust, such as the world has never seen before or will ever see again. Jesus in describing the days that are coming said, "And in that day, there shall be a Great Tribulation such as the world has never seen before or will ever see again." The only safe place for you to be is in Christ. If you are in Christ He will keep you from that hour that is coming upon the earth. But if you're outside of Christ, as in Hebrews, "There remains only that fearful looking forward to the fiery indignation of God's wrath which will devour His adversaries. For if he who despised Moses' law was put to death, of how much worse punishment do you suppose he is accounted worthy who has trodden under foot the Son of God? And is accounted the blood of His covenant, wherewith he was sanctified an unholy thing and has done despite to the Spirit of grace? For we know Him who has said, 'It is a fearful thing to fall in the hands of a living God'" (Hebrews 10:27-31). God has promised His judgment is going to come upon this wicked world. God is faithful and will keep His promise. But Jesus said, "Pray ye always that you'll be accounted worthy to escape all of these things and to stand before the Son of man" (Luke 21:36). And I am praying and believing God to answer my prayer that I will escape this great time of tribulation when the wrath of God is poured out upon the earth, and I expect to be standing before the Son of man when it all happens. Book of Revelation, chapter 5, "And there was in the right hand of Him that sat upon the throne, a scroll with writing within and without and sealed with seven seals. And I heard the angels say with a great voice, 'Who is worthy to take the scroll and loose the seals thereof?' And I, John began to weep, sob convulsively because no one was found worthy to take the scroll or to loose the seals. And the elder said unto me, 'Weep not, behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah hath prevailed to take the scroll and to loose the seals.' And I turned and I saw Him as a Lamb that had been slaughtered. And He came forth and took the scroll out of the right hand of Him who sat upon the throne. And the twenty four elders brought forth their golden vials full of odors, which were the prayers of the saints. And they offered them before the throne of God and they sang a new song saying, 'Worthy is the Lamb to take the scroll and loose the seals, for He was slain and has redeemed us by His blood. Out of every nation and tribe, and tongue and people, and He has made us unto our God, kings and priests and we're going to reign with Him on the earth'" (Revelation 5:1-10). You see, that's where I plan to be. Standing before the Son of God, singing of the worthiness of the Lamb who died for me, who has redeemed me from among the families of the people on the earth. Only the redeemed church can sing that song. Angels can't sing that song; they haven't been redeemed by the blood of Jesus. That's not the song of Israel, because they come from all of the nations and family of people on the earth. That's the song of the redeemed church before the throne of God. Angels can sing the chorus. They do. A hundred million join in, plus millions of others, as they say, "Worthy is the Lamb to receive glory and honor and dominion and might and power and authority." They join the chorus, but they can't sing the verse, that's yours. "And when He loosed the first seal, I heard a voice that said, 'Come,' and I saw a white horse and his rider going forth upon the earth, conquering and to conquer" (Revelation 6:1-2). There begins the Great Tribulation. And he begins then from chapter 6 on through to chapter 18 describing the events that are going to take place upon the earth when God judges man for their wickedness and for their sin. God is faithful. He's going to do it. There is only one safe place for anyone to be. That's in Christ Jesus. I'm glad I'm there. I don't expect to be any place else. I don't want to be. Why should I be? I'm so happy here in Christ. Shall we pray. Father, we thank You for that secret place abiding in the presence of the Almighty, dwelling in Christ. Oh, Father, how we thank You that You have provided for us a place of refuge, safety in Christ. Lord, I pray for those that are here tonight who are not in Christ. Oh God, may they seriously consider the faithfulness of God, even as He kept His word and destroyed Jerusalem, so will He keep His word and judge this world. For God is faithful. Lord, may we turn from our sin, from our idolatries, from our wicked ways, and may we serve the Lord with our whole heart. In Jesus' name we pray. Amen. If you're not sure that you're a child of God, I wouldn't leave this place tonight until I was. I mean, I'm serious. We're living in desperate days. And really as Jeremiah exhorts, it's time really that we just not cease in prayer unto God. For the people round about us, we will make intercession for our nation, for each other, for these are truly the last days, and Satan is going about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. And he's ripping off an awful lot of those from the church. Leading them into life, a life of sin. A life of self seeking, living after pleasure, and walking after the flesh. And the mind of the flesh is death. I wouldn't leave tonight until I had a deep assurance that things are square between God and me. You can go back to the prayer room as soon as we're dismissed. Some of the pastors will go back there and pray with you. God bless, God keep, and may God lay upon your heart the awareness of the day and the hour in which we live, and the need of an all out effort in our service for Jesus Christ. And may the Lord use you in a very special way, as His instrument to bring His love to this needy world. In Jesus' name.

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5. Tommy College

Tommy College

TOMMY DID YOU KNOW? Tommy looks out over the river every night from a top floor room in a 5 bed house in a sheltered off suburban living block Dreams of a life, but doesn't everyone, of a life, with a four bed marble five star penthouse far from the river living just like a rock star a forgettable child, from humble beginnings, but its not a sin to be shallow cursed with a lazy shortsighted eye but it's not a shame to be hollow Tommy did you know they've been writing a song about you, it's an age old tale of a boy learnt to play a little guitar, went too far and the boy done sole his soul. Tommy looks out from gold rim glasses, listens to bruce springsteen says if these guy got they a piece o the pie well a boy like me's got nothing to fear so Buys a guitar and as time passes he arrives at a place where they pay free beer and the students cheer when they see time fly to a song they love to hear Gets rid of the specs, to get some respect, but it's not a sin to be shallow Learn how to smile in the mirror a while, it's not a shame to be hollow Tommy did you know they've been writing a song about you, it's an age old tale of a boy who learnt he a little guitar, went too far and the boy done sold his soul Tommy looks out from a slight left parting tinted with a silver streak and with five years gone well the boys moved on he's no more the silent unknown one no Sings of a heart that thought it was broken, but it turned out just to be cold and dead with a cynical head in a fucked up world just trying to be living They say that he lived his life in need, getting sympathy for the dark sad eyes and the long black shirts like a downturned lip kinda meant he was flirting Dead in the eyes with a heart of greed, trying to impress me with a minor chord and a depressed tone like how sexy it is to be lonely Never really loved much more then himself, but it's not a sin to be shallow Never really knew much of anyone else, But it's not a sin Tommy did you know they've been writing a song about you, it's an age old tale bout a boy who learnt to play him a little guitar, went too far and then the boy went and sold his soul. TOMMY COLLEGE Tommy college bought his name in school another fool for the Devil just a useless tool sold out his talent to be viewed as superficially cool, and swapped real talk quick for the ability to rule the mass with tune; see he was blessed with a good view, an enlightened sense of vision and a silver tounge too, and all his funds came easy from a silver spoon see he had every oppurtunity to make a little room but the concept of fame took his focus away and so he spent his days looking in the mirror trying to change Pierce the lip and shave the uni-brow you can learn a little music by the time you get to uni And be out with the crowd maybe form a little unit keep the conversation low to keep a mysterious image Keep your friends at a distance and your band leash, keep the girls always guessing and a spring in your feet Just make out like your arriving but your just about to leave, to be the life of the party got to work out how it breathes From green to brown leaves he'd perfected the image, starts a band with a girl and a black violinist and a drummer with spiked hair and a tattooed Penis, like a misfit crew, he called them Bite the Fuckin Bullet And they played fat shows in the campus holes and all the local pub venues till they were locally known And all the local girls loved it like a star in their home town, local girls fall before a city boy frown But the college boy had a little plan to wear crowns and so he played the girls loose never getting tied down The girls dug tommy like they wanted to help his little sad sack cutesy faced depressedy self but see he had his shifty eye on the kind of sket that little punks like Tommy would endevour to get And so looking round the campus in unclever regret he got to eyein up the girls he'd not been bothered by yet And saw a red haired beauty with a cross round her neck who had a look like she never gave a toss who was checkin her Tommy couldn't help but get to picturing wrecking her little jesus loving ass and so he wrote her letter the kind of cheese that slimy guys like these just breath I'm talkin fake sycophantic cliched thou's and thee's I want your soul in my life, we just have to meet, your a river of love and grace, won't you quench me please bending over backwards trying to make that wench be pleased, but he was benched, she's like boy won't you Unclench me please I'm not the kind of girl who gives it up for any singer yo, if you like it put a diamond on the finger by the centrepole The pussy whipped him, six months he spent to get on, and a man hates to fold on a good investment See Tommy played a good game, you can say what you want but when a girl plays a game see she plays it long He put a ring on the finger and his tounge in one, he was the first one inside her for a while it was fun They were celebrities in college, honeymoon in Hong Kong, and plus the gigs were sold out it seemed like everyone Wanted to be part of their lovely little Uni romance, see she was there with her friends at every gig they had dancing And so her friends bought there friends like they were all entourage, soon every motherfuck on campus wanted to be involved And every student in the class of two thousand and three, bought a copy of Bite the Bullets first CD Tommy knew that he could play but see he knew that the key to his success was the woman that he resented secretly And so he couldn't help but see the silver lining of the light When she had a heart attack watching a gig one night. this is something she lived with for a while, behind the laughing of her eyes and the beautiful smile she'd had a life filled with surgery and physical pain but she just laughed, said "the old tickers clicking again" She had a hole in her heart, nobody was to blame, but old Tommy saw the chance to up the level again Started trying to raise funds at the gigs he played, saying please help my lover get research to be saved Time passed and she just got worse, but old Tommy gave the girl a space in every verse And by the time she was wheeled in a chair to her class Tommy College had a space on his righteous arse On the daytime news basking in the false glory of a fake dude rising off've someone else's story and cause we love to watch while the world gets fucked well as Melody fell Tommy College raised up. Until the days she was too weak to even stand up, when old tommy got the crowd to put a lighter hand up and he'd say This is a song for my lover if you know a better nother then you better put it on I'm just a lonely type a brother with a heart broke lover and a sad sad song I'm gonna go to the river put my hands in the water and a pray to the one I got a hand full of charity a the neck of my string held up in the other one three years and the time flew by, the sad story made him household and nationwide Tommy and his melody, saving a life with a song and shit just seemed so right like it would never go wrong He played gigs for live Aid and for BBC 1, and for a while they were the couple that every teenager wanted but they knew this long story would become a short sonnet cause this bloody sunday had a black cherry sat right upon it SICK LOVE I love your cancer chic junkie sunk eyes, the blue vein ripple at the top of your thighs I can't believe, the wheeze as you breath and the grey of your skin is a porcelain prize I love the thin fringe limp on your head, the stone blue cold lonely eyes of the dead Down the phone, I hear the crackle of your lung and I know I'll be sleeping in a hospital bed tonight She wont be here much longer, you better get to know her now It's palliative, how much I care The pressures high, I can see from the green line. But It's M E on you, till your lips turn blue Emphycemiea Pneumoniea and Pluracy too; I should leave but I'm breathless under you A Flutter and a murmer and a hole in the heart, she's Bi-Polar and it's tearing me apart. Fey Grace laces every tread, your hazy eyes lazy lithium red in such beautiful dressing with your mood supressed I've got a stitched heart and your pulling the thread Peach skin, pristine bruised, Red green yellow purple and blue It's internal, I don't know what to do, I'm just a side effect of the placebo in you. MURDERERS back from the edge of madness, back from the edge of the world my love I am enveloped in encompassing sadness, reminded by the beautiful girls of our love from cally road up to the valens, the hooplah haunts and happens of our love at least we'll always have camden, the grays inn road and the worlds end pub oh Your past life, i think I knew you, we were someone else and we lived in regret as lovers, do you recall we were murderers Black is the edge of darkness, deep as the end of the sea my love Chomping at the bit of my harness, frustrated by the weight of the world as our love comes Crashing in a scene of violence, that old east london shoreditch pub falls deaf as the edge of silence, sated by the beautiful world of our love Don't take for granted my heart, thats what she said to me And went and wasted her words on a younger me At the astoria I will relive my tragedy wonder lonely from the angel up to silver street Dance away my pain at the old triple three Sleep in victoria and wake me up in hackey then use a day old pass to jump the 19 bus to finsbury park and to the memory Where I am still a boy, and only seventeen, where the stars are still that bright and the grass is still that green where the traffic in the air is our special kind of silence and the harmony of you would cast a voodoo over me and the nights would pass us by, and the weeks would die, till the ground was covered wet with all the morning light and the clocks just seem to lie and let the whole world pass us by and the canopy of concrete is a canvass for a street light bastard your last breath I will steal from you so to I'll steal your death and meet you where we wait forever until we'll be together again your regrets, I will take from you so there aint none left and I'll live in regret forever, as if I never said your name Your past life, i think I knew you, we were someone else and we lived in regret as lovers, do you recall we were murderers my curse in life is to see through you in a future tense, and know that as we lay as lovers, you will become my killer Back from the dead with purpose, back from the land of the lame with my soul all tourniqueted up to my sternum pretending to be one and the same with my soul from camberwell back up to morden, wondering the streets of south with my soul all black and apathetic with boredom, done with all the streets are drowning my soul TOMMY's REMORSE I’m so free, so free, don’t you wanna follow me oh my life, ever since you died I’ve been so Fuckin free, hollowed out the eyes and made a Home in the branches of a old and broken oak tree I'm so wild, don't you wanna colour my life oh my stars - never thought it be this hard I'm so fuckin dead, ripples in my head like the leaves on the branches of this old and broken oak tree of my home Your precious to me, so precious to me Salt and pepper, husband and wife Won’t you endevour through the stormy weather with me I want to keep you for the rest of your life I want you teathered to me, want you indebted to me Laying in bed for my love to arrive Come to heaven with me, I want to tear out your eyes And you’ll always need me to guide you home I never meant to kill you, I only meant to make you sick so you’d be like “feed me” and I’m like “be with me” This is my curse I killed her first and now kills my lover Please Hear my words of good advice, sisters, good friends and brothers Don’t slip inside you’ll die a little death like all the others Your lips collide with mine to steal our breath beneath the covers Don’t let our hearts connect through pressed flesh of heaving chest Those hearts that tangle us in passion with each sweaty breath It wouldn’t do us any good to take what we both crave Cause the scratching of my floorboards is the turning of a grave I think the ghost is up again, knocking on the window who's that out there? someone who cares? I think the ghost is up again, scraping up the stairs outside come inside to me, I'm everything you need I need everything, and you're everything to me; You're everything I need, come stand beside me I need everything, and you're everything to me, everything I need. The air that I breathe. And theres a bloodstain on the floor, that says you got what you came here for; I should have never been your whore, cause it's all that you wanted I’m so free, but she’s always gonna follow me, All my life, I only wanted her to treat me right We we’re so fuckin high but I’m not surprised t| hat I remember The way she changed from that early may till late December I just want to protect you Alice, I just want to make you smile Please Let me infect you Alice, I want to keep you for the rest of your life I want you teathered to me, want you indebted to me Salt and Pepper, Husband and wife Come to heaven with me, I want to tear out your eyes And you’ll always need me to guide you home

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6. 11 Ebge Jesu Ga (Lift Jesus High)

  • Published: 2012-01-28T15:21:01Z
  • By DUR
11 Ebge Jesu Ga (Lift Jesus High)

11. Egbe Jesu Ga (Lift Jesus High) [Bonus Track] Track Summary This is a bonus praise track written in a traditional Nigerian style to praise God while having fun with it. We hope you enjoy it! (English translations are shown in italics and the chorus is translated.) Lyrics Intro Flare: Ah! Come on now! Did you think it was over? It is not over until we say so mehn! In fact, Divine Keys; more grease to your elbow for this one Kay.O and Flare! (they done come again oh!) Did you think we cannot have fun with God? (They done come again oh!) In the presence of God there is fullness of joy, it says it in the bible sef! So what we are going to do now is praise our father in heaven, so you can't sit down for this one, I won't allow it! Are you ready? oya! Chorus Kay.O & Flare: Modupe o (x3) Adupe o, Adupe (Oya ebge Jesu ga o) Oba ni o, Oba ni o (x3) Ebge ga o, Ebge ga (Oya ebge Jesu ga o) Verse 1 Kay.O: Who can compare to you oh (We sing hallelu oh) Maker of heaven and earth (Halle hallelu oh) How great it is to sing our praise to the king Filling our mouth with song to sing out before him Let every living thing that has breath give him praise He is the one who died after three days he raised So I go dance I go shout I go sing out hallelu oh Omo jesu! Kelode? (Child of God, what’s wrong?) Oya! edobale oh! (Come on! Reverence him!) Chorus Kay.O: I thank you Lord (x3) We thank you Lord, We thank you Lord (come on and lift Jesus higher) You are the kKng (x3) Let’s lift him up, Let’s lift him up (Come on and lift Jesus higher) Verse 2 Flare: Jesus is the one and only; in all things give him glory This gospel no be story His grace in your life, se o ri? (Don’t you see?) Ori mi, enu mi, ati ese pelu emi mi (My head, my mouth, and my feet and also my soul) Ma fi yin olorun da da o ni to ri pe (I'll use them all to praise God because) If only you understood what he did for your life, 'cause see the thing is He came to the earth and then he bled and he died, now please bare witness Read John 3:16, and Romans 8:34, and Ephesians 2 verse 6 and see The glory is his yeah! Chorus Kay.O & Flare: Modupe o (x3) Adupe o, Adupe (Oya ebge Jesu ga o) Oba ni o, Oba ni o (x3) Ebge ga o, Ebge ga (Oya ebge Jesu ga o) Bridge Kay.O: Aha! Let’s go! Flare & Kay.O: Ta lo da bi re o, Oba nla (Who is like you, Oh great God?) Flare: Oya dide nle, je ka doba nle (Stand up, let's bow down) Kay.O: Now left right strike a pose, now left right strike a pose, let’s go! Flare: Kawo so ke, kawo so ke (Put your hands up, put your hands up) jo, jo, jo, jo (dance, dance, dance, dance) Kawo so ke, kawo so ke! (Put your hands up, put your hands up) Kay.O: You’re the light of my salvation so I mustn’t be afraid King of kings and Lord of lords; you are the author of my faith So I go dance, I go shout, I go give him all my praise I go dance I go shout I go sing, Kabiyesi o! (Great King!) Chorus Kay.O & Flare: Modupe o (x3) Adupe o, Adupe (Oya ebge Jesu ga o) Oba ni o, Oba ni o (x3) Ebge ga o, Ebge ga (Oya ebge Jesu ga o) Bible References Psalm 16:11, John 3:16, Romans 8:34, Ephesians 2:6

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7. Winking Out [Supermoon 2016]

Winking Out [Supermoon 2016]

In honor of the brightest supermoon of the century, a dire post-Halloween supermoon story. Special thanks to @francispreve for 'The Haunting' samples. Contains a soundbed excerpt from "Apricity" by Tomorrow's Man. There it is, a wide-open wink. A genocidal gaze of baleful disdain. Once a heavenly body, now a bullet on a tragic trajectory. It slides the light from my face. And warmth. And still it comes, silent, stunning, supernatural yet right before my eyes, a memento mori with the momentum of the arrant end. They say there's no sound of it, here or in space, but my bones prickle with the hum of such gargantuan motion. They say there's no smell, no way a smell could be caused by the most passive of galactic events, these massive bodies moving in for a mammoth kiss; but I can smell cordite, and burnt lumber and bone. I smell what is left of blood before ash. Around me the fires blaze on, blaze on. Screams have long since passed from this remote, rolling green hill. The late fall air is springtime warm and growing warmer by the moment. I take my eyes off of the moon for the first time in hours, blink, scan my gloaming-gray hillside. Despite the ad hoc eclipse bringing on one last night, the green hills of Earth do just as they say, roll and roll and roll, running on right to the last of the Earth's edges. Night’s contused darkness climbs in, forced ahead of the kiss, clinging like smothering velvet to the eventide. Everywhere fires glare with violence, vulgar and gargantuan. Fewer and fewer miles away from anywhere the oceans heave and boil as they spume and wrench and roil. Last week they said this would be spectacular, the biggest, brightest supermoon to grace the firmament this century, and the last for decades. Little did they know. But on November 11th, eleven-eleven, just three days before the supermoon -- warnings fell from Atacama, Mauna Loa, from Yerkes and Keck, warnings fell like summer rain: something seemed wrong up there, something was wrong with the moon. They said it was rotating the wrong way, or slowing down, or twisting itself apart...or maybe all of the above. There was a lot of scientific talk about “lunar torque” and “tidal bulge” and “gravitational pull” but CNN, CBC, the BBC, they distilled the chatter to the same sinister slugline: The moon might snap its gravitational elastic given the right push or pull, the right cosmic nudge. But, we were assured, it was a matter of infinitesimally long odds, hitting the catastrophe jackpot. Now. Around me, the night shimmers. Beneath me, gravity pulses in panicking quavers. Behind me, the oceans moan across the latitudes. Above me, the supermoon -- the last of lifetimes -- winks in for its first kiss. They say there's no sound of it, here or in space, but I feel in my bones the snap of a once infinite celestial elastic. The moon’s umbra dilates with sudden alacrity. Above me everywhere, beyond the gazing dead eye of the melting moon, the sun’s corona blooms. Around me, the last night of Earth withers in a wash of blood orange as the oceans roar one last secret in my ear: No one knew we could lose the moon. No one knew we could lose the moon.

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8. Surah Al-Baqarah

  • Published: 2012-03-17T04:56:53Z
  • By Rezowan
Surah Al-Baqarah

2. Al-Baqarah Introduction to this Surat. In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. 1. Alif-Lâm-Mîm. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'ân and none but Allâh (Alone) knows their meanings]. 2. This is the Book (the Qur'ân), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqûn [the pious and righteous persons who fear Allâh much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love Allâh much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)]. 3. Who believe in the Ghaib [] and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), [] and spend out of what we have provided for them [i.e. give Zakât [], spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives, etc., and also give charity to the poor and also in Allâh's Cause - Jihâd, etc.]. 4. And who believe in (the Qur'ân and the Sunnah) [] which has been sent down (revealed) to you (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) and in [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.] which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. (Resurrection, recompense of their good and bad deeds, Paradise and Hell, etc.). 5. They are on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful. 6. Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe. 7. Allâh has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allâh's Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment. 8. And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: "We believe in Allâh and the Last Day" while in fact they believe not. 9. They (think to) deceive Allâh and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not! 10. In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allâh has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies. 11. And when it is said to them: "Make not mischief on the earth," they say: "We are only peacemakers." 12. Verily! They are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not. 13. And when it is said to them (hypocrites): "Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad Peace be upon him , Al-Ansâr and Al-Muhajirûn) have believed," they say: "Shall we believe as the fools have believed?" Verily, they are the fools, but they know not. 14. And when they meet those who believe, they say: "We believe," but when they are alone with their Shayâtin (devils - polytheists, hypocrites, etc.), they say: "Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking." 15. Allâh mocks at them and gives them increase in their wrong-doings to wander blindly. 16. These are they who have purchased error for guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided. 17. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him, Allâh took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see. 18. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the Right Path). 19. Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allâh ever encompasses the disbelievers (i.e. Allâh will gather them all together). 20. The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allâh willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allâh has power over all things. 21. O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allâh), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 22. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allâh (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped). [] 23. And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'ân) to Our slave (Muhammad Peace be upon him ), then produce a Sûrah (chapter) of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allâh, if you are truthful. 24. But if you do it not, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers. 25. And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). Every time they will be provided with a fruit therefrom, they will say: "This is what we were provided with before," and they will be given things in resemblance (i.e. in the same form but different in taste) and they shall have therein Azwâjun Mutahharatun [] (purified mates or wives), (having no menses, stools, urine, etc.) and they will abide therein forever. 26. Verily, Allâh is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it. And as for those who believe, they know that it is the Truth from their Lord, but as for those who disbelieve, they say: "What did Allâh intend by this parable?" By it He misleads many, and many He guides thereby. And He misleads thereby only those who are Al-Fâsiqûn (the rebellious, disobedient to Allâh). [] 27. Those who break Allâh's Covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allâh has ordered to be joined (as regards Allâh's Religion of Islâmic Monotheism, and to practise its legal laws on the earth and also as regards keeping good relations with kith and kin []), and do mischief on earth, it is they who are the losers. 28. How can you disbelieve in Allâh? Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return. 29. He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawâ (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything. 30. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, - while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." He (Allâh) said: "I know that which you do not know." 31. And He taught Adam all the names (of everything) [], then He showed them to the angels and said, "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful." 32. They (angels) said: "Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise." 33. He said: "O Adam! Inform them of their names," and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghaib (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?" 34. And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.". And they prostrated except Iblîs (Satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allâh). 35. And We said: "O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zâlimûn (wrong-doers)." 36. Then the Shaitân (Satan) made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time." 37. Then Adam received from his Lord Words []. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful. 38. We said: "Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve. 39. But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) such are the dwellers of the Fire, they shall abide therein forever. 40. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you, and fulfill (your obligations to) My Covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My Obligations to) your covenant (with Me), and fear none but Me. 41. And believe in what I have sent down (this Qur'ân), confirming that which is with you, [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)], and be not the first to disbelieve therein, and buy not with My Verses [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] a small price (i.e. getting a small gain by selling My Verses), and fear Me and Me Alone. (Tafsir At-Tabarî, Vol. I, Page 253). 42. And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth [i.e. Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allâh's Messenger and his qualities are written in your Scriptures, the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] while you know (the truth) []. 43. And perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât, and Irka' (i.e. bow down or submit yourselves with obedience to Allâh) along with Ar­Raki'ûn. [] 44. Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and each and every act of obedience to Allâh) on the people and you forget (to practise it) yourselves, [] while you recite the Scripture [the Taurât (Torah)]! Have you then no sense? 45. And seek help in patience and As-Salât (the prayer) and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khâshi'ûn [i.e. the true believers in Allâh - those who obey Allâh with full submission, fear much from His Punishment, and believe in His Promise (Paradise, etc.) and in His Warnings (Hell, etc.)]. 46. (They are those) who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are going to return. 47. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the 'Alamîn (mankind and jinns) (of your time period, in the past). 48. And fear a Day (of Judgement) when a person shall not avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from him nor will compensation be taken from him nor will they be helped. 49. And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and therein was a mighty trial from your Lord. 50. And (remember) when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people while you were looking (at them, when the sea-water covered them). 51. And (remember) when We appointed for Mûsa (Moses) forty nights, and (in his absence) you took the calf (for worship), and you were Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.). 52. Then after that We forgave you so that you might be grateful. 53. And (remember) when We gave Mûsa (Moses) the Scripture [the Taurât (Torah)] and the criterion (of right and wrong) so that you may be guided aright. 54. And (remember) when Mûsa (Moses) said to his people: "O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf. So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Lord." Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful. 55. And (remember) when you said: "O Mûsa (Moses)! We shall never believe in you till we see Allâh plainly." But you were seized with a thunderbolt (lightning) while you were looking. 56. Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful. 57. And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna [] and the quails, (saying): "Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you," (but they rebelled). And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves. 58. And (remember) when We said: "Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility) and say: 'Forgive us,' and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers." 59. But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another, so We sent upon the wrong-doers Rijzan (a punishment) [] from the heaven because of their rebelling against Allâh's Obedience. (Tafsir At-Tabarî, Vol. I, Page 305). 60. And (remember) when Mûsa (Moses) asked for water for his people, We said: "Strike the stone with your stick." Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water. "Eat and drink of that which Allâh has provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth." 61. And (remember) when you said, "O Mûsa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fûm (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onions." He said, "Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!" And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the Wrath of Allâh. That was because they used to disbelieve the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allâh and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allâh, i.e. commit crimes and sins). 62. Verily! Those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians, [] whoever believes in Allâh and the Last Day and do righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve []. 63. And (O Children of Israel, remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying): "Hold fast to that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein so that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 64. Then after that you turned away. Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allâh upon you, indeed you would have been among the losers. 65. And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: "Be you monkeys, despised and rejected." 66. So We made this punishment an example to their own and to succeeding generations and a lesson to those who are Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 67. And (remember) when Mûsa (Moses) said to his people: "Verily, Allâh commands you that you slaughter a cow." They said, "Do you make fun of us?" He said, "I take Allâh's Refuge from being among Al-Jâhilûn (the ignorants or the foolish)." 68. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!" He said, "He says, 'Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions', so do what you are commanded." 69. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its colour." He said, "He says, 'It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing to the beholders.' " 70. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily to us all cows are alike, And surely, if Allâh wills, we will be guided." 71. He [Mûsa (Moses)] said, "He says, 'It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other colour except bright yellow.' " They said, "Now you have brought the truth." So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it. 72. And (remember) when you killed a man and fell into dispute among yourselves as to the crime. But Allâh brought forth that which you were hiding. 73. So We said: "Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow)." Thus Allâh brings the dead to life and shows you His Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) so that you may understand. 74. Then, after that, your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allâh. And Allâh is not unaware of what you do. 75. Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe in your religion inspite of the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allâh [the Taurât (Torah)], then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it? 76. And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say, "We believe", but when they meet one another in private, they say, "Shall you (Jews) tell them (Muslims) what Allâh has revealed to you [Jews, about the description and the qualities of Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him , that which are written in the Taurât (Torah)] [], that they (Muslims) may argue with you (Jews) about it before your Lord?" Have you (Jews) then no understanding? 77. Know they (Jews) not that Allâh knows what they conceal and what they reveal? 78. And there are among them (Jews) unlettered people, who know not the Book, but they trust upon false desires and they but guess. 79. Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands and then say, "This is from Allâh," to purchase with it a little price! Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby. 80. And they (Jews) say, "The Fire (i.e. Hell-fire on the Day of Resurrection) shall not touch us but for a few numbered days." Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to them): "Have you taken a covenant from Allâh, so that Allâh will not break His Covenant? Or is it that you say of Allâh what you know not?" 81. Yes! Whosoever earns evil and his sin has surrounded him, they are dwellers of the Fire (i.e. Hell); they will dwell therein forever. 82. And those who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh swt- Islâmic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, they are dwellers of Paradise, they will dwell therein forever. 83. And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none but Allâh (Alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to kindred, and to orphans and Al-Masâkîn [] (the poor), [Tafsir At-Tabarî, Vol. 10, Page 158 (Verse 9:60)] and speak good to people [i.e. enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, and say the truth about Muhammad Peace be upon him ], and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât. Then you slid back, except a few of you, while you are backsliders. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubî, Vol. 2, Page 392). 84. And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your people, nor turn out your own people from their dwellings. Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bear witness. 85. After this, it is you who kill one another and drive out a party of you from their homes, assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their expulsion was forbidden to you. Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject the rest? Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment. And Allâh is not unaware of what you do. 86. Those are they who have bought the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter. Their torment shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped. 87. And indeed, We gave Mûsa (Moses) the Book and followed him up with a succession of Messengers. And We gave 'Iesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), clear signs and supported him with Rûh-ul-Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel) >>]. Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant? Some, you disbelieved and some, you killed. 88. And they say, "Our hearts are wrapped (i.e. do not hear or understand Allâh's Word)." Nay, Allâh has cursed them for their disbelief, so little is that which they believe. 89. And when there came to them (the Jews), a Book (this Qur'ân) from Allâh confirming what is with them [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)], although aforetime they had invoked Allâh (for coming of Muhammad Peace be upon him ) in order to gain victory over those who disbelieved, then when there came to them that which they had recognised, they disbelieved in it. So let the Curse of Allâh be on the disbelievers. 90. How bad is that for which they have sold their ownselves, that they should disbelieve in that which Allâh has revealed (the Qur'ân), grudging that Allâh should reveal of His Grace unto whom He will of His slaves. So they have drawn on themselves wrath upon wrath. And for the disbelievers, there is disgracing torment. 91. And when it is said to them (the Jews), "Believe in what Allâh has sent down," they say, "We believe in what was sent down to us." And they disbelieve in that which came after it, while it is the truth confirming what is with them. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to them): "Why then have you killed the Prophets of Allâh aforetime, if you indeed have been believers?" 92. And indeed Mûsa (Moses) came to you with clear proofs, yet you worshipped the calf after he left, and you were Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers). 93. And (remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying), "Hold firmly to what We have given you and hear (Our Word). They said, "We have heard and disobeyed." And their hearts absorbed (the worship of) the calf because of their disbelief. Say: "Worst indeed is that which your faith enjoins on you if you are believers." 94. Say to (them): "If the home of the Hereafter with Allâh is indeed for you specially and not for others, of mankind, then long for death if you are truthful." 95. But they will never long for it because of what their hands have sent before them (i.e. what they have done). And Allâh is All-Aware of the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers). 96. And verily, you will find them (the Jews) the greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) than those who - ascribe partners to Allâh (and do not believe in Resurrection - Magians, pagans, and idolaters, etc.). Everyone of them wishes that he could be given a life of a thousand years. But the grant of such life will not save him even a little from (due) punishment. And Allâh is All-Seer of what they do. 97. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ): "Whoever is an enemy to Jibrael (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'ân) down to your heart by Allâh's Permission, confirming what came before it [i.e. the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] and guidance and glad tidings for the believers. 98. "Whoever is an enemy to Allâh, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibrael (Gabriel) and Mikael (Michael), then verily, Allâh is an enemy to the disbelievers." 99. And indeed We have sent down to you manifest Ayât (these Verses of the Qur'ân which inform in detail about the news of the Jews and their secret intentions, etc.), and none disbelieve in them but Fâsiqûn (those who rebel against Allâh's Command). 100. Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throw it aside? Nay! the truth is most of them believe not. 101. And when there came to them a Messenger from Allâh (i.e. Muhammad Peace be upon him ) confirming what was with them, a party of those who were given the Scripture threw away the Book of Allâh behind their backs as if they did not know! 102. They followed what the Shayâtin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaimân (Solomon). Sulaimân did not disbelieve, but the Shayâtin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Hârût and Mârût, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)." And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allâh's Leave. And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their ownselves, if they but knew. 103. And if they had believed, and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allâh, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew! 104. O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger Peace be upon him ) Râ'ina [] but say Unzurna (Do make us understand) and hear. And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment. (See Verse 4:46) 105. Neither those who disbelieve among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikûn (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh, idolaters, polytheists, pagans, etc.) like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord. But Allâh chooses for His Mercy whom He wills. And Allâh is the Owner of Great Bounty. 106. Whatever a Verse (revelation) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring a better one or similar to it. Know you not that Allâh is able to do all things? 107. Know you not that it is Allâh to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? And besides Allâh you have neither any Walî (protector or guardian) nor any helper. 108. Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) as Mûsa (Moses) was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord?) And he who changes Faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way. 109. Many of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their ownselves, even, after the truth (that Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allâh's Messenger) has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allâh brings His Command. Verily, Allâh is Able to do all things. 110. And perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât, and whatever of good (deeds that Allâh loves) you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allâh. Certainly, Allâh is All-Seer of what you do. 111. And they say, "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian." These are their own desires. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ), "Produce your proof if you are truthful." 112. Yes, but whoever submits his face (himself) to Allâh (i.e. follows Allâh's Religion of Islâmic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin (good-doer i.e. performs good deeds totally for Allâh's sake only without any show off or to gain praise or fame, etc., and in accordance with the Sunnah of Allâh's Messenger Muhammad Peace be upon him ) then his reward is with his Lord (Allâh), on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. [See Tafsir Ibn Kathîr, Vol.1, Page 154]. 113. The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture. Like unto their word, said (the pagans) who know not. Allâh will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing. 114. And who is more unjust than those who forbid that Allâh's Name be glorified and mentioned much (i.e. prayers and invocations, etc.) in Allâh's Mosques and strive for their ruin? It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them (Allâh's Mosques) except in fear. For them there is disgrace in this world, and they will have a great torment in the Hereafter. 115. And to Allâh belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn yourselves or your faces there is the Face of Allâh (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely! Allâh is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knowing. 116. And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allâh has begotten a son (children or offspring). [] Glory be to Him (Exalted be He above all that they associate with Him). Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all surrender with obedience (in worship) to Him. 117. The Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it : "Be!" - and it is. 118. And those who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allâh speak to us (face to face) or why does not a sign come to us?" So said the people before them words of similar import. Their hearts are alike, We have indeed made plain the signs for people who believe with certainty. 119. Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) with the truth (Islâm), a bringer of glad tidings (for those who believe in what you brought, that they will enter Paradise) and a warner (for those who disbelieve in what you brought, they will enter the Hell-fire). [] And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the blazing Fire. 120. Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) till you follow their religion. Say: "Verily, the Guidance of Allâh (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism) that is the (only) Guidance. And if you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur'ân), then you would have against Allâh neither any Walî (protector or guardian) nor any helper. 121. Those (who embraced Islâm from Banî Israel) to whom We gave the Book [the Taurât (Torah)] [or those (Muhammad's Peace be upon him companions) to whom We have given the Book (the Qur'ân)] recite it (i.e. obey its orders and follow its teachings) as it should be recited (i.e. followed), they are the ones that believe therein. And whoso disbelieves in it (the Qur'ân), those are they who are the losers. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubî. Vol. 2, Page 95). 122. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the 'Alamîn (mankind and jinns) (of your time-period, in the past). 123. And fear the Day (of Judgement) when no person shall avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from him, nor shall intercession be of use to him, nor shall they be helped. 124. And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrâhim (Abraham) [i.e., Allâh] tried him with (certain) Commands, which he fulfilled. He (Allâh) said (to him), "Verily, I am going to make you a leader (Prophet) of mankind." [Ibrâhim (Abraham)] said, "And of my offspring (to make leaders)." (Allâh) said, "My Covenant (Prophethood, etc.) includes not Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers)." 125. And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqâm (place) of Ibrâhim (Abraham) [or the stone on which Ibrâhim (Abraham) >> stood while he was building the Ka'bah] as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers, e.g. two Rak'at after the Tawâf of the Ka'bah at Makkah), and We commanded Ibrâhim (Abraham) and Ismâ'il (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I'tikâf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer). 126. And (remember) when Ibrâhim (Abraham) said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allâh and the Last Day." He (Allâh) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!" 127. And (remember) when Ibrâhim (Abraham) and (his son) Ismâ'il (Ishmael) were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily! You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower." [] 128. "Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manâsik [] (all the ceremonies of pilgrimage - Hajj and 'Umrah, etc.), and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful. 129. "Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allâh answered their invocation by sending Muhammad Peace be upon him ), who shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qur'ân) and Al-Hikmah (full knowledge of the Islâmic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom or Prophethood, etc.), and sanctify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise." 130. And who turns away from the religion of Ibrâhim (Abraham) (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism) except him who befools himself? Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous. 131. When his Lord said to him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!" He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the 'Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists)." 132. And this (submission to Allâh, Islâm) was enjoined by Ibrâhim (Abraham) upon his sons and by Ya'qûb (Jacob), (saying), "O my sons! Allâh has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except in the Faith of Islâm (as Muslims - Islâmic Monotheism)." 133. Or were you witnesses when death approached Ya'qûb (Jacob)? When he said unto his sons, "What will you worship after me?" They said, "We shall worship your Ilâh [] (God - Allâh), the Ilâh (God) of your fathers, Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac), One Ilâh (God), and to Him we submit (in Islâm)." 134. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do. 135. And they say, "Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided." Say (to them, O Muhammad Peace be upon him ), "Nay, (We follow) only the religion of Ibrâhim (Abraham), Hanifa [Islâmic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allâh (Alone)], and he was not of Al-Mushrikûn (those who worshipped others along with Allâh - see V.2:105)." [] 136. Say (O Muslims), "We believe in Allâh and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac), Ya'qûb (Jacob), and to Al-Asbât [the twelve sons of Ya'qûb (Jacob)], and that which has been given to Mûsa (Moses) and 'Iesa (Jesus), and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islâm)." 137. So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allâh will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. 138. [Our Sibghah (religion) is] the Sibghah (Religion) of Allâh (Islâm) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allâh's? And we are His worshippers. [Tafsir Ibn Kathîr.] 139. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to the Jews and Christians), "Dispute you with us about Allâh while He is our Lord and your Lord? And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. [] And we are sincere to Him in worship and obedience (i.e. we worship Him Alone and none else, and we obey His Orders)." 140. Or say you that Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac), Ya'qûb (Jacob) and Al-Asbât [the twelve sons of Ya'qûb (Jacob)] were Jews or Christians? Say, "Do you know better or does Allâh (knows better… that they all were Muslims)? And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony [i.e. to believe in Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him when he comes, written in their Books. (See Verse 7:157)] he has from Allâh? And Allâh is not unaware of what you do." 141. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned, and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do. 142. The fools (pagans, hypocrites, and Jews) among the people will say, "What has turned them (Muslims) from their Qiblah [prayer direction (towards Jerusalem)] to which they were used to face in prayer." Say, (O Muhammad SAW) "To Allâh belong both, east and the west. He guides whom He wills to a Straight Way." 143. Thus We have made you [true Muslims - real believers of Islâmic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad SAW and his Sunnah (legal ways)], a Wasat (just) (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind[] and the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) be a witness over you. And We made the Qiblah (prayer direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face, only to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from those who would turn on their heels (i.e. disobey the Messenger). Indeed it was great (heavy) except for those whom Allâh guided. And Allâh would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered towards Jerusalem). Truly, Allâh is full of kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind. 144. Verily! We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad's SAW) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid- al-Harâm (at Makkah). And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction. Certainly, the people who were given the Scriptures (i.e. Jews and the Christians) know well that, that (your turning towards the direction of the Ka'bah at Makkah in prayers) is the truth from their Lord. And Allâh is not unaware of what they do. 145. And even if you were to bring to the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) all the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), they would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direction), nor are you going to follow their Qiblah (prayer direction). And they will not follow each other's Qiblah (prayer direction). Verily, if you follow their desires after that which you have received of knowledge (from Allâh), then indeed you will be one of the Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong-doers, etc.). 146. Those to whom We gave the Scripture (Jews and Christians) recognise him (Muhammad SAW or the Ka'bah at Makkah) as they recongise their sons. But verily, a party of them conceal the truth while they know it - [i.e. the qualities of Muhammad SAW which are written in the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)][]. 147. (This is) the truth from your Lord. So be you not one of those who doubt. 148. For every nation there is a direction to which they face (in their prayers). So hasten towards all that is good. Wheresoever you may be, Allâh will bring you together (on the Day of Resurrection). Truly, Allâh is Able to do all things. 149. And from wheresoever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah), that is indeed the truth from your Lord. And Allâh is not unaware of what you do. 150. And from wheresoever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah), and wheresoever you are, turn your faces towards, it (when you pray) so that men may have no argument against you except those of them that are wrong-doers, so fear them not, but fear Me! - And so that I may complete My Blessings on you and that you may be guided. 151. Similarly (to complete My Blessings on you) We have sent among you a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) of your own, reciting to you Our Verses (the Qur'ân) and sanctifying you, and teaching you the Book (the Qur'ân) and the Hikmah (i.e. Sunnah, Islâmic laws and Fiqh - jurisprudence), and teaching you that which you used not to know. 152. Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying, etc.).[] I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless Favours on you) and never be ungrateful to Me. 153. O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salât (the prayer). Truly! Allâh is with As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.). 154. And say not of those who are killed in the Way of Allâh, "They are dead." Nay, they are living, but you perceive (it) not. 155. And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.). 156. Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: "Truly! To Allâh we belong and truly, to Him we shall return." 157. They are those on whom are the Salawât (i.e. blessings, etc.) (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided-ones. 158. Verily! As-Safâ and Al-Marwah (two mountains in Makkah) are of the Symbols of Allâh. So it is not a sin on him who perform Hajj or 'Umrah (pilgrimage) of the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) to perform the going (Tawâf) between them (As-Safâ and Al-Marwah).[] And whoever does good voluntarily, then verily, Allâh is All-Recogniser, All-Knower. 159. Verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allâh and cursed by the cursers. 160. Except those who repent and do righteous deeds, and openly declare (the truth which they concealed). These, I will accept their repentance. And I am the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful. 161. Verily, those who disbelieve, and die while they are disbelievers, it is they on whom is the Curse of Allâh and of the angels and of mankind, combined. 162. They will abide therein (under the curse in Hell), their punishment will neither be lightened, nor will they be reprieved. 163. And your Ilâh (God) is One Ilâh (God - Allâh), Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He), the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. 164. Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allâh sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayât (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding. 165. And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allâh as rivals[] (to Allâh). They love them as they love Allâh. But those who believe, love Allâh more (than anything else). If only, those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allâh and that Allâh is Severe in punishment. 166. When those who were followed, disown (declare themselves innocent of) those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them. 167. And those who followed will say: "If only we had one more chance to return (to the worldly life), we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) them as they have disowned (declared themselves as innocent from) us." Thus Allâh will show them their deeds as regrets for them. And they will never get out of the Fire . 168. O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth, and follow not the footsteps of Shaitân (Satan). Verily, he is to you an open enemy. 169. [Shaitân (Satan)] commands you only what is evil and Fahshâ (sinful), and that you should say against Allâh what you know not. 170. When it is said to them: "Follow what Allâh has sent down." They say: "Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following." (Would they do that!) Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided? 171. And the example of those who disbelieve, is as that of him who shouts to the (flock of sheep) that hears nothing but calls and cries. (They are) deaf, dumb and blind. So they do not understand. 172. O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh - Islâmic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you[] with, and be grateful to Allâh, if it is indeed He Whom you worship. 173. He has forbidden you only the Maytatah (dead animals), and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a scrifice for others than Allâh (or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., on which Allâh's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But if one is forced by necessity without wilful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 174. Verily, those who conceal what Allâh has sent down of the Book, and purchase a small gain therewith (of worldly things), they eat into their bellies nothing but fire. Allâh will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor purify them, and theirs will be a painful torment. 175. Those are they who have purchased error at the price of Guidance, and torment at the price of Forgiveness. So how bold they are (for evil deeds which will push them) to the Fire. 176. That is because Allâh has sent down the Book (the Qur'ân) in truth. And verily, those who disputed as regards the Book are far away in opposition. 177. It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and each and every act of obedience to Allâh, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets[] and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masâkin (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and gives the Zakât, and who fulfill their covenant when they make it, and who are As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.) in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al­Muttaqûn (pious - see V.2:2). 178. O you who believe! Al-Qisâs (the Law of Equality in punishment) is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives, etc.) of the killed against blood money, then adhering to it with fairness and payment of the blood money, to the heir should be made in fairness. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. So after this whoever transgresses the limits (i.e. kills the killer after taking the blood money), he shall have a painful torment. 179. And there is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisâs (the Law of Equality in punishment), O men of understanding, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 180. It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves wealth, that he make a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners. (This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 181. Then whoever changes the bequest after hearing it, the sin shall be on those who make the change. Truly, Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower. 182. But he who fears from a testator some unjust act or wrong-doing, and thereupon he makes peace between the parties concerned, there shall be no sin on him. Certainly, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 183. O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting)[] is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 184. [Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskîn (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know.[] 185. The month of Ramadân in which was revealed the Qur'ân, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadân i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allâh intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allâh [i.e. to say Takbîr (Allâhu-Akbar; Allâh is the Most Great) on seeing the crescent of the months of Ramadân and Shawwâl] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.[] 186. And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.[] 187. It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Saum (the fasts). They are Lîbas [i.e. body cover, or screen, or Sakan, (i.e. you enjoy the pleasure of living with her - as in Verse 7:189) Tafsir At-Tabarî], for you and you are the same for them. Allâh knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allâh has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall. And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I'tikâf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques. These are the limits (set) by Allâh, so approach them not. Thus does Allâh make clear His Ayât (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, revelations, verses, laws, legal and illegal things, Allâh's set limits, orders, etc.) to mankind that they may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2). 188. And eat up not one another's property unjustly (in any illegal way e.g. stealing, robbing, deceiving, etc.), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully. 189. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) about the new moons. Say: These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage. It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back but Al-Birr (is the quality of the one) who fears Allâh. So enter houses through their proper doors, and fear Allâh that you may be successful. 190. And fight in the Way of Allâh[] those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allâh likes not the transgressors. [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihâd, but it was supplemented by another (V.9:36)]. 191. And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah[] is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (the sanctuary at Makkah),[] unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. 192. But if they cease, then Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 193. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allâh) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allâh (Alone).[] But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zâlimûn (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.) 194. The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisâs). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allâh, and know that Allâh is with Al-Muttaqûn (the pious - see V.2:2) . 195. And spend in the Cause of Allâh (i.e. Jihâd of all kinds, etc.) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allâh), and do good. Truly, Allâh loves Al-Muhsinûn[] (the good-doers). 196. And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad SAW), the Hajj and 'Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allâh. But if you are prevented (from completing them), sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel, etc.) such as you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either observing Saum (fasts) (three days) or giving Sadaqah (charity - feeding six poor persons) or offering sacrifice (one sheep). Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the 'Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu' and Al-Qirân), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Saum (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all. This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (i.e. non-resident of Makkah). And fear Allâh much and know that Allâh is Severe in punishment.[] 197. The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months (i.e. the 10th month, the 11th month and the first ten days of the 12th month of the Islâmic calendar, i.e. two months and ten days). So whosoever intends to perform Hajj[] therein by assuming Ihrâm), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, (be sure) Allâh knows it. And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness, etc.). So fear Me, O men of understanding! 198. There is no sin on you if you seek the Bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading, etc.). Then when you leave 'Arafât[], remember Allâh (by glorifying His Praises, i.e. prayers and invocations, etc.) at the Mash'ar-il-Harâm.[] And remember Him (by invoking Allâh for all good, etc.) as He has guided you, and verily, you were, before, of those who were astray. 199. Then depart from the place whence all the people depart and ask Allâh for His Forgiveness. Truly, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. 200. So when you have accomplished your Manasik [(i.e. Ihrâm, Tawâf of the Ka'bah and As-Safâ and Al-Marwah), stay at 'Arafât, Muzdalifah and Mina, Ramy of Jamarât, (stoning of the specified pillars in Mina) slaughtering of Hady (animal, etc.)]. Remember Allâh as you remember your forefathers or with a far more remembrance. But of mankind there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us (Your Bounties) in this world!" and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter. 201. And of them there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!" 202. For them there will be alloted a share for what they have earned. And Allâh is Swift at reckoning. 203. And remember Allâh during the appointed Days.[] But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good and obey Allâh (fear Him), and know that you will surely be gathered unto Him. 204. And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad SAW), in this worldly life, and he calls Allâh to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most quarrelsome of the opponents.[] 205. And when he turns away (from you "O Muhammad SAW "), his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle, and Allâh likes not mischief. 206. And when it is said to him, "Fear Allâh", he is led by arrogance to (more) crime. So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest! 207. And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allâh. And Allâh is full of Kindness to (His) slaves. 208. O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islâm (by obeying all the rules and regulations of the Islâmic religion) and follow not the footsteps of Shaitân (Satan). Verily! He is to you a plain enemy. 209. Then if you slide back after the clear signs (Prophet Muhammad SAW and this Qur'ân, and Islâm) have come to you, then know that Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. 210. Do they then wait for anything other than that Allâh should come to them in the shadows of the clouds and the angels? (Then) the case would be already judged. And to Allâh return all matters (for decision). 211. Ask the Children of Israel how many clear Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We gave them. And whoever changes Allâh's Favour after it had come to him, [e.g. renounces the Religion of Allâh (Islâm) and accepts Kufr (disbelief),] then surely, Allâh is Severe in punishment. 212. Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who obey Allâh's Orders and keep away from what He has forbidden, will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. And Allâh gives (of His Bounty, Blessings, Favours, Honours, etc. on the Day of Resurrection) to whom He wills without limit. 213. Mankind were one community and Allâh sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allâh by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allâh guides whom He wills to a Straight Path. 214. Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will come) the Help of Allâh?" Yes! Certainly, the Help of Allâh is near! 215. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) what they should spend. Say: Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and Al­Masâkin (the poor) and the wayfarers, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allâh knows it well. 216. Jihâd[] (holy fighting in Allâh's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allâh knows but you do not know. 217. They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islâmic calendar). Say, "Fighting therein is a great (transgression)[] but a greater (transgression) with Allâh is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allâh, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah[] is worse than killing. And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islâmic Monotheism) if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever." 218. Verily, those who have believed, and those who have emigrated (for Allâh's Religion) and have striven hard in the Way of Allâh, all these hope for Allâh's Mercy. And Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. 219. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling.[] Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit." And they ask you what they ought to spend. Say: "That which is beyond your needs." Thus Allâh makes clear to you His Laws in order that you may give thought."[] 220. In (to) this worldly life and in the Hereafter. And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: "The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. And Allâh knows him who means mischief (e.g. to swallow their property) from him who means good (e.g. to save their property). And if Allâh had wished, He could have put you into difficulties. Truly, Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise." 221. And do not marry Al-Mushrikât (idolatresses, etc.) till they believe (worship Allâh Alone). And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (idolatress, etc.), even though she pleases you. And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikûn[] till they believe (in Allâh Alone) and verily, a believing slave is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolater, etc.), even though he pleases you. Those (Al-Mushrikûn) invite you to the Fire, but Allâh invites (you) to Paradise and Forgiveness by His Leave, and makes His Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to mankind that they may remember. 222. They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: that is an Adha (a harmful thing for a husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they have purified (from menses and have taken a bath). And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allâh has ordained for you (go in unto them in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). Truly, Allâh loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers, etc.). 223. Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth (have sexual relations with your wives in any manner as long as it is in the vagina and not in the anus), when or how you will, and send (good deeds, or ask Allâh to bestow upon you pious offspring) before you for your ownselves. And fear Allâh, and know that you are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give good tidings to the believers (O Muhammad SAW). 224. And make not Allâh's (Name) an excuse in your oaths against your doing good and acting piously, and making peace among mankind. And Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower (i.e. do not swear much and if you have sworn against doing something good then give an expiation for the oath and do good).[] 225. Allâh will not call you to account for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will call you to account for that which your hearts have earned. And Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Forbearing. 226. Those who take an oath[] not to have sexual relation with their wives must wait four months, then if they return (change their idea in this period), verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 227. And if they decide upon divorce, then Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower. 228. And divorced women shall wait (as regards their marriage) for three menstrual periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allâh has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allâh and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses, etc.) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect, etc.) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. 229. The divorce is twice, after that, either you retain her on reasonable terms or release her with kindness. And it is not lawful for you (men) to take back (from your wives) any of your Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the tim

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9. I Will Cut You, DevOps & Culture - ITSM weekly the podcast EPISODE 92

I Will Cut You, DevOps & Culture -  ITSM weekly the podcast EPISODE 92

Show Notes and Links: http://www.servicesphere.com/blog/2012/7/9/i-will-cut-you-devops-culture-itsm-weekly-the-podcast-episod.html Show Notes: Amazon Outage Should cloud providers OPEN up to fully disclose their backup systems CNET Article - "Icebergs in the cloud" PDF Link Service Warranty Cloud is a threat to IT Natural Selection isn't pleasant for the non-selected. ServiceNow cloud documentation Are cloud providers by disclosing their ops, for transparency sake, now losing ground with competitive advantage? NIST Cloud Standards Elastic Load Balancing Are we passed the TECH bubble? Best Buy lays off 650 Geek Squad Employees Facebook vs ServiceNow Microsoft / Yammer vs Facebook / Instagram this is a billion dollar battle to be relevant? Salesforce, IBM, Oracle, Microsoft, all racing to be social Perception is a big deal with tech futures, because of Windows 7 $300.00 Windows 8 40.00 licenses costs are changing so fast. MOBILE ONLY SOFTWARE Why HR Still Isn't a Strategic Partner Friction vs Flow John Willis, VP enStratus Devops Movement Cote and John Willis, podcast on ITIL / ITSM with Chris Dancy You own your OWN availability Cloud - Do you need to own a data center? When do standards really work? Devops defined Adam Jacobs – Devops - A professional and cultural movement Kanban Devops is a FAD right now. Damon Edwards, Devop Days Devops = CAMS > Culture, Automation, Measurement and Sharing Tools Devops If you can't get the culture right, skip CHEF or PUPPET Velocity Conference 2012- Facebook Session – Jay Parikh - "How do you get to a billion users!" Eliyahu Goldratt "Beyond the Goal" Devops doesn't fit every cultural organization Who is culture hacking? John Allspaw from Etsy Sun Tzu Toyota - You can copy someone’s process, you can't copy someone's culture Culture is BS.... people don't understand the word. Culture is a NICE way of saying "I'm afraid of people" The CULTURE RANT Spike Morelli In reality no one cares about culture, NO ONE. Tools give us a chance to POINT fingers. Culture failures don't give you a opt out on ego. If you are KILLING yourself at work, maybe the suicide rate is a cultural indicator at your organization. No one is exposing the STRENGTHS of cultures. Big data surfing tied to smiley faces and bug bashing Hornbill Software HACK day (Innovation Day) Velocity Conference and Devops Days There is a TALANET WAR right now. BE BOLD, LEAVE YOUR JOB IF THE CULTURE DOESNT WORK How do you lose employees? Why do good employee leave? Is it EVER OK to fire an employee for making a mistake? Good ITIL / Bad ITIL ITIL is about process over people Devops is about people over process Ben Rockwood Velocity ITIL = Constraint / Devops = Flow Continual Service Improvement is NOT a choice; it's a force of nature. Bank Simple - Banking meets culture Introverts and the abuse of the corp culture (TED Talk) Stupid people suck the life out of me Clouderati are just a bunch of talkers Facebook data centers Netflix Culture vs Facebook culture Ian M. Clayton , Paul Wilkinson are now mainstream tigers and koala bears FILDI - F, it, let's do it Build SLACK into workflow Native RT vs Retweet, why it's important A Robot will take your job Show Transcription: ITSM weekly, the podcast for your news, insight analysis and information from the world of IT service management. Your hosts Matthew Hooper, Chris Anthony and Matt Baron. IT Service Management Weekly, the podcast starts now. Welcome to ITSM weekly. The podcast, episode 92. 9 -2. For the week ending, I don't know, we're not good at week. Guys how you doing? Good, how you doing Chris? Good! I'm wearing my V-neck shirt tonight. Okay. It's nice to see neither of you have melted in the heat. Now it's absolutely ridiculously hot out there. We have a guest today, John Willis. How do you pronounce it, is it machoglupa like surround sound. Mr. DevOps. So he should joining us soon. Reach out to him. So let's go ahead and start off with some News and a stupid surprise, baboon brass news. So, any excuse. I got cloud service. just like blowed away. Okay Hoop what do you got for us? Why NewsGator GIO. NewsGator. NewsGator for Hooper. Yes, news. News from the CAO's perspective. Amazon homage. I think this is huge news. Cloud is a problem when you don't have contingency. Cloud is difficult to build contingency because you don't own the asset so what to do. So its got people thinking about it you know how can we do a better job and understanding what's going on behind the cloud front. And it is starting to beg the question, is this time that cloud providers open up and disclose some of their IT systems and how things are put together? Taking a quote from an article on CNet, it says, this strengthens the argument for cloud providers like Amazon to fully disclose their IT systems to either their customers or independent third party for assessment, testing, and inspection. As Yale academic Brian Ford has argued in his academic paper, "Icebergs in the clouds: the other risks of cloud computing" (and I'll put a link to the pdf in the show notes). This pdf is really good actually. It talks a lot about service warranty. And what we need to do to really evaluate a cloud provider's capabilities in providing us the warranty. The basic question here is, "is cloud " - I guess we have talked about it because we view it as a threat to IT, but do things like this help us to view More of a partner. I don't think I've ever seen those as a threat to IT, that would just be my perspective. And I would say that you did. To me, it's a, It is a form of outsourcing right, so I mean there are jobs displaced when you buy a Cloud technology. So, yeah I think it's a complete threat to IT. As we understand IT from 2010, so I agree with Matt Lupa. You know I just see it as part of the evolution of IT, I don't think it's part of a revolution, I don't think that's happening. Come on, Hooper said it was a threat and evolution is a threat, evolution is a threat, it's a threat to people who didn't evolve. Natural selection isn't pleasant for everyone. Oh, okay. Yes, I think I agree I just have a different perspective than maybe the. No, no you have an evolved perspective You have to stop being so smart. What I found interesting about this, I'm getting phone call during the Podcast. might be John Willis. Give it a shot. Shall we pick it up? All right, you guys carry on with the news while I take the call. Whoever it is, let's bring him on the show. Hello? What if it is someone else. It is kind of interesting. We struggled with this with Service Now. For the first three to five years, they didn't publish anything. In fact, you couldn't even tell the way their data centers were. Or dater centers, if I was saying it with a Boston accent. But now they've got some bigger customers and the customers are starting to demand, where are they, what are we going to do when this goes down? It's business-critical service. I think, or at least IT anyway. And so people need to have the fail order plan and they need to understand that if this thing's going to fail, what are your backup options? I need to know what's supporting those three nines or four nines, and give us some real some real capability to not fail if half of the country is off. Part of that though, you're starting to deal with with that level of transparency are they putting themselves at a risk of losing a technical advantage. Definitely. The higher the transparency the easier would be, let's say they chose New York and L.A., then the people in the middle of the country would be going to get posed for bandwidth because you're further distance away, and maybe another provider chooses Minneapolis and the UK. And so then People in those locations are saying, well that makes sense to do that. It's sort of like you need to look at from both a co-location and a cloud service per se but I think the real point of the story, from Amazon's perspective anyway, is that this needs to be a cloud standard that we agree upon and that people can in this has some cloud standards and I'll put a link in the show notes to that. But this situation's different, right, because Amazon's had outages before, and this outage was caused by some of the storms that were coming up the east coast back last Friday. So, you know, they have some outages that were weather driven and whatever. Failure's going to happen. But the problem here is that this is a pretty big outage for them. I mean, it was substantial and lasted hours in duration. It started some time on the 29th of June and carried over to about the first of July for some folks. And a lot of that was, because they didn't understand the relationship between their assets. The root cause, from what they're saying, is it has something to do with what's called the elastic load balance or ELB's. The way that Amazon's architecture is, you have these things called EC2's which virtual serversRDS , which is your database layer. You can put ELBs in between there so things can fail over and they can scale out and you could be on different virtual platforms at any period of time. There was a bug in their software that didn't allow this to fail over correctly, dependencies weren't mapped appropriately. Traditionally in ITA, I think we understand this, we understand what fail over testing is all about. We understand about availability and high availability point of failure risk analysis, is something we understand well. So if we're going to give these services over to a cloud provider, is it okay for me to ask the questions? What is your algorithm for failing over? What is your validation to. But did we ever ask those questions to the people we hired to manage our data centers when we had them internal? I think it was more common. I did. Sometimes they did. Well, you did. You're exceptional. But again, let's not get too hung up the fact that it's a Cloud outage it's still a human error and that human could have been in our office or some place else. Well it's easier to write a check. Is this outage a red herring for not asking for the right types of redundancies, regardless of who you're getting them for. Well it's like Google says, everything fails at scale. Is it possible to test, like how - You're a quote a minute today. What's that? You're a quote a minute today. well you know you can't test for every possible scenario right and so this something that been Amazon and reality is... you know have they rallied around it and repaired it, the question I always ask is better than I could have, had it been me. Yeah. Unless I am a significantly large and just drenched in money organization I'm not not going to be able to have the use forces to. Hm let's think about significantly large, drenched in money, organizations. The elephant in the room. Facebook had gone down because of it. Netflix did! And Netflix is most people's Facebook. I thought people losing their mind because they couldn't use the toaster filter for too well I mean I think do you use a Instragram helper. I have Instragram. do you? Do you use it? i use it to watch my kids. Do you? Alright I've got another phone call coming in, it might be chance. Keep going with the News. So I think some of the bigger news reading well lately as watching the tech markets it could be that we are past the market bubble. Tech stocks are not doing so hot, as you Noticed over the past few weeks, it looks like it could be heading to a continued downturn, or an adjustment, how the "money-folks" call it. I guess it's a wait and see for some of those market trends, but we definitely are on the Downward side of this bubble in my opinion from where we were in the Spring. Best Buy announced today that they're laying off six-hundred and fifty Geek Squad employees. And look at their market presence all together. They've just got issues all around. But what's interesting to me Is service now just went to our ITO obviously I'm focused because that's what I work with everyday. It's interesting because, number one it wasn't very well pronounced. I worked with a lot of people that work with servers all the time and no one even mentioned it really. Steven Mann was actually the only person that I caught that was actually paying attention to the financial aspects of service now. And It's interesting read how people view everything past Facebook now, like every body was saying in the post Facebook IPO world how are tech stocks going to do and how aren't they doing and I think that maybe drove some of the downward trend in the financial market was the Facebook IPO thing. But I don't know, it almost feels like that's going to be our saving grace. That it's going to stop it from getting so big that we all lose our jobs in one fell swoop. Yeah, but you know what, there's a big difference It's in between service now, and Facebook. And the thing is, Facebook didn't really ever have a solid monitization strategy they simply have momento they were just too big to fail right, where service now is proving themselves to to be a viable entity in the enterprise they continue to sell. They have a clear and present sales and marketing strategy B. Right. It's a business. They brought in a whole Yeah, they've brought in a whole new team; it was a natural of what you've seen tech companies do. It's the type of progression you look at most - from start-up to mature operation. They've walked the progression. Right. You know, they've been around for seven, eight years, so this is a completely different circumstance. I think it's doing good. It's still up, right? Thirty or forty percent from there. Yes, but do you think that Facebook is going to save us from another DotCom burst because of this downward trend now? The tech markets that I'm talking about in particular are your IBMs, your Microsofts, your Oracles, I mean everything's down right now. It's down percentage wise it's anything from four and a half to, you know, twelve percent, I mean, it's pretty significant dips from the highs of four months ago, so, you know those are your kind of latest options look at it as a benchmark right for or more enterprise technology service now coming out at this point is good for them, I think, are different, uh they're and what people who own stocks in those enterprise platforms want to reinvest in something similar to a space that they know. This is a good place for them to find their money. You know, So I think from a Facebook perspective, overall this probably is a consumer side of tech bubble that will that will continue to reset itself from a market standpoint, but I think that's probably ineffective and not so much the start price of Facebook, I really think it's going the position prices, the Instagram purchases, the Yammer purchases, the Skype purchases that we've been seeing, There was a day when you didn't pay over a hundred million dollars for software companies, and now the price is a billion dollars? Yeah. And, I think that's a bit unrealistic, you know, was Instagram really worth a billion dollars? II can't see anybody justifying that that's the case, and when Facebook took the 10% or more tumble, or what is it now twenty-five percent tumble. I think they've lost more. They've lost value. They paid 1% of their cap for Instagram. I don't get it. I get it- they paid one percent of their cap to be relevant. They paid the same amount that Microsoft did for Yammer. We talked about this last time. I don't think anyone realizes how crazy relevance and how expensive it has become. Yeah. I think Yammer It was a better purchase than Instagram though. It depends about what they do with the Empire. Well, yeah. I mean someone's saying, are they going to make it Microsoft Sharepoint mobile social platform. You have to step back though and realize that these are completely sell jobs from the lawyers, the brokers, and all the people who really make conditions on these huge transactions. Because if Microsoft didn't buy Yammer, you gonna tell me that they're gonna be more relevant in six months now because they bought Yammer without buying Yammer? They're not. In a year and a half from now. Say that one more time? In six months from now, Microsoft would not be anymore relevant with not any relevant with Yammer then without Yammer. And in a year and a half they could have paid less for Yammer because by then their would have been 15 other Yammer competitors out there. So, the reality is, it wasn't a transaction of necessity, it was a transaction of fear. Male 1: pressure and timing. Male 2 :Well, all transactions, are transactions of fear. Male 1:Sure. Male2: You buy a house because you're afraid your family is gonna think you're not as mature as you said you were now that it has been two years after the marriage. No one actually buys anything out of shire shrewd planning. That's a type of thinking that doesn't exist in humanity any longer. I do think it was a brilliant purchase for the sheer perception of, Hey we care. I think if it was a me too purchase. Again, we have talked about this on the show a hundred times before, maybe, i feel like we have because I pay attention. But, you know, Oracle pivoted social enterprise, Salesforce pivoted social enterprise. Biggest social software author, IBM. There's not an organization on the planet. ServiceNow has Live Feed. Everybody is racing towards how do we get people to collaborate? Now that people are just collaborating differently. if you put point is and maybe it's because I'm out taking phone calls trying to get John Willis on the show live. If your point is, did it actually do anything real for them? You know, perception is a big deal, I mean Microsoft in my opinion has to really look at a scary future of their licensing remuneration, of their original how they license stuff. They just dropped Windows 8 from the $300 I paid for Windows 7, to $40. Yes, isn't that insane? So, again, I think if you're in IT, if you're in service management, you should be watching these purchases, you should be watching these decisions, you should be saying to yourself: I am in a position to lead my organization toward better decisions because I understand how the cloud outage affected it. I understand, from listening to this podcast, types of information I should be bringing to my organization. I understand from watching Microsoft buy these technologies, from watching Facebook buying these technologies, I should be focused on mobile only. go back to the podcast two years ago, mobile only. Right? Again, but are people doing it? We are in a race against time. And I would say it used to be all about vanity. It was all about saving and looking important. You're now in a race to be relevant so you can feed yourself. Yeah. Right. Right. Well you know, this is a continual change of attitude, right? From where we were and IT even five years ago. It goes well to the tweet that I saw from Shane Carlson. Say a guest first saw this too about HR. Yeah. It's not just IT that doesn't plan itself not to be a strategic partner with the business. The article was pretty funny, I mean I read it and I said you could completely put HR and just take out HR and put IT here, and I think this a common feeling amongst most IT measures. I'll read from the article for just a real quick second. It says that every action you take as a, I'll put what it really says here, HR every action you take as an HR leader, ask a simple question, does it cause friction in the business or does it create flow. Friction is anything that makes it more difficult people in critical roles to win with the customer. Flow on the other hand is doing everything possible to remove barriers to promote better performance. The question applies to virtually any company and any business that will take you farther down the road faster than the hazy, abstract injunction to become a strategic partner. Even in what appeared to In routine HR responsibilities you can inject the business prospectus simply by asking, whether what you are doing is going enhance the flow of the business, or impede it with friction. why is it so difficult to inject the business prospective because HR leaders we feel ourselves to be near the pimple of the organization the organization reports to us it must meet on to for information, documents, and numbers. Boy, I thought IT had a problem. But, I think this is common feeling inside of IT. They want data, they want information, they're going to have to come to us. We're gonna put in command and control to make sure things are protected and things are governed and a lot of the times it's more friction than it is flow, right? Yeah. Look at any ERP system ever. It's always friction, that ain't flow. Speaking of friction and flow, what a way to introduce someone. I'm an idiot, I admit it. Oh, no, you're DevOps, we have you on because you're agile. Welcome, twenty minutes into the show. Yeah. You missed the scumm meeting, I hope you got everything done from yesterday. Yeah, right. Well, I was in the thing and I thought I was on and I was yelling because I was listening to your conversation about the people yell out. Can I go back on one point that you guys were making about the outage now that I'm here? Well can we introduce you? Sure, that'd be good. Why don't you introduce yourself, because you're a much heralded major player in the world of IT and everything that's happening now. Well, thank you I just went from idiot to like miracle worker, so, my name is John Willis, I'm the VP you have customer service enabling. We have the company called Enstratus. I've been doing IT for thirty years, I probably more recently have been heavily involved in this DevOps movement really rocked right from the ground floor. I consider myself kind of part of the tribe that promotes DevOps for all the right reasons and that's about it. We'll talk about all the right reasons in a minute. Welcome. Is this your first live to YouTube hangout? It is, as you can obviously tell, that's right. So, I I'm a big fan. You and Kote had me on your show about two years ago and this show wouldn't exist without you two. So, in some ways you birthed me, how does that make you feel? That's great, that's great. Actually there's a few out there Bert, there's the chef food fight guys they give me credit for sparking them to start their excellent chef podcast as well. Yeah, and congratulations on the weight loss, by the way. Oh, thank you very much, thank you very much. Talk to us a little about your view on the outage because I think some of it should be good. The point I want to make is I do wanna talk about data loss but it's all interrelated. Ben Black says, "You own your own availability." And so one of the things that I think that the cloud has pushed on us is that there is some magic secret syrup here, where you don't have to rethink. You know, what the Klout is, it lose the barrier to entry owning a data center. At the end of the day, you still have a business and you still have a data center. and so it gets tricky at the high end because a lot of things you give up. But, I heard someone in that conversation talking about did we do this before in data centres the good ones did. The good ones had, unfortunately it was a lot more expensive, a lot more complicated but they built high availability DR infrastructures. Some of them had mirrored hidden data centers. Some of them just brought a bunch of tapes over to another building which never worked. But at the end of the day end of the day, the misnomer or the fallacy of Cloud is that you don't need that stuff anymore, and again, take Cloud for what it's good at which is a familiar infrastructure, easy to get, you don't have to rack and stack but the people who think they're getting a cloud at a bargain basement price I used to stop thinking abut how to run the business and make your business; you know the good ones I haven't read the Netflix review yet, but you know the past major outages, you know, the good ones know how to go around this and you know because we spent a lot of money on people. Let's figure out how to get around this. And I see that was my point to Hooper was it doesn't matter where my servers are, it's the people who I hired. Exactly. Yes, questions you ask and you time you really focus on what matters. But where in the NIST standard does it say that the people you hired this way. Oh, that's Idol page, you know, not so much; yeah, yeah. No, that's in the HR article, isn't it? And that other point about like the I'm not a big I mean I love standards, but when do they really, really, really, really, really work? And I think NIST has set some great foundational stuff, but this idea that we're going to get out of this battle, this thing that's moving so fast and so crazy, that the idea of people are just staying around trying to put Dander's on you know, how many colons should go here. How many commas after this phrase. The world has to be very adaptive right now you can do more with something like chess. Did your house tilt in an earth quake John, cause you look crooked. Oh yeah I am kind of I've never watched it - a lot of live videos. I've watched John before and he tells us when he thinks, he's really really really left brained. You've got to get the blood flowing. That's right, it's a new exercise technique. Last week we did a dramatic reading where I read, Did you notice Gross put in dramatic reading music. I listen to the show. Yeah, of course you don't . You don't even run a company, as far as I'm concerned. So I see has become and idiot and brilliant in the same sentence. So we did a dramatic reading of the Wikipedia article DevOps. So I would like a John dramatic interpretation of DevOps. Yeah, you know, I think the simplest starting point is, I've always said it was Adam Jacobs. DevOps is a professional and cultural movement, period. But I think David J. Anderson who's one of the KanBan Frontier guys. I read something of his where he talks more about it being a philosophy. And I think when we look back at the old lean stuff, we see that they talk more about it being a philosophy than anything else. But beyond that and those are cheap definitions but the reason I always like this post to start for them first is it's like anything that has this danger being a fad, which DevOps is definitely a fad right now. And that's a good thing, bad thing. Yeah. But you want to always be able to draw back to some kind of a solid ground, you know? Which is, really let's not forget the cultural aspect of DevOps. It has a lot to do with why this movement is so great. Then the vendors try to take over, and you know, that's just a game. They are. I mean, I've seen vendors with complete marketing programs around 'they enable DevOps'. Of course they do. Yeah. You 're going to see expert speakers show up from all these vendors. I can see then now. Yeah. They do that with Cloud, too. They did that with Cloud and they're still doing it with Cloud. I tell the story, it's just like the stars. They spend their whole life trying to get on camera and getting pictures taken of them and the minute they become famous they start complaining about everybody taking picture of them. Well, if you're in a movement and you're pushing really hard for adoption -- you know, Damon Edwards says you can't complain about who adopts you, you know? That's why I'm all for foster parenting. Yeah, you are. That's right. So, to me I think that one of the things that's probably not in that Wikipedia article, I haven't looked at in a while but me and Damon Edwards a few years ago started this idea, it was after the first DevOps days in the U.S. They had run a couple in Europe and we kinda helped through Velocity and through Damon and myself and a bunch of other people. Tried to get the first days out in Mountainview and it was amazing to see like 300 people show up on a dime and all these people be unbelievably passionate about. One of the things I love about DevOps is you can criticize or not, but most people when I explain it to them, you explain it very simply and it will represent complex ideas and nine or ten will get it from the first explanation you know and it was three hundred people that showed up it kind of got on the first explanation. And after that we did a podcast and we tried to just sift through all the craziness that happened, the the kind of birth of DevOps in our mind and we came out with this acronym called CAMS, culture, automation, measurement and sharing and we just tried to put not to really try to change the world or say hey this is - I like that. So could you break it down for us, culture, automation - Yeah, so culture If you don't get this magic that is DevOps, which I'm drinking the Kool-aid obviously, but none of it works. You are braking few walls in a giant red suit. That's it, but none of it works unless you know... if you nail the behavior patterns that make it work. So you know and some of it is magic, some it is actually black magic but some of it is just you know, there are people like you look at a guy like John Osvar everywhere he goes. He works at Etsy now, he was at Flicker. Where he goes, culture follows. And so culture The misnomer about, the things I don't like about DevOps are the people who say, put in this tool in your DevOps. Now anybody who knows what - That sounds a lot like ITIL. I've heard this before. Well, it is. Well, I do actually wanna talk about iTunes and Hold that thought, before you guys explode and blow up here I'm gonna look for you guys, I wanna give you a couple of my theories, and and you guys either break then down or tell me I'm back to being an idiot and throw me off the show. We don't want to split hairs. There you go. now that's tooling for you. I know how to work a tool. There you go, it's all about the tools. That's the problem with DevOps is there's alot of this Like we're kind of not worrying about, so anyway, cams, I would say if you can't get the culture right, then don't bother putting anything in shaft or puppet, you know that stuff. I mean, I know you guys know this, but, unfortunately, right now in the Devops movement we are very tools-heavy on the conversation. In fact ways it's a fear of mine that DevOps might just become another fad. You know, where our correct gravity is, way too much towards the tools. The companies that have been successful, the poster child's for DevOp commerce will tell you first. it was all about their culture. You know it's all fun and games until you see a headline that reads: DevOps as a service. Right, there you go right? And you know it's at Velocity, I was at Velocity and one of the keynotes was done by Facebook. You can hate Facebook or love Facebook it doesn't matter to me but Facebook's presentation was... the title of the presentation was a question. How do you get to a billion users? And the whole presentation was about their culture and how they and focus on a culture, how they train managers. You know, it's every part of the DNA. And you know what, the Twit stream, was extremely negative. about their presentation, like as if it was one big old job posting or why didn't you talk about the cool technology? And this is velocity, where are you guys supposed to get it? Web operations. Velocity's twitter stream was blowing up, the fact that Facebook came to talk about it, but again if you've got a presentation like the one you're describing. You've got a bunch of people who supposedly espouse cultural change then being negative about it. Did you every really understand the word culture to begin with. I think i've become a big fan of Elliot Goldratt, the original Gold. Yeah we had him on last week. Oh there you go yeah well that's pretty magical cause he's been dead for about a year I think. That's why I said nobody. You guys are awesome man. I try Hey when I die can you bring me back John? Hold hands, we'll light some candles. We'll do the John Willis, two puck for Yeah. I think I'll be really smart once I'm fed. I think I'll come up with then for sure. You want to stick to the point though? You said culture 'cause the reality is that DevOps every cultural organization. I don't want it. Yeah and isn't that why DevOps be successful because out of the gate you're saying this isn't going to work for everybody, so we're going to make it a little bit more prescriptive for the people who are, right? Yeah, I And somebody said to me the other day, and I want to fight this from my core, but you can't ever work unless you it needs for different leadership. And unfortunately, you know, there's just a lot of bad leadership out there. And I gotta believe there are half There are small examples of hacks that work. But you're right, I mean the problem with - I did this gig with a large telco about a year ago and there was a DevOps workshop and their culture is so static. They got ELA's with large vendors that you have to get fourth level approval to get any other product that is a part of the single vent to ELA, right? John, who are you watching that you think is really a espousing, if I can just coin a term that probably has been used. Who's culture hacking? It's actually not enough people. There are people that are very focused on the culture of their business, but there aren't a lot like if you look at somebody like John Allspaw from Etsy. He's a poster child for doing things right. don't show up at presentations and what not, but the truth is lot of people don't--just like the velocity crowd--they don't want to hear the soft stuff. They want to hear, because Etsy is also doing phenomenal stuff with tools. Yeah. And the noise level, even though, again, I'm not accusing them of this, but the noise level of what you'll hear at Etsy is more about tools. And here's the point I want to make about Eliyahu Goldratt. Eliyahu Goldratt has a book called "Beyond the Goal" and he talks about why MRP failed, why ERP failed, why ecommerce failed, and what happens is, the early adapters - That sounds like a thrilling book. Yeah, well it's "Beyond the Goal", but he ties it to the theory of constraints. But more importantly, he says that the early companies get involved in this stuff for reasons pretty much not seen by all the people who copied it. Right. Right, and what you wind it up seeing and I'm watching this in DevOps now, you're looking at the earlier companies that got it all right on their culture. And then people are coupling basically their tool sets. And I think, there's a great quote from the father of Toyota production systems, Ohno Tiachi he says that, you know they asked him, "Aren't you afraid of bringing in American companies and looking at your process and all that?" And he said, "You know what they can copy our process but they can't copy our culture." And I think my fear is that DevOps, we're not focusing on enough on the culture hacking. And I try to because as more and more people move away from Why don't you start tweeting, everything would just a pound sign culture hack. Okay that sounds cool. Dex, you know, one IT fails is great but let's focus on a culture hack, because I've got to be honest with you John, I've only been on this show, I was on a show with you and Kote once this trippy thing for three years now with these two clowns. Which he threw under the bus when he was on your show, John. I remember the show. I am so sick it was a damn good show, I am so sick and tired of people saying culture! culture! culture! to me it's a red state/blue state Red herring, for I don't understand. I can't even swear, because we are live. But I don't understand crap, right? So I am going to use, the word culture is more buzzy. in fatish then DevOps Culture to me is a nice way of saying I'm afraid of people, and I won't want to get over being afraid of people. And be honest and open with where I am in not only my own development, but the development of the organization, the development of my industry and the development of the humans and touch everyday. But you can't. Because you're afraid if you actually were out there and you say "we suck at this", someones gonna step on you and you're gonna lose your job, and you've got a family to So I think, if Culture & DevOps and corporate hacking want to get real and get fierce, we need to be ready to say, "If you stand up, we'll help you get another job". Of course. Because hacking means disruption. I agree. I totally, and you know, I hadn't even thought of this, it's funny but there's this guy Spike Morelli and he's kind of big in DevOps in Europe. Before we did the open spaces at the DevOps days and he wanted to prove a point I actually disagreed with him and he proved me wrong. He said that we should stop using, you know, C and cams because nobody cares about the culture, and I'm like, naw, that's not true Spike. And he said, watch this. So he proposed an open spaces on culture and out of, for the two days there were probably 50 sessions proposed and probably 47 of them were tools days, 3 of them were culture. And in fact, He said that there was a big DevOps presentation. I think this is directly, that you can, it's easy. Most of these people are men, and men are obsessed with tools. I mean let's just look at this at a biological level. But again, if you go back and you start piercing, you look at these companies that are successful They get it, and everybody else is trying to copy the wrong things. What my experience has been is that people with tools for IT folks. It's very easy. Because if it fails, you work within the constraints of the tool. It's the vendor's fault. But if it's culture, the only way that we know how to change culture in IT is to change policy. Mandate. That is not how you change culture. That's right. You can look at some of the I could show you a hundred different presentations from the last 30 ITSM conferences I've been at, and I can point to where it says, policy, procedure the process, work instructions, this is how we change our culture and every time I go, "Oh my god that's completely not how you change your culture." Well, you know how that works. That works at FoxCon. And you know what the FoxCon culture does to people? It kills them. They kill themselves. Yeah, it works in Auschwitz. Right? If you're killing yourself at work, if you're jumping out of those because you've got so much process to put together for the next iPad, maybe the suicide rate is a cultural indicator at this company. Yeah, I mean if you look at the places that are getting it right, and again, Facebook says it right out blatant: "There's no other way to get to a billion users than managing culture." They just can't do it. I mean, that was their, you know, their presentation and I spoke to the guy that runs operations late at the bar. And he was saying like, "We got some pushback on our presentation." You've got to be kidding me? It was a beautiful story. So, the problem is, the guys that, back to your original question, Chris, like how do you do it, who are talking about it. There's nobody exposing the strength of it. If you look at, like, what the Facebook has done, or you look at what Etsy is doing, there's a handful of really interesting companies that are building a lot of types of things in their company, and I think it starts with people having fun, having smiles on their face. There's a guy, there's a guy that did this thing where every day he made all the people, and this may sound silly but wait until you listen to the end of it. At the end of the day he made everybody put, he called it the smiley board face. At the end of the day he made everybody write one of three faces: a smiley face, a blase face, or an angry face. And at the end of every sprint they actually brought it up in the retrospective and tried to correlate some of the bugs. There are companies that run hack days right, this is famous at places like Facebook, where they build into the time, this idea that, some companies as aggressive as every Friday One of our - we have a show in Europe and a show in Australia - but one of the podcast members over in Europe As Patrick Boulder from Hornville. Do you know what they did the other day? You would love this. So, they decided to have an innovation day, kind of like you' re describing. Right. But they broadcast it on all the Social channels so their customers could chime in. Yeah. Not only had an innovation day internally, they made it exposed. So, go to their Google page. I thought to myself that's pretty dangerous. It's transparent, it speaks for the culture. I don't know. There was a company One of the companies I was talking to over the last week, you know last week was pretty much the Mecca for guys that are dev ops. You've got Velocity, and then You have DevOps days for all the people from Logic Motors. One guy was saying that they do their stand-ups, they invite their customers to the stand-ups. That do about being bold. But the point I wanted to make about the having fun is I mean one of the mantras now in DevOps community is if you don't work for a company where you're not having fun and you're not learning stuff, you're not doing something? I don't know if anybody's aware of this, there's like a war for resources right now. Right. Yeah. I mean a war. That 's a lot of talent. There's an all out war for talent. Yeah. And I think that's where people need to be a little bit more brave about being bold at where they work. I'm constantly reminded about allocating my time and fitting into this mold, but I will constantly do what I need to do to have fun. Yeah . So if you're part of that pool which most people who would listen to this show or listen to anything I would have to say would be part of that pool. If you're not having fun, you know, and management. That's another thing why I think in someways this has to succeed because people will lose there employees because they're not doing new technologies and fun stuff. They'll also lose places when they go and hear the attitude of some of these people that are running what I call a DevOps shop, but the model of a DevOps environment. Wow, that sounds like a great place to work. I had this thing with John Aspaugh, this was a great session that we had. Basically, it was an open space session, and it says "Is it ever okay to fire an employee for making a mistake?". And it was a heavy DevOps crowd, so the answer basically across the board, there was maybe one or two people who basically said, it's a horrible say blah blah blah blah blah if it's a banker. If no ones dead there's no mistake that horrible. So then I ask the question. And the obvious reason for not doing that is you don't want to set a tone of the culture. Where you don't want your people to experiment and try things and be bold. The first time someone tries. You tell your boys, "Be Bold." Be bold, be bold. Then you try something and you're fired. So then I asked the question, what about the second time they make the same mistake? Do you fire him then? No. And the answer was no. Now I asked, okay, what about the third time for the same mistake? And his answer was no And I was like, okay, gotta put the T time, C sign up, John, You know, we're. But there's the thing, we kinda ended the session with this, agree to disagree which is weird, because I never disagree with this guy. You know what I mean? Almost everything he talks about is. So is this relief that you just ever fire somebody that they just continually make the same mistake over and over again. Well, here's the point. In the hallway, I went up to him, and I'm like, "John, this is bugging the hell out of me." And that point, I had half the room on my side, right, and not that I was trying to win an argument, but at one point I said, "Am I the only one - When you're keeping track of the room, you're trying to win an argument. Yeah, yeah, that's true. That's true. Okay, so, but anyway so I won half the room. Just take it from someone who constantly tries to win arguments. Okay fair enough. Fair enough but so then I grabbed him in the hallway and then he gave me the example, and this is how core these guys think in culture. He said, "Here's the thing I was trying to explain and we really couldn't get it." You know how in open spaces, everybody's kind of interrupting, and that's just the nature of the beast. But he said, "Here's the thing. In my world, the way this works is somebody makes a mistake, they go out and they figure out what the mistake was. In a retrospective, they go ahead, and they basically explain their mistake to the whole team. And then the team decides how to fix it." And then, if it happens again, so what his point was then they go through that same process and the team decides. So the team says, "Okay. The answer is we didn't do this right so we need to do this and this." And then it turns out the next time that outside. So even when you get to third time, his point was, it's always the team's responsibility. That's beautiful. Now, I don't know how far you can take that, but that is a protection mechanism of culture over anything else. Right? There is a hyper protection measure over culture, over anything else. Right. Because you know in your success that that is the culture that protecting this behavior pattern, or the culture of being bold and be brave will be protected almost any, in almost any scenario. Well, I have a lot of people who question my motives behind a lot of the things that I do. I think Hooper and Beran know me better than anyone on even though they don't spend a lot of time with me. But the culture you're describing there is very similar to what I think we all do, right? So I work inside with my team at my company.then work within side my company but I focused a lot of my time focusing on my net work. Alright. So I work for more for than just my current company, I work for my net work. I think to protect that culture that you're talking about it goes back to this idea of king making. I have to always enable everyone around me, no matter how many mistakes I made to be bigger and better than themselves. 'Cause ultimately, I can't defend myself. But the people around me can. Right. Right? So, if I actually am altruistic enough to leverage the people I trust with my reputation. I never have to worry about making a mistake again. It's all about growing and learning. And if people on your team are growing and learning through mistakes, then you're growing and learning. That's the definition of culture. Yeah. You're one big organism. Look back to tribes. Speaking of one big, unnatural organism. Hold on tribe-head. We gotta get to his comments on ITIL. Yeah, there we go. Stevie Chambers just having a melt down. All right. We're a live show, we try to watch it all, we've got boards over so when you have got time every body serious with you they calm down but so here let me say this for but let me get both of these out because this first one might you know then i will get caught up on that because i want to say this good message bad message ITIL. Nothing really bad. All right, so I want to say I'm both, and then let's discuss it, if that's fair. So the thing I always say I think that. And I've got some ITIL tops. Not as recent, but back in the day. Back in the early days, you know, I worked for problem management. vendor, problem change. I worked a lot with IBM, when they were originally pushing, back when they actually used have vendors certified, which is kind of silly in the space a little bit. So what I say in the DevOps thing, I think is that ITIL is about putting process over people and DevOps is basically about putting people over a process. So when you hit a fork in the road at DevOps, it's always gonna be kind of the people or the culture of the things that work. And the beauty of ITIL was, in my opinion, was that there was a world that had no clue of what it was doing. And then we could argue whether they still do our not, but what ITIL brought to this world was, not perfection, but at least a template for the way that things could be done. But that's the negative point, if that's negative. The positive point is that I personally believe, and I think Ben Rockwood, if you don't follow him, is a firm believer of this. I think that there is a world where ITIL and DevOps will work beautiful. and it's kind of like again if you guys don't follow TOC but you know there's examples of theory. I think Hooper does TOC stuff. Yeah. I taught TOC Troy Dumoulin. There's a good book, it's called Velocity. It's combining Lean Six Sigma and theory of constraints. And the story is basically companies been running a theory constraints and TOC for years. I mean Lean Six Sigma guys come in and rake everything up, smack everything around and the whole thing turns into a mess and the end story is that what they should have done is still filed to your constraint and apply Lean Six Sigma on top of the bottlenecks and, you know, and then focused in on bottlenecks and then went ahead and then applied the institute. And so I think what we're going to find is this, you're going to be a really nice marriage if we figure out that story. But how to apply, we already see examples of it in some ways. But I think thatare correct. The question is going to be figuring out how do they both live, where they're kind of, by my definition, in conflict. Well, I think I want Hooper to answer that 'cause he teaches and he's actually gonna start up and I think that would be very interesting. Beran definitely. But they're in conflict, I believe. Because one begot the other. You couldn't have people over process if you didn't have something that was process over people. To me it's the same thing as just what we talked about from that HR article, right? ITIL to me is about constraint. DevOps to me is about flow. Right. So ITIL is about protection and about preservation, and where DevOps is about action and innovation. Right. So they're coming about it from a different outcome. And that's what I said earlier I think culturally recognizing that DevOps is not for everybody. Listen, do I want DevOps for my bank? Do I want DevOps for the airplane shop for programmers? I don't know that I do. But do I want it for my startup? Absolutely. Do I want it for my social media company and do I want it for my consumer software? Absolutely. I think it just comes down to certain aspects of how fast you want to move, and what levels of risk, and what kind of culture you are building. Do you see first the whole idea of continuous service improving 'cause you can't focus on a constraint and fix it without another one arising. So again, I think if we just, I mean John raised a very straightforward question. How do they exist? What does it look like together in the future? I truly believe that that's, you know, trying to figure out what that looks like it probably is a nice way to spend time that I don't have, when I could just say that they're going to exist, because they can't exist without each other now. You can't have those three people from Crypton who got banished by Jor-El's father there. The big, tall, goofy guy would have been a bad movie. on his own. The Chick with The Bad Attitude would have been a horrific movie on her own, and Zod by himself is just stupid. Right? So what does that movie look like with them all three together? I think building toward a future where they just coexist, not trying to figure out what it looks like or who controls it. I mean worrying about what things are, to me, is almost as bad as worrying about what tools make them happen. We almost need a new movement where it's the theory of acceptance. I'm breathing, and everything will be okay. Well that's the thing, again going back to being a Goldratt nut right now is that all his discussions are about these conflicts that get figured out. You know, there's, you know he talks a lot about They don't have a choice, continual service improvement is not choice. It's a force of nature. That's right. That's right. Now one thing I did want to say is that, I do think, I honestly, I'm so in the Kool-Aid that I do think that fighter pilots and planes and banks and all that. I think that we're gonna find is that when we get people to work in a culture that we're going to find that we make less mistakes. We're going to find that we get more productivity. Personally I'm not rejecting your opinion. But I don't personally accept that. I'm not saying we've figured it out, anywhere as near. But if we can figure it out, and learn how to transform what these companies like Etsy and Facebook are doing to banks that I think we will find higher productivity and quality. I completely I think I agree with you to meet transforming banks to act and Hooper's back to the points about banks and aeroplanes and you want them to have that maturity. You want them to focus on these types of decision making. You don't want them to focus on being innovative. Well, I want them to focus on risk and I want them to focus on constraint. You know, I want the productivity levels high. And to me, I was listening to him say, John, and I was thinking to myself, "That's interesting. Well, what happens if I'd rather fly on a less safe plane that's more exciting, than on a really terribly boring plane that's slower." Which it would be? What happens if I don't value my current state and I've traded all of my worldly possessions into a way of living and sustaining myself that I really don't care if the bank Well on a more dangerous airplane, maybe you actually get into outer space on. Well, but again, I don't even, I mean, there are, like, a good example is this Bank Simple, right? Which is out in Portland right now. As we're waiting, we talked about that on the podcast a few months ago. Yeah. That thing is radically different. Right, but I'm not even saying that. I'm just saying, I'm not a scientist. I'm just saying, I bet you we will find out that we will get better quality, better control, and better productivity by allowing people to do more freedom to work in environments where they're not interrupted. To work in environments where they're allowed to actually explore their ideas and so in that, and again, I'm not saying and we've got that nutted in DevOps by any means. I'm just saying if we can figure out the patterns that induce that. I think we have figured out the patterns. Again, you know, we like to forget the history very quickly. But there's an interesting TED talk on introverts right now that people told me about over the last few months. And the idea is over the last hundred years, that we've gone from an agricultural society into an industrial society. We force people into cities, which then force people into offices, and now we're forcing people into the open offices. Where we've taken at least 40% of the culture who are natural introverts and made them work in this groupthink, right? Right. And they're not used to functioning like that. Most innovation comes from solitary work. There's a reason I prefer to work at home. It's not 'cause I can't get anything done at work. I can't. We all know that I can't get anything done at work. But, I am affected by people's physical energy of stupidity. I can't be around other people emanating stupidity, it literally sucks the life out of me. That's why he dreams up the contest. That's why he has a Ph.D. cleaning his house. She's actually a masters in Physiology but she cleans his house just your energy your vibe of the smartness. And I hate the fact my house cleaner's from behind me while we're doing this. But John, I mean, to your point, how do we get those back? How do we get these things back? We need to respect the fact that some people. There's a doctor right there. need not to be working like we're working. Right. You know some people, introverts, we don't treat very well anymore and you know this Ted Talk made a brilliant point that, just because you're the most charismatic person, you've got everyone's attention, doesn't mean you're probably the brightest. Yeah, no, that's great. I mean I totally see what you're saying. I don't know how to put that in my brain now. I'm sorry. I'm around smart people now. So you're elevating me. I'm got some of your energy. Well, the conversation is awesome, so that's, but what I, now I'm gonna like when do you write me back? I'm starting to worry about when you're going to kick me off the show now. So, having so much fun. So, no, the thing about Insular it's interesting because I mean there's a certain point I need to look at a tad 'cause there's a certain point you're right. We've got a lot of talkers. You know, I love my Clouterati, but they are some bunch of talkers, right? You know, I mean there's some of them that are dear friends of mine But I saw somewhere the other day where somebody asked a question that was just a fundamental thing you would know if you'd ever used Amazon. It was one of the Clouderattis that didn't know it. And so that is a fear of ours, becoming such social nuts that like the real smart people the people actually like me really that can talk a good game. But we need the people like you, who can talk a good game, because the people who actually know the game are too busy focusing on their body, all right? We need, you know, I don't know. You would think I would know, but I think Hooper is kind of a smart introvert who just happens to dance on the I want to get wild extrovert side. Beran, obviously extroverted, doesn't know a grass skirt from high heels. Wouldn 't take him to a dance, but gosh he's fun to hang out and cheat on my wife with. He's the perfect mistress. When it comes right When it comes right down to it, you know, again we need to be respectful then wreck this whole culture BS that. It's not BS but we need just to be respectful that certain things will work themselves out. We've made drastically horrific mistakes in managing people and how we put them together. And oh, we'll remove the cubes and that will fix all the problems. Well actually no, it made 40% of the people more uncomfortable, and they now can't function. Right? So you know, we could, we could do this for another two hours. It's been amazing, I'd love to have you back on. If you'd be willing. Probably one of the more probably shows. Yeah, I know. I can talk about this. I've been trying to figure out. Chris, I do think, I You know, I know you don't like this wag kinda title but I think it is culture over everything else and the companies that I'm watching become nominally successful for starting this set. I think the plumbing. And what I'm hoping is people don't miss the fundamentals of their plumbing. We can make fun of Facebook all day long, but the way they're building data centers now, and the way their people are, you know they built a data center in 12 months, and then they turn around almost double in size, one in ten months you know and they're all appointed at this presentation was. This is not a fool's problem. This is building a culture where people can move fast, adapt, learn how to work with people. I mean Netflix is a little more militant about their culture, but at least they talk about it up front. They say, "If you're not this kind of person and you're not gonna adapt this, this, and this "Do not come work here." And by the way, if you do and you think you're that kind of person you're not, we are probably going to fire you. And I'm not crazy about that, but it works for them. Because, what they wind up having is people that people that stay there. People just really love this, you know, competitive, being the best of the best. So let's end today's show with each of you give me a cultural hack. So give me a line or two. Wait. Can we ask John where he got that awesome Carlos Santana picture? No. Stevie Ray Vaughn, dude. Aw, my man! Stevie Ray Vaughn yeah. Have you guys ever seen John play? No I never see him play. But if he sounds like SRV, I'm tuning in. I'm the only person alive today that pays attention. Guys, we had this jam at Dev Ops Days. I mean, like if we could do one of your service conferences. We can't have Jan at a service management conference. Oh come on, now. Oh please, these people are too busy looking up things in books. Well it's a lot of recipe books in between songs. It took 12 years to get Ian Clayton to be normal, it took him 10 years to get Paul Wilkinson to be acceptable. Oh. It'll take us. I mean, we are so far, it's just ridiculous. I mean, I follow Stevie Chambers. One, because he's an absolute nut, he is absolutely psychotic. I'm convinced of it. Two, Stevie Chambers did something really brave two years ago. He wrote a blog post and his company came after him, wanting to kill him, fire him and everything else. It was basically come across that line. And I thought at that point regardless of what I think about Stevie Chambers' opinion I need to support the people who are stand up and lay their job on the line to say something really ugly, right? No, it's fine. So, that's my culture hack for the day. If you've got it in you, if you can line up three or four jobs for next week, do something radical at work to push someone else forward. Not some process, not some tool, not some project. Find someone who you think has it in them, lay your job on the line and push them forward.forge , a culture act. Who? Yeah, Dave Ramsey, a motivational speaker, a great leadership company, in his book leadership. He talks about two types of people: Tigers and Koala bears. He says tigers are ones who, they live without fear. They don't worry about their job they belief so much on themselves that they will figure in out right they walk the line all the time they will take the risk who look very cute and cuddly, but actually can kill a human instantly. And people don't realize that about koalas, right? So koalas, they might be quiet, they might be reserved, but yet they're powerful and they're usually doped up. How do you say that. But the thing with it is, koalas, what they gravitate toward and what they The excel app is making tiger shine. They are excellent support, like having an administrative, I had an administrative assistant that is vigilant.a koala and I'm more of ice consumers, more the tiger, I take risks. I would not have been successful. I think you're more of a cougar than being a trade show host. Yeah. Oh, whatever. Right. All right. Beran, culture hacks. I tweeted it this week. If you need a tool for something and you've got the ability to use it, just use it we needed a defect tracking tool at our work recently, and we didn't have one so I built one and just started you sing it and sent it to the senior leadership and says, "Look, this is what I'm doing. I think that's a good way to push innovation." Yes and I know I am talking about tools but you can apply that level. So if you think that something is right, and it's working for you, just do it. I think that's one of the best. And what is the, say Frank say? FILDI? F it, let's do it. Yeah, you're my Koala bear. So, I like calling that the do now ask forgiveness later. Yup. I do. That's key. There are certain things that you just have to. Perhaps, John WIllis. I think that the easy ones and then there's my wish list ones. And the easy ones are the ones who are, basically, building slack into the work environment. Which is counter intuitave to most environments. If anything we learn from workflow and all that, that creating slack. Kanban happens to be a good example of a tool, one of many but, that can force slack in the workplace. I think it all boils down to things like hack days and places where you can find innovation through the people's ability to innovate by giving them slack time, and not looking, you know, using kind of efficiency syndromes. On the long-term horizon, after this last week's velocity, and you know, having all these discussions about culture. You know, I want to think more about what are the things that can be measured you know, and now I get into freak science stuff. But other things that we can measure, the soft things we don't even try. We measure everything, but we don't measure that affects our behavior

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10. AVELI - Free Stylez De`elegance V.3

AVELI - Free Stylez De`elegance V.3

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11. Deuteronomy 5-8 (Moses Reminds Israel of their Covenant with God & A Warning Against Pride)

Deuteronomy 5-8 (Moses Reminds Israel of their Covenant with God & A Warning Against Pride)

Deuteronomy 5 - Moses Reminds Israel of their Covenant with God at Sinai A. The requirements of God’s covenant with Israel. 1. (1-5) The setting of the covenant. And Moses called all Israel, and said to them: “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your hearing today, that you may learn them and be careful to observe them. The LORD our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. The LORD did not make this covenant with our fathers, but with us, those who are here today, all of us who are alive. The LORD talked with you face to face on the mountain from the midst of the fire. I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare to you the word of the LORD; for you were afraid because of the fire, and you did not go up the mountain. He said:” a. Hear, O Israel: Israel was bound to the covenant they agreed to in Exodus 24:1-8, yet the covenant was made with the previous generation which perished in the wilderness. The present generation had to understand and embrace the covenant if they were to enjoy the blessings of the covenant. b. Made a covenant: Literally, this is to “cut a covenant.” The idea of “cutting” is associated with covenant because covenants were always sealed with sacrifice - the cutting of a sacrificial victim. c. The LORD did not make this covenant with our fathers, but with us: In fact, the covenant was originally made with the previous generation, and Moses did not deny this. But he drove the point home: This was their covenant; it is a covenant of the living, not of the dead. d. The LORD talked with you face to face: This demonstrates that the term face to face does not mean “literal face to literal face,” but is a Hebraic figure of speech meaning “intimate, free communication.” i. Deuteronomy 4:12 specifically says that Israel saw no form; you only heard a voice. Yet they had a remarkably transparent communication with God, so the figure of speech face to face applies. ii. This is why Exodus 33:11 says So the LORD spoke to Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend, and in Exodus 33:20 the LORD says, You cannot see My face; for no man shall see Me, and live. The use of face to face in Exodus 33:11 is a figure of speech, meaning Moses had free and unhindered communication with the LORD. iii. “Face to face seems to mean ‘in person,’ that is, in the immediacy of personal contact.” (Thompson) e. I stood between the LORD and you at that time: Israel could not bear such free and unhindered communication with the LORD, so they asked Moses to speak to God on their behalf. 2. (6-7) The first commandment: no other gods before Me. I am the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before Me. a. I am the LORD your God: Before God commanded anything of man, He declared who He was and what He did for Israel (who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage). The foundation was clear: because of whom God was and what He did for His people, He has the right to tell us what to do - and we have the obligation to obey Him. b. You shall have no other gods before Me: The first commandment logically flows from understanding who God is and what He has done for us. Nothing is to come before God and He is the only God we worship and serve. i. In the days of ancient Israel, there was great temptation to worship the gods of materialism (Baal, the god of weather and financial success) and sex (Ashtoreth, the goddess of sex, romance, and reproduction), or any number of other local deities. We are tempted to worship the same gods, but without the old-fashioned names and images. c. No other gods before Me: This did not imply that it was permissible to have other gods, as long as they lined up behind the true God. Instead the idea is that there are to be no other gods before the sight of the true God in our life. Before Me is literally, “to My face.” i. This means God demands to be more than “added” to our lives. We don’t just add Jesus to the life we already have. We must give Him all our lives. ii. Failure to obey this commandment is called idolatry. We are to flee idolatry (1 Corinthians 10:14). Those lives marked by habitual idolatry will not inherit the kingdom of God (1 Corinthians 6:9-10, Ephesians 5:5, Revelation 21:8, 22:15). Idolatry is a work of the flesh (Galatians 5:19-20), which marks our old life instead of the new (1 Peter 4:3), and we are not to associate with those who call themselves Christians who are idolaters (1 Corinthians 5:11). 3. (8-10) The second commandment: You shall not make for yourself any carved image . . . you shall not bow down to them. You shall not make for yourself a carved image; any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve them. For I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me, but showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments. a. You shall not make for yourself a carved image: The second commandment prohibited not only idolatry regarding false gods, it also dealt with making an image of any created thing which we might worship. b. Or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath: In that day as well as in our own, worship was tied closely with images - idealized images, or even images in the mind of man. God will not allow us to depict Him with any such image, nor replace Him with another image. i. The second commandment didn’t forbid making an image of something for artistic purposes. God Himself commanded Israel make images of cherubim (Exodus 25:18, 26:31). It forbade the making of images as an “aid” to worship. ii. “To countenance its image worship, the Roman Catholic Church has left the whole of this second commandment out of the decalogue, and thus lost one whole commandment out of the ten; but to keep up the number they have divided the tenth into two.” (Clarke) iii. John 4:24 explains the rationale behind the second commandment: God is Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth. The use of images and other material things as a focus or “help” to worship denies who God is (Spirit) and how we must worship Him (in spirit and truth). iv. Paul reminds us of the futility of trying to make God into our own image: Professing to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man; and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things. (Romans 1:22-23) c. For I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God: How can it be said that God is a jealous God? “God’s jealousy is love in action. He refuses to share the human heart with any rival, not because He is selfish and wants us all for Himself, but because He knows that upon that loyalty to Him depends our very moral life . . . God is not jealous of us: He is jealous for us.” (Redpath) d. Visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me: This does not mean God punishes us directly for the sins of our ancestors. The important words are of those who hate Me - if the descendants love God, they will not have the iniquity of the fathers visited on them. i. “‘This necessarily implies - IF the children walk in the steps of their fathers; for no man can be condemned by Divine justice for a crime of which he was never guilty.” (Clarke) ii. Yet, the focus here is on idolatry, and this refers to judgment on a national scale - nations that forsake the LORD will be judged, and that judgment will have effects throughout generations. 4. (11) The third commandment: You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain. a. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain: We can break the third commandment through profanity (using the name of God in blasphemy and cursing), frivolity (using the name of God in a superficial, stupid way), and hypocrisy (claiming the name of God but acting in a way that disgraces Him). i. . Jesus communicated the idea of this command in the disciple’s prayer, when He taught us to have a regard for the holiness of God’s name (Hallowed be Your name, Matthew 6:9). b. For the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain: The strength of this command has led to strange traditions among the Jewish people. Some go to extreme lengths in attempting to fulfill this command, refusing to even write out the name of God, in the fear that the paper might be destroyed and the name of God be written in vain. 5. (12-15) The fourth commandment: Remember the Sabbath day. Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD your God commanded you. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God. In it you shall do no work: you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your ox, nor your donkey, nor any of your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates, that your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you. And remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out from there by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day. a. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy: The seventh day (Saturday) was commanded to be respected as a day of rest. This rest was for all of Israel - servants and slaves as well as visitors. i. This is an important principle that might be too easily passed over. Here God declared the essential humanity and dignity of women, slaves, and strangers, and said they had the same right to a day of rest as the free Israeli man. This was certainly a radical concept in the ancient world. ii. In fact, in Moses’ exposition of the Law here in Deuteronomy, he pays special stress on the fact that the Sabbath is for the foreign-born slaves among Israel. Deuteronomy 5:15 (And remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt) is not cited in Exodus 20. b. To keep it holy: In their traditions, the Jewish people came to carefully quantify what they thought could and could not be done on the Sabbath day, in order to keep it holy. i. For example, in Luke 6:1-2, in the mind of the Jewish leaders, the disciples were guilty of four violations of the Sabbath every time they took a bite of grain out in the field, because they reaped, threshed, winnowed, and prepared food. ii. Ancient Rabbis taught that on the Sabbath, a man could not carry something in his right hand or in his left hand, across his chest or on his shoulder. But he could carry something with the back of his hand, his foot, his elbow, or in his ear, his hair, or in the hem of his shirt, or in his shoe or sandal. Or, on the Sabbath, you Israelites were forbidden to tie a knot - except, a woman could tie a knot in her girdle. So, if a bucket of water had to be raised from a well, an Israelite could not tie a rope to the bucket, but a woman could tie her girdle to the bucket and pull it up from the well. iii. In observant Jewish homes today, one cannot turn on a light, a stove, or a switch on the Sabbath. It is forbidden to drive a certain distance or to make a telephone call - all carefully regulated by traditions seeking to spell out the law exactly. c. For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth: God established the pattern for the Sabbath at the time of creation. When He rested from His works on the seventh day, God made the seventh day a day of rest from all our works (Genesis 2:3). But the most important purpose of the Sabbath was to serve as a shadow of the rest we have in Jesus. i. Some claim that Christians are required to keep the Sabbath today. But the New Testament makes it clear that Christians are not under obligation to observe a Sabbath day (Colossians 2:16-17 and Galatians 4:9-11), because Jesus fulfilled the purpose and plan of the Sabbath for us and in us (Hebrews 4:9-11). ii. Galatians 4:10 tells us that Christians are not bound to observe days and months and seasons and years. The rest we enter into as Christians is something to experience every day, not just one day a week - the rest of knowing we don’t have to work to save ourselves, but our salvation is accomplished in Jesus (Hebrews 4:9-10). iii. The Sabbath commanded here and observed by Israel was a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ (Colossians 2:16-17). We have a rest in Jesus that is ours to live in every day. Therefore, since the shadow of the Sabbath is fulfilled in Jesus, we are free to keep any day - or no day - as a Sabbath after the custom of ancient Israel. iv. However, though we are free from the legal obligation of the Sabbath, we dare not ignore the importance of a day of rest - God has built us so that we need one. Like a car that needs regular maintenance, we need regular rest - or we will not “wear” well. Some people are like high mileage cars that haven’t been maintained well, and it shows. v. Some Christians are also dogmatic about observing Saturday as the Sabbath as opposed to Sunday. But because we are free to regard all days as given to God, it makes no difference. But in some ways, Sunday is more appropriate; being the day Jesus rose from the dead (Mark 16:9), and first met with His disciples (John 20:19), and a day when Christians gathered for fellowship (Acts 20:7 and 1 Corinthians 16:2). Under Law, men worked towards God’s rest; but after Jesus’ finished work on the cross, the believer enters into rest and goes from that rest out to work. vi. But we are also commanded to work six days. “He who idles his time away in the six days is equally culpable in the sight of God as he who works on the seventh.” (Clarke) Many Christians should give more “leisure time” to the work of the LORD. Every Christian should have a deliberate was to serve God and advance the Kingdom of Jesus Christ. 6. (16) The fifth commandment: honor your father and your mother. Honor your father and your mother, as the LORD your God has commanded you, that your days may be long, and that it may be well with you in the land which the LORD your God is giving you. a. Honor your father and your mother: Honor for fathers and mothers is an essential building block for the stability and health of all society. If the younger generations are constantly at war with older generations, the foundations of society will be destroyed. i. Jesus used the way the Pharisees interpreted this commandment as an example of how one might keep the law with a limited interpretation, yet violate the spirit of the commandment (Matthew 15:3-6). b. That your days may be long: In Ephesians 6:2 Paul repeated this command, emphasizing the promise stated here: that your days may be long upon the land. Rebellion is costly, and many have paid a high price personally for their rebellion against their parents. 7. (17) The sixth commandment: You shall not murder. You shall not murder. a. You shall not murder: Some wonder how God can approve both capital punishment (Exodus 19:12) and this prohibition of murder. The simple answer is that in Hebrew as well as English, there is a distinction between to kill and to murder. As opposed to killing, murder is the taking of life without legal justification (execution after due process) or moral justification (killing in defense). b. You shall not murder: Jesus carefully explained the heart of this commandment. He showed that it also prohibits us from hating someone else (Matthew 5:21-26), because we can wish someone dead in our hearts, yet never have the “courage” to commit the deed. Someone may not kill from a lack of courage or initiative, though his or her heart is filled with hatred. 8. (18) The seventh commandment: You shall not commit adultery. You shall not commit adultery. a. You shall not commit adultery: Recognize that the act itself is condemned. God allows no justification for the ways that many people often seek to justify extra-marital sex, such as saying “my partner doesn’t understand me” or “we are in love” or “God led us to be with each other” or any other excuse. i. Michael English, who lost his recording contract and marriage over adultery with another Christian music singer, says of his adultery and its aftermath: “Maybe God allowed this to happen to make me see I needed some freedom.” No! b. You shall not commit adultery: The New Testament clearly condemns adultery: Now the works of the flesh are evident, which are: adultery, fornication uncleanness, licentiousness . . . (Galatians 5:19). But more than the act itself, Jesus carefully explained the heart of this commandment. It prohibits us from looking at a woman to lust for her, where we commit adultery in our heart or mind, yet may not have the courage or opportunity to do the act (Matthew 5:27-30). We aren’t innocent just because we didn’t have the opportunity to sin the way we really wanted to. 9. (19) The eighth commandment: You shall not steal. You shall not steal. a. Not steal: This command is another important foundation for human society, establishing the right to personal property. God has clearly entrusted certain possessions to certain individuals, and other people or states are not permitted to take that property without due process of law. b. Not steal: We can also steal from God. Of course, this demands we honor God with our financial resources, so we are not guilty of robbing Him (Malachi 3:8-10). But we can also rob God by refusing to give Him ourselves for obedience and His service, because He bought us and owns us: knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold . . . but with the precious blood of Christ (1 Peter 1:18-19); For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s (1 Corinthians 6:20). c. Not steal: Ephesians 4:28 gives the solution to stealing. Let him who stole steal no longer, but rather let him labor, working with his hands what is good, that he may have something to give him who has need. 10. (20) The ninth commandment: You shall not bear false witness. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. a. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor: We can break the ninth commandment through slander, talebearing, creating false impressions, by silence, by questioning the motives behind someone’s actions, or even by flattery. i. “Slander . . . is a lie invented and spread with intent to do harm. That is the worst form of injury a person can do to another. Compared to one who does this, a gangster is a gentleman, and a murderer is kind, because he ends life in a moment with a stroke and with little pain. But the man guilty of slander ruins a reputation which may never be regained, and causes lifelong suffering.” (Redpath) ii. “Talebearing . . . is repeating a report about a person without careful investigation. Many, many times I have known what it is to suffer with that. To repeat a story which brings discredit and dishonor to another person without making sure of the facts, is breaking this commandment . . . How many people, especially Christian people, revel in this, and delight in working havoc by telling tales about others. To excuse the action by saying they believed the report to be true, or that there was no intention to malign, is no justification.” (Redpath) iii. What about inappropriate silence? “When someone utters a falsity about another and a third person is present who knows that statement to be untrue but, for reasons of fear or being disliked, remains quiet, that third person is as guilty of breaking this law as if he had told a lie.” (Redpath) b. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor: The New Testament puts it simply. Do not lie to one another, since you have put off the old man with his deeds (Colossians 3:9) “How very strange that we have ever come to think that Christian maturity is shown by the ability to speak our minds, whereas it is really expressed in controlling our tongues.” (Redpath) i. “What a startling revelation it would be if a tape recording could be played of all that every church member has said about his fellow members in one week!” (Redpath) ii. Satan is always there to encourage a lie (John 8:44; Acts 5:3); and Jesus Himself was the victim of false witness (Mark 14:57); in some ways, we might say this was the sin that sent Jesus to the cross. 11. (21) The tenth commandment: You shall not covet. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife; and you shall not desire your neighbor’s house, his field, his male servant, his female servant, his ox, his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s. a. You shall not covet: All the first nine commands focus more on things we do; the tenth deals straight with the heart and its desires. i. Literally, the word for “covet” here means “to pant after.” Covetousness works like this: the eyes look upon an object, the mind admires it, the will goes over to it, and the body moves in to possess it. Just because you have not taken the final step does not mean you are not in the process of coveting right now. b. Your neighbor’s house . . . wife . . . ox . . . donkey: Covetousness can be expressed towards all sorts of things; it is the itch to have and to possess what someone else has. It speaks of a dissatisfaction with what we have, and a jealously towards those who have something “better.” i. Hebrews 13:5 puts it well: Let your conduct be without covetousness; be content with such things as you have. For He Himself has said, “I will never leave you nor forsake you.” ii. This last commandment is closely connected with the first commandment against idolatry: For this you know, that no . . . covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God (Ephesians 5:5). iii. Jesus gave a special warning about covetousness, which explained the core philosophy of the covetous heart: And He said to them, “Take heed and beware of covetousness, for one’s life does not consist in the abundance of the things he possesses.” (Luke 12:15) B. The response of Israel and the response of God at Mount Sinai. 1. (22-27) The response of Israel: shrinking fear. “These words the LORD spoke to all your assembly, in the mountain from the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice; and He added no more. And He wrote them on two tablets of stone and gave them to me. So it was, when you heard the voice from the midst of the darkness, while the mountain was burning with fire, that you came near to me, all the heads of your tribes and your elders. And you said: ‘Surely the LORD our God has shown us His glory and His greatness, and we have heard His voice from the midst of the fire. We have seen this day that God speaks with man; yet he still lives. Now therefore, why should we die? For this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of the LORD our God anymore, then we shall die. For who is there of all flesh who has heard the voice of the living God speaking from the midst of the fire, as we have, and lived? You go near and hear all that the LORD our God may say, and tell us all that the LORD our God says to you, and we will hear and do it.’“ a. In the mountain from the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice: The whole scene was indeed awesome: The LORD spoke; there was fire, a cloud, thick darkness, a loud voice; and it all made such an impression on Israel that they asked Moses to not have God speak to them so directly any more. i. Why should we die? . . . if we hear the voice of the LORD our God anymore, then we shall die makes it plain. The Mount Sinai experience was not one of sweet fellowship with God. The message of Mount Sinai was not “come unto Me,” but “stay away, for I am holy and you are not.” ii. This is exactly the message of the writer to the Hebrews in Hebrews 12:18-24: We, under the New Covenant, have not come to Mount Sinai and the message “stay away”; we have come to Mount Zion, where God’s message is “come unto Me.” b. Tell us all that the LORD our God says to you, and we will hear and do it: Israel was far too confident in their ability to keep the law of God. Their experience at Mount Sinai convinced them of God’s glory, but not of their own corruption and inability. 2. (28-33) God responds with hopeful pleasure in Israel. “Then the LORD heard the voice of your words when you spoke to me, and the LORD said to me: ‘I have heard the voice of the words of this people which they have spoken to you. They are right in all that they have spoken. Oh, that they had such a heart in them that they would fear Me and always keep all My commandments, that it might be well with them and with their children forever! Go and say to them, “Return to your tents.” But as for you, stand here by Me, and I will speak to you all the commandments, the statutes, and the judgments which you shall teach them, that they may observe them in the land which I am giving them to possess.’ Therefore you shall be careful to do as the LORD your God has commanded you; you shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left. You shall walk in all the ways which the LORD your God has commanded you, that you may live and that it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days in the land which you shall possess.” a. They are right in all they have spoken: God was pleased with Israel’s response. Their response was evidence that they took Him seriously. b. Oh, that they had such a heart: The feeling is that God liked what He saw in Israel, but “hoped” (to use a figure of speech, because God doesn’t “hope” for things the way we do) that they would keep the same attitude of heart. In fact, Israel did not keep this heart; not 40 days later they danced in worship around a golden calf. c. That it might be well with them and their children forever! This is God’s motive in calling for our obedience - that it might be well with us. Every command of God is rooted in love for us, not some obsessive desire for control, or mean-spirited attitude towards us. d. Therefore you shall be careful to do as the LORD your God has commanded you: Knowing the glory of God (as revealed at Mount Sinai) and the love of God (as revealed by His longing that it might be well with them), gave them all the more reason to obey God. i. When we have trouble obeying God, we are clearly lacking in one or both of these areas. Either we forget His glory or we forget His love for us, or we forget both of them. Deuteronomy 6 - Moses Reminds Israel of the Commandment and the Warning A. The Commandment: The essence of God’s law. 1. (1-3) Remember the commandment before entering Canaan. Now this is the commandment, and these are the statutes and judgments which the LORD your God has commanded to teach you, that you may observe them in the land which you are crossing over to possess, that you may fear the LORD your God, to keep all His statutes and His commandments which I command you, you and your son and your grandson, all the days of your life, and that your days may be prolonged. Therefore hear, O Israel, and be careful to observe it, that it may be well with you, and that you may multiply greatly as the LORD God of your fathers has promised you; “a land flowing with milk and honey.” a. Now this is the commandment: The Hebrew is emphatic here. Moses called attention to The Commandment. In the following verses, God reduced the law to one ruling principle - one commandment which encompassed all the commandments. b. That your days may be prolonged . . . that it may be well with you: Israel’s fate rested on their obedience to this one great commandment. If they obeyed their commandment, their life would be long and filled with blessing. If they did not obey they could expect to be cursed by God. 2. (4-5) The great commandment: Love the LORD your God. Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one! You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your strength. a. Hear, O Israel: In Hebrew, these verses are known as the Shema (“hear” in Hebrew). It is the classic Hebrew confession of faith, describing who God is and what our duty is towards Him. b. The LORD our God, the LORD is one! This is the essential truth about God. He is a person and not a vague pantheistic force. Being one, He cannot be represented by contradictory images. Since the LORD our God is one, He is not Baal, or Ashtoreth - He is the LORD God, and they are not. i. In the mind of many Jewish people, this verse alone disqualified the New Testament teaching that Jesus is God, and the New Testament teaching of the Trinity - that there is one God, existing in three Persons. At some times and places, as Jewish synagogues said the Shema together, and when the word one (echad) was said, they loudly and strongly repeated that one word for several minutes, as if it were a rebuke to Christians who believed in the Trinity. ii. Christians must come to a renewed understanding of the unity of God. They must appreciate the fact that the LORD is one, not three, as 1 Corinthians 8:6 says: yet for us there is one God. We worship one God, existing in three persons, not three separate gods. iii. Yet, the statement the LORD is one certainly does not contradict the truth of the Trinity. In fact, it establishes that truth. The Hebrew word for one is echad, which speaks most literally of a compound unity, instead of using the Hebrew word yacheed, which speaks of an absolute unity or singularity (Genesis 22:2 and Psalm 25:16). iv. The very first use of echad in the Bible is in Genesis 1:5: So the evening and the morning were the first day. Even here, we see a unity (one day) with the idea of plurality (made up of evening and morning). Genesis 2:24 uses echad in saying the two shall become one flesh. Again, the idea of a unity (one flesh), making a plurality (the two). In Exodus 26:6 and 11, the fifty gold clasps are used to hold the curtains together so the tent would be one (echad) - a unity (one) made up of a plurality (the many parts of the tabernacle). In Ezekiel 37:17 the LORD tells Ezekiel to join together two sticks (prophetically representing Ephraim and Judah) into one (echad), speaking again of a unity (one stick) made up of a plurality (the two sticks). There is no way that echad has the exclusive idea of an absolute singularity; the idea of One God in Three Persons fits just fine with the term echad. c. The LORD our God: In addition, even the name of God in this line suggests the plurality of God. The Hebrew word is Elohim and grammatically, it is a plural word used as if it were singular - the verbs and pronouns used with it are generally in the plural. i. Rabbi Simeon ben Joachi, commenting on the word Elohim: “Come and see the mystery of the word Elohim; there are three degrees, and each degree by itself alone, and yet notwithstanding they are all one, and joined together in one, and are not divided from each other.” Clarke adds: “He must be strangely prejudiced indeed who cannot see that the doctrine of a Trinity, and of a Trinity in unity, is expressed in the above words.” ii. Leupold quoting Luther on Elohim: “But we have clear testimony that Moses aimed to indicate the Trinity or the three persons in the one divine nature.” d. Love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your might: Knowing who God is enables us to act towards Him rightly. We give Him His due. i. God wants a complete love from us. This love is appropriate because He loved us completely: We love Him because He first loved us (1 John 4:19). ii. What God most wants from us is our love. We often think God demands a hundred other things from us - our money, our time, our effort, our will, our submission, and so forth - but what God really wants is our love. When we really love the LORD with all of our heart, soul, and mind, then everything else is freely given to the LORD. If we give the LORD all the rest - money, time, effort, will, and so forth - without giving Him our love, it is all wasted - and perhaps, all is lost. iii. Jesus called this the great commandment (Matthew 22:37-38); and He said the second commandment, you shall love your neighbor as yourself, was like this first, great commandment. When we love the LORD our God with all our heart, soul, and mind, we will find it easy to love our neighbor as ourselves. 3. (6-9) The continual reminder of the Law. And these words which I command you today shall be in your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, when you walk by the way, when you lie down, and when you rise up. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates. a. These words which I command you today shall be in your heart: This great command must first be in our heart. Then it must be communicated to our children, the topic of our conversation, and should always be in front of us - as near as our hand or our forehead, as ever before us as our door posts and gates. b. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand: By the time of Jesus the Jewish people based the practice of wearing phylacteries on this passage. Phylacteries are small boxes holding parchment with scriptures on them, held to the forehead or hand with leather straps. i. Jesus condemned abuse of the wearing of phylacteries among the Pharisees; they would make their phylactery boxes large and ostentatious as a display of greater spirituality (Matthew 23:5). ii. In the end times, there will be a Satanic imitation of this practice, when the number of the Antichrist will be applied to either the hand or forehead of all who will take it (Revelation 13:16). c. You shall write them on the doorposts of your houses: This command leads to the Jewish practice of the mezuzah. This is a small container holding a passage of Scripture that is nailed to a doorpost. B. The danger of disobedience. 1. (10-12) The danger of leaving God in times of prosperity. So it shall be, when the LORD your God brings you into the land of which He swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give you large and beautiful cities which you did not build, houses full of all good things, which you did not fill, hewn-out wells which you did not dig, vineyards and olive trees which you did not plant; when you have eaten and are full; then beware, lest you forget the LORD who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. a. To give you large and beautiful cities which you did not build: God planned to bring Israel into an abundant, prepared land. In this abundant blessing God had for Israel, there was an inherent danger: That they would forget the LORD who brought you out of the land of Egypt. b. Lest you forget the LORD: This cycle would be repeated through the history of Israel, especially in the time of the Judges. God would bless an obedient Israel, and they would prosper; they would begin to set their heart on the blessings instead of the LORD who blessed them; God would allow chastisement to turn Israel’s focus back upon Him; Israel would repent and obey again, and God would again bless and obedient Israel and they would prosper. i. We usually fail to appreciate the danger of success and prosperity; we agree there is a theoretical danger in those things, but rarely think it applies to us. ii. It is just a lot easier to forget the LORD your brought you out . . . from the house of bondage when there are no circumstances forcing you to remember Him. 2. (13-19) How to avoid apostasy in times of prosperity: honoring the LORD in everything we do. You shall fear the LORD your God and serve Him, and shall take oaths in His name. You shall not go after other gods, the gods of the peoples who are all around you (for the LORD your God is a jealous God among you), lest the anger of the LORD your God be aroused against you and destroy you from the face of the earth. You shall not tempt the LORD your God as you tempted Him in Massah. You shall diligently keep the commandments of the LORD your God, His testimonies, and His statutes which He has commanded you. And you shall do what is right and good in the sight of the LORD, that it may be well with you, and that you may go in and possess the good land of which the LORD swore to your fathers, to cast out all your enemies from before you, as the LORD has spoken. a. You shall fear the LORD your God and serve Him: When we do this, the idea is not of a shrinking fear from an angry God. Instead, the idea of fear is more in the concept of an awe-filled respect, an inner repulsion at the idea of offending such a great, loving God who has done so much for us. i. This is the passage of Scripture Jesus quoted back to Satan when tempted by Satan to avoid the cross and win back the world, if He would only bow down and worship Satan. Jesus rightly replies, based on the truth You shall fear the LORD your God and serve Him that it was only right to fear, and worship, and serve God - and it was wrong to bow down to Satan, no matter what might be given Him in return (Matthew 4:8-10). b. And shall take oaths in His name: although the concept of the oath in God’s name can certainly be abused (as Jesus pointed out in Matthew 5:33-37), there certainly is a permissible use of oaths by those who follow God - since God Himself uses oaths (Hebrews 6:13). Here, Israel is being told “you are to swear an oath only in the name of the LORD, not in the name of any other god.” c. You shall not tempt the LORD your God as you tempted Him at Massah: In Exodus 17:1-7, Israel tempted the LORD by doubting His love and concern for them. This was tempting or testing God regarding His love for Israel, something that is not only high-handed against the LORD (because we have no right to administer a test to the Almighty) but also disregarding His previous, and constant demonstrations of love and care for Israel (by demanding that God prove His love for them now by giving them what they want). i. Anytime we deny God’s love for us, or demand He do something for us, we are testing Him as if He must answer to our standards, and tempting Him to judge us. ii. This is the passage of Scripture which Jesus quoted back to Satan in the wilderness, when tempted to make God the Father prove His love for the Son by spectacularly protecting Jesus if He should jump off the pinnacle of the temple (Matthew 4:5-7). Jesus knew it was wrong to demand this sort of “proof” from His Father, since every day was proof of God the Father’s love for the Son! d. And you shall do what is right . . . that it may be well with you: This theme is constantly repeated. Under the Old Covenant, Israel’s blessing was based on their obedience. When they obeyed they would be blessed; when they disobeyed they would be cursed. i. This is not the source of blessing in the New Covenant. In the New Covenant, we are blessed by faith in Jesus, since He fulfills the law in our place (Romans 8:3-4). The watchwords for blessing under the Old Covenant were earning and deserving; under the New Covenant, blessing comes by believing and receiving. ii. The New Covenant system works because when we receive the New Covenant, God sends with it an inner transformation, where the law of God and the desire to do His will is now written on our hearts. Through the New Covenant, God makes us “safe” for His grace by this inner transformation. iii. Under the New Covenant there is no judgment from God for our disobedience, because all the judgment we deserved was put upon Jesus at the cross. However, there may be correction from the hand of a loving God the Father (not in the sense of making us pay for our sin, but in the sense of training us not to continue in sin), and there are the natural consequences of our disobedience, which God has not promised to shield us from. iv. Christians who fear the “freedom” of a New Covenant relationship with God must ask this question: did Israel come to great obedience to God through the Old Covenant? Does the system of earning and deserving blessing make us truly more godly than the system of believing and receiving? Or does it leave us either in total desperation (where one can then look to Jesus), or in total pride in our own works before God (as were the religious leaders of Jesus’ day who had a significant hand in crucifying Him)? 3. (20-25) How to avoid apostasy in times of prosperity: Teach your children to understand and honor the LORD. When your son asks you in time to come, saying, “What is the meaning of the testimonies, the statutes, and the judgments which the LORD our God has commanded you?” then you shall say to your son: “We were slaves of Pharaoh in Egypt, and the LORD brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand; and the LORD showed signs and wonders before our eyes, great and severe, against Egypt, Pharaoh, and all his household. Then He brought us out from there, that He might bring us in, to give us the land of which He swore to our fathers. And the LORD commanded us to observe all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, for our good always, that He might preserve us alive, as it is this day. Then it will be righteousness for us, if we are careful to observe all these commandments before the LORD our God, as He has commanded us.” a. When your son asks you in time to come: Often, the apostasy which comes from prosperity afflicts the next generation more than the present. They grow up expecting such prosperity and blessing, without understanding the repentance and walk with God which led to the prosperity. b. Then you shall say to your son: Therefore, it was essential for Israel to teach and warn their children, so that the blessings given to one generation would not become a curse to the next generation. i. Key to the teaching was the simple recounting of Israel’s testimony - how God saved them from the bondage of Egypt. Parents need to relate to their children how they came to a personal relationship with Jesus, so the children understand that they must come to the same relationship. c. It will be righteousness for us, if we are careful to observe all these commandments: If one will obtain true righteousness through the law, it is simple (though not easy): observe all the commandments. But if you are lacking in observing any commandment, then you need the atonement of a Perfect Sacrifice - Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world. Deuteronomy 7 - Commands to Conquer and Obey A. The Conquest of the Canaanites is commanded. 1. (1-5) The command to completely destroy the Canaanites and their culture. When the LORD your God brings you into the land which you go to possess, and has cast out many nations before you, the Hittites and the Girgashites and the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Hivites and the Jebusites, seven nations greater and mightier than you, and when the LORD your God delivers them over to you, you shall conquer them and utterly destroy them. You shall make no covenant with them nor show mercy to them. Nor shall you make marriages with them. You shall not give your daughter to their son, nor take their daughter for your son. For they will turn your sons away from following Me, to serve other gods; so the anger of the LORD will be aroused against you and destroy you suddenly. But thus you shall deal with them: you shall destroy their altars, and break down their sacred pillars, and cut down their wooden images, and burn their carved images with fire. a. When the LORD your God: Israel wasn’t in the land yet, but Moses still instructed them as if it were a certainty. This was based on the faithful promise of God, but it was also according to His principle of preparation. God prepares us before He brings us into a place. b. Greater and mightier than you: “Sure,” Moses said, “the Canaanite nations are greater and mightier than you. But they are not greater and mightier than God.” God brought Israel to face a challenge that was impossible in their own strength - but entirely possible in Him. c. When the LORD your God delivers them over to you: Not “if,” but when. God could be counted on. d. You shall conquer them and utterly destroy them: Yet, God would not do it all for them. The extent of the work would depend on their faithful response to what God would do. i. Utterly destroy them . . . nor show mercy to them: This principle of battle until absolute victory is the key to victory as we take the Promised Land of blessing and peace God has for us in Jesus. We show no mercy to our enemies in the land, but we destroy them utterly. Many of us, truth be told, simply do not want to completely destroy the sins which keep us from God’s Promised Land of blessing and peace - we want to weaken them, and have some control over them, but we do not want to utterly destroy them. e. Destroy their altars, and break down their sacred pillars, and cut down their wooden images, and burn their carved images: We are especially to destroy anything which would lead us into a false or foreign worship. i. This radical, complete destruction was important because of the depraved nature of the worship of the Canaanites, who worshipped male and female gods of sex and who practiced human sacrifice with their own children. 2. (6-8) Conquer them completely because the LORD loves you. For you are a holy people to the LORD your God; the LORD your God has chosen you to be a people for Himself, a special treasure above all the peoples on the face of the earth. The LORD did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number than any other people, for you were the least of all peoples; but because the LORD loves you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore to your fathers, the LORD has brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you from the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt. a. For you are a holy people to the LORD your God: Israel was holy in their standing before God before they were holy in their conduct. They were set apart unto God by His choosing (God has chosen you to be a people for Himself), and were then called to live as chosen people. b. The LORD did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number: As much as anything, their election meant the LORD set His love on them. Their motivation for such a total obedience was to be that they knew they were loved by God. i. This is the great motivation for obedience: knowing and walking in the love of God. When we really believe God loves us, and live with that belief as a conscious fact, we find it so much easier to obey - and to utterly destroy anything that would damage that relationship of love. 3. (9-11) Conquer them completely because you serve a God of justice. Therefore know that the LORD your God, He is God, the faithful God who keeps covenant and mercy for a thousand generations with those who love Him and keep His commandments; and He repays those who hate Him to their face, to destroy them. He will not be slack with him who hates Him; He will repay him to his face. Therefore you shall keep the commandment, the statutes, and the judgments which I command you today, to observe them. a. He repays those who hate Him to their face: Over many generations the Canaanites had demonstrated their hatred for God, Now, using Israel as His instrument, God will repay them with judgment. B. Blessing on an obedient Israel. 1. (12-16) Abundant blessings for obedience. Then it shall come to pass, because you listen to these judgments, and keep and do them, that the LORD your God will keep with you the covenant and the mercy which He swore to your fathers. And He will love you and bless you and multiply you; He will also bless the fruit of your womb and the fruit of your land, your grain and your new wine and your oil, the increase of your cattle and the offspring of your flock, in the land of which He swore to your fathers to give you. You shall be blessed above all peoples; there shall not be a male or female barren among you or among your livestock. And the LORD will take away from you all sickness, and will afflict you with none of the terrible diseases of Egypt which you have known, but will lay them on all those who hate you. And you shall destroy all the peoples whom the LORD your God delivers over to you; your eye shall have no pity on them; nor shall you serve their gods, for that will be a snare to you. 2. (17-24) Have confidence in God’s strength. If you should say in your heart, “These nations are greater than I; how can I dispossess them?”; you shall not be afraid of them, but you shall remember well what the LORD your God did to Pharaoh and to all Egypt: the great trials which your eyes saw, the signs and the wonders, the mighty hand and the outstretched arm, by which the LORD your God brought you out. So shall the LORD your God do to all the peoples of whom you are afraid. Moreover the LORD your God will send the hornet among them until those who are left, who hide themselves from you, are destroyed. You shall not be terrified of them; for the LORD your God, the great and awesome God, is among you. And the LORD your God will drive out those nations before you little by little; you will be unable to destroy them at once, lest the beasts of the field become too numerous for you. But the LORD your God will deliver them over to you, and will inflict defeat upon them until they are destroyed. And He will deliver their kings into your hand, and you will destroy their name from under heaven; no one shall be able to stand against you until you have destroyed them. a. You shall not be afraid of them, but you shall remember well what the LORD your God did: Their recollection of God’s faithfulness in the past would give them hope for their current struggle. b. You will be unable to destroy them at once: God would go before Israel and fight for them (the great and awesome God, is among you) but He would not drive all the enemies out at once. Perhaps Israel wanted the land all cleared out before them, but God knew it was not best for the land or for them. c. Lest the beast of the field become too numerous for you: The way easiest for Israel was for God to clear all Israel’s enemies out at once. But this easy way had consequences Israel could not see or appreciate. d. Little by little: Sometimes to our frustration, this is the way God often works in our life. He clears things away little by little even though we might prefer it all at once. But God wanted Israel to grow spiritually in the process of taking the Promised Land. i. Doing it all at once might seem easier and better to us, but will have consequences we cannot see or appreciate. God cares that we grow, and so He grows us little by little. 3. (25-26) Do not share in their abominations. You shall burn the carved images of their gods with fire; you shall not covet the silver or gold that is on them, nor take it for yourselves, lest you be snared by it; for it is an abomination to the LORD your God. Nor shall you bring an abomination into your house, lest you be doomed to destruction like it. You shall utterly detest it and utterly abhor it, for it is an accursed thing. Deuteronomy 8 - A Warning Against Pride A. God’s work of building humility in Israel during the wilderness wanderings. 1. (1-2) God humbled and tested Israel. Every commandment which I command you today you must be careful to observe, that you may live and multiply, and go in and possess the land of which the LORD swore to your fathers. And you shall remember that the LORD your God led you all the way these forty years in the wilderness, to humble you and test you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not. a. Every command . . . you must be careful to observe: God called Israel to a complete obedience. This obedience was to be based on remembering what the LORD had done among them in the wilderness. b. To humble you: God humbled Israel. He brought them to a place where all they could do was depend on Him. They had nothing else, and no one else to count on. i. Some think that God’s work of humbling is accomplished just by bringing us into a humble place. But it is where our heart is while we are in the humble place that God is really concerned about. We may be in a humble place, but longing for something different. We may believe that God owes something different to us, and we will soon get it. Instead, God wants us to be content in the humble place He puts us. c. And test you: God tested Israel. It was not because He didn’t know their hearts, but because they didn’t know their hearts. We have to constantly be corrected of our over-estimation of ourselves. 2. (3-5) God’s education of Israel in the wilderness. So He humbled you, allowed you to hunger, and fed you with manna which you did not know nor did your fathers know, that He might make you know that man shall not live by bread alone; but man lives by every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD. Your garments did not wear out on you, nor did your foot swell these forty years. You should know in your heart that as a man chastens his son, so the LORD your God chastens you. a. So He humbled you: All of God’s education begins here. Some never even make it past this first essential step. If we are not humble and not teachable, there is then no point to the rest of any of God’s education. b. Allowed you to hunger, and fed you manna: The next grade of God’s education is total dependence on the LORD. Israel had to rely on God beyond their own knowledge (which you did not know), and beyond their own ability. c. That He might make you know that man shall not live by bread alone: In the negative, this was the lesson God wanted them to learn. In the positive, they had to learn that man lives by every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD. Sadly, many still live by bread alone, living only for material things, for what can be bought or sold or earned or possessed materially. i. This statement is a command; but it is also a simple statement of fact: man shall not live by bread alone. You may exist by material things alone, but you will not live. Anyone thinking they live for bread alone is actually one of the living dead. ii. Some don’t live by God’s word because they fight with God’s word: “The worst impliment with which you can knock a man down, is the Bible; it is intended for us to live upon, - not to be the weapon of our controversies, but our daily food, upon which we rejoice to live.” (Spurgeon) iii. We live by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God, not by every feeling we experience. “You have never received spiritual life by your own feelings. It was when you believed God’s Word that you lived; and you will never get an increase of spiritual life, and grow in grace, by your own feelings or your own doings. It must still be by your believing the promises and feeding on the Word.” (Spurgeon) iv. It is the word of God that is our food and substance, and not our own dreams or imaginations. If you are more excited about some dream or vision than you are about God’s word, then something is wrong. The prophet who has a dream, let him tell a dream; And he who has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What is the chaff to the wheat?” says the LORD. (Jeremiah 23:28) v. We live by every word: “In places where they cut diamonds, they sweep up the dust, because the very dust of diamonds is valuable; and in the Word of God, all the truth is so precious that the very tiniest truth, if there be such a thing, is still diamond dust, and is unspeakably precious.” (Spurgeon) vi. Find life in every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD! “Oh, keep to the Word, my brothers! Keep to it as God’s Word, and as coming out of his mouth. Suck it down into your soul; you cannot have too much of it. Feed on it day and night, for thus will God make you to live the life that is life indeed.” (Spurgeon) 3. (6-10) Blessings in the land for Israel. Therefore you shall keep the commandments of the LORD your God, to walk in His ways and to fear Him. For the LORD your God is bringing you into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and springs, that flow out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey; a land in which you will eat bread without scarcity, in which you will lack nothing; a land whose stones are iron and out of whose hills you can dig copper. When you have eaten and are full, then you shall bless the LORD your God for the good land which He has given you. a. Therefore you shall keep the commandments of the LORD your God: If Israel would put their focus on every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD, then the LORD would take care of all the material things - and bring them into a materially abundant land. i. God is not against material things - except when they come between us and Him. God wanted to materially bless a spiritually obedient Israel. ii. “The reference to iron and copper in the hills is remarkably exact. Ancient copper mines and smelters have been discovered in recent years in the Arabah below the Dead Sea, and geological survey has demonstrated the presence of ores of copper and iron in the nearby hills.” (Thompson) b. Then you shall bless the LORD your God for the good land which He has given you: This is the simple principle of Matthew 6:33 - But seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you. B. A warning against pride. 1. (11-17) The danger of pride in the blessed life. Beware that you do not forget the LORD your God by not keeping His commandments, His judgments, and His statutes which I command you today, lest; when you have eaten and are full, and have built beautiful houses and dwell in them; and when your herds and your flocks multiply, and your silver and your gold are multiplied, and all that you have is multiplied; when your heart is lifted up, and you forget the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage; who led you through that great and terrible wilderness, in which were fiery serpents and scorpions and thirsty land where there was no water; who brought water for you out of the flinty rock; who fed you in the wilderness with manna, which your fathers did not know, that He might humble you and that He might test you, to do you good in the end; then you say in your heart, “My power and the might of my hand have gained me this wealth.” a. Beware that you do not forget the LORD your God by not keeping His commandments: When everything this fine and our lives are filled with abundance, it is not hard to have our hearts lifted up. We can easily forget the LORD Himself and forget it was all His work on our behalf. b. My power and the might of my hand have gained me this wealth: This is rarely said with the lips; it is said instead in the heart. It is easier to say “God did it” or “It’s all the blessing of the LORD” than it is to really mean these words in the heart. 2. (18) The correcting principle against pride in the blessed life. And you shall remember the LORD your God, for it is He who gives you power to get wealth, that He may establish His covenant which He swore to your fathers, as it is this day. a. Remember the LORD your God: In times of abundance, it is easy to forget the LORD, or to at least no longer seek Him with the urgency we once had. b. It is He who gives you power to get wealth: We often thinking highly of our own hard work and brilliance. Yet we must see that God gives us the body, the brain, and the talent. It is all of God. c. That He may establish His covenant: This reminds us why God has blessed us. His plan is that it would ultimately further His eternal purpose. Therefore we have no right to use our material blessing to further selfish purposes; instead, we use our resources to advance His kingdom. 3. (19-20) The penalty of pride in the blessed life. Then it shall be, if you by any means forget the LORD your God, and follow other gods, and serve them and worship them, I testify against you this day that you shall surely perish. As the nations which the LORD destroys before you, so you shall perish, because you would not be obedient to the voice of the LORD your God. a. I testify against you this day that you shall surely perish: Moses loved Israel, but he loved God more. Without hesitation, he would take the witness stand against a disobedient, proud Israel - and warn them before God that they will surely perish because of their pride and disobedience. b. As the nations which the LORD destroys before you, so shall you perish: Israel would be tempted to look at the nations being judged in front of them, and to think, “We’re better than them, so we are safe. God would never deal with us that way.” But God would deal with them that way if they rose up in pride against Him. c. So you shall perish: Pride is the greatest danger in the Christian life. It is the most Satanic of sins, because it was by pride that Satan himself fell. Satan prizes a proud believer over the most notorious sinner, because he looks at the proud believer and says, “Now there’s a man just like me!” i. Pride of face is obnoxious; pride of race is vulgar; but the worst pride is the pride of grace.

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12. Genesis 2-3 (Adam in the Garden of Eden & Man’s Temptation and Fall)

Genesis 2-3 (Adam in the Garden of Eden & Man’s Temptation and Fall)

Genesis 2 - Creation Completed; Adam in the Garden of Eden A. The completion of creation. 1. (1-3) The seventh day of creation. Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made. a. And He rested on the seventh day: God did not need rest on the seventh day because He was tired. He rested to show His creating work was done, to give a pattern to man regarding the structure of time (in seven-day weeks), and to give an example of the blessing of rest to man on the seventh day. i. The seven-day week is permanently ingrained in man. Though some through history tried to change the seven-day week (a ten-day week was attempted during the French Revolution), those attempts have come to nothing. We are on a seven-day cycle because God is on a seven-day cycle. b. God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it: God sanctified the seventh day because it was a gift to man for rest and replenishment, and most of all because the Sabbath is a shadow of the rest available through the person and work of Jesus Christ. i. Colossians 2:16-17 and Galatians 4:9-11 make it clear that Christians are not under obligation to observe the Sabbath today, because Jesus fulfilled the purpose and plan of the Sabbath for us and in us (Hebrews 4:9-11). Yet Christians do not lose the Sabbath; every day is a day of rest in the finished work of Jesus Christ. Every day is specially set apart to God. ii. Though we are free from the legal obligation of the Sabbath, we dare not ignore the importance of a day of rest. God has built us so we need one. But we are also commanded to work six days. “He who idles his time away in the six days is equally culpable in the sight of God as he who works on the seventh.” (Clarke) In our modern world of four or five day workweeks and generous vacation time, surely more “leisure time” can be given to the work of the Lord. c. In it He rested from all His work: Though God rested on the seventh day of creation, He did not institute the Sabbath or show us His rest for His own sake. God does not take the Sabbath off. Jesus Himself said, “My Father has been working until now, and I have been working” (John 5:17). God does not need a day off, but man needs to see the rest of God and know he can enter into it by the finished work of Jesus. i. The description of each other day of creation ended with the phrase, “so the evening and the morning were the…day.” However, this seventh day of creation does not have that phrase. This is because God’s rest for us isn’t confined to one literal day. In Jesus, God has an eternal Sabbath rest for His people (Hebrews 4:9-11). ii. “God, having completed His work of creation, rests, as if to say, ‘This is the destiny of those who are My people; to rest as I rest, to rest in Me.’ ” (Boice) 2. (4-7) The history of the heavens and the earth. This is the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, before any plant of the field was in the earth and before any herb of the field had grown. For the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground; but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being. a. This is the history of the heavens and the earth: This probably ends the “genealogy” of the heavens and the earth, a history given directly by God to either Moses or Adam, recording the history of God’s seven-day creation. This was something no human was present to witness. b. In the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens: This is the first use of Lord (Yahweh) in the Bible. Our English word Lord comes from the Anglo-Saxon word for bread (as does our word loaf), because ancient English men of high stature would keep a continual open house, where all could come and get bread to eat. They gained the honorable title of lords, meaning “dispensers of bread.” c. Before any plant of the field was in the earth: This history begins before there was any vegetation on the earth at all (back to Genesis 1:1), a time when there was only space and a watery globe we know as the earth. d. The Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth: When God first created vegetation (on the third day of creation, Genesis 1:11-13), man was not yet been created to care for the vegetation of the earth, and there was no rain. The thick blanket of water vapor in the outer atmosphere created on the second day of creation (Genesis 1:6-8) made for no rain cycle (as we know it) but for a rich system of evaporation and condensation, resulting in heavy dew or ground-fog. e. The Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground: When God created man He made him out of the most basic elements, the dust of the ground. There is nothing “spectacular” in what man is made of, only in the way those basic things are organized. i. When the Bible speaks of dust, it means something of little worth, associated with lowliness and humility (Genesis 18:27; 1 Samuel 2:8; 1 Kings 16:2). In the Bible, dust isn’t evil and it isn’t nothing; but it is next to nothing. f. And breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being: With this Divine breath man became a living being, like other forms of animal life (the term chay nephesh is used in Genesis 1:21, 1:21, and here). Yet only man is a living being made in the image of God (Genesis 1:26-27). i. The word for breath in Hebrew is ruach - the word imitates the very sound of breath - is the same word for Spirit, as is the case in both ancient Greek (pneuma) and Latin (spiritus). God created man by putting His breath, His Spirit, within him. ii. “The implication, readily seen by any Hebrew reader, [is] that man was specially created by God’s breathing some of His own breath into him.” (Boice) iii. The King James Version reads: man became a living soul. This makes some wonder if man is a soul, or if man has a soul. This passage seems to indicate that man is a soul, while passages like 1 Thessalonians 5:23 and Hebrews 4:12 seem to indicate that man has a soul. It seems that the Scripture speaks in both ways, and uses the term in different ways and in different contexts. B. Adam in the Garden of Eden. 1. (8-9) Two trees in the Garden of Eden. The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there He put the man whom He had formed. And out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. a. The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden: Eden was a garden specifically planted by God; it was a place God made to be a perfect habitation for Adam (and later, Eve). b. There he put the man whom He had formed: The details in the creation of Adam and Eve teach us something. After reading Genesis 1, we might have assumed that man and woman were made at the same time, but the text doesn’t specifically say so. We assume it. We don’t know the details about man’s creation until Genesis 2. c. Out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow: The rest of Genesis chapter 2 does not present a different or contradictory account of creation. Rather, it is probably the history of creation from Adam’s perspective. This is Adam’s experience of creation, which does not contradict the account of Genesis 1:1-2:7 - it fills it out. i. In Matthew 19:4-5, Jesus refered to events in Genesis 1 and to events in Genesis 2 as one harmonious account. d. The tree of life…the tree of the knowledge of good and evil: These two trees were among all the other trees God created and put in the Garden of Eden. i. The tree of life was to grant (or to sustain) eternal life (Genesis 3:22). God still has a tree of life available to the His people (Revelation 2:7), which is in heaven (Revelation 22:2). ii. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil was the “temptation” tree. Eating the fruit of this tree would give Adam an experiential knowledge of good and evil. Or, it is possible that it is called the tree of the knowledge of good and evil not so man would know good and evil, but so God could test good and evil in man. 2. (10-14) Rivers in the Garden. Now a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it parted and became four riverheads. The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which skirts the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. Bdellium and the onyx stone are there. The name of the second river is Gihon; it is the one which goes around the whole land of Cush. The name of the third river is Hiddekel; it is the one which goes toward the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates. a. Now a river went out of Eden: The whole feel of this account gives the sense that it was written by an actual eyewitness of the rivers and surroundings. Adam probably wrote this himself. b. The name of the first is Pishon: These rivers are given specific names which answer to names of rivers known in either their modern or ancient world. However, the names of these rivers can’t be used to determine the place of the Garden of Eden because the flood dramatically changed the earth’s landscape and “erased” these rivers. i. We know modern rivers today such as the Tigris or Euphrates because some rivers in the post-flood world were named after familiar pre-flood rivers by Noah and his sons. 3. (15-17) God’s command to Adam. Then the Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to tend and keep it. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” a. Put him in the garden of Eden to tend and keep it: God put Adam into the most spectacular paradise the world has seen, but God put Adam there to do work (to tend and keep it). Work is something good for man and was part of Adam’s perfect existence before the fall. i. “The ideal state of sinless man is not one of indolence without responsibility. Work and duty belong to the perfect state.” (Leupold) b. Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat: The presence of this tree - the presence of a choice for Adam - was good because for Adam to be a creature of free will, there had to be a choice, some opportunity to rebel against God. If there is never a command or never something forbidden there can then never be choice. God wants our love and obedience to Him to be the love and obedience of choice. i. Considering all that, look at Adam’s advantages. He only had one way he could sin and we have countless ways. There are many trees of temptation in our lives, but Adam had only one. ii. God made this command originally to Adam, not to Eve; God had not yet brought woman out of man. c. In the day that you eat of it you shall surely die: God not only made His command clear to Adam, but He also clearly explained the consequences for disobedience. C. God creates the first woman. 1. (18) God declares He will make a helper comparable to Adam. And the Lord God said, “It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper comparable to him.” a. It is not good that man should be alone: For the first time, God saw something that was not good - the aloneness of man. God never intended for man to be alone, either in the marital or social sense. i. Marriage, in particular, has a blessed “civilizing” influence on man. The most wild, violent, sociopathic men in history have always been single, never under the plan God gave to influence men for good. This is not good! b. I will make him a helper comparable to him: God’s “blueprint” for creating this companion to Adam was to make a helper comparable to Adam. i. Different versions of the Bible translate this idea in a variety of ways, but the idea is essentially the same in each of them: · Helper meet (suitable, adapted, completing) (Amplified) · A companion ... a helper suited to his needs (Living) · A helper such as he needs (Beck) · A helper correspondent to himself (Septuagint Bible) · A helper suitable (NIV, NASB) · A help meet for him (KJV) c. A helper comparable: In reference to the marriage relationship, God created woman to be a perfectly suitable helper to the man. This means God gave the plan and agenda to Adam, and he and the woman together work to fulfill it. i. The phrase “in reference to the marriage relationship” is used because God has not ordained women to be helpers to men in authority (instead of being in authority themselves), except in marriage and in the church (1 Timothy 2:12-13). ii. God gives to man the responsibility (and the accountability) to be the leader in the home and gives to the woman the responsibility and the accountability to help him. iii. This does not mean there is to be no help from the man to the woman (though in many cases this is sadly true). It means when God looks down from heaven upon the family, He sees a man in leadership, good or bad, faithful or not, to the calling of leadership. A true leader will, of course, help those helping him. iv. We only see “helping” as a position of inferiority when we think like the world thinks. God considers positions of service as most important in His sight (Matthew 20:25-28). d. A helper comparable: Not only was the woman to be a helper, but also she was made comparable to the man. She should be considered and honored as such. A woman or wife cannot be regarded as a mere tool or worker, but as an equal partner in God’s grace and an equal human being. 2. (19-20) No helper was found comparable for Adam among the animals. Out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and brought them to Adam to see what he would call them. And whatever Adam called each living creature, that was its name. So Adam gave names to all cattle, to the birds of the air, and to every beast of the field. But for Adam there was not found a helper comparable to him. a. Brought them to Adam to see what he would call them: If Adam had the capability to intelligently name all the animals, it shows he was a brilliant man. Since at this time Adam’s intellect had not yet suffered from the fall, he was probably the most brilliant man who ever lived. Adam was the first and greatest of all biologists and botanists. b. So Adam gave names: Adam did not name any other animal after himself, calling any other animal “man” or “human.” By this, we see he understood that he was essentially different from all the animals. They were not made in the image of God. i. Mark Twain had a joke where he described Adam coming home to Eve after naming all the animals. Eve looked at an elephant and said, “What did you name that big animal?” Adam replied, “I called it an elephant.” Eve asked, “Why did you call it an elephant?” Adam answered, “Because it looked like an elephant!” c. But for Adam there was not found a helper: It was obvious to Adam that the animals came in pairs and he had no mate. Since God deliberately had Adam name the animals after seeing his need for a partner (Genesis 2:18), God used this to prepare Adam to receive the gift of woman. 3. (21-22) God makes the first woman from Adam’s side. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place. Then the rib which the Lord God had taken from man He made into a woman, and He brought her to the man. a. God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam: This is the first surgery recorded in history. God even used a proper anesthetic on Adam. b. The ribe which the Lord God had taken from man He made into a woman: God used Adam’s own body to create Eve to forever remind him of their essential oneness. As Adam came to know Eve he would see many ways that they were different, but he must never forget that they are essentially one and that they are made of the same substance. They are more alike than they are different. i. We don’t really know exactly what God took from Adam’s side to make Eve, and it doesn’t really matter. Modern research into cloning and genetic replication shows every cell in our body contains the body’s entire genetic blueprint. God took some of Adam’s cells and changed their genetic blueprint in the creation of Eve. Nevertheless, the story that women have one more rib than men because of the way Eve was created is a myth. ii. We also know the Bride of Christ comes from the wound made in the side of the second Adam, Jesus Christ. iii. There is a beautiful Jewish tradition saying God made woman, not out of man’s foot to be under him, nor out of his head to be over him, but “She was taken from under his arm that he might protect her and from next to his heart that he might love her.” (Barnhouse) c. He made into a woman: It is important to realize that there are not two beginnings to the human race, one in Adam and one in Eve. There was one beginning of the human race in Adam. d. And He brought her to the man: God brought Eve to Adam and created Eve out of Adam. He was first - the source and the head. She was created to be a helper perfectly suited to him. Thus the subordinate relationship of wives to husbands is found before the curse, not only after it. 4. (23) Adam’s brilliant understanding of who Eve is and how she is related to him. And Adam said: “This is now bone of my bones And flesh of my flesh; She shall be called Woman, Because she was taken out of Man.” a. This is now bone of my bones: Adam recognized that Eve was both like him (bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh) and not like him (woman…taken out of man). b. Flesh of my flesh: Adam understood the essential oneness in his relationship with Eve. This point is so important that it is referred to several times in the New Testament, including the great marriage passage in Ephesians 5:28-29: so husbands ought to love their own wives as their own bodies; he who loves his wife loves himself. For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it (Ephesians 5:28-29). i. No one walks into a room and seeks the most uncomfortable seat. The natural concern we have for ourselves causes us to take care of ourselves. In a healthy marriage relationship the husband realizes the essential union he has with his wife, that he cannot bless her without blessing himself and he cannot mistreat or neglect her without mistreating or neglecting himself. c. She was taken out of Man: Adam recognized that though he and Eve were one, she was not the same as him. He understood that two different people were becoming one. 1 Peter 3:7 tells husbands to recognize that they are one with someone different, someone whom they must understand: Likewise you husbands, dwell with them with understanding, giving honor to the wife, as to the weaker vessel. i. If men and women are different, are they equal? Elisabeth Elliot, quoted in Boice: “In what sense is red equal to blue? They are equal only in the sense that both are colors in the spectrum. Apart from that they are different. In what sense is hot equal to cold? They are both temperatures, but beyond this it is almost meaningless to talk about equality.” d. She shall be called woman: “Woman has been defined by many as compounded for wo and man, as if called man’s wo because she tempted him to eat the forbidden fruit; but this is no meaning of the original word, nor could it be intended, as the transgression was not then committed.” (Clarke) 5. (24-25) The marriage of Adam and Eve. Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. a. They shall become one flesh: The marriage principle stated here is based upon the dynamic of oneness yet distinction. A man and wife can truly come together in a one-flesh relationship, yet they must be joined. It is a spiritual fact, but the benefits of that oneness are not appropriated by accident or by chance. b. They shall become one flesh: This passage forms the foundation for the Bible’s understanding of marriage and family. Both Jesus (Matthew 19: 5) and Paul (Ephesians 5:31) quoted it in reference to marriage. i. “The institution of monogamous marriage, home, and family as the basic medium for the propagation of the race and the training of the young is so common to human history that people seldom pause to reflect on how or why such a custom came into being.” (Morris) ii. Many want to believe that the monogamous, two-parent family was invented in the 1950’s by American television icons Ozzie and Harriet, but Adam and Eve are the original family. This is God’s ideal family. This isn’t polygamy. This isn’t concubinage. This isn’t the keeping of mistresses. This isn’t adultery. This isn’t homosexual co-habitation. This isn’t promiscuity. This isn’t living together outside the marriage bond. This isn’t serial marriage. This is God’s ideal for the family, and even when we don’t live up to it, it is still important to set it forth as God’s ideal. c. One flesh: The idea of one flesh is taken by many to be mainly a way of expressing sexual union. While sexual union is certainly related to the idea of one flesh, it is only one part of what it means to be one flesh. There are also important spiritual dimensions to one flesh. i. Paul makes it clear the sexual union has one flesh implications even when we don’t intend so, as when a man has sex with a prostitute (1 Corinthians 6:16). Husband and wife become “one flesh” under God’s blessing. In extramarital sex, the partners become “one flesh” under God’s curse. ii. In this sense, there is no such thing as “casual sex.” Every sexual relationship at least begins a one-flesh bond. The bond will either be something beautiful (like the beautiful dancing of Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers) or it will be something grotesque (like Siamese twins). iii. It depends on whether the bonding takes place in a relationship with the right conditions: committed love, demonstrated by the marriage commitment, and a pursuit of true intimacy. Just because sex is taking place in marriage doesn’t mean it is truly fulfilling God’s purpose of bonding together a one-flesh relationship. d. They shall become one flesh: Though an initial bond in a one flesh relationship can be formed at the first sexual relationship a couple has, the fullness of what God wants to do in the one flesh relationship takes time. It has to become. e. They were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed: Before the fall, Adam and Eve were both naked ... and not ashamed. The idea of “nakedness” is far more than mere nudity. It has the sense of being totally open and exposed as a person before God and man. To be naked…and not ashamed means you have no sin, nothing to be rightly ashamed of, nothing to hide. i. Adam and Eve knew they were physically naked - nude - before the fall. What they did not know was a sinful, fallen condition, because they were not in that condition before their rebellion. ii. We often feel uncomfortable when someone stares at us. This is because we associate staring with prying, and we don’t want people to pry into our lives. We want to remain hidden and only reveal to other people what we want to reveal. iii. When we want to be most attractive to someone else, we do the most to change our normal appearance. We have the thought, “If I really want to impress this person, I have to fix myself up.” None of this feeling was present with Adam and Eve when they were naked…and not ashamed. Genesis 3 - Man’s Temptation and Fall A. The temptation from the serpent. 1. (1) The serpent begins his temptation. Now the serpent was more cunning than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman, “Has God indeed said, ‘You shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?” a. The serpent: The text here does not, by itself alone, clearly identify the serpent as Satan, but the rest of the Bible makes it clear this is Satan appearing as a serpent. i. In Ezekiel 28:13-19 tells us that Satan was in Eden. Many other passages associate a serpent or a snake-like creature with Satan (such as Job 26:13 and Isaiah 51:9). Revelation 12:9 and 20:2 speak of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan. ii. The representation of Satan as a serpent makes the idea of Moses saving Israel by lifting up a bronze serpent all the more provocative (Numbers 21:8-9), especially when Jesus identifies Himself with that very serpent (John 3:14). This is because in this picture, the serpent (a personification of sin and rebellion) is made of bronze (a metal associated with judgment, since it is made with fire). The lifting of a bronze serpent is the lifting up of sin judged, in the form of a cross. iii. Ezekiel 28 tells us Satan, before his fall, was an angel of the highest rank and prominence, even the “worship leader” in heaven. Isaiah 14 tells us Satan’s fall had to do with his desire to be equal to or greater than God, to set his will against God’s will. b. The serpent was more cunning than any beast: Satan’s effectiveness is often found in His cunning, crafty ways. We can’t outsmart Satan, but we can overcome him with the power of Jesus. i. It was the craftiness of Satan that made him successful against Eve: as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness (2 Corinthians 11:3). c. And he said to the woman: Apparently, before the curse pronounced in Genesis 3:14-15, the serpent was different than what we know today as a serpent. This creature didn’t start as a snake as we know it, it became one. i. “The creature that tempted Eve became a serpent as a result of God’s judgment on it, and it went slithering away into the bushes to the intense horror of Adam and Eve.” (Boice) ii. Demonic spirits evidently have the ability, under certain circumstances, to indwell human or animal bodies (Luke 8:33). On this occasion, Satan chose to indwell the body of a pre-curse serpent. iii. Poole says the woman wasn’t surprised at the serpent’s speaking because Adam and Eve had free conversation with angelic beings that often appeared in the form of men. If this is true, it wasn’t so strange to Eve that an angelic being might appear to her in the form of a beautiful pre-curse serpent. iv. Perhaps Satan made the voice supernaturally seem to come forth from the serpent, or perhaps Satan “said” this to Eve in her thoughts. What Satan said is more important than how he said it. d. To the woman: Satan brought his temptation against the woman because he perceived she was more vulnerable to attack. This is because she did not receive the command to not eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil directly from God but through Adam (Genesis 2:15-17). i. Perhaps Satan knew by observation Adam didn’t do an effective job in communicating to Eve what the Lord told him. This failure on Adam’s part made Eve more vulnerable to temptation. ii. Satan will often attack a chain at its weakest link, so he gets at Adam by tempting Eve. The stronger ones in a “chain” must expect attack against weaker links and support them against those attacks. iii. It was also in God’s plan to allow Satan to tempt Eve this way. If Adam would have sinned first, and if he had given the fruit to Eve, she might have a partial excuse before God: “I was simply obeying the head of our home. When he gave me the fruit, I ate of it.” e. Has God indeed said: Satan’s first attack is leveled against the Word of God. If he can get Eve confused about what God said, or to doubt what God said, then his battle is partially won. i. From the beginning, Satan has tried to undermine God’s people by undermining God’s Word. He can undermine just as effectively by getting us to neglect God’s Word as by getting us to doubt it. f. “Has God indeed said, ‘You shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?” Satan took God’s positive command (Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat [Genesis 2:16-17]) and rephrased it in a negative way: “God won’t let you eat of every tree.” 2. (2-3) Eve’s reply to the serpent. And the woman said to the serpent, “We may eat the fruit of the trees of the garden; but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God has said, ‘You shall not eat it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die.’ “ a. And the woman said to the serpent: Eve’s first mistake was in even carrying on a discussion with the serpent. We are called to talk to the devil, but never to have a discussion with him. We simply and strongly tell him, “The Lord rebuke you!” (Jude 9) b. We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: Eve’s knowledge of what she should not do is partially correct, but what she doesn’t seem to know makes her all the more vulnerable to deception. i. Eve does not seem to know the name of this tree; she only calls it the tree in the midst of the garden, instead of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Genesis 2:17). ii. Eve misquoted God’s command to Adam. Her words, “you shall not eat it” and “lest you die” are close enough, but she added to the command and put words in God’s mouth when she said, “nor shall you touch it.” Of course, it was a good idea to completely avoid the temptation; no good could come from massaging the fruit you’re not supposed to eat. But it is a dangerous thing to teach the doctrines of man as if they are the commandments of God (Matthew 15:9). iii. Clarke on nor shall you touch it: “Some Jewish writers ... state that as soon as the woman had asserted this, the serpent pushed her against the tree and said, ‘See, you have touched it, and are still alive; you may therefore safely eat of the fruit, for surely you shall not die.’” c. God has said: Eve’s ignorance of exactly what God said was really Adam’s responsibility. He did a poor job of relating to his wife the word God gave him. i. We can almost picture Adam telling Eve, “See that tree in the middle of the garden? Don’t touch it or God says we’ll die!” While this is better than saying nothing, what Adam didn’t explain made a vulnerable place where Satan could attack. d. Lest you die: This may seem like a small thing to hinge the destiny of the human race and all creation on. But the tree was nothing more than a restraint on Adam and Eve. It reminded them they were not God, that God had a legitimate claim on their obedience, and that they were responsible to Him. 3. (4-5) Satan’s direct challenge to God’s Word. Then the serpent said to the woman, “You will not surely die. For God knows that in the day you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” a. You will not surely die: Satan effectively laid the groundwork. He drew Eve into a discussion with him and planted the seed of doubt about God’s Word, and he exposed Eve’s incomplete understanding of God’s Word. Now he moves in for the kill, with an outright contradiction of what God said. i. Satan can only effectively work when he has established a foothold. No one falls like Adam and Eve will fall, “all of a sudden.” A foundation has been laid. ii. This is why we are called to never give place to the devil (Ephesians 4:27). This shows how remarkable it is that Jesus could say, “Satan has nothing in Me.” (John 14:30) b. You will not surely die: Satan first wanted Eve to forget all about what God said about the consequences of sin. When we know and remember the consequences of sin, we are more likely to give up the passing pleasures of sin (Hebrews 11:25). i. In Satan’s direct challenge, he tries to get Eve to doubt the goodness of God. If God lies to her, how can He be good? ii. In Satan’s direct challenge, he tries to get Eve to doubt the badness of sin. If this fruit is something good for her, why doesn’t God want her to have it? iii. Satan wants us to see sin as something good that a bad God doesn’t want us to have. His main lie to us is “sin is not bad and God is not good.” iv. “Satan and the flesh will present a thousand reasons to show how good it would be to disobey His command.” (Barnhouse) c. In the day you eat of it your eyes will be opened: Satan’s temptation was all the more powerful because there was truth in it. It was true your eyes will be opened, and this was fulfilled (Genesis 3:7). But their eyes were instantly opened to their own sin and rebellion. i. It is as if a deaf person was promised to be able to hear again, but all they could hear was screaming. ii. Their eyes were opened, they did know good and evil, but not as gods. “Pure lie” is rarely effective in temptation. If Satan doesn’t couple it with some truth, there is little power in his temptation. d. You will be like God, knowing good and evil: The final enticement is the most powerful, because it was how Satan himself fell, wanting to be equal with God. Eve tried to become a god herself by her rebellion against God. i. Jewish rabbis embellish on Satan’s temptation to Eve: “Nothing but malice has prompted God’s command, because as soon as you eat of it, you will be as God. As He creates and destroys worlds, so will you have the power to create and destroy. As He does kill and revive, so will you have the power to kill and revive. God Himself ate first of the fruit of the tree, and then He created the world. Therefore, He forbids you to eat of it, lest you create other worlds ... Hurry now and eat the fruit of the tree in the midst of the garden, and become independent of God, lest He bring forth still other creatures that will rule over you.” ii. The goal of becoming God is the center of so many non-Christian religions, including Mormonism. But in our desire to be gods, we become like Satan (who said, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God ... I will be like the Most High [Isaiah 14:13-14]) instead of being like Jesus, who came as a servant (Matthew 20:28). iii. The New Age movement and the desire to be “god” are just as strong as ever. According to a 1992 survey, as many as 12 million Americans can be considered active participants in the New Age movement, and another 30 million are avidly interested. If all these people were brought together in a church-like organization, it would be the third largest religious denomination in America. More than 90% of the subscribers to New Age Magazine are college graduates, compared to half the general population. iv. In 1995, New Age influence made it all the way to the White House. New Age author Marianne Williamson (writer of A Course In Miracles), guru to many of Hollywood’s spiritual seekers, spent a night at the White House as the personal guest of Hillary Clinton. And Anthony Robbins, motivational guru and king of late-night infomercials, consulted with President Clinton at Camp David. Robbins is also recognized as a leader in the New Age movement. B. The sin of Adam and Eve and the fall of the human race. 1. (6) Adam and Eve both disobey God in their own way. So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree desirable to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate. She also gave to her husband with her, and he ate. a. So when the woman saw: Eve surrendered to this temptation in exactly the way John describes in 1 John 2:16. First, she gave in to the lust of the flesh (saw that it was good for food), then she gave in to the lust of the eyes (pleasant to the eyes), then she gave in to the pride of life (desirable to make one wise). i. Jesus was tempted in the same three-fold way: an appeal to the physical appetites, an appeal to covetous and emotional desires, and an appeal to pride (Matthew 4:1-11). b. The woman saw that the tree was good for food: Eve’s perceptions were partially true and partially false. The tree was not really good for food, though Eve was deceived into thinking it was so. The fruit probably was pleasant to the eyes, though that shouldn’t mean much. And it was only true in Eve’s mind that the tree was desirable to make one wise. i. We can see the total truth of Paul’s statement in 1 Timothy 2:14, that Eve was deceived when she sinned. In her mind, she thought she was doing something good for herself. c. She took of its fruit and ate: Satan could tempt Eve, but she didn’t have to take it. The taking was all her doing. Satan couldn’t cram the fruit down her throat. Eve was responsible. She couldn’t rightly say, “the devil made me do it.” i. As with every temptation, God had made for Eve a way of escape (1 Corinthians 10:13). She could have simply run from Satan and the tree, but Eve didn’t take God’s way of escape. d. She also gave to her husband with her: Not only did Eve sin, but she became the agent of temptation for Adam. But when Adam ate, he was not deceived as Eve was. Adam sinned with his eyes wide open, in open rebellion against God. i. Therefore, it is Adam, not Eve, who bears the responsibility for the fall of the human race and for the introduction of death into the created order (Romans 5:12, 1 Corinthians 15:22). Eve was tricked into sinning; Adam knew exactly what he was doing (1 Timothy 2:14). ii. Many have speculated that Adam sinned because he didn’t want Eve to be alone in the fall, and he ate of the fruit out of a romantic impulse. This may well be true, but it makes Adam’s sin not one bit less rebellious. Rebellion against God is not “better” when motivated by a romantic impulse. iii. “Take and eat” will one day become verbs of salvation, but only after Jesus had lived in the world of Adam’s curse and surrendered to death. 2. (7) The nakedness of Adam and Eve. Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves coverings. a. Then the eyes of both of them were opened: Seemingly, it was only after the sin of Adam that they knew of their sinful state. They knew they were naked, in the sense of having their shame exposed to all creation. b. They new that they were naked: Psalm 104:2 and Matthew 17:2 suggest that light can be a garment for the righteous. It may be that Adam and Eve were previously clothed in God’s glorious light, and the immediate loss of this covering of light left them feeling exposed and naked. i. “It is more than probable that they were clothed in light before the fall, and when they sinned the light went out.” (Barnhouse) c. The eyes of both of them were opened: The way they saw themselves changed, but also the way they saw the entire world was now different. After the fall, everything looked worse. i. Was it good or bad that Adam and Eve saw their nakedness and felt terrible about it? It was good, because it is good to feel guilty when you have done something wrong. d. They sewed fig leaves together: Their own attempt to cover themselves took much ingenuity, but not much wisdom. Fig leaves are said to have a prickly quality, which would make for some pretty itchy coverings. i. Every attempt to cover our own nakedness before God is just as foolish. We need to let Jesus cover us (Revelation 3:5, 18), and put on Jesus Himself as our covering garment (Galatians 3:27). The exhortation from Jesus is for us: Behold, I am coming as a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his garments, lest he walk naked and they see his shame. (Revelation 16:15) ii. Obviously, they covered their genital areas. In virtually all cultures, adults cover their genital areas, even though other parts of the human body may be more or less exposed from culture to culture. iii. This is not because there is something intrinsically “dirty” in our sexuality, but because we have both received our fallenness and pass it on genetically through sexual reproduction. Because of this, God has implanted it in the minds of men that more modesty is appropriate for these areas of our body. 3. (8-9) Adam and Eve hide from God; God calls out to them. And they heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden. Then the Lord God called to Adam and said to him, “Where are you?” a. They heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: Adam and Eve knew that when they heard the Lord coming, He would want to be with them. This was how the Lord had fellowship with Adam and Eve, in a very natural, close, intimate way. i. Leupold on walking in the garden in the cool of the day: “The almost casual way in which this is remarked indicates that this did not occur for the first time just then ... There is extreme likelihood that the Almighty assumed some form analogous to the human form which was made in His image.” ii. We can assume this is God, in the Person of Jesus Christ, appearing to Adam and Eve before His incarnation and birth at Bethlehem, because of God the Father it is said, “No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him” (John 1:18), and no man has ever seen God in the Person of the Father. (1 Timothy 6:16) iii. “Cool of the day” is literally “the breeze of the day.” From Hebrew geography and culture, we might guess this means late afternoon. b. Adam and his wife hid themselves: This shows that Adam and Eve knew that their attempt to cover themselves failed. They didn’t proudly show off their fig-leaf outfits; they knew their own covering was completely inadequate, and they were embarrassed before God. c. Where are you? This is not the interrogation of an angry commanding officer, but the heartfelt cry of an anguished father. God obviously knew where they were but He also knew a gulf had been made between Himself and man, a gulf that He Himself would have to bridge. C. God confronts Adam and Eve with their sin. 1. (10-12) Adam tries to explain his sin. So he said, “I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; and I hid myself.” And He said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you that you should not eat?” Then the man said, “The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I ate.” a. I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid: Sin made Adam afraid of God’s presence and afraid of God’s voice. Ever since Adam, men run from God’s presence and don’t want to listen to His Word. i. We are still made in God’s image, so we want to be in the presence of God and hear His voice, while at the same time, we are afraid of Him. b. Who told you that you were naked? God knew the answer to this question. He asked it because He allowed Adam to make the best of a bad situation by repenting right then and there, but Adam didn’t come clean and repent before God. i. We all sin, but when we sin, we can still give glory to God by openly confessing without shifting the blame onto others (Joshua 7:19-20). ii. There is often nothing you can do about yesterday’s sin (though in some cases you may be able to make restitution). Yet you can do what is right before God right now by confessing and repenting. c. Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you that you should not eat? God confronted Adam’s problem squarely. This wasn’t primarily a wardrobe problem or a fear problem or a self-esteem problem. This was a sin problem and Adam’s wardrobe, fear, or self-understanding could not be addressed until the sin problem was addressed. d. Then the man said: Notice that to this point, God has not addressed Eve at all. Adam, being the head, is the problem here. e. The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I ate: Adam’s attempt to blame Eve is completely consistent with human nature. Few of us are willing to simply say as David did, I have sinned against the Lord (2 Samuel 12:13) i. Significantly, if there is any blame, it is on Adam, not Eve. Not only does Adam unjustly accuse Eve, but also he refuses to accept proper responsibility for his part in her sin. ii. By saying “the woman whom You gave to be with me,” Adam essentially blames God for the sin saying, “You gave me the woman, and she is the problem.” Adam wasn’t content to blame Eve; he had to blame God also. 2. (13) Eve’s reply to God. And the Lord God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” The woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.” a. The serpent deceived me, and I ate: When confronted by God, Eve doesn’t necessarily shift the blame when she admits the serpent deceived her and then she ate. This much was true, she had been deceived, and she did eat. b. Deceived me: The only problem comes when we fail to see that being deceived is sin in itself. It is sin to exchange the truth of God for the lie (Romans 1:25). D. The curse and its aftermath. 1. (14-15) God’s curse upon the serpent. So the Lord God said to the serpent: “Because you have done this, you are cursed more than all cattle, and more than every beast of the field; on your belly you shall go, and you shall eat dust all the days of your life. And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.” a. And the Lord God said to the serpent: When God spoke to Adam and to Eve, He asked them each questions. God didn’t ask Satan (the being animating the serpent) any questions, because there was nothing to teach him. b. You are cursed more than all cattle: The first part of the curse is directed at the animal that Satan used to bring the temptation. God commanded the serpent to slither on the ground instead of walking on legs like any other animal. i. Adam and Eve must have been terrified as this once-beautiful creature called a serpent was transformed into the creeping, slithering, hissing snake we know today. They must have thought, “It’s our turn next!” ii. I will put enmity between you and the woman: In addition, there is a natural aversion between mankind and serpents, especially on the part of women. c. You shall eat dust all the days of your life: This was true of the serpent as an animal, but it is also true of Satan. To eat dust has the idea of total defeat (Isaiah 65:25, Micah 7:17). God’s judgment on Satan is for him to always know defeat. He will always reach for victory, but always fall short of it. i. Satan was, in his own thinking, majestic and triumphant over Jesus on the cross, but he failed. In attacking Jesus, Satan made his own doom certain. ii. In Jesus, we share in the victory over Satan: And the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet shortly. (Romans 16:20) d. Enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed: The second part of the curse is directed against Satan himself. God placed a natural animosity between Satan and mankind. Enmity has the idea of ill will, hatred, and a mutual antagonism. Satan’s hatred of Eve was nothing new; it was already present - but now man will, generally speaking, have antagonism towards Satan. i. The “friendship” Eve and the serpent seemed to enjoy earlier in the chapter is finished. There is now a natural fear of Satan in the heart of man. ii. If we are born naturally rebellious against God, we are also born cautious and afraid of Satan. One must be hardened to willingly and knowingly serve Satan. Instinctively, we don’t serve God or Satan; we serve ourselves (which is fine with Satan). e. He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel: In this, God prophesies the doom of Satan, showing that the real battle is between Satan and the Seed of the Woman. i. There is no doubt this is a prophecy of Jesus’ ultimate defeat of Satan. God announced that Satan would wound the Messiah (you shall bruise His heel), but the Messiah would crush Satan with a mortal wound (He shall bruise your head). ii. The heel is the part within the serpent’s reach. Jesus, in taking on humanity, brought Himself near to Satan’s domain so Satan could strike Him. iii. This prophecy also gives the first hint of the virgin birth, declaring the Messiah - the Deliverer - would be the Seed of the Woman, but not of the man. iv. Genesis 3:15 has been called the protoevangelium, the first gospel. Luther said of this verse: “This text embraces and comprehends within itself everything noble and glorious that is to be found anywhere in the Scriptures.” (Leupold) f. He shall bruise your head: For God to see the defeat of Satan at Satan’s first flush of victory shows God knew what He was doing all along. God’s plan wasn’t “set back” when Adam and Eve sinned, because God’s plan was to bring forth something greater than man in the innocence of Eden. God wanted more than innocent man; His plan is to bring forth redeemed man. i. Redeemed man - this being who is greater than innocent man - is only possible because man had something to be redeemed from. 2. (16) God’s curse upon the woman. To the woman He said: “I will greatly multiply your sorrow and your conception; in pain you shall bring forth children; your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you.” a. I will greatly multiply your sorrow: God first cursed the woman with multiplied sorrow. Men and women have each known sorrow throughout history, yet the unique sorrow of women is well known. i. Under Jesus, some of the effects of the curse are relieved, and it has been the Christianizing of society that brought rights and dignity to women. ii. “It is difficult for women in Christian lands to realize the miseries of their hundreds of millions of sisters in pagan lands, where the lot of women is little above that of cattle. Where the gospel has gone, the load has been lifted, and woman in Christ has become the reflection of the redeemed Church, the bride of Christ.” (Barnhouse) b. Your sorrow and your conception; in pain you shall bring forth children: The first curse upon women is a broad one. It has the idea that women would experience pain in regard to their children in general, not just in the act of giving birth. God ordained that the pain with which women bring children into this world be an example of the pain they experience more generally in life. i. It has been observed that women bring forth children with more pain than just about any other creature. c. Your desire shall be for your husband: This is true of women in a way that it is not true for men. “This verse will be understood better when it is realized that the desire of man toward his wife alone is solely by God’s grace and not by nature.” (Barnhouse) d. Your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you: The idea is to contrast the woman’s desire and the husband’s rule over her. This speaks of an inherent challenge in embracing the husband’s role as leader of the home and family. i. This same word for desire is used in Genesis 4:7 of the desire of sin to master over Cain. Because of the curse, Eve would have to fight a desire to master her husband, a desire that works against God’s ordained order for the home. ii. The principle of Adam’s headship as a husband was established before the fall (see Genesis 2:18 and 2:22). Now the curse on Eve makes it much harder for her to submit and flow with God’s institution of male headship in the home. iii. “As a result of the fall, man no longer rules easily; he must fight from his headship. Sin has corrupted both the willing submission of the wife and the loving headship of the husband. The woman’s desire is to control her husband (to usurp his divinely appointed headship), and he must master her, if he can. So the rule of love founded in paradise is replaced by struggle, tyranny and domination.” (Susan T. Foh, cited in Boice) 3. (17-19) God’s curse upon the man. Then to Adam He said, “Because you have heeded the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat of it’: “Cursed is the ground for your sake; in toil you shall eat of it all the days of your life. Both thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you, and you shall eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for dust you are, and to dust you shall return.” a. Because you have heeded the voice of your wife: It wasn’t just as if Adam took Eve’s advice. He chose to be with Eve intead of obeying God. There is a sense in which idolatry of Eve was an aspect of Adam’s disobedience against God. b. Cursed is the ground: Because of Adam, there is a curse upon all creation. Before the curse on man, the ground only produced good. After the curse, it will still produce good, but thorns and thistles will come faster and easier than good fruit. c. In toil you shall eat of it: Adam worked before the curse, but it was all joy. Now work has a cursed element to it, with pain and weariness a part of work. Is there not a time of hard service for man on earth? Are not his days also like the days of a hired man? Like a servant who earnestly desires the shade, and like a hired man who eagerly looks for his wages (Job 7:1-2). d. Dust you are, and to dust you shall return: The final curse upon man promised there would be an end of his toil and labor on the earth - but it was an end of death, not not an end of deliverance. i. The curse of death shows that the result of Adam’s sin extended to the entire human race. Because of Adam, sin entered the world (Romans 5:12), death came to all mankind (Romans 5:15, 1 Corinthians 15:22), death reigned over man and creation (Romans 5:17), all men were condemned (Romans 5:18), and all men were made sinners (Romans 5:19). ii. The principle of Galatians 3:13 is established as we consider that Jesus bore each aspect of the curse upon Adam and Eve in its totality: Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us. · Sin brought pain to childbirth, and no one knew more pain than Jesus did when He, through His suffering, brought many sons to glory (Hebrews 2:10) · Sin brought conflict, and Jesus endured great conflict to bring our salvation (Hebrews 12:3) · Thorns came with sin and the fall, and Jesus endured a crown of thorns to bring our salvation (John 19:2) · Sin brought sweat, and Jesus sweat, as it were, great drops of blood to win our salvation (Luke 22:44) · Sin brought sorrow, and Jesus became a man of sorrows, acquainted with grief, to save us (Isaiah 53:3) · Sin brought death, and Jesus tasted death for everyone that we might be saved (Hebrews 2:9) 4. (20) The naming of Eve. And Adam called his wife’s name Eve, because she was the mother of all living. a. Adam called his wife’s name Eve: Up to Genesis 3:20, the woman has never been called Eve. We are so used to saying “Adam and Eve” that we assume she already had her name. But to this point, she was called a female (Genesis 1:27), a helper comparable (Genesis 2:18), a woman (Genesis 2:22, 23), and a wife (Genesis 2:24, 25; 3:8). This does not mean God did not have a name for Eve, but we are told what the name is in Genesis 5:2: He called them Mankind. i. The idea that the woman takes her name from the husband, and the idea that both genders are encompassed in terms like mankind, humanity, and chairman. Our use of these terms is not merely cultural, it is Biblical. ii. A woman gains more of her identity from her husband than the man does from the wife. For this reason, women should take special care in which man they marry. b. Because she was the mother of all living: Adam named her Eve, even though she was not a mother at all at the time. She was not even pregnant yet. Adam named her in faith, trusting God would bring forth a deliverer from the woman, because God said He would defeat Satan through the Seed of the woman (Genesis 3:15). 5. (21) God clothes Adam and Eve in the skins of animals. Also for Adam and his wife the Lord God made tunics of skin, and clothed them. a. The Lord God made tunics of skin, and clothed them: God wanted Adam and Eve clothed, not naked. “God gave His approval of the sense of shame which had led our first parents to cover their nakedness.” (Leupold) i. The world’s oldest profession is not prostitution, but the clothing business (Genesis 3:7). b. Tunics of skin: In order for Adam and Eve to be clothed, a sacrifice had to be made. An animal had to die. Without shedding of blood there is no remission. (Hebrews 9:22) i. There are only two religions; there is the religion of fig leaves and there is the religion of God’s perfect provision through Jesus. ii. Covering ourselves with our good works is like Adam and Eve trying to cover themselves with fig leaves. Our good works are like monopoly money - great for monopoly, but not legal tender. Your good works are essential to what it takes to live out your life, but they are not legal tender before God. iii. Adam and Eve were clothed in a garment that was purchased with the life of another. We are clothed with a garment of righteousness that was purchased with the life of another, Jesus Christ. c. And clothed them: This indicates that Adam and Eve were saved. Adam had faith in God’s promise of a Savior, and God provided a covering for them through a sacrifice. We will see Adam and Eve in heaven. 6. (22-24) God sets cherubim to guard the Tree of Life. Then the Lord God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of Us, to know good and evil. And now, lest he put out his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever”; therefore the Lord God sent him out of the garden of Eden to till the ground from which he was taken. So He drove out the man; and He placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life. a. Behold, the man has become like one of us, to know good and evil: The idea behind this phrase is difficult to understand. Perhaps there is a note of sarcasm by God here (as Elijah used in 1 Kings 18:27), regarding Satan’s empty promise to become like gods. Or, perhaps the idea focuses on man’s greater knowledge (though in a bad sense) now that he has the experiential knowledge of evil. b. And take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever: In mercy, God protected Adam and Eve from the horrible fate of having to live forever as sinners by preventing them from eating from the tree of life. c. The Lord God sent him out of the garden of Eden: We don’t know if Adam and Eve wanted to stay in the garden of Eden. Perhaps they felt if they left the garden, they might never see God again because it was the only place where they met Him. d. He drove out the man; and He placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden: Cherubim are always associated with the presence and glory of God (Ezekiel 10, Isaiah 6, Revelation 4). When cherubim are represented on earth (such as in the tabernacle, Exodus 25:10-22), they mark a meeting place with God. Though Adam and Eve and their descendants were prevented from eating the fruit of the tree of life (by God’s mercy), they could still come there to meet God. This was their “holy of holies.” Therefore it was important to send a cherubim with a flaming sword to guard the way to the tree of life. i. “Any angel of the lowest rank could have dealt with Adam. The flaming sword was pointed against Satan to keep him from destroying the way of access to the altar, which God had set up.” (Barnhouse) ii. This is the last historical mention of the garden of Eden in the Bible. We can speculate that God did not destroy it, but left it to the effects of the curse and suppose that it generally deteriorated from its original condition, blending into the surrounding geography.

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13. SALISI (Original Demo)

SALISI (Original Demo)

[original demo] SALISI First posted on Tumblr on 7 December 2011-- "i should be turning in for the night. i have work in a couple of hours. except that… i have all these emotions running through me right now. there are days when i am very bad with words. these days are usually when they matter the most; when i really, really want to say something and have people get what it is i’m trying to express. days that i’m afraid i’ll say them wrong and then no one except me will understand what it is i wanted to put down. because it means to much to get it right. to reach out and say: hey. you mean the world to me. i had a conversation with one of my longest and oldest friends earlier yesterday aftenoon. she and i have known each other since we were kids hammering out songs on two different pianos in an auditorium that is there still, but not quite the same. our conversation went like this: Her: one song can change you not everyone gets to go to narnia you know some of us get to listen to a song or a band or read something and get transformed while being in the same place it may take months? but it’s pretty much the equivalent of any change you can find in a story book i don’t know if i’m making sense but Me: no you are and i am a mess at work haha my makeup (don’t say sorry) Her: i just know that things can change you when people can’t reach you Me: (i put this on so that the damn thing could be ruined) Her: ahahah, make-up there is nothing wrong or weird with wanting to tell them that their song made things happen for you there is nothing wrong with having to sing it there is nothing wrong with being touched months ago, a health scare in the family got me thinking: it’s been over a decade, noelle grace. maybe you’ve got it all wrong. maybe you… maybe you’re pushing for something too hard. something that’s not meant to happen. maybe you should just stop and give up. set aside that keyboard. put away the words you match to the white and black keys. and then. well. hey. the universe throws a curveball in the guise of five amazing boys. and then something somehow clicks into place. and you realize: you can’t. not yet. how can you when you see them push and push and go out there, focused on their dreams. how can you say that you find them that amazing and not try. again. and again. and again. until you get to where you need to be." ===== Music: Noelle Pico Lyrics: Noelle Pico, Mags Forto just like a wake-up call two seconds too soon when i am startled out of sleeping and washed over in blue and my heart’s chasing this unnamed, fleeting feeling that’s gone off there with the evening as the sun peeks all over you and like a half-remembered dream i keep on thinking that i’ve messed up all the details that brought together truth and this ‘we’ of ours, a word left untranslated i wish i’d seen it, i would have seized it freeze-framed it so i wouldn’t have had to fall it was all sleight of hand, accidental trick, this crime of opportunity, my pockets emptied of affections i cannot really afford to really feel and what is worse is i can’t blame you, i can’t get mad or even shame you for an unintended something that neither of us would have known and i wonder do you see a half-made memory of me your eyes, that smile, your voice — calling out my name and i — i wonder how it’s fair at all to want to say goodbye we’ll chalk it up to déjà vu this love from me to the ghost of you and me and everything that we could have ever tried to be let’s not define ourselves by what we’re not, maybe one day we’ll time it right but for now let’s breathe and let go at the count of three

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14. Genesis 47-50 (Jacob Meets Pharaoh, Blesses Joseph’s Sons, Blesses His Own Sons & Dies)

Genesis 47-50 (Jacob Meets Pharaoh, Blesses Joseph’s Sons, Blesses His Own Sons & Dies)

Genesis 47 - Jacob Meets Pharaoh; the Family Settles In Egypt A. Jacob meets Pharaoh. 1. (1-4) The brothers ask for the land of Goshen. Then Joseph went and told Pharaoh, and said, “My father and my brothers, their flocks and their herds and all that they possess, have come from the land of Canaan; and indeed they are in the land of Goshen.” And he took five men from among his brothers and presented them to Pharaoh. Then Pharaoh said to his brothers, “What is your occupation?” And they said to Pharaoh, “Your servants are shepherds, both we and also our fathers.” And they said to Pharaoh, “We have come to dwell in the land, because your servants have no pasture for their flocks, for the famine is severe in the land of Canaan. Now therefore, please let your servants dwell in the land of Goshen.” 2. (5-6) Pharaoh gives them the best of the land. Then Pharaoh spoke to Joseph, saying, “Your father and your brothers have come to you. The land of Egypt is before you. Have your father and brothers dwell in the best of the land; let them dwell in the land of Goshen. And if you know any competent men among them, then make them chief herdsmen over my livestock.” a. Dwell in the best of the land: This blessing was all because of Joseph. He saved Egypt - and much of the world - from terrible famine, and now the whole family of Israel was blessed and received an inheritance because of Joseph. 3. (7-10) Jacob blesses Pharaoh. Then Joseph brought in his father Jacob and set him before Pharaoh; and Jacob blessed Pharaoh. Pharaoh said to Jacob, “How old are you?” And Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The days of the years of my pilgrimage are one hundred and thirty years; few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, and they have not attained to the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage.” So Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh. a. The days of the years of my pilgrimage are one hundred and thirty years: Jacob confessed he was on a pilgrimage. He knew that his real home was somewhere else: heaven. b. Few and evil have been the days of the years of my life: This was not a cynical statement by Jacob. He recognized that the general character of his life (lived in the flesh) and the length of his life did not compare both to eternity and to the lives of his ancestors. c. So Jacob blessed Pharaoh: Pharaoh acknowledged Jacob was a man of God by accepting his blessing. In the Egyptian religion, Pharaoh himself was thought to be a god. They considered Pharaoh the human embodiment of Ra, the sun god. This means that it was remarkable that he allowed Israel to bestow a blessing on him. 4. (11-12) Israel takes the best of the land. And Joseph situated his father and his brothers, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. Then Joseph provided his father, his brothers, and all his father’s household with bread, according to the number in their families. a. Joseph situated his father and his brothers: The family of Israel looked to Joseph, and Joseph only, as their source of provision and supply. B. Joseph deals with the famine. 1. (13-14) In the early years of the famine, money poured into the treasury of Egypt, because it was the only place to buy food. Now there was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very severe, so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan languished because of the famine. And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, for the grain which they bought; and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house. 2. (15-26) In the later years of the famine, Joseph arranged ways for the people to purchase food with whatever they have to give. So when the money failed in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came to Joseph and said, “Give us bread, for why should we die in your presence? For the money has failed.” Then Joseph said, “Give your livestock, and I will give you bread for your livestock, if the money is gone.” So they brought their livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread in exchange for the horses, the flocks, the cattle of the herds, and for the donkeys. Thus he fed them with bread in exchange for all their livestock that year. When that year had ended, they came to him the next year and said to him, “We will not hide from my lord that our money is gone; my lord also has our herds of livestock. There is nothing left in the sight of my lord but our bodies and our lands. Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be servants of Pharaoh; give us seed, that we may live and not die, that the land may not be desolate.” Then Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for every man of the Egyptians sold his field, because the famine was severe upon them. So the land became Pharaoh’s. And as for the people, he moved them into the cities, from one end of the borders of Egypt to the other end. Only the land of the priests he did not buy; for the priests had rations allotted to them by Pharaoh, and they ate their rations which Pharaoh gave them; therefore they did not sell their lands. Then Joseph said to the people, “Indeed I have bought you and your land this day for Pharaoh. Look, here is seed for you, and you shall sow the land. And it shall come to pass in the harvest that you shall give one-fifth to Pharaoh. Four-fifths shall be your own, as seed for the field and for your food, for those of your households and as food for your little ones.” So they said, “You have saved our lives; let us find favor in the sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh’s servants.” And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt to this day, that Pharaoh should have one-fifth, except for the land of the priests only, which did not become Pharaoh’s. a. So the land became Pharaoh’s: In the process, the power and wealth of Pharaoh was multiplied greatly. In times of national crisis the power of central government often increases. b. In the harvest that you shall give one-fifth to Pharaoh: Joseph wasn’t unfair. He fed the people when they would have starved, and in return asked for one-fifth (20%) annually from the produce of the land. Many people today would be happy with only 20% in total taxes. C. Israel anticipates his death. 1. (27) The multiplication of the family of Israel. So Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt, in the country of Goshen; and they had possessions there and grew and multiplied exceedingly. a. Grew and multiplied exceedingly: This was certainly true. In some 400 years, they became a nation of some two million or more people. b. Multiplied exceedingly: Henry Morris calculated the initial group of five (Jacob and his four wives) grew into a clan of about 100 in 50 years (the 100 includes the 70 of Genesis 46:27 plus a few wives of the sons not mentioned and grandchildren). That is a growth rate of just over 6% per year. At that rate, there would be several million descendants by the time of the Exodus 430 years later. 2. (28-31) Israel makes Joseph vow to bury him in Canaan. And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years. So the length of Jacob’s life was one hundred and forty-seven years. When the time drew near that Israel must die, he called his son Joseph and said to him, “Now if I have found favor in your sight, please put your hand under my thigh, and deal kindly and truly with me. Please do not bury me in Egypt, but let me lie with my fathers; you shall carry me out of Egypt and bury me in their burial place.” And he said, “I will do as you have said.” Then he said, “Swear to me.” And he swore to him. So Israel bowed himself on the head of the bed. a. Please do not bury me in Egypt, but let me lie with my fathers: Israel knew Egypt was not his home. He belonged in the land promised to he and his descendants. He clearly believed and understood he was the inheritor of Abraham’s covenant. Genesis 48 - Jacob Blesses Joseph’s Sons A. Jacob calls for his sons. 1. (1-4) Jacob’s remembers God’s promise. Now it came to pass after these things that Joseph was told, “Indeed your father is sick”; and he took with him his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. And Jacob was told, “Look, your son Joseph is coming to you”; and Israel strengthened himself and sat up on the bed. Then Jacob said to Joseph: “God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me, and said to me, ‘Behold, I will make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will make of you a multitude of people, and give this land to your descendants after you as an everlasting possession.’ “ a. God Almighty appeared to me at Luz: Luz is another name for Bethel, where Jacob first met God. Jacob vividly remembered this outstanding encounter with the Lord. b. Behold, I will make you fruitful and multiply you: Jacob’s phrasing is reminiscent of exact promises God made to Abraham in Genesis 17 (see Genesis 17:2, 17:6, and 17:8). Abraham was careful to pass down the exact words of God’s covenant with him to the inheritors of the covenant, because the exact words of God were important. 2. (5-6) Jacob adopts Joseph’s sons as his own. “And now your two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine. Your offspring whom you beget after them shall be yours; they will be called by the name of their brothers in their inheritance.” a. As Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine: Reuben and Simeon were the first and second born of Israel. Jacob received the two sons of Joseph as adopted into the family at the highest level (as if they were the first and second born). i. And, perhaps, they were something like replacements for Reuben and Simeon, who were in a sense disqualified from positions of status and leadership in Israel’s family because of their sin (Genesis 34:25, 35:22). b. They shall be mine: Jacob’s adoption of Manasseh and Ephraim explains why there are 12 tribes often listed in different combinations. Because of this adoption, there were actually 13 sons of Israel. The 12 were born, but Joseph was divided into two tribes. i. Therefore as the tribes are listed through the Old Testament, they can be arranged different ways and still remain 12 tribes. There are more than 20 different ways of listing the tribes in the Old Testament. ii. As a number, 12 is often associated with government or administration in God’s eyes. There are 12 tribes, 12 apostles, 12 princes of Ishmael, 12 pillars on Moses’ altar, 12 stones on the high priest’s breastplate, 12 cakes of showbread, 12 silver platters, silver bowls, and gold pans for the service of the tabernacle, 12 spies to search out the land, 12 memorial stones, 12 governors under Solomon, 12 stones in Elijah’s altar, 12 in each group of musicians and singers for Israel’s worship, 12 hours in a day, 12 months in a year, 12 Ephesian men filled with the Holy Spirit, 12,000 from 12 tribes sealed and preserved through the tribulation, heaven has 12 gates of 12 pearls, and 12 angels at the gates, the New Jerusalem has 12 foundations, each with the names of the 12 apostles of the Lamb, it’s length, breadth, and height are all 12,000 furlongs, and the tree of life in heaven has 12 fruits. The number 12 is special to God. 3. (7) Jacob concludes his testimony with an eye to his soon death. “But as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died beside me in the land of Canaan on the way, when there was but a little distance to go to Ephrath; and I buried her there on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem).” B. Jacob blesses Manasseh and Ephraim. 1. (8-12) Jacob calls for Joseph’s sons, to bless them. Then Israel saw Joseph’s sons, and said, “Who are these?” And Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom God has given me in this place.” And he said, “Please bring them to me, and I will bless them.” Now the eyes of Israel were dim with age, so that he could not see. Then Joseph brought them near him, and he kissed them and embraced them. And Israel said to Joseph, “I had not thought to see your face; but in fact, God has also shown me your offspring!” So Joseph brought them from beside his knees, and he bowed down with his face to the earth. a. These are my sons, whom God has given me in this place: We remember that the names of Joseph’s sons were Manasseh (the firstborn) and Ephraim (the younger). The name Manasseh means forgetfulness, and the name Ephraim means fruitfulness (Genesis 41:51-52). b. He bowed down with his face to the earth: Joseph lived his own life as a high official of Egypt for many years, and had no contact with his father during that time. Yet it did not diminish the reverence he had towards his father. 2. (13-14) Jacob puts the favored hand on the second-born, despite Joseph’s efforts. And Joseph took them both, Ephraim with his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh with his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near him. Then Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh’s head, guiding his hands knowingly, for Manasseh was the firstborn. a. Ephraim with his right hand toward Israel’s left hand: The right hand in the Bible always has the idea of the favored position because generally speaking, the right hand is the hand of strength and skill. i. The right hand is associated with God’s strength (Exodus 15:6), favor (Psalm 16:11), and help (Psalm 20:6). This is why Jesus is described as sitting at the right hand of God the Father (Mark 14:62). b. Guiding his hands knowingly: Israel knew exactly what he intended to do. He deliberately chose the second-born to receive a greater blessing than the firstborn. 3. (15-16) The blessing of Jacob upon Manasseh and Ephraim. And he blessed Joseph, and said: “God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has fed me all my life long to this day, the Angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; let my name be named upon them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.” a. And he blessed Joseph: Israel gave the same blessing to both sons, but the son of the right hand received a greater proportion of the blessing. i. This was fulfilled in Israel’s history. Both tribes were blessed, but Ephraim was greater as a tribe, even to the point where the name Ephraim was used to refer to the whole northern nation of Israel (see examples in Isaiah 7:8, 7:17, and 11:13). b. The God who has fed me all my life long to this day: Jacob’s testimony was a testimony of grace, not personal merit. He did not say how faithful he was to God, but how faithful God was to him. i. The phrase, “the God who has fed me” is literally “The God who has shepherded me.” This is the first mention in the Bible of God as a shepherd to His people. 4. (17-20) Jacob answers Joseph’s objection about the order of blessing. Now when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him; so he took hold of his father’s hand to remove it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. And Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father, for this one is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head.” But his father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know. He also shall become a people, and he also shall be great; but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his descendants shall become a multitude of nations.” So he blessed them that day, saying, “By you Israel will bless, saying, ‘May God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh!’ “ And thus he set Ephraim before Manasseh. a. This one is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head: As the two sons of Joseph stood before Israel, the older (Manasseh) was before Israel’s right hand and the younger (Ephraim) was before Israel’s left hand. Joseph positioned them intentionally so the older could receive the right hand blessing according to custom. Yet Isaac deliberately crossed his hands and put his right hand on Ephraim’s head and his left hand on Manasseh’s head. b. For this one is the firstborn…truly his younger brother shall be greater than he: Ephraim was not the firstborn but God chose him to take the position of firstborn. Jeremiah 31:9 described this: For I am a Father to Israel, and Ephraim is My firstborn (Jeremiah 31:9). i. This shows how the idea of firstborn in the Bible is often a position of pre-eminence, not necessarily meaning “first out of the womb.” ii. David had the position of firstborn, even though he was the youngest son (1 Samuel 16:11 and Psalm 89:27). iii. Jesus has the pre-eminent position of firstborn (Colossians 1:15), though this does not mean Jesus was literally the first “born” creature of God, because Jesus was not created. 5. (21-22) Jacob makes a personal bequest to Joseph. Then Israel said to Joseph, “Behold, I am dying, but God will be with you and bring you back to the land of your fathers. Moreover I have given to you one portion above your brothers, which I took from the hand of the Amorite with my sword and my bow.” a. Behold, I am dying: This was truly a passing of the torch from Israel to Joseph. Israel was the last of the three great patriarchs to pass from the scene. i. “If Abraham dies, there is Isaac; and if Isaac dies, there is Jacob; and if Jacob dies, there is Joseph; and if Joseph dies, Ephraim and Manasseh survive. The Lord shall never lack a champion to bear his standard high among the sons of men. Only let us pray God to raise up more faithful ministers day and night. We have plenty of a sort, but, oh, for more that will weigh out sixteen ounces to the pound of gospel in such a way that people will receive it. We have too much of fine language, too much of florid eloquence, and little full and plain gospel preaching, but God will keep up the apostolic succession, never fear of that. When Stephen is dying, Paul is not far off. When Elijah is taken up, he leaves his mantle behind him.” (Spurgeon) b. One portion above your brothers: This referred to Joseph being father of two tribes, while each of his brothers only fathered one. c. Which I took from the hand of the Amorite: Apparently, while still in Canaan, Jacob battled for control of a portion of land from the Amorites, and he deeded the land to Joseph and his descendants. The descendants of Joseph would take this land some 400 years later. d. God will be with you and bring you back to the land of your fathers: This completed a wonderful work regarding Jacob’s recognition of God’s presence his life. · I am with you (Genesis 28:15): God gives the young believer every possible assurance of His presence and grace · I will be with you (Genesis 31:3): God expects the growing believer to trust He will be with us, even when we only have the promise of His presence · God…has been with me (Genesis 31:5): God gives a glorious testimony to the mature believer, able to say how God has been with us, even when we haven’t felt His presence in the way we wished · God will be with you (Genesis 48:21): God gives the mature believer the opportunity to encourage others with the promise of God’s presence C. Joseph as a picture of Jesus (list continued from the end of Genesis 41). 35. His brethren were driven out of their own land. 36. In his second appearing, he did not first go to his brothers; they came to him. 37. He knew his brethren even while unknown and unrecognized by them. 38. He blessed his brethren without their knowledge. 39. He wanted all of his brethren to come to him. 40. There was a significant time gap between his initial relationship with his brothers and his second relationship to his brothers. 41. He his brothers a way of deliverance through substitution. 42. His “second coming” to his brothers had two appearances. He made himself known to his brethren at his second appearing to them. 43. He was revealed as a man of compassion. 44. His brothers repented of rejecting him, with great wonder and tears. 45. He allowed no fellowship (as in eating together) until his brothers repented and he revealed himself. 46. His brethren went forth to proclaim his glory. 47. He made provision for his brethren. 48. He prepared a place for his brethren, and he received them into it. 49. He brought Jew and Gentile together in the land. Genesis 49 - The Blessing of the Sons of Jacob A. The cryptic blessings. 1. (1-2) What will befall the sons of Jacob in the last days. And Jacob called his sons and said, “Gather together, that I may tell you what shall befall you in the last days: Gather together and hear, you sons of Jacob, And listen to Israel your father.” a. Jacob called his sons: Jacob, in what amounted to his last significant act as a patriarch and as the heir to Abraham and Isaac, will here pronounce one-by-one a blessing upon each son. b. What shall befall you in the last days: Some of what follows are not so much blessings as they are prophecies regarding what God will do with these tribes in the future. i. This is the first conscious prophecy spoken by man in the Bible. There were many prophecies announced by God (such as the promise of the triumph of the seed of the woman in Genesis 3:15), and other veiled prophecies by men, but this is the first knowing prophecy of the Bible. ii. Jewish traditions tell us that as Jacob was about to bless his sons he was ready to tell them the “great secret concerning the end of time.” But at that moment, the glory of God visited and left just as quickly, taking all trace of the knowledge of the great mystery, so he couldn’t tell them. Again, just an interesting legend. c. You sons of Jacob, and listen to Israel your father: At the very beginning of the blessing, Jacob realized he was both Jacob and Israel, and his sons are sons of each. This was a place of spiritual maturity, realizing both what God made him (Israel) and what he had to battle against (Jacob). 2. (3-4) Reuben: You shall not excel. “Reuben, you are my firstborn, My might and the beginning of my strength, The excellency of dignity and the excellency of power. Unstable as water, you shall not excel, Because you went up to your father’s bed; Then you defiled it; He went up to my couch.” a. You are my firstborn: As the firstborn of the family Reuben had claim to the inheritance rights of the firstborn, but he forfeited it through pride (the excellency of dignity) and immorality (you defiled it). i. Reuben’s immorality with his father’s concubine Bilhah (the mother of his brothers Dan and Naphtali) is recorded in Genesis 35:22. b. Unstable as water, you shall not excel: Because of Reuben’s instability the birthright was divided. Usually the firstborn was the spiritual and social leader of the clan; but among the sons of Israel the rights of blessing, priesthood, and ruling authority were divided rather than being centralized in one. i. Though we see the great wisdom of God in decentralizing authority among the sons of Israel, Reuben paid a high price for his instability. As much as anything, God looks for stable character in those who will lead His people. c. You shall not excel: The tribe of Reuben never did excel. No prophet, no judge, or no king came from the tribe of Reuben. Reuben is an example of how the first can be last (Matthew 19:30). 3. (5-7) Simeon and Levi: I will…scatter them in Israel. “Simeon and Levi are brothers; Instruments of cruelty are in their dwelling place. Let not my soul enter their council; Let not my honor be united to their assembly; For in their anger they slew a man, And in their self-will they hamstrung an ox. Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; And their wrath, for it is cruel! I will divide them in Jacob And scatter them in Israel.” a. Simeon and Levi are brothers: The second-born son Simeon and the third-born son Levi received the same blessing for the same evil deed. They were instruments of cruelty when they wiped out all the men of Shechem in retaliation for the rape of their sister Dinah (Genesis 34:25-29). i. Jacob, perhaps in weakness, did nothing at the time except register a small, self-centered complaint (Genesis 34:30). Yet he (and the Lord) remembered this event. This illustrates the principle that the sins of our past can come back and haunt us. Even when forgiven, they may carry consequences we must face for a lifetime. b. Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce: The real problem with Simeon and Levi was their anger (in their anger they slew a man). Their anger was sin because it was rooted in self-will (in their self-will they hamstrung an ox). i. The Bible speaks of a godly anger (Be angry and do not sin, Ephesians 4:26) and an ungodly anger (Let all bitterness, wrath, anger…be put away from you, Ephesians 4:31). Often, the difference between a godly, righteous anger and an ungodly anger is self-will. c. I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel: The prophecy of dividing and scattering turned out to be a curse for Simeon. The tribe of Simeon was the weakest numerically of the 12 (Numbers 26:14) and shared an allotment of land with Judah (Joshua 19:1). i. The tribe of Simeon became small during the wilderness wanderings. They started out from Egypt being the third largest tribe (Numbers 1:23), but some 35 years later, at the second wilderness census of Israel, 63% of the tribe perished and they became the smallest tribe (Numbers 26:14). d. I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel: The prophecy of dividing and scattering became a blessing for Levi. Because of the faithfulness of this tribe during the rebellion of the golden calf (Exodus 32:26-28), it was scattered as a blessing throughout the whole nation of Israel. They received no large tract of land, for the Lord was their inheritance, not land (Joshua 13:33). i. So both Simeon and Levi were scattered, but one as a blessing and the other as a curse. ii. The American author Washington Irving said: “It lightens the stroke to draw near to him who handles the rod.” When we suffer from our sin, we should draw near to God and anticipate that in mercy He will turn suffering into blessing. 4. (8-12) Judah: The scepter shall not depart from Judah. “Judah, you are he whom your brothers shall praise; Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies; Your father’s children shall bow down before you. Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, you have gone up. He bows down, he lies down as a lion; And as a lion, who shall rouse him? The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall be the obedience of the people. Binding his donkey to the vine, And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine, He washed his garments in wine, And his clothes in the blood of grapes. His eyes are darker than wine, And his teeth whiter than milk.” a. Judah, you are he whom your brothers shall praise: Judah wasn’t a completely exemplary character. He suggested a profit motive in getting rid of Joseph (Genesis 37:26). He did not deal faithfully with his daughter-in-law Tamar (Genesis 38:26), and he had sex with her as a prostitute (Genesis 38:18). But he showed good character when he interceded and offered himself as a substitute for Joseph (Genesis 44:18-34). Overall, this blessing is an example of the richness of God’s grace. i. Jewish tradition says after Judah heard what Jacob had to say to Reuben, Simeon, and Levi, he was afraid because of the evil he did. b. You are he whom your brothers shall praise…as a lion…the scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet…to Him shall be the obedience of the people: Each of these refer to the ruling position Judah will have among his brethren. He inherited the leadership aspect of the firstborn’s inheritance. This leadership position among his brothers meant that the eventual kings of Israel would come from Judah and that the Messiah – God’s ultimate leader – would eventually come from the tribe of Judah. i. In Revelation 5:5, Jesus is called the Lion of the tribe of Judah. ii. “The firstborn normally had two rights. First, he became the leader of the family, the new patriarch. Second, he was entitled to a double share of the inheritance, receiving twice as much as any of the other brothers.” (Boice) c. Until Shiloh comes: The leadership prophecy took some 640 years to fulfill in part with the reign of David, first of Judah’s dynasty of kings. The prophecy took some 1600 years to completely fulfill in Jesus. Jesus is referred to as Shiloh, the name meaning, He whose right it is and a title anciently understood to speak of the Messiah. i. From David until the Herods, a prince of Judah was head over Israel (even Daniel in captivity). The promise was that Israel would keep this scepter until Shiloh comes. Even under their foreign masters during this period, Israel had a limited right to self-rule, until a.d. 7. At that time, under Herod and the Romans, their right to capital punishment – a small but remaining element of their self-governance – was taken away. ii. At the time, the rabbis considered it a disaster of unfulfilled Scripture. Seemingly, the last vestige of the scepter had passed from Judah, and they did not see the Messiah. Reportedly, rabbis walked the streets of Jerusalem and said, “Woe unto us, for the scepter has been taken away from Judah, and Shiloh has not come.” Yet God’s word had not been broken. iii. Certainly, Jesus was alive then. Perhaps this was the very year He was 12 years old and discussed God’s Word in the temple with the scholars of His day. Perhaps He impressed them with His understanding of this very issue. d. Binding his donkey to the vine: This blessing also contained a description of Judah’s material abundance (the vine…the choice vine). Judah’s land was great wine-growing country. 5. (13) Zebulun: A haven for ships. “Zebulun shall dwell by the haven of the sea; He shall become a haven for ships, And his border shall adjoin Sidon.” a. Zebulun: Jacob now skipped the birth order, moving to the tenth-born and ninth-born sons, but keeping his focus on the sons born of Leah. i. The tribe of Zebulun was noted for its faithfulness to David, supplying the largest number of soldiers to David’s army of any single tribe: Of Zebulun there were fifty thousand who went out to battle, expert in war with all weapons of war, stouthearted men who could keep ranks (1 Chronicles 12:33). b. He shall become a haven for ships: The tribe of Zebulun seems to have settled the piece of land sitting between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Galilee. Literally, shall dwell by the haven of the sea can be translated looking towards the sea. Zebulun did look to the sea, both to the east and west. 6. (14-15) Issachar: A strong donkey. “Issachar is a strong donkey, Lying down between two burdens; He saw that rest was good, And that the land was pleasant; He bowed his shoulder to bear a burden, And became a band of slaves.” a. Issachar is a strong donkey: Issachar was a large tribe - third in size according to the Numbers 26 census. b. And became a band of slaves: Because of their size and abundance, they were often targets of oppressive foreign armies who put them into servitude. Thus, they became a band of slaves. i. “The meaning seems to be that Issachar was strong, but docile and lazy. He would enjoy the good land assigned him but would not strive for it. Therefore, eventually he would be pressed into servitude and the mere bearing of burdens for his masters.” (Leupold) 7. (16-18) Dan: A serpent by the way. “Dan shall judge his people As one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, A viper by the path, That bites the horse’s heels So that its rider shall fall backward. I have waited for your salvation, O Lord!” a. Dan shall judge his people: The tribe of Dan did judge his people. They supplied one of the most prominent of the Judges, Samson (Judges 13:2). b. Dan shall be a serpent by the way: Dan was a troublesome tribe. They introduced idolatry into Israel (Judges 18:30). Jeroboam set up one of his idolatrous golden calves in Dan (1 Kings 12:26-30) and later Dan became a center of idol worship in Israel (Amos 8:14). i. Some think the serpent by the way refers to the idea that the Antichrist would come from the tribe of Dan (based on Daniel 11:37 and Jeremiah 8:16). ii. Dan is left out of the listing of tribes regarding the 144,000 in Revelation 7:5-8. But Dan is the first tribe listed in Ezekiel’s millennial roll call of the tribes (Ezekiel 48). This is a remarkable sign of God’s redemption. c. I have waited for your salvation, O Lord: The Hebrew word for salvation is “yeshuwah.” At this point in the prophecy, when Jacob was near death, he called out for God’s salvation. Knowingly or not, Jacob called out for Jesus. 8. (19) Gad: He shall triumph at last. “Gad, a troop shall tramp upon him, But he shall triumph at last.” a. Gad: The tribe of Gad supplied many fine troops for David (1 Chronicles 12:14). b. A troop shall tramp upon him: In the days of Jeremiah (among other times) foreign armies oppressed Gad (Jeremiah 49:1). 9. (20) Asher: He shall yield royal dainties. “Bread from Asher shall be rich, And he shall yield royal dainties.” a. Bread from Asher shall be rich: In Deuteronomy 33:24, Moses again took up this prophecy regarding Asher: Asher is most blessed of sons; let him be favored by his brothers, and let him dip his foot in oil. b. He shall yield royal dainties: Apparently, the land eventually occupied by Asher was good enough to bring not only necessities, but also luxuries. 10. (21) Naphtali: He gives goodly words. “Naphtali is a deer let loose; He uses beautiful words.” a. Naphtali: Naphtali’s land was in a key portion near the Sea of Galilee, the region where Jesus did much of His teaching and ministry. i. Now when Jesus heard that John had been put in prison, He departed to Galilee. And leaving Nazareth, He came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the regions of Zebulun and Naphtali, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying: “The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, by the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles: The people who sat in darkness have seen a great light, and upon those who sat in the region and shadow of death light has dawned” (Matthew 4:12-16). b. He uses beautiful words: Because so much of the ministry of Jesus took place in the region of Naphtali, this was fittingly said of him. 11. (22-26) Joseph: A fruitful bough. “Joseph is a fruitful bough, A fruitful bough by a well; His branches run over the wall. The archers have bitterly grieved him, Shot at him and hated him. But his bow remained in strength, And the arms of his hands were made strong By the hands of the Mighty God of Jacob (From there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel), By the God of your father who will help you, And by the Almighty who will bless you With blessings of heaven above, Blessings of the deep that lies beneath, Blessings of the breasts and of the womb. The blessings of your father Have excelled the blessings of my ancestors, Up to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills. They shall be on the head of Joseph, And on the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brothers.” a. Joseph is a fruitful bough: This was both a description of Joseph’s life and a personal blessing concerning his descendants. In a sense, Joseph’s tribes were already blessed when his sons received their blessing in Genesis 48. b. The archers have bitterly grieved him: Though Joseph was shot at and hated, he was still a fruitful bough. This was because the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the Mighty God of Jacob. The idea is that God’s hands were on Joseph’s hands, giving him strength and skill to work the bow expertly. God was there, even when Joseph did not know it. c. The Almighty who will bless you: Joseph was certainly blessed in his posterity. His tribes were some of the most populous. In this sense, he received the material blessing, the double portion aspect of the inheritance of the firstborn. d. The blessings of your father have excelled the blessings of my ancestors: Jacob could say this because he was, for much of his life, a scoundrel. Now at the end of his days, he saw just how good God was to him. He was forgiven much and loved much (Luke 7:47). e. The Mighty God of Jacob: In his words about Joseph, Jacob listed five great titles for God. These titles show that Jacob did come to an understanding of who God is. · The Mighty God of Jacob · The Shepherd · The Stone of Israel · The God of your father · The Almighty i. This is much better than when Jacob referred to God as the God of Abraham or the Fear of his father Isaac (Genesis 31:53). Now he knows who God is for himself. 12. (27) Benjamin: a ravenous wolf. “Benjamin is a ravenous wolf; In the morning he shall devour the prey, And at night he shall divide the spoil.” a. Benjamin is a ravenous wolf: This was the tribe with a reputation for fierceness. b. He shall devour the prey: To see the great extent of this, look at Ehud (Judges 3:15-23), Saul (1 Samuel 9:1, 14:47-52), and Paul (Acts 8:1-3). The cruelty of the tribe in general is seen in Judges 19 and 20. 13. (28) Jacob concludes his blessing of the sons. All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father spoke to them. And he blessed them; he blessed each one according to his own blessing. a. And he blessed them: Some of the things mentioned regarding these tribes may seem a bit cloudy, but only because we may not know exactly their fulfillment until the age to come. b. Each one according to his own blessing: Each son and each tribe that would come from them had their own calling and destiny. Yet the remarkable promise remained – that they each would survive and grow into significant tribes, without one perishing during the centuries to come in Egypt. B. Jacob’s death. 1. (29-32) Jacob makes his sons promise to bury him in Canaan. Then he charged them and said to them: “I am to be gathered to my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite as a possession for a burial place. There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife, there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife, and there I buried Leah. The field and the cave that is there were purchased from the sons of Heth.” a. I am to be gathered to my people: Jacob was confident that his father Isaac and his grandfather Abraham lived on, and that he would be gathered to them. b. Bury me with my fathers: Though Jacob was now in Egypt, he knew he was not an Egyptian. He was a son of the promise, an heir of God’s covenant with Abraham, and he asked to be buried in the land promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob by covenant. c. In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah: Egypt was filled with magnificent tombs, and because of the respect Jacob had he could have been buried like a Pharaoh. But he wanted to be buried in an obscure cave in Canaan, because Canaan was the land of promise. 2. (33) The death of Jacob. And when Jacob had finished commanding his sons, he drew his feet up into the bed and breathed his last, and was gathered to his people. a. Breathed his last: This ends the life of the last of the great patriarchs, of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Yet the work and plan of God did not end. It continued through men and generations to come. b. And was gathered to his people: There are said to be three basic attitudes towards death. Among the ancient Greeks, they held to what can be called the death-accepting view. Our modern world is sold out to a death-denying approach. The Biblical approach is the death-defying attitude. Genesis 50 - The Burial of Jacob; the Death of Joseph A. Jacob is buried in Canaan. 1. (1-3) Jacob is embalmed and mourned. Then Joseph fell on his father’s face, and wept over him, and kissed him. And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel. Forty days were required for him, for such are the days required for those who are embalmed; and the Egyptians mourned for him seventy days. a. Joseph fell on his father’s face, and wept over him, and kissed him: The passing of Jacob in the presence of his sons was a deeply moving and dramatic scene. b. The Egyptians mourned him seventy days: Jacob was mourned for 70 days among the whole nation of Egypt. A royal mourning period in Egypt was 72 days. Jacob was obviously a greatly honored man. 2. (4-14) Jacob’s body is brought to Canaan, and he is buried next to Leah, the wife who blessed him with his first four sons. And when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spoke to the household of Pharaoh, saying, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, please speak in the hearing of Pharaoh, saying, ‘My father made me swear, saying, “Behold, I am dying; in my grave which I dug for myself in the land of Canaan, there you shall bury me.” Now therefore, please let me go up and bury my father, and I will come back.’“ And Pharaoh said, “Go up and bury your father, as he made you swear.” So Joseph went up to bury his father; and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, as well as all the house of Joseph, his brothers, and his father’s house. Only their little ones, their flocks, and their herds they left in the land of Goshen. And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen, and it was a very great gathering. Then they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, and they mourned there with a great and very solemn lamentation. He observed seven days of mourning for his father. And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning at the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a deep mourning of the Egyptians.” Therefore its name was called Abel Mizraim, which is beyond the Jordan. So his sons did for him just as he had commanded them. For his sons carried him to the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, before Mamre, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite as property for a burial place. And after he had buried his father, Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers and all who went up with him to bury his father. a. Joseph went up to bury his father: This was a dramatic burial. The entire clan gathered together to pay tribute to the man who was the last link with the patriarchs. The life of this man’s grandfather overlapped with the sons of Noah. i. “Luther remarks that there is no burial recorded in the Scriptures quite as honorable as this or with such wealth of detail.” (Leupold) b. They mourned there with a great and very solemn lamentation: This was, no doubt, a day of rededication of the sons of Israel to the God of Israel, the God of the great covenant made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Their dedication to the God of Israel would be tested over the next many hundred years, but would survive. B. Joseph comforts his brothers’ fears. 1. (15) The fears of Joseph’s brothers. When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “Perhaps Joseph will hate us, and may actually repay us for all the evil which we did to him.” a. Perhaps Joseph will hate us: The brothers feared that perhaps Joseph would turn on them after Jacob’s death. Knowing human nature, this wasn’t an unfounded concern. b. And may actually repay us for all the evil which we did to him: Here they freely acknowledged all the evil which they did. What they worried about was justice. They feared righteous retribution. Joseph, with his high status and prestige in Egypt, was certainly capable of bringing this retribution. 2. (16-18) The unlikely story of Joseph’s brothers. So they sent messengers to Joseph, saying, “Before your father died he commanded, saying, ‘Thus you shall say to Joseph: “I beg you, please forgive the trespass of your brothers and their sin; for they did evil to you.” ‘ Now, please, forgive the trespass of the servants of the God of your father.” And Joseph wept when they spoke to him. Then his brothers also went and fell down before his face, and they said, “Behold, we are your servants.” a. Before your father died he commanded: This story was probably made up. They didn’t feel they had the moral right to ask Joseph for mercy, since they sinned against him so greatly. So they put the request for mercy in the mouth of their honored and dead father. b. Joseph wept when they spoke to him: Joseph probably wept because it seemed that his brothers thought so little of him and they doubted his character so greatly. c. Fell down before his face, and they said, “Behold, we are your servants”: They backed up their plea for mercy with a genuine display of humility. 3. (19-21) Joseph comforts his brothers. Joseph said to them, “Do not be afraid, for am I in the place of God? But as for you, you meant evil against me; but God meant it for good, in order to bring it about as it is this day, to save many people alive. Now therefore, do not be afraid; I will provide for you and your little ones.” And he comforted them and spoke kindly to them. a. Am I in the place of God? Joseph first understood he was not in the place of God. It wasn’t his job to bring retribution upon his brothers. If the Lord chose to punish them, He would have to find an instrument other than Joseph. i. From a human perspective, Joseph had the right and the ability to bring retribution upon his brothers, but he knew God was God and he was not. Such retribution was God’s place, not Joseph’s. b. As for you, you meant evil against me; but God meant it for good: Joseph did not romanticize the wrong his brothers did. He plainly said, “You meant evil against me.” Although this was true, it was not the greatest truth. The greatest truth was “God meant it for good.” i. Every Christian should be able to see the overarching and overruling hand of God in their life; to know that no matter what evil man brings against us, God can use it for good. ii. Joseph did not have the text of Romans 8:28, but he had the truth of it: And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose. Sadly, many of us who have the text do not have the truth. iii. Ultimately, our lives are not in the hands of men, but in the hands of God, who overrules all things for His glory. iv. There was an old minister who had a unique gift to minister to the distressed and discouraged. In his Bible, he carried an old bookmark woven of silk threads into a motto. The back of it, where the threads were knotted and tied, was a hopeless tangle. He would take the bookmark out and show the troubled person this side of the bookmark and ask them to make sense of it. They never could. Then the pastor would turn it over, and on the front were white letters against a solid background saying, “God is love.” When events in our life seem tangled and meaningless, it is because we can see only one side of the tapestry. c. To save many people alive: This was the immediate good in the situation. If this large family did not come to Egypt and live it would have perished in the famine. Had the family barely survived, it would have assimilated into the Canaanite tribes surrounding it. Only by coming to Egypt could they be preserved and grow into a distinct nation. i. As said before, if Joseph’s brothers never sold him to the Midianites, then Joseph never went to Egypt. If Joseph never went to Egypt, he was never sold to Potiphar. If he was never sold to Potiphar, Potiphar’s wife never falsely accused him of rape. If Potiphar’s wife never falsely accused him of rape, then he was never put in prison. If he was never put in prison, he never met the baker and butler of Pharaoh. If he never met the baker and butler of Pharaoh, he never interpreted their dreams. If he never interpreted their dreams, he never got to interpret Pharaoh’s dream. If he never got to interpret Pharaoh’s dream, he never became prime minister. If he never became prime minister, he never wisely administrated for the severe famine coming upon the region. If he never wisely administrated for the severe famine coming upon the region, then his family back in Canaan perished from the famine. If his family back in Canaan perished from the famine, then the Messiah could not come forth from a dead family. If the Messiah could not come forth, then Jesus never came. If Jesus never came, then we are all dead in our sins and without hope in this world. We are grateful for God’s great and wise plan. d. And he comforted them and spoke kindly to them: Because Joseph trusted the overarching hand of God, even in all the evil that came upon him through his brothers, he showed the love and compassion to them he did. i. Often, the problem we have in loving others and in freeing ourselves from bitterness we may have towards them is really a problem of not knowing who God is and trusting Him to be who He says He is. e. I will provide for you and your little ones: Joseph’s love for his brothers was shown not only in feelings and words, but also in practical action. He actually did provide for his brothers and their families. C. The death of Joseph. 1. (22-24) Joseph is still in Egypt, but his heart is in Canaan. So Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he and his father’s household. And Joseph lived one hundred and ten years. Joseph saw Ephraim’s children to the third generation. The children of Machir, the son of Manasseh, were also brought up on Joseph’s knees. And Joseph said to his brethren, “I am dying; but God will surely visit you, and bring you out of this land to the land of which He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.” a. God will surely visit you and bring you out of this land to the land which He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob: Joseph was the human agent most responsible for bringing this family to Egypt. Yet he knew that because of the covenant God had made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, this would not be their resting place. They were headed - eventually - back to Canaan. 2. (25-26) The death and embalming of Joseph. Then Joseph took an oath from the children of Israel, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones from here.” So Joseph died, being one hundred and ten years old; and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt. a. He was put in a coffin in Egypt: According to this passage and Hebrews 11:22, Joseph was never buried. His coffin laid above ground for the 400 or so years until it was taken back to Canaan. It was a silent witness for all those years that Israel was going back to the Promised Land, just as God said. i. All during that time, when a child of Israel saw Joseph’s coffin and asked what it was there for and why it was not buried, they could be answered, “Because the great man Joseph did not want to be buried in Egypt, but in the Promised Land God will one day lead us to.” b. You shall carry up my bones from here: This promise was fulfilled some 400 years later, when Israel left Egypt (Exodus 13:19) This command showed that Joseph’s heart was in the Promised Land. It also proved him to be a man of great faith, trusting in things not yet seen (Hebrews 11:22). i. Some promises of God take a long time to fulfill, and we must persevere in trusting God. George Mueller was a remarkable man of faith who ran orphanages in England. In a sermon preached when he was 75 years old, he said 30,000 times in his 54 years as a Christian he received the answer to prayer on the same day he prayed it. But not all his prayers were answered so quickly. He told of one prayer that he brought to God about 20,000 times over more than 11 years, and he still trusted God for the answer: “I hope in God, I pray on, and look for the answer. Therefore, beloved brethren and sisters, go on waiting upon God, go on praying.” ii. Joseph died looking forward to God’s unfolding plan of redemption, and that is where the Book of Genesis - the Book of Beginnings - ends. It concludes looking forward to the continuation of God’s eternal, loving, wise plan.

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15. Deuteronomy 9-16 (Worshiping God, How to be Blessed, & Living for God and People)

Deuteronomy 9-16 (Worshiping God, How to be Blessed, & Living for God and People)

Deuteronomy 9 - The Battles Ahead and the Failures Behind A. Considering the battles ahead. 1. (1-2) The difficulty of the battles ahead. Hear, O Israel: You are to cross over the Jordan today, and go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than yourself, cities great and fortified up to heaven, a people great and tall, the descendants of the Anakim, whom you know, and of whom you heard it said, “Who can stand before the descendants of Anak?” a. Go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than yourself: God was leading Israel into something too big for them. It was a challenge they could only meet if they trusted in God. b. Cities great and fortified up to heaven: The cities they would battle against were mighty and the people they would battle against were great and tall. Yet God had called them to enter into this seemingly impossible battle. i. There was no way Israel could do this in the flesh, or on their strength. God commanded them to do something that was just beyond their ability to do in themselves. ii. Obviously, God did not inspire Israel with a false sense of confidence or hype. He wanted them to realistically know what the battle ahead would be like. iii. In the same way, Jesus never calls us with hype or false promises that would lead to false confidence. He plainly says, If anyone desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. (Matthew 16:24) Jesus let us know right from the beginning that following Him would require giving God everything. 2. (3) Why victory is possible with the difficult battles ahead. Therefore understand today that the LORD your God is He who goes over before you as a consuming fire. He will destroy them and bring them down before you; so you shall drive them out and destroy them quickly, as the LORD has said to you. a. Understand today: Just as much as Israel had to understand the impossibility of the battle on their own, they also must understand the certainty of victory in the LORD. b. The LORD your God is He who goes before you as a consuming fire. He will destroy them: It was a battle too big for Israel, but not too big for the LORD. Israel could know both facts: That in themselves, the job was impossible (without Me you can do nothing, John 15:5), but in God the battle could not be lost (I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me, Philippians 4;13). c. He will destroy them: God was also calling Israel to a partnership in winning the battles. He will destroy them does not contradict you shall quickly drive them out and destroy them quickly. Was God going to do it, or was Israel going to do it? Both, really - God was calling Israel to workers together with Him (2 Corinthians 6:1). d. Destroy them quickly: God did not want the Israelites to show mercy to the Canaanites. He wanted Israel to be a unique army of judgment against the Canaanites and their culture, which was so depraved that it deserved this kind of judgment. i. Archaeologist William F. Albright, in his book From the Stone Age to Christianity, describes what the primary focus of Canaanite religion was: sex. The featured idols recovered by archaeologists are hundreds of nude female forms in sexually suggestive forms, as well as male idols associated with homosexual cults (From the Stone Age to Christianity, pages 232-235). ii. “Thus the Canaanites, with their orgiastic nature-worship, their cult of fertility in the form of serpent symbols and sensuous nudity, and their gross mythology, were replaced by Israel.” (Albright, page 281). 3. (4-6) The danger of pride when the LORD gives them victory. Do not think in your heart, after the LORD your God has cast them out before you, saying, “Because of my righteousness the LORD has brought me in to possess this land”; but it is because of the wickedness of these nations that the LORD is driving them out from before you. It is not because of your righteousness or the uprightness of your heart that you go in to possess their land, but because of the wickedness of these nations that the LORD your God drives them out from before you, and that He may fulfill the word which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Therefore understand that the LORD your God is not giving you this good land to possess because of your righteousness, for you are a stiff-necked people. a. Do not think in your heart: Israel’s temptation to pride did not come in something they would actually say. Long before we will say proud words we think proud thoughts in our heart. Therefore Israel must not think in their heart that it was because of their righteousness that the LORD has given them the land. i. This is a preview of salvation by grace through faith, in which we cannot think that it is our righteousness that has obtained it. Instead, it is the righteousness we have received in Jesus Christ. ii. When we receive any gift from God, we are tempted to take it and use it to glorify ourselves. Israel must not do this in regard to the gift of the Promised Land, and we must not do it in regard to any gift the LORD would give us. iii. Sayings or proverbs of the ancient world reflect man’s desire to earn his own righteousness and justification before God. “I will not have heaven for nothing” said one, and another said “Give me heaven, for Thou owe it to me.” The same idea is expressed in an old Roman Catholic teaching that dying men should pray, “LORD, join my righteousness with Christ’s righteousness” as if the two together could accomplish something. Instead, we look to the righteousness of Jesus alone. b. For you are a stiff-necked people: The idea is that Israel, like a rebellious domestic animal, would stiffen its neck against the yoke God would put upon it. They would not submit to God’s direction in their life. i. Stiff-necked “is a figurative expression for stubborn, intractable, obdurate, and hardheaded.” (Kalland) B. The stiff-necked character of Israel is demonstrated in their past failures. 1. (7) A call to remember their past rebellions. Remember! Do not forget how you provoked the LORD your God to wrath in the wilderness. From the day that you departed from the land of Egypt until you came to this place, you have been rebellious against the LORD. a. Remember and do not forget: God’s purpose in reminding Israel of their rebellions against Him was not to discourage them or to make them feel defeated. The purpose was so that they would recognize their own weakness and trust in Him. b. You have been rebellious against the LORD: The same idea is communicated in the New Testament at 1 Corinthians 10:12: Therefore let him who things he stands take heed lest he fall. When we remember our sinful nature, we walk in the poverty of spirit Jesus said was essential to a life of blessing (Matthew 5:3). 2. (8-21) Remembering the rebellion at Mount Horeb. Also in Horeb you provoked the LORD to wrath, so that the LORD was angry enough with you to have destroyed you. When I went up into the mountain to receive the tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant which the LORD made with you, then I stayed on the mountain forty days and forty nights. I neither ate bread nor drank water. Then the LORD delivered to me two tablets of stone written with the finger of God, and on them were all the words which the LORD had spoken to you on the mountain from the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly. And it came to pass, at the end of forty days and forty nights, that the LORD gave me the two tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant. Then the LORD said to me, “Arise, go down quickly from here, for your people whom you brought out of Egypt have acted corruptly; they have quickly turned aside from the way which I commanded them; they have made themselves a molded image.” Furthermore the LORD spoke to me, saying, “I have seen this people, and indeed they are a stiff-necked people. Let Me alone, that I may destroy them and blot out their name from under heaven; and I will make of you a nation mightier and greater than they.” So I turned and came down from the mountain, and the mountain burned with fire; and the two tablets of the covenant were in my two hands. And I looked, and behold, you had sinned against the LORD your God; had made for yourselves a molded calf! You had turned aside quickly from the way which the LORD had commanded you. Then I took the two tablets and threw them out of my two hands and broke them before your eyes. And I fell down before the LORD, as at the first, forty days and forty nights; I neither ate bread nor drank water, because of all your sin which you committed in doing wickedly in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger. For I was afraid of the anger and hot displeasure with which the LORD was angry with you, to destroy you. But the LORD listened to me at that time also. And the LORD was very angry with Aaron and would have destroyed him; so I prayed for Aaron also at the same time. Then I took your sin, the calf which you had made, and burned it with fire and crushed it and ground it very small, until it was as fine as dust; and I threw its dust into the brook that descended from the mountain. a. Also in Horeb you provoked the LORD to wrath: This recalls the events at Mount Sinai, where Israel worshipped a golden calf when Moses was gone a long time on Mount Sinai, receiving the law from the LORD (Exodus 19-32). b. Written with the finger of God: The original tablets of the law Moses received on Mount Sinai were actually written by God Himself, and contained the Ten Commandments (all the words which the LORD had spoken to you on the mount from the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly, found in Exodus 20). c. I will make of you a nation mightier and greater than they: God told Moses of His desire to wipe out Israel in judgment, and to start over again with a new nation, descended from Moses himself. d. The mountain burned with fire: The burning fires on Mount Sinai were physical representations of the glory of God and His holy presence. The mountain began to burn when Israel first came to Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:18). Those fires had burned for 40 straight days, and they burned at the very time Israel made a golden calf and began to worship it. e. I took the two tablets and threw them out of my two hands and broke them before your eyes: Moses broke the tablets, “Not by an unbridled passion, but in zeal for God’s honour, and by direction of God’s Spirit, to signify to the people, that the covenant between God and them contained in those tables was broken and made void, and they were now quite cast out of God’s favor, and could expect nothing from him but fiery indignation and severe justice.” (Poole) f. For I was afraid: The Hebrew word here is a rare word, translated in the Septuagint by the strong word ekphobos, which means “exceedingly frightened” or “stricken with terror.” When he saw the sin of Israel and knew the holiness of God, Moses was very afraid for the sake of the people of Israel. g. I prayed for Aaron also: Aaron’s sin, detailed in Exodus 32, was so bad, that he surely would have been destroyed by the LORD - except Moses prayed for him. This shows both the prevailing power of Moses’ prayer and the great love in the heart of Moses. h. Burned it with fire and crushed it and ground it very small: Moses burnt the idol, ground it up, and sprinkled it in the people’s drinking water for three reasons. · To show this god was nothing and could be destroyed easily · To completely obliterate this idol · To make the people pay an immediate consequence of their sin 3. (22-24) Parenthesis: remembering the rebellions at Taberah, Massah, Kibroth Hattaavah, and Kadesh Barnea. Also at Taberah and Massah and Kibroth Hattaavah you provoked the LORD to wrath. Likewise, when the LORD sent you from Kadesh Barnea, saying, “Go up and possess the land which I have given you,” then you rebelled against the commandment of the LORD your God, and you did not believe Him nor obey His voice. You have been rebellious against the LORD from the day that I knew you. a. Also at Taberah: The name Taberah means “burning,” and in Numbers 11, when the people of Israel first left Mount Sinai to head towards Kadesh Barnea and the Promised Land, they immediately complained and God sent fires of judgment against them at a place they called Taberah because of the burning fires of God’s judgment. b. And Massah: Exodus 17:7 describes the naming of a place called Massah, which means “tempted,” because there Israel provoked the LORD by doubting His loving care and concern for them in the wilderness. c. Kibroth Hattaavah: The name means “graves of craving” and was the place where Israel longed for meat instead of manna, and God gave them meat. However, it became plagued in the mouths of those with greedy and discontent hearts (described in Numbers 11). d. When the LORD sent you from Kadesh Barnea: Moses briefly remembered the rebellion at Kadesh Barnea, where Israel doubted God’s love for them and refused to enter the Promised Land by faith - rebelling against the LORD (Numbers 13-14). e. You did not believe Him nor obey His voice: Israel’s disobedience to God began with their unbelief. They did not believe God loved them and was mighty enough to bring them into the Promised Land. 4. (25-29) Moses’ prayer of intercession for Israel when they rebelled at Mount Horeb. Thus I prostrated myself before the LORD; forty days and forty nights I kept prostrating myself, because the LORD had said He would destroy you. Therefore I prayed to the LORD, and said: “O Lord GOD, do not destroy Your people and Your inheritance whom You have redeemed through Your greatness, whom You have brought out of Egypt with a mighty hand. Remember Your servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; do not look on the stubbornness of this people, or on their wickedness or their sin, lest the land from which You brought us should say, ‘Because the LORD was not able to bring them to the land which He promised them, and because He hated them, He has brought them out to kill them in the wilderness.’ Yet they are Your people and Your inheritance, whom You brought out by Your mighty power and by Your outstretched arm.” a. Therefore I prayed to the LORD: This great prayer of intercession from Moses is described more fully in Exodus 32. Moses asked for mercy upon Israel because of God’s past faithfulness to them (whom You have redeemed). b. Remember Your servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: Moses asked for mercy upon Israel because of God’s past faithfulness to the patriarchs. c. Lest the land from which You brought us should say, “Because the LORD was not able”: Moses asked for mercy upon Israel because of concern for the glory of God’s own name and His reputation among the nations. d. Your people . . . Your inheritance . . . You brought out . . . Your mighty power . . . Your outstretched arm: Moses asked for mercy upon Israel because they were God’s people. i. We can seek the mercy and power of God through prayer by praying with the same heart and by pleading the same reasons before the LORD. Prayer on solid reasons like these is far more effective than merely casting wishes up towards heaven. · Because of God’s past faithfulness to us · Because of His past faithfulness to our forefathers · Because of His own glory and reputation among the nations · Because we are His people ii. Keeping these things in mind is also a way to refine our prayers. When we pray only for the things consistent with God’s glory, we have our hearts set on the right things. Deuteronomy 10 - Recovering after a Fall A. God’s plan of recovery for Israel after the rebellion at Mount Sinai. 1. (1-5) Israel had to get back to the Word of God, so God commanded the giving of the new tablets of the law. At that time the LORD said to me, “Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first, and come up to Me on the mountain and make yourself an ark of wood. And I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke; and you shall put them in the ark.” So I made an ark of acacia wood, hewed two tablets of stone like the first, and went up the mountain, having the two tablets in my hand. And He wrote on the tablets according to the first writing, the Ten Commandments, which the LORD had spoken to you in the mountain from the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly; and the LORD gave them to me. Then I turned and came down from the mountain, and put the tablets in the ark which I had made; and there they are, just as the LORD commanded me. a. Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first: Moses broke the tablets of the law, not only out of anger, but also as a powerful visual representation of Israel’s breaking of the law of God. Now God commanded that the law be restored by bringing forth two new tablets of the law. b. He wrote on the tablets according to the first writing: God wanted His written word to be the starting point for Israel’s right walk with Him. Therefore He restored the tablets, even writing on the second tablets with His own hand. i. This is a powerful picture of the inspiration of God’s word; though God did not literally write the Scriptures with His own hand, He did perfectly guide the minds and hands of the writers, so that the Scriptures are “God-breathed” (2 Timothy 3:16), that is, given by the inspiration of God. c. And put the tablets in the ark which I had made; and there they are: Getting right with God after a time of rebellion must always begin and center on God’s word. In the days of Josiah, King of Judah, repentance and revival came to the people of God when they focused on God’s word again (2 Kings 22:8-23:25). 2. (6-9) In order to deal with Israel’s sin problem, God established an enduring priesthood. (Now the children of Israel journeyed from the wells of Bene Jaakan to Moserah, where Aaron died, and where he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered as priest in his stead. From there they journeyed to Gudgodah, and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah, a land of rivers of water. At that time the LORD separated the tribe of Levi to bear the ark of the covenant of the LORD, to stand before the LORD to minister to Him and to bless in His name, to this day. Therefore Levi has no portion nor inheritance with his brethren; the LORD is his inheritance, just as the LORD your God promised him.) a. Where Aaron died, and where he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered as priest in his stead: This parenthesis speaking about the priesthood demonstrated the need for priestly sacrifice and intercession in getting right with God after a time of rebellion. Israel needed the sacrifice, intercession, and blessing that the Levites would bring to the nation. i. The need for a priesthood shouted to Israel: “You can’t do it on your own. You need to come to God through a mediator, who will atone for your sin, pray for you, and bless you. If you refuse your priestly mediator, and trust in your own ability to do these things, you will perish.” b. To stand before the LORD to minister to Him and to bless in His name: Getting right with God after a time of rebellion must always have a focus on the priestly ministry of Jesus on our behalf. This work of Jesus is shown in His atonement for our sin at the cross, on His intercession for us in heaven, and on the blessing that He brings to us from heaven. 3. (10-11) Israel need to move on towards the Promised Land, so God gave Moses the command to go forth. As at the first time, I stayed in the mountain forty days and forty nights; the LORD also heard me at that time, and the LORD chose not to destroy you. Then the LORD said to me, “Arise, begin your journey before the people, that they may go in and possess the land which I swore to their fathers to give them.” a. Arise, begin your journey: Israel’s rebellion at Mount Sinai with the golden calf was significant; it was no small matter. Yet God was not done with them. After they came back to His word and came through His priesthood, it was time to move on. God had a place to take them and they had to get about the business of getting there. b. That they may go in and possess the land: Getting right with God after a time of rebellion must always come to a place of progress again. It does no good to come back to the word, come through God’s priesthood in Jesus, and then remain stuck in the same place. God wants us to move on with Him, and when we are walking right with God again, we will go in and possess the land. B. What God requires of Israel. 1. (12-13) What the LORD requires of His people. And now, Israel, what does the LORD your God require of you, but to fear the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways and to love Him, to serve the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul, and to keep the commandments of the LORD and His statutes which I command you today for your good? a. Fear the LORD your God: God requires from us a reverential honor towards Him; not a fear that would make us shrink back, but a heart that so honors God that we would be hesitant to offend Him. b. To walk in all His ways: God requires us to live our lives after the pattern He has set for us; to walk on His road not on our own. c. To love Him: God requires us to love Him. This means the love He expects isn’t a love that just happens, but it is a love that comes from a decision to set our affection upon Him. d. To serve the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul: God requires us to serve Him, to see all that we do as service unto Him, and to do all that we do as if doing it unto Him. e. To keep the commandments of the LORD and His statutes: God requires us to not only know His word, but to keep it - in the sense of possessing it in ourselves, and in the sense of protecting it. f. For your good: every command of God is given for our good. They are never given so He can exercise His power, or so He can feel important. Every command He makes is with our best interest in mind, even if we cannot sense it or understand it. 2. (14-15) Why God requires this from Israel. Indeed heaven and the highest heavens belong to the LORD your God, also the earth with all that is in it. The LORD delighted only in your fathers, to love them; and He chose their descendants after them, you above all peoples, as it is this day. a. The LORD delighted only in your fathers, to love them: God requires this conduct from His people because they are His special possession. Though heaven and earth belong to God, He set His focus and attention on Israel beginning with their fathers. b. You above all peoples, as it is this day: Being chosen - having the special attention of God focused upon you - is a place of great privilege, but also a place of great responsibility. Israel had a special responsibility to obedience. 3. (16) What it takes to fulfill what God requires. Therefore circumcise the foreskin of your heart, and be stiff-necked no longer. a. Therefore circumcise the foreskin of your heart: All males among Israel had to be circumcised eight days after they were born. But this minor surgery was merely a symbol for the real work of cutting away the flesh God that desired; the work of taking our hearts inclined after the flesh and giving us hearts inclined after the spirit. b. And be stiff-necked no longer: This theme would be repeated later in the prophets. Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your hearts (Jeremiah 4:4). To fulfill God’s law, it takes more than being given a command - it takes an inner transformation, a transformation that only God can bring. i. God command them to do something that only He could do in them to show them the need to have the inner transformation, and to compel them to seek Him for this inner work. ii. Israel is said to have uncircumcised hearts in Leviticus 26:41, Jeremiah 9:26, and Ezekiel 44:7 and 9. 4. (17-22) A call to obedience, reverence, and compassion. For the LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome, who shows no partiality nor takes a bribe. He administers justice for the fatherless and the widow, and loves the stranger, giving him food and clothing. Therefore love the stranger, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve Him, and to Him you shall hold fast, and take oaths in His name. He is your praise, and He is your God, who has done for you these great and awesome things which your eyes have seen. Your fathers went down to Egypt with seventy persons, and now the LORD your God has made you as the stars of heaven in multitude. a. The LORD your God is God of gods and LORD of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome: The basis of this brief section of commands is set in the character of God. b. The great God, mighty and awesome: When God requires us to show justice (no partiality nor takes a bribe), compassion (loves the stranger), and reverence (take oaths in His name), it is because these virtues answer to aspects in God’s own character. c. Who has done for you these great and awesome things: The obedience God calls us to is always set in the context of what He did for us. Our service and obedience unto the LORD is based on what He has done for us, and is to be the grateful response to His goodness. If there is a lack in obedience and reverence, there is almost always a lack of appreciation for what the LORD has done. d. He is your praise: This is true in two senses. First, He is the object of our praise; second, He is also the One who makes us praiseworthy. Any wisdom, beauty, or skill we show is not to our praise - but He is your praise. Deuteronomy 11 - Rewards for Obedience and the Choice A. How to be blessed. 1. (1-7) Remember the ways God has already blessed. Therefore you shall love the LORD your God, and keep His charge, His statutes, His judgments, and His commandments always. Know today that I do not speak with your children, who have not known and who have not seen the chastening of the LORD your God, His greatness and His mighty hand and His outstretched arm; His signs and His acts which He did in the midst of Egypt, to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to all his land; what He did to the army of Egypt, to their horses and their chariots: how He made the waters of the Red Sea overflow them as they pursued you, and how the LORD has destroyed them to this day; what He did for you in the wilderness until you came to this place; and what He did to Dathan and Abiram the sons of Eliab, the son of Reuben: how the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, their households, their tents, and all the substance that was in their possession, in the midst of all Israel; but your eyes have seen every great act of the LORD which He did. a. Therefore you shall love the LORD your God: God commanded Israel to love Him. Love is not a matter left entirely up to our impulse or our feelings. We choose to love the LORD or not. i. Additionally, this reminds us of what the LORD really wants from us - our love. We could give Him a hundred other things, but none of it really matters unless we give Him our love. As Jesus said to the Ephesian church in Revelation 2:4: Nevertheless I have this against you, that you have left your first love. If we lose love, we lose all. b. And keep His charge, His statutes, His judgments, and His commandments: Love for God never goes against His word. Some people think their so-called love for Jesus allows them to disregard His commands, but this isn’t real love at all. i. As Jesus said in John 14:15: If you love Me, keep My commandments. Real love for Jesus always translates into obedience. c. Know today that I do not speak with your children, who have not known and who have not seen: Moses addressed the generation which saw the works of God among Israel, both in blessing and chastening. He spoke to the generation that should know and remember. d. Dathan and Abiram: These were the two key associates - perhaps the instigators - in the rebellion of Korah (Numbers 16), where God vindicated His servant Moses and leader over Israel, when Korah, Dathan, and Abiram challenged Moses’ leadership. e. Which He did . . . what He did . . . how He made . . . how the LORD destroyed them . . . what He did for you . . . what He did . . . every great act of the LORD which He did: Moses called Israel to remember what God did in their history. i. Most of history - both official and personal - is simply concerned with what man has done. But God wants us to look at history and see what He did. We learn far more, and are far more benefited, by looking at what God has done, rather than looking at what man has done. 2. (8-15) Blessings in the new land. Therefore you shall keep every commandment which I command you today, that you may be strong, and go in and possess the land which you cross over to possess, and that you may prolong your days in the land which the LORD swore to give your fathers, to them and their descendants, “a land flowing with milk and honey.” For the land which you go to possess is not like the land of Egypt from which you have come, where you sowed your seed and watered it by foot, as a vegetable garden; but the land which you cross over to possess is a land of hills and valleys, which drinks water from the rain of heaven, a land for which the LORD your God cares; the eyes of the LORD your God are always on it, from the beginning of the year to the very end of the year. “And it shall be that if you earnestly obey My commandments which I command you today, to love the LORD your God and serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul, then I will give you the rain for your land in its season, the early rain and the latter rain, that you may gather in your grain, your new wine, and your oil. And I will send grass in your fields for your livestock, that you may eat and be filled.” a. Therefore you shall keep every commandment: Remembering what God did in history should lead Israel to greater obedience, and enable them to take the Promised Land. b. A land flowing with milk and honey: The sacrifices in obedience were well worth it for Israel. They had the promise of a land which was far superior to Egypt, which did not need to be artificially irrigated, but was watered by rains which God would send upon the obedient nation. i. In calling Egypt a place where they watered by foot, it refers to the system of artificial irrigation, using foot-driven pumps to lift water from the Nile to nearby fields. Canaan was so rich it did not need this kind of irrigation. c. If you earnestly obey My commandments: God simply promised to provide for Israel if chose to obey Him and put Him first. As Jesus said: seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you (Matthew 6:33). i. The promise of the blessing of rain was important, because one of the attractive of the Canaanite gods was Baal - the god who was said to control the weather and rain. Perhaps the Israelites would be tempted to think, “well, we are in Canaan, and if we want rain, we should worship the Canaanite god of rain.” But the LORD makes it clear that if they would worship and obey Him, He would supply abundant rain. d. The early raid and the latter rain: The early rain fell in October and November, and was important to help soften the ground for plowing and preparing the soil for the seed. The latter rain fell about April, and helped the crops come to final harvest. e. A land for which the LORD your God cares; the eyes of the LORD your God are always on it, from the beginning of the year to the very end of the year: God declared His special care for the land of Israel, both then and now. 3. (16-17) The danger of blessing: Turning from God in times of prosperity. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and you turn aside and serve other gods and worship them, lest the Lord’s anger be aroused against you, and He shut up the heavens so that there be no rain, and the land yield no produce, and you perish quickly from the good land which the LORD is giving you. a. Lest your heart be deceived: God had to warn Israel against the deceptions of prosperity. The person who turns from God in prosperity is simply deceived. They believe they are somehow responsible for the blessings received, and become proud and self-reliant. b. He shut up the heavens so that there be no rain: Just such a judgment came upon Israel in the days of Ahab, the wicked king over Israel in the time Elijah was a prophet (1 Kings 17:1). i. The constant need for rain kept Israel in constant dependence on the LORD. It is good for us to have things that keep us in constant dependence on the LORD. We should never despise those things and long for the day when we will no longer need to depend on God as much. 4. (18-21) Blessing is gained by keeping the Word of God always before you. Therefore you shall lay up these words of mine in your heart and in your soul, and bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall teach them to your children, speaking of them when you sit in your house, when you walk by the way, when you lie down, and when you rise up. And you shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates, that your days and the days of your children may be multiplied in the land of which the LORD swore to your fathers to give them, like the days of the heavens above the earth. a. Lay up these words of mine in your heart and in your soul: God called Israel to not only read the Word of God and to know the Word of God, but to treasure it. In the same way, we should love God’s word and miss it when we are separated from the Word of God. We should call it to mind with longing, having laid it up in our heart and soul. b. Speaking of them: God’s Word was to be the topic of their conversation. We can fairly measure our love for God’s word by how much we will talk about it with others. God doesn’t want us to have a secret love relationship with His word. B. The Choice. 1. (22-25) The promise of blessing. For if you carefully keep all these commandments which I command you to do; to love the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways, and to hold fast to Him; then the LORD will drive out all these nations from before you, and you will dispossess greater and mightier nations than yourselves. Every place on which the sole of your foot treads shall be yours: from the wilderness and Lebanon, from the river, the River Euphrates, even to the Western Sea, shall be your territory. No man shall be able to stand against you; the LORD your God will put the dread of you and the fear of you upon all the land where you tread, just as He has said to you. a. To love the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways, and to hold fast to Him: All the commandments are summarized in these three phrases. Each of these speaks of more than a bare, compelled obedience; they speak of a real relationship of love between God and His people, with obedience flowing naturally from that relationship. b. The LORD will drive out . . . and you will dispossess greater and mightier nations: God promised to fight the battles for an obedient Israel. Many desire God to fight their battles, but have little interest in obeying Him - or cultivating the deep relationship of love which obedience grows from. c. Every place on which the sole of your foot treads: God repeated this promise to Joshua, just when Israel was about to cross over the Jordan River into Canaan (Joshua 1:3). d. No man shall be able to stand against you: When Israel walked in love with the LORD and was obedient to Him, they were unbeatable. No man could defeat them. Greater was God who was with them than he who was in the world! (1 John 4:4) 2. (26-28) The choice: Blessing or cursing? Behold, I set before you today a blessing and a curse: the blessing, if you obey the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you today; and the curse, if you do not obey the commandments of the LORD your God, but turn aside from the way which I command you today, to go after other gods which you have not known. a. Behold, I set before you today a blessing and a curse: The three great elements to the Old Covenant were the law, the sacrifice, and the choice. Israel had a choice - to obey and be blessed, or to disobey and be cursed. It was a cause and effect relationship with God. i. It is important to recognize that we, in Jesus Christ, do not have an Old Covenant relationship with God. We expect to be blessed, not because of our obedience, but because of our position in Jesus. The curse we deserved was laid upon Him (Galatians 3:10-14). Though there may be an inherent curse of consequences in our disobedience or even in the correcting hand of God, under the New Covenant, He does not punish us or curse us - because all that we deserved, past, present, and future, was poured out upon Jesus. b. I set before you today: It was up to Israel. If they wanted to be blessed, then they should walk in obedience (as they were in the days of David and Solomon), but if they disobeyed, they would be cursed (as they were in most of the days of the later kings) i. A choice was required. There was no neutral ground. God wouldn’t just “leave them alone.” It would either be blessing or cursing. c. To go after other gods which you have not known: Inherent in Israel’s disobedience was idolatry. Whenever we walk in disobedience, we exalt ourselves against God - and declaring that our rules, our standards, our desires, are all more important than His. This is idolatry in its most base - and common - form. 3. (29-32) Making the choice known unto the people. Now it shall be, when the LORD your God has brought you into the land which you go to possess, that you shall put the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal. Are they not on the other side of the Jordan, toward the setting sun, in the land of the Canaanites who dwell in the plain opposite Gilgal, beside the terebinth trees of Moreh? For you will cross over the Jordan and go in to possess the land which the LORD your God is giving you, and you will possess it and dwell in it. And you shall be careful to observe all the statutes and judgments which I set before you today. a. You shall put the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal: The recitation of the blessings on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal will be detailed in later chapters. Yet it is plain that God wanted the word to get to the entire nation, because the entire nation was part of this covenant with Him. b. Mount Gerizim . . . Mount Ebal: The name Gerizim is supposed to be associated with fruitful harvests, and the name Ebal is supposed to be associated with barrenness. Deuteronomy 12 - The Worship God Commands A. The place of worship. 1. (1-4) The command to destroy Canaanite places of worship. These are the statutes and judgments which you shall be careful to observe in the land which the LORD God of your fathers is giving you to possess, all the days that you live on the earth. You shall utterly destroy all the places where the nations which you shall dispossess served their gods, on the high mountains and on the hills and under every green tree. And you shall destroy their altars, break their sacred pillars, and burn their wooden images with fire; you shall cut down the carved images of their gods and destroy their names from that place. You shall not worship the LORD your God with such things. a. You shall utterly destroy all the places: Before anyone can worship God, there must be some places where he will no longer worship. There must be a destruction of the places where the ungodly worship. i. The practice in the ancient world, which was always short on buildings, was to take a nice building such as a temple previously used to worship a prior god, and simply make it a place to worship one’s own god. The LORD God wanted none of that in His own worship. He commanded that the places of pagan worship be completely destroyed, and that they shall not worship the LORD your God with such things. ii. This is where the worship of many is corrupted. It isn’t that they worship too little; they worship too much. They worship the LORD, and the things of the world. God doesn’t want such worship. It is an abomination to Him. iii. Many could really begin to worship God in Spirit and in truth (John 4:24), if they would only “destroy” in their hearts their pagan places of worship. Because they give their hearts to so many other things, there is little to give to the LORD. b. On the high mountains and on the hills and under every green tree: Since much of the pagan worship of the Canaanites was a sexualized worship of fertility and nature, their shrines and temples were often in beautiful outdoor settings. God didn’t want Israel to adopt this approach of worshipping the creature rather than the Creator (Romans 1:25). 2. (5-9) The command to worship at God’s appointed place. But you shall seek the place where the LORD your God chooses, out of all your tribes, to put His name for His dwelling place; and there you shall go. There you shall take your burnt offerings, your sacrifices, your tithes, the heave offerings of your hand, your vowed offerings, your freewill offerings, and the firstborn of your herds and flocks. And there you shall eat before the LORD your God, and you shall rejoice in all to which you have put your hand, you and your households, in which the LORD your God has blessed you. You shall not at all do as we are doing here today; every man doing whatever is right in his own eyes; for as yet you have not come to the rest and the inheritance which the LORD your God is giving you. a. And there you shall go: Worship was not left to the opinion or whim of the individual Israelite. They had to worship God at His prescribed place, and among other worshippers of God. Worship is not a “do as you please” or a “Lone Ranger” activity. b. You shall seek the place: It may not be easy to find the place where God wants you to worship, but it is out there. There is a place where He wants you to worship. He has not called you to follow Him in isolation. c. There you shall take your burnt offerings, your sacrifices: The place of worship was to be a place of atonement, confession (which was made when hands were laid on the head of the sacrificial victim), and cleansing. d. There you shall take . . . your tithes: The place of worship was to be a place of giving. Of course, there were other places where an Israelite could give and be generous, but giving had to begin at the place of worship God has appointed. i. Some have thought that because Deuteronomy 12:6 mentions your tithes, that this is an additional tithe which was commanded of Israel, on top of the tithe commanded in Numbers 18. Some even call this the “festival tithe.” But in context, this passage is only speaking of where to bring the tithe, not commanding an additional one to be brought. e. There you shall eat before the LORD your God: The place of worship is to be a place of joyful fellowship with God and others. f. Not at all as we are doing here today - every man doing whatever is right in his own eyes: Before Israel crossed over the Jordan, during the wilderness wanderings, each Israelite pretty much conducted their own worship as they pleased. But God was not really pleased with this; worship was not a matter left up to whatever pleased the individual. Real worship is concerned with what pleases God. i. Much of what is called worship in today’s church really isn’t worship. It is self-focused, man-focused, and personal-experience-focused instead of being God focused. Much of today’s worship is measured by how I feel instead of being measured by how God was honored and worshipped. ii. “Singing should be congregational, but it should never be performed for the credit of the congregation. ‘Such remarkable singing! The place is quite renowned for its musical performances!’ This is a poor achievement. Our singing should be such that God hears it with pleasure - singing in which there is not so much art as heart, not so much of musical sound as of spiritual emotion.” (Spurgeon) 3. (10-14) The joy of real worship in God’s appointed place. But when you cross over the Jordan and dwell in the land which the LORD your God is giving you to inherit, and He gives you rest from all your enemies round about, so that you dwell in safety, then there will be the place where the LORD your God chooses to make His name abide. There you shall bring all that I command you: your burnt offerings, your sacrifices, your tithes, the heave offerings of your hand, and all your choice offerings which you vow to the LORD. And you shall rejoice before the LORD your God, you and your sons and your daughters, your male and female servants, and the Levite who is within your gates, since he has no portion nor inheritance with you. Take heed to yourself that you do not offer your burnt offerings in every place that you see; but in the place which the LORD chooses, in one of your tribes, there you shall offer your burnt offerings, and there you shall do all that I command you. a. There will be the place . . . the place which the LORD chooses: A particular place is important to worship. The man who tells himself, “I can worship God just as well out on the golf course” is a man doing whatever is right in his own eyes. It is fine for him to worship God out on the golf course; but there must also be a specific place where he comes to worship with God’s people. i. This goes against the trend of our times. Studies find that among baby-boomers, 70% say that you should attend worship services not out of a sense of duty, but only if it “meets your needs.” 80% say you can be a good Christian without attending church. b. And you shall rejoice before the LORD your God: Worship at God’s appointed place must be marked with joy. It is a good thing to come and honor our God, and should be done with pleasure and joy. i. “All Christian duties should be done joyfully; but especially the work of praising the Lord. I have been in congregations where the tune was dolorous to the very last degree; where the time was so dreadfully slow that one wondered whether they would ever be able to sing through the 119 Psalm; whether, to use Watt’s expression, eternity would not be too short from them to get through it; and altogether, the spirit of the people has seemed to be so damp, so heavy, so dead, that we might have supposed that they were met to prepare their minds for a hanging rather than for blessing the ever-gracious God.” (Charles Spurgeon, Praise Thy God, O Zion) ii. “We ought not to worship God in a half-hearted sort of way; as if it were now our duty to bless God, but we felt it to be a weary business, and we would get it through as quickly as we could, and have done with it; and the sooner the better. No, no; ‘All that is within me, bless his holy name.’ Come, my heart, wake up, and summon all the powers which wait upon thee! Mechanical worship is easy, but worthless. Come rouse yourself, my brother! Rouse thyself, O my own soul!” (Spurgeon) c. And you shall rejoice: The emphasis on shall shows that rejoicing is commanded. It is also commanded in the New Testament; Rejoice always (1 Thessalonians 5:16); Rejoice in the Lord always. Again I will say, rejoice! (Philippians 4:4). If you can’t rejoice out of feeling like it, then rejoice out of being commanded. i. “No one duty is more pressed in both the Testaments, than this of rejoicing in the Lord always, but specially in his immediate services.” (Trapp) B. The practice of worship. 1. (15-28) Things permitted and prohibited in regard to butchering animals, sacrificing animals, and respecting the sanctity of blood. However, you may slaughter and eat meat within all your gates, whatever your heart desires, according to the blessing of the LORD your God which He has given you; the unclean and the clean may eat of it, of the gazelle and the deer alike. Only you shall not eat the blood; you shall pour it on the earth like water. You may not eat within your gates the tithe of your grain or your new wine or your oil, of the firstborn of your herd or your flock, of any of your offerings which you vow, of your freewill offerings, or of the heave offering of your hand. But you must eat them before the LORD your God in the place which the LORD your God chooses, you and your son and your daughter, your male servant and your female servant, and the Levite who is within your gates; and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God in all to which you put your hands. Take heed to yourself that you do not forsake the Levite as long as you live in your land. When the LORD your God enlarges your border as He has promised you, and you say, “Let me eat meat,” because you long to eat meat, you may eat as much meat as your heart desires. If the place where the LORD your God chooses to put His name is too far from you, then you may slaughter from your herd and from your flock which the LORD has given you, just as I have commanded you, and you may eat within your gates as much as your heart desires. Just as the gazelle and the deer are eaten, so you may eat them; the unclean and the clean alike may eat them. Only be sure that you do not eat the blood, for the blood is the life; you may not eat the life with the meat. You shall not eat it; you shall pour it on the earth like water. You shall not eat it, that it may go well with you and your children after you, when you do what is right in the sight of the LORD. Only the holy things which you have, and your vowed offerings, you shall take and go to the place which the LORD chooses. And you shall offer your burnt offerings, the meat and the blood, on the altar of the LORD your God; and the blood of your sacrifices shall be poured out on the altar of the LORD your God, and you shall eat the meat. Observe and obey all these words which I command you, that it may go well with you and your children after you forever, when you do what is good and right in the sight of the LORD your God. a. You may slaughter and eat meat within all your gates: In the ancient world, almost every time an animal was butchered it was sacrificed to a god. Here, the LORD made it clear that not every slaughtered animal was considered a sacrifice to Him. b. You may not eat within your gates the tithe . . . the firstlings of your herd . . . your freewill offerings, or of the heave offerings: This shows that animals which were offered in sacrifice, even if the offerer was to eat a portion, could only be killed at God’s appointed place of worship. c. Only be sure that you do not eat the blood: Since the blood was the picture of life in any animal or man (for the blood is the life), God would not allow Israel to eat meat that had not been properly bled. Instead, it was to be given to God by pouring it out on the earth. 2. (29-32) The worship of God must be pure. When the LORD your God cuts off from before you the nations which you go to dispossess, and you displace them and dwell in their land, take heed to yourself that you are not ensnared to follow them, after they are destroyed from before you, and that you do not inquire after their gods, saying, “How did these nations serve their gods? I also will do likewise.” You shall not worship the LORD your God in that way; for every abomination to the LORD which He hates they have done to their gods; for they burn even their sons and daughters in the fire to their gods. Whatever I command you, be careful to observe it; you shall not add to it nor take away from it. a. That you do not inquire after their gods: Israel was commanded to guard itself against a sinful curiosity (How did these nations serve their gods?). There is an old proverb that says curiosity killed the cat, but ungodly curiosity has also killed many spiritual lives. b. You shall not worship the LORD your God that way: God would not accept just any offering of worship. He had to be worshipped in Spirit and in truth (John 4:24) c. They burn even their sons and daughters in the fire to their gods: This referred to the practice of Molech worship, where Canaanites offered up their children by placing them alive on a burning hot metal statue of Molech, while drum beats drowned out the screams of the tortured infants. i. Israel had a tragic history of following after this horrible god Molech. · At the least, Solomon sanctioned the worship of Molech, building a temple to this idol (1 Kings 11:7). · King Ahaz of Judah gave his own son to Molech (2 Kings 16:3). · One of the great crimes of the northern tribes of Israel was their worship of Molech, leading to the Assyrian captivity (2 Kings 17:17). · King Manasseh of Judah gave his son to Molech (2 Kings 21:6). · Up to the days of King Josiah of Judah, Molech worship continued, because he destroyed a place of worship to that idol (2 Kings 23:10). d. Whatever I command you, be careful to observe it: The standard for worship was reflected in God’s Word - not in human preference or opinion. Deuteronomy 13 - Keeping the Worship of God Pure A. Protecting against those who would entice Israel to serve other gods. 1. (1-3) Protecting against the deceiver who comes with miraculous signs. If there arises among you a prophet or a dreamer of dreams, and he gives you a sign or a wonder, and the sign or the wonder comes to pass, of which he spoke to you, saying, “Let us go after other gods”; which you have not known; “and let us serve them,” you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams, for the LORD your God is testing you to know whether you love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. a. A dreamer of dreams: Dreams can be from God (as in Numbers 12:6, or in Genesis 37:5-11), or they can be false prophesies (as in Jeremiah 23:25-26). We must be careful to not put too much stock in dreams, and instead allow God to bring confirmation to any dream we believe brings a message from Him. It would be very unusual for God speak alone through a dream, without other confirmation. b. And the sign or the wonder comes to pass: Moses warned the people that there may arise from among them prophets or workers of signs who could also produce a sign or a wonder. i. Deuteronomy 18:22 tells what to do with a prophet who speaks a word and it does not come to pass. But this passage tells what to do with a prophet who speaks a word and it comes to pass, but they then speak against what God has already revealed in His word. c. And the sign or the wonder comes to pass: This sobering fact is ignored by many Christians in our age which neglects discernment. The fact is that signs and wonders can never be the evidence of truth or God’s hand. i. Those who are immediately convinced at the sight of supernatural power or reality are in danger of great deception. 2 Thessalonians 2:9 reminds us that the coming of the lawless one is according to the working of Satan, with all power, signs, and lying wonders. ii. This is why Jesus said and these signs will follow those who believe (Mark 16:17). Signs are to follow believers, instead of believers following signs. d. You shall not listen to the words of that prophet or dreamer of dreams: Godly discernment will always carefully examine the message of a spiritual leader, instead of the spiritual experiences which may surround him or her. e. The LORD your God is testing you to know whether you love the LORD your God with all your heart: This explains one of God’s reasons in allowing such deceivers to exist among His people - to allow the hearts of His people to be tested and proven, to see if they really love the God of truth, or are merely seeking a spiritual sign or experience. i. “And particularly there are many signs, yea, such as men may think to be wonders, which may be wrought by evil spirits, God so permitting it for divers wise and just reasons, not only for the trial of the good, as it here follows, but also for the punishment of ungodly men, who would not receive Divine truths, though attested by many evident and unquestionable miracles, and therefore are most justly exposed to these temptations to believe lies.” (Poole) 2. (4-5) The penalty for the deceiver who comes with miraculous signs. You shall walk after the LORD your God and fear Him, and keep His commandments and obey His voice, and you shall serve Him and hold fast to Him. But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he has spoken in order to turn you away from the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt and redeemed you from the house of bondage, to entice you from the way in which the LORD your God commanded you to walk. So you shall put away the evil from your midst. a. You shall walk after the LORD: Israel was first instructed to not let a deceiver succeed in leading them astray. No matter how attractive the deception, they were to keep focused on a faithful walk with God according to His truth. b. But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death: Ancient Israel was a unique situation, where the civil government was also directly appointed by God and charged with maintaining spiritual order as well as civil order. Therefore, such heresy and deception was a capital crime - punishable by execution. i. For many centuries, when the church held political power, it often exercised this penalty also. Heretics were often given over to the civil government for execution. Trapp writes in the mid seventeenth century, “This power is still in the Christian magistrate, to inflict capital punishment on gross heretics.” ii. While we admire their priorities (they judged it much more serious for a heretic to kill men’s eternal souls than to kill their temporal bodies), they were ignorant of an important principle of Jesus’ kingdom in contrast to the ancient kingdom of Israel: Jesus declared that His kingdom was not of this world (John 18:36), while the kingdom of Israel was very much of this world. Never before or since has God appointed such a kingdom as Israel to be His nation in this world as He appointed ancient Israel, so it would be wrong for us to execute heretics today. iii. Still, the church as a community and Christians as individuals should reject and refuse to support such heretics among them. They should use discernment to set aside those who promote themselves as miracle working men and women of anointing and faith, yet who teach heresy in essential doctrines. 3. (6-11) The penalty for a relative who would lead an Israelite to worship other gods. If your brother, the son of your mother, your son or your daughter, the wife of your bosom, or your friend who is as your own soul, secretly entices you, saying, “Let us go and serve other gods,” which you have not known, neither you nor your fathers, of the gods of the people which are all around you, near to you or far off from you, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth, you shall not consent to him or listen to him, nor shall your eye pity him, nor shall you spare him or conceal him; but you shall surely kill him; your hand shall be first against him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people. And you shall stone him with stones until he dies, because he sought to entice you away from the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. So all Israel shall hear and fear, and not again do such wickedness as this among you. a. Brother . . . your son or daughter . . . the wife . . . your friend: If any of these close human relationships would lead one to the worship of other gods, they were not only to be rejected (you shall not consent to him or listen to him), they were to be executed (you shall surely kill him). i. In fact, the relative should be one of the main witnesses against the guilty party: your hand shall be first against him to put him to death. This was the “casting of the first stone,” the initiation of execution by one of the witnesses to the capital crime. ii. This also demonstrates that God never puts highest priority on family relationships; if a family member forsakes the LORD, we are never to follow them away from the LORD. Jesus always comes first, as He said in Matthew 10:37: He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me. And he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. b. Secretly entices you: This demonstrates how seriously God regards leading someone else into idolatry. Even if a sympathetic person entices you, and even if they do it in private, enticement to idolatry is not to be tolerated. i. This brings to mind the words of Jesus in Matthew 18:6: But whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to sin, it would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck, and he were drowned in the depth of the sea. Anyone who leads one of God’s people astray is greatly offending the heart of God. c. So all Israel shall hear and fear: Many modern researchers and pundits say that capital punishment is no deterrent to crime. God says it is a deterrent (properly practiced, of course). B. Protecting the nation as a whole against those who would lead them into idolatry. 1. (12-14a) How to deal with reports of a city given over to idolatry. If you hear someone in one of your cities, which the LORD your God gives you to dwell in, saying, “Corrupt men have gone out from among you and enticed the inhabitants of their city, saying, ‘Let us go and serve other gods’“ which you have not known; then you shall inquire, search out, and ask diligently. a. Then you shall inquire: If reports arose regarding an Israelite city given over to idolatry, there was first to be a careful investigation. b. Search out, and ask diligently: This guarded against a harsh judgment; perhaps there were a few idolaters in the city whom needed to be punished, but perhaps the city was not given over to idolatry. God commanded a careful investigation. 2. (14b-18) The penalty for a city given over to idolatry. And if it is indeed true and certain that such an abomination was committed among you, you shall surely strike the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword; utterly destroying it, all that is in it and its livestock, with the edge of the sword. And you shall gather all its plunder into the middle of the street, and completely burn with fire the city and all its plunder, for the LORD your God. It shall be a heap forever; it shall not be built again. So none of the accursed things shall remain in your hand, that the LORD may turn from the fierceness of His anger and show you mercy, have compassion on you and multiply you, just as He swore to your fathers, because you have listened to the voice of the LORD your God, to keep all His commandments which I command you today, to do what is right in the eyes of the LORD your God. a. Such an abomination: The word abomination here refers to a gross, offensive idolatry. Later in Daniel and in the New Testament, the word is used in the phrase abomination of desolation, which refers to the ultimate idolatry of the Antichrist - the establishing of an idolatrous image of himself in the most holy place (2 Thessalonians 2:3-4). i. “The term abominable thing is used in the Old Testament for something that is totally displeasing to God and denotes something impure, unclean, and totally devoid of holiness.” (Thompson) b. You shall surely strike the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword; utterly destroying it: If the investigation finds that the city is indeed given over to idolatry, it is then to be treated as a Canaanite city. They were to utterly destroy the city, including its property. The property was to be given to the LORD by destroying it, a form of “sacred destruction.” i. This made certain that no one could profit materially by declaring a city given over to idolatry. If this provision were not in the Law of Moses one could imagine a city being plundered under this pretense. ii. “The very same punishment which was inflicted upon the cities of the cursed Canaanites, to whom having made themselves equal in sin, it is but fit and just that God should equal them in punishment.” (Poole) c. It shall be a heap forever; it shall not be built again: The destroyed town was to be left as a heap forever. The word heap is literally tell, and the word tell is used in Arabic for any ruined sight. Throughout Israel today, one w

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16. Exodus 20:18 - 22 (Israel Fears God's Presence & God gives Laws To Israel's Judges)

Exodus 20:18 - 22 (Israel Fears God's Presence & God gives Laws To Israel's Judges)

Exodus 20 - The Ten Commandments A. The nation's great fear of the presence of God. 1. (18) The people stand afar off. Now all the people witnessed the thunderings, the lightning flashes, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood afar off. a. All the people witnessed the thunderings, the lightning: Awesome sights and sounds came from Mount Sinai together with the speaking of the law. All of the phenomenon together made for an overwhelming scene. i. Lightning flashes: "The word here is unusual and might be translated 'torches', meaning 'flashes' or 'fireballs'. This is the same word used for the symbol of God's presence that Abraham sees at the making of God's covenant with him (Genesis 15)." (Cole) ii. The mountain smoking: Deuteronomy 5:23 explains why the mountain smoked; it says the mountain was burning with fire. b. They trembled and stood afar off: The awe of all the phenomenon did nothing to draw the people closer to God; it only made them stand afar off. 2. (19) The request of the people. Then they said to Moses, "You speak with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die." a. Let not God speak with us: One might think that Israel loved the dramatic experience at Mount Sinai, and especially the honor of hearing God's voice like a loudspeaker from heaven. Instead, because of the great awe and dread they felt, they wanted God to stop speaking to them directly. i. Biblically speaking, an up-close encounter with God could just as often be troubling as it might be comforting. Israel could not see, feel, and hear this much from God and not at the same time be acutely aware that He is perfect and holy and they were not. ii. This is a typical reaction of those who came into the presence of God, such as Isaiah who felt undone before God (Isaiah 6:1-5) and John who fell as a dead man before the Lord (Revelation 1:17). iii. "What Israel dreaded, Moses coveted (Exodus 33:18)." (Cole) b. You speak with us, and we will hear: The people promised to hear and (by implication) obey the word of God that came to them by Moses. They failed in this promise, both soon after this and in the longer term. i. In following generations, Israel interpreted the law downward so it could be more easily obeyed, removing the heart and intent of the law. Jesus exposed this shallow understanding of the law in His Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:17-48). This progressed to the point where Saul of Tarsus could say and mean of himself, concerning the righteousness which is in the law, [I was counted] blameless (Philippians 3:6). c. Let not God speak with us, lest we die: In drawing back from direct dealing with God, Israel wanted Moses to be their mediator, fearing death if they did not have a mediator. i. Man's desire for a mediator - someone to act as a go-between with us a God - is only good if it is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, for there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus (1 Timothy 2:5). 3. (20) The purpose for this fear. And Moses said to the people, "Do not fear; for God has come to test you, and that His fear may be before you, so that you may not sin." a. Do not fear; for God has come to test you: The people of Israel wanted to separate themselves from the manifest presence of God, but God meant it for good to test them. · The test revealed to them what kind of God they served: a God above nature, personal, good, and holy. · The test revealed to them what God's expectations were, that God is a moral God who expects moral behavior from His people. · The test revealed to them their own weakness and need for God's grace, help, and rescue. b. That His fear may be before you: This distinguishes between two kinds of fear. Do not fear speaks of the tormenting fear that comes from both guilt and danger. That His fear may be before you speaks of the attitude of honor and reverence that leads to respect and obedience. i. "Fear not. And yet fear." (Trapp) ii. Though it is better to obey God out of fear than to disobey Him, God's ultimate motivation for obedience is love. This is clear from 1 John 4:18-19: There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear involves torment. But he who fears has not been made perfect in love. We love Him because He first loved us. c. So that you may not sin: Israel did not learn this lesson well. In approximately 40 days they danced around a gold calf with both idolatry and immorality (Exodus 32). 4. (21) Moses draws near. So the people stood afar off, but Moses drew near the thick darkness where God was. a. So the people stood afar off, but Moses drew near: Israel dreaded the powerful presence of God, but Moses longed for it. Moses would later more directly and eloquently show this desire (Exodus 33). i. Moses had a relationship with God the common man in Israel did not have. Through the circumstances of his life and the direct revelation of God, Moses was aware of both God's holy power and also of God's glorious grace. b. Moses drew near the thick darkness where God was: It wasn't that Moses was a flawless saint. Moses was a murderer who had been forgiven and restored by God. Moses knew what it meant to connect with God on the ground of grace, not what one deserved. B. Laws concerning worship and altars. 1. (22-23) The purity of worship. Then the LORD said to Moses, "Thus you shall say to the children of Israel: 'You have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. You shall not make anything to be with Me; gods of silver or gods of gold you shall not make for yourselves.'" a. You have seen that I have talked with you from heaven: This makes it perfectly clear that God spoke the Ten Commandments to Israel from heaven. This happened at Mount Sinai, but God spoke from heaven. b. You shall not make anything to be with Me; gods of silver or gods of gold: Because God did not reveal Himself to Israel in any form or image, they were not to make any other god of silver or gold to set beside (be with Me) God. 2. (24-26) Instructions for altars and sacrifice. "'An altar of earth you shall make for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen. In every place where I record My name I will come to you, and I will bless you. And if you make Me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stone; for if you use your tool on it, you have profaned it. Nor shall you go up by steps to My altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed on it.'" a. An altar of earth you shall make for Me: As God began this expanded section of His law for Israel, the first law mentioned had to do with sacrifice and atonement. This was in expectation that Israel would break the laws God gave them, and need to atone for their sin by sacrifice, all with a view to the ultimate sacrifice God would ultimately provide. i. Our word altar comes from the Latin altus, meaning high or elevated - because altars were raised to give them prominence and dignity. Yet the Hebrew word for altar (mizbach) has the sense of a place of sacrifice or killing, coming from the Hebrew word to kill. ii. An altar of earth: "In opposition to the costly shrines and services of those dunghill deities." (Trapp) God did not need an ornate or elaborate altar; an altar of earth was sufficient. With God's ultimate altar, a few wooden beams were sufficient. b. You shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings: The distinction between burnt offerings and peace offerings was given later in greater detail. Yet the mere mention of them at the outset of the giving of the law indicates that man cannot keep the law, and must have sacrifice to deal with this inability. c. I will come to you, and I will bless you: This wonderful promise was made in the context of sacrifice and atonement. Even in the Law of Moses, God often made the connection between trust in atoning sacrifice and the presence and blessing of God. i. Though there was blessing in keeping the law, we ultimately are only blessed by the law if we keep the entire law - therefore we seek and find blessing from God on the basis of His atoning sacrifice. d. You shall not build it of hewn stone: If an altar were made of stone, it was possible or even likely that attention would be drawn and glory would be given to the stone carver. God, at His altar, wanted to share glory with no man - the beauty and attractiveness would be found only in the provision of God, not in any fleshly display. i. If you use your tool on it, you have profaned it: "Not polished it. So in preaching (1 Corinthians 2:4-5). Some mar all by over-doing." (Trapp) e. Nor shall you go up by steps: God wanted no display of human flesh at His place of covering sacrifice. Steps might allow the leg of the priest to be seen. God doesn't want to see our flesh in worship. i. What God does want from us in worship is seen by Jesus' statement in John 4:24: God is Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth. God wants worship that is characterized by Spirit (as opposed to flesh) and truth (as opposed to deception or mere feeling). ii. "Later on, when altars with steps were allowed to be built (Leviticus 9:22; Ezekiel 43:13-17), the priests were instructed to wear linen undershorts (Exodus 28:40-42; Ezekiel 44:18)." (Kaiser) Exodus 21 - Laws To Direct Judges A. Laws regarding servitude. 1. (1) These are the judgments. "Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them: a. Now these are the judgments: Exodus chapters 21-23 contain many laws on a wide variety of subjects, including: · Employment law regarding the treatment of servants · Murder, manslaughter, and violent assault · Liability for one's animals and responsibility for the animals of others · Theft, responsibility, and restitution · Rape, dowry, and the value of a woman's virginity · Idolatry and sorcery · Treatment of disadvantaged people in society · Money and property lending · Justice and equal standing before the law i. "THESE different regulations are as remarkable for their justice and prudence as for their humanity. Their great tendency is to show the valuableness of human life, and the necessity of having peace and good understanding in every neighbourhood; and they possess that quality which should be the object of all good and wholesome laws-the prevention of crimes." (Adam Clarke) b. Which you shall set before them: The wide-ranging character of these laws show that God gave them both for the laws in themselves, but also for the principles and precedent they would establish for the judges appointed by Moses. i. "These 'laws,' or, better, 'judgments' (mispatim), are given as precedents to guide Israel's civil magistrates in the cases of civil dispute." (Kaiser) 2. (2-4) The general law concerning Hebrew slaves (indentured servants). "If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years; and in the seventh he shall go out free and pay nothing. If he comes in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he comes in married, then his wife shall go out with him. If his master has given him a wife, and she has borne him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself." a. If you buy a Hebrew servant: With ancient Israel, as in the entire ancient world, there were people who worked for others on the principle of servitude. They were slaves in some sense, though not necessarily in the brutal and degraded sense most think of slavery. i. Some think that the Bible is responsible for slavery. The opposite is true; slavery existed long before Israel or Moses. The Bible is responsible for the elimination of slavery, not its establishment. ii. "Moses did not institute slavery in any shape; the laws concerning it were made on purpose to repress it, to confine it within very narrow bounds, and ultimately to put an end to it." (Spurgeon) iii. "The Torah accepts slavery as an inevitable part of ancient society, much as Paul did, but the new humanitarian approach will ultimately be the death-knell of slavery…In any case, slavery in Israel was rural, domestic and small scale." (Cole) iv. It is significant that the first words of this section of law in the Book of Exodus show that God wanted Israel to respect the rights and dignity of servants. "The first words of God from Sinai had declared that He was Jehovah Who brought them out of slavery. And in this remarkable code, the first person whose rights are dealt with is the slave." (Chadwick) b. A Hebrew servant: There were four basic ways a Hebrew might become a slave to another Hebrew. · In extreme poverty, they might sell their liberty (Leviticus 25:39). · A father might sell a daughter as a servant into a home with the intention that she would eventually marry into that family (Exodus 21:7). · In the case of bankruptcy, a man might become servant to his creditors (2 Kings 4:1). · If a thief had nothing with which to pay proper restitution (Exodus 22:3-4). i. The ideas of man-stealing and life-long servitude - the concepts many have of slavery - simply do not apply to the practice of slavery in the Old Testament. Normally, slavery was: · Chosen or mutually arranged · Of limited duration · Highly regulated c. He shall serve six years; and in the seventh he shall go out free and pay nothing: In all of the four above mentioned cases, the servitude was never obligated to be life-long. The Hebrew servant worked for six years and then was set free. i. "He was, more properly an 'indentured labourer', bound for six years." (Cole) ii. "That this servitude could extend, at the utmost, only to six years; and that it was nearly the same as in some cases of apprenticeship among us." (Clarke) iii. G. Campbell Morgan, after looking at the laws regarding slavery, wrote: "A careful consideration of them will show that they abolished slavery, and substituted for it, covenanted labour." iv. "Henceforward the condition of slaves among the Hebrew people would be in marked distinction to slavery as existing among other peoples. It was the beginning of a great moral movement." (Morgan) d. If he comes in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he comes in married, then his wife shall go out with him: At the end of the six years the servant went out with what he came in with. If the master provided a wife (and therefore children), the wife and children had to stay with the master until they had fulfilled their obligations or could be redeemed. i. By himself: "Literally 'with his back', i.e. 'bare back and nothing more'. The phrase is vivid and unique, but the meaning is clear. This provision may seem hard to us, but the wife was presumably a perpetual slave, and therefore the master's own property." (Cole) 3. (5-6) The bond-slave: a willing slave for life. "But if the servant plainly says, 'I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,' then his master shall bring him to the judges. He shall also bring him to the door, or to the doorpost, and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl; and he shall serve him forever." a. But if the servant plainly says, "I love my master": If, after the six years of servitude, a servant wished to make a life-long commitment to his master - in light of the master's goodness and his blessings for the servant - he could, through this ceremony, make a life-long commitment to his master. i. This commitment was not motivated by debt or obligation, only by love for the master, and the good things that the master had provided for the servant. b. His master shall bring him to the judges: This describes the public and recognized ceremony for recognizing a willing slave, one who had fulfilled his obligation yet still wanted to serve his master out of love. i. "The 'judges' changed the slave's status from temporary to permanent by a ceremony at the doorpost of the master's house." (Kaiser) c. His master shall pierce his ear with an awl: In the ceremony, the servant's ear was pierced - opened - with an awl. This was done in the presence of witnesses, and then he shall serve him forever. i. It's a remarkable thing to think of this ceremony being carried out. A servant said, "I know I have fulfilled my obligations to my master, and I have served what I have owed. Yet I love my master and am so grateful for what he has given that I will gladly obligate myself for life, not out of debt or shame or defeat, but out of love." ii. Psalm 40:6 later spoke of this ceremony taking place between the Father and the Son, where the Psalmist spoke prophetically for the Messiah: Sacrifice and offering You did not desire; my ears You have opened. Jesus was a perfect bond-slave to the Father (Philippians 2:7). iii. "That awl represents the nail that affixed Christ to the cross, and we must expect it in every true act of consecration." (Meyer) d. He shall serve him forever: Jesus gave us the right to be called friends instead of servants (John 15:15). Yet the writers of the New Testament found plenty of glory in simply being considered bondservants of Jesus (Romans 1:1, James 1:1, 2 Peter 1:1, Jude 1:1). i. Pagans had a custom of branding the slave with the name or the sign of the owner. Paul referred to himself as just such a slave in Galatians 6:17: From now on, let no one trouble me, for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus. Paul was a slave for life to Jesus. ii. This is a picture of the sinner's service of sin; there comes a place where the sinner, so filled with a love of his sin, seals his heart over to sin as his master. iii. This is a picture of our service to Jesus. · We have the power to go free if we want to. · We must be willing to take the consequences of chosen service. · We must be motivated by love for our Master. 4. (7-11) The rights of female servants. "And if a man sells his daughter to be a female slave, she shall not go out as the male slaves do. If she does not please her master, who has betrothed her to himself, then he shall let her be redeemed. He shall have no right to sell her to a foreign people, since he has dealt deceitfully with her. And if he has betrothed her to his son, he shall deal with her according to the custom of daughters. If he takes another wife, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marriage rights. And if he does not do these three for her, then she shall go out free, without paying money." a. If a man sells his daughter to be a female slave: The matter described here seems to describe the selling of a young female as a slave to a family with the intention of marriage. This is why the text explained, who has betrothed her to himself. i. "Refers to a girl who is sold by her father, not for slavery, but for marriage." (Kaiser) ii. "Probably the origin of the custom was the same in either case: to avoid paying a higher bride-price at a later age, and to rear the future daughter-in-law within the family, ensuring that she 'fitted in'. Such an attitude to slaves abolishes slavery, except in name." (Cole) iii. In ancient societies (including sometimes among the Hebrews), a child might be sold as a slave in light of a debt or; especially in the case of a female slave, in a dowry arrangement to satisfy a debt. Such arrangements were more of what we associate with indentured servitude than slavery. Yet, these are not the circumstances regarding this particular law. b. He shall let her be redeemed: If her master did not marry her or decided not to give her to his son, the master was still obligated to respect her rights under God's law. He had to treat her well and give her the opportunity to escape the obligation of servitude. i. "Should the terms of marriage not be fulfilled, it is to be considered a breach of contract, and the purchaser must allow the girl to be redeemed." (Kaiser) ii. No right to sell her to a foreign people: "Even if he has wearied of her, he cannot sell her to another master: that would be a breach of marriage obligation to her." (Cole) c. He shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marriage rights: If the girl received into the home with the expectation of future marriage did not work out, she was not to be treated poorly. She was not to be deprived the comforts of the home; instead she must be treated according to the custom of daughters - treated like a daughter, not a slave. i. "The word translated food should perhaps be rendered 'meat': it means, say the commentators, the wife's fair share of luxuries, not mere subsistence allowance, which any slave would get." (Cole) d. Then she shall go out free, without paying money: If the household failed in their obligations toward the girl received into the home with the expectation of future marriage, she was granted freedom. These were remarkable protections of ones who might be disadvantaged. i. The girl in this circumstance - out of her birth home, released by her natural parents - had no natural protector in that society. God directed the judges of Israel to be her protector. ii. Thus, "The right of a parent to sell his daughter was carefully guarded against abuse." (Thomas) B. Laws regarding violence and disability. 1. (12-14) Appropriate punishment for both murder and manslaughter. "He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death. However, if he did not lie in wait, but God delivered him into his hand, then I will appoint for you a place where he may flee. But if a man acts with premeditation against his neighbor, to kill him by treachery, you shall take him from My altar, that he may die." a. He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death: The principle for capital punishment goes back to Genesis 9:6: Whoever sheds man's blood, by man his blood shall be shed; for in the image of God He made man. The right for the state to use the sword of execution is also stated in the New Testament (Romans 13:3-4). b. If he did not lie in wait…if a man acts with premeditation: God told the judges of Israel to look for evidence of premeditation and treachery. God did not place accidents, or crimes of passion or neglect on the same plane as crimes of premeditation and treachery. c. You shall take him from My altar, that he may die: The principle of punishing murderers is so important to God that He denied murderers refuge at His altar. According to almost universal custom in the ancient world, a religious altar was a place of sanctuary against justice or vengeance. An accused man might find safety if he could flee to an altar before he was apprehended. i. "The supplicant would catch hold of the projecting 'horns' of the altar (1 Kings 2:28). This was tantamount to dedicating himself to YHWH, like any animal sacrifice bound with ropes to the altar horns." (Cole) ii. Yet God told the judges of Israel there was to be no mercy in the sentencing of those guilty of the worst murders, what we might call first-degree murder. God said, "You shall take him from My altar, that he may die." The murderer was to find no protection in misunderstood, misapplied faith. iii. God said also that unpunished murderers defiled the land: Moreover you shall take no ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death, but he shall surely be put to death . . . So you shall not pollute the land where you are; for blood defiles the land, and no atonement can be made for the land, for the blood that is shed on it, except by the blood of him who shed it. Therefore do not defile the land which you inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell among the children of Israel. (Numbers 35:31, 33-34) iv. The principle that unpunished murders defile a land is a sobering, humbling thought among Americans, were so many are murdered and few are brought to justice for those murders. d. Then I will appoint for you a place where he may flee: Later (in Numbers 35 and Joshua 20) God commanded and Israel made cities of refuge (a place where he may flee). These were selected, prepared cities where one could flee in the case of manslaughter, and be protected until his case was properly heard. i. "From the earliest times the nearest akin had a right to revenge the murder of his relation, and as this right was universally acknowledged, no law was ever made on the subject; but as this might be abused, and a person who had killed another accidentally, having had no previous malice against him, might be put to death by the avenger of blood, as the nearest kinsman was termed, therefore God provided the cities of refuge to which the accidental manslayer might flee till the affair was inquired into, and settled by the civil magistrate." (Clarke) ii. This careful distinction between degrees of guilt and punishment in murder, and the protections for the one guilty of manslaughter as opposed to murder show the sophistication and concern for justice in the principles given to Israelite judges. 2. (15-17) Laws concerning murder of a parent. "And he who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death. He who kidnaps a man and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, shall surely be put to death. And he who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death." a. He who strikes his father or mother: Strikes must be taken in the context of Exodus 21:12, which says He who strikes a man so that he dies. A child who murdered, or attempts the murder of a parent, was to receive capital punishment. b. He who kidnaps a man and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, shall surely be put to death: Kidnapping was also considered a capital offense. In the eyes of God, criminally enslaving a man was not far from murdering him. i. "Kidnapping for slavery was common in the ancient world" (Cole), and is here clearly prohibited. ii. This is a subtle yet important difference between slavery as it was (and is) commonly practiced and slavery as regulated in the Bible. Most slavery (ancient and modern) was actually a form of kidnapping - the taking and imprisoning of a person against their will. As regulated in the Bible (and as practiced in some other ancient cultures), slavery was received willingly (usually as payment for debt) or, in the case of war, was an alternative to death. In ancient Israel, other cultures were not kidnapped and enslaved (as was the practice in the African slave trade). iii. The context and placement of this law is significant. "Kidnapping is not a property offense since no property offense draws a capital punishment, and this law is not listed under property laws. Instead, it is the theft of a human being." (Kaiser) iv. Or if he is found in his hand "should be translated 'and is caught with the money in his hand.' Unexpectedly large bank balances are still hard to explain to the Income Tax department of our own day." (Cole) c. He who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death: The idea was of an adult child who threatened their parent. Though this law was severe, it preserved a critical foundation for civilized society: respect between generations. i. The idea of the curse here is more like what we would think of as a death threat. "Since to curse was to will and pray the downfall of the other with all one's heart, it represented the attitude from which sprang acts like striking or murder." (Cole) ii. The Law of Moses also had a built-in protection for the rights of the child, according to Deuteronomy 21:18-21. This passage states that the parent did not have the right to carry out this punishment, but they were required to bring the accused child before the elders and judges of the city. This meant that the parent - against all contemporary custom - did not have the absolute power of life and death over their children. As a practical matter, the judges of Israel rarely if ever administered the death penalty in such cases, yet the child was held accountable. iii. Yet the law discouraging conflict between generations is important. Each elder generation, as they grow older, is at the mercy of the younger generation. If the younger generation is allowed to carry on open warfare with the older generation, the very foundations of society are shaken - as reflected in the Fourth Commandment. Some modern laws - including developing laws regarding euthanasia - may lead to the easy murder of the older generation by the younger. 3. (18-19) Regarding compensation for personal injury. "If men contend with each other, and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but is confined to his bed, if he rises again and walks about outside with his staff, then he who struck him shall be acquitted. He shall only pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed." a. If men contend with each other, and one strikes the other: If, because of a conflict, a man was unable to work (is confined to his bed) because of an injury received at the hand of another, the one who injured him must pay compensation to the man and his family. i. These laws of compensation for personal injury have parallels in the Code of Hammurabi and in Hittite Laws. b. If he rises again and walks about outside with his staff: However, if the man could recover from the injury, the guilty party was only required to pay for his medical recovery and for his lost time. c. And shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed: Though these principles have been abused by the greedy in our modern day, the principles themselves still stand. 4. (20-21) Regarding the beating and death of a servant. "And if a man beats his male or female servant with a rod, so that he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished. Notwithstanding, if he remains alive a day or two, he shall not be punished; for he is his property." a. So that he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished: This shows that in ancient Israel servants could be murdered. In many other cultures, the master was held blameless if he murdered a servant, because the servant was not considered a person. i. "The great advance on ancient thinking is that the slave is considered here as a person." (Cole) b. Notwithstanding, if he remains alive a day or two, he shall not be punished: Yet the master not be punished if the servant did not die immediately. Perhaps this was a way to determine intent, with the idea that if the servant lived for several days, it was an indication that the master must not have intended to murder him. i. The idea was that if the victim did not die immediately, it was evidence that he was struck with the intention of discipline and not murder. Additionally, if the slave died through this unintentional attack, the loss of property was thought to be penalty enough to the master. ii. Adam Clarke noted that this reflects a general principle in the Law of Moses: great consideration to the rights of the accused. "And all penal laws should be construed as favourably as possible to the accused." (Clarke) iii. "The aim of this law was not to place the slave at the master's mercy but to restrict the master's power over him." (Kaiser) c. He shall surely be punished…he is his property: These laws together paint a picture of the ideas behind slavery in ancient Israel. A servant was a person (who could not be murdered), yet they were also considered the property of the master, until their obligation was fulfilled. i. For he is his property: "Is literally 'because he is his money.' The point is not that men are mere chattel…but that the owner has an investment in this slave that he stands to lose either by death…or by emancipation." (Kaiser) ii. These principles paint a spiritual analogy. Spiritually speaking, we are the property of whom we serve. We are either slaves to Satan or to Jesus Christ. 5. (22-25) Laws of retribution. "If men fight, and hurt a woman with child, so that she gives birth prematurely, yet no harm follows, he shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman's husband imposes on him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. But if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." a. He shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman's husband imposes on him: This is an example of a case of retribution, where a pregnant woman was injured in a conflict, and she gave birth prematurely. A penalty was only to be assessed if there was lasting damage. i. If no lasting damage resulted, there are no damages awarded. Perhaps this was recognition that the law cannot address every loss or consequence, and that only permanent consequences are justly compensated. b. But if any harm follows: If lasting damage resulted - short of death, which was covered by another law - there was retribution or restitution due. i. "For the accidental assault, the offender must still pay some compensation, even though both mother and child survived….The fee would be set by the woman's husband and approved by a decision of the court." (Kaiser) c. But if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye: If lasting damage resulted, the eye for eye principle always limited retribution. This law was meant to block man's natural desire for vengeance. It was not given as a license for revenge. i. Our tendency is to want to do more against the offending party than what they did to us. This principle can apply to our modern practice of assessing huge punitive damages in lawsuits, and this law presents the principle that only the loss itself is to be compensated. d. You shall give life for life: This principle leads some to wonder if, in ancient Israel, people were routinely killed for what we might consider accidental death or manslaughter. It's important to correlate this principle of you shall give life for life with Numbers 35:31, which allows a substitute ransom payment for loss of life that was not willful and premeditated murder. i. Numbers 35:31: Moreover you shall take no ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death, but he shall surely be put to death. This prohibition indicates that it was common practice to take ransom money for wrongful death in other circumstances. ii. "Thus we conclude that the defendant must surrender to the deceased child's father or wife's husband the monetary value of each life if either or both were harmed." (Kaiser) 6. (26-27) The law of retribution as it regards masters and servants. "If a man strikes the eye of his male or female servant, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for the sake of his eye. And if he knocks out the tooth of his male or female servant, he shall let him go free for the sake of his tooth." a. If a man strikes the eye of his male or female servant, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for the sake of his eye: The principle of eye for an eye had a different application for servants. If injured by the master, the servant received something more precious than an eye - his freedom. i. These laws don't try to make the master feel a certain way about his slave. Instead, the laws guide the behavior of the master, giving him incentive to protect and honor his slave, treating them more like an employee than a work-animal. b. If he knocks out the tooth of his male or female servant, he shall let him go free: "If this did not teach them humanity, it taught them caution, as one rash blow might have deprived them of all right to the future services of the slave; and this self-interest obliged them to be cautious and circumspect." (Clarke) C. Laws regarding animal control and damage. 1. (28-32) Determining guilt when an animal kills a human. "If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, then the ox shall surely be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be acquitted. But if the ox tended to thrust with its horn in times past, and it has been made known to his owner, and he has not kept it confined, so that it has killed a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death. If there is imposed on him a sum of money, then he shall pay to redeem his life, whatever is imposed on him. Whether it has gored a son or gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him. If the ox gores a male or female servant, he shall give to their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned." a. The ox shall surely be stoned…but the owner of the ox shall be acquitted: This law illustrated the principle of intent and neglect. An owner of a man-killing ox could not be held guilty if the animal had no history of aggression towards people. Yet the animal must die, and the owner was forbidden to profit from the animal or its death (its flesh shall not be eaten). No one was to profit from or regard casually even accidental death. i. "This means injury by oxen, since the Israelites kept no other animal that was capable of killing a human: horses were foreign luxuries." (Cole) ii. "This served to keep up a due detestation of murder, whether committed by man or beast; and at the same time punished the man as far as possible, by the total loss of the beast." (Clarke) b. But if the ox tended to thrust with its horn in times past . . . the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death: Yet, if an ox owner had an ox (or similar animal) whom he knew to be aggressive and he failed to control the animal, he was guilty of murder and punished as such. c. If there is imposed on him a sum of money, then he shall pay to redeem his life: It seems that if the survivors of the dead man accepted monetary restitution in lieu of the owner's death, this was an acceptable settlement. d. Whether it has gored a son or gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him: The same principles were applied in the death of a minor. They were regarded as people with rights to respect as well as adults. e. If the ox gores a male or female servant, he shall give to their master thirty shekels of silver: If a servant was killed under such circumstances, the price of restitution was thirty shekels of silver, which was considered the price of a slave. i. "Even in Israel, a slave was still a man: his blood brings blood-guilt, like that of any other man." (Cole) ii. Significantly, this was the same price Jesus was sold for when Judas betrayed Jesus for thirty pieces of silver (Matthew 26:15). 2. (33-36) More laws regarding the principles of negligence and restitution. "And if a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls in it, the owner of the pit shall make it good; he shall give money to their owner, but the dead animal shall be his. If one man's ox hurts another's, so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the money from it; and the dead ox they shall also divide. Or if it was known that the ox tended to thrust in time past, and its owner has not kept it confined, he shall surely pay ox for ox, and the dead animal shall be his own." a. He shall give money to their owner, but the dead animal shall be his: These laws communicate the principle of responsibility for the consequences of an individual's actions upon another. The example given had to do with necessary restitution when the digging of a pit caused the death of an animal. i. If a man opens a pit: "More likely for grain storage than water storage. Pits were also used as traps for animals (2 Samuel 23:20) or prisons for men (Genesis 37:24)." (Cole) b. If one man's ox hurts another's, so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the money from it: These laws required the investigation and analysis of judges, so that the application of the law took into account findings of intent and negligence. There is a sense in which these are simply applications of the general principles of justice and fairness. i. "To a struggling Israelite farmer, fair payment for the death of an ox might mean the difference between life and death, or at least between freedom and slavery for debt." (Cole) Exodus 22 - More Laws to Direct Judges A. Laws regarding personal property and restitution. 1. (1-4) Restitution required in cases of theft. "If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and slaughters it or sells it, he shall restore five oxen for an ox and four sheep for a sheep. If the thief is found breaking in, and he is struck so that he dies, there shall be no guilt for his bloodshed. If the sun has risen on him, there shall be guilt for his bloodshed. He should make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. If the theft is certainly found alive in his hand, whether it is an ox or donkey or sheep, he shall restore double." a. If a man steals an ox or a sheep: The command against theft was already stated in the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:15). Here are more specific principles given to judges, so they could apply that principle in the daily life and administration of justice among the people of Israel. i. Slaughters or sells: "There is a heavier fine for this, since such action presumably shows deliberate intent to steal." (Cole) b. He shall restore: The Mosaic Law did not send a person to jail because of theft. Instead, the thief was required to restore what he stole, plus an additional penalty. i. In this passage, the penalty could be anywhere from 500% (he shall restore five oxen for an ox) to 200% (he shall restore double). "The reason for the fivefold penalty in the case of stealing an ox is probably because one man stole the means of another man's livelihood. The principle would extend to taking any of the man's plowing or cultivating implements." (Kaiser) ii. This can be regarded as a positive approach to the punishment of criminals, putting them to productive restitution and compensating the victims of their theft. These principles are often ignored in the modern administration of justice. iii. They are also, as a principle, ignored in many Christian lives. "This chapter is full of restitution, of which there is far too little in ordinary Christian life. We try to make amends for injury done to another by an extraordinary amount of civility; but we are reluctant in so many words to frankly confess that we have done wrong, and make proper reparation for the act or speech." (Meyer) c. He should make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft: If the person was unable to pay back what he stole, the thief was sold as an indentured laborer, with the money from the sale going to the victim. d. If the thief is found breaking in, and he is struck so that he dies, there shall be no guilt for his bloodshed. If the sun has risen on him, there shall be guilt for his bloodshed: A property owner had the right to protect his property with force - but only with reasonable force. The assumption was that if it was daylight, the property owner had the ability to defend himself short of lethal force. i. "It is typical of Israel's merciful law that even a thief has his rights." (Cole) 2. (5-8) Further application of the principle of restitution. "If a man causes a field or vineyard to be grazed, and lets loose his animal, and it feeds in another man's field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard. If fire breaks out and catches in thorns, so that stacked grain, standing grain, or the field is consumed, he who kindled the fire shall surely make restitution. If a man delivers to his neighbor money or articles to keep, and it is stolen out of the man's house, if the thief is found, he shall pay double. If the thief is not found, then the master of the house shall be brought to the judges to see whether he has put his hand into his neighbor's goods." a. If a man causes a field or vineyard to be grazed, and lets loose his animal, and it feeds in another man's field, he shall make restitution: The owner of an animal was responsible for the grazing of his animals. He was obliged to respect his neighbor's property (the grazing land). i. "Thus men are held responsible, not only for the harm they do, but also for the harm they occasion, even though they may not have purposely designed the damage that ensued." (Kaiser) ii. "We wrong another not only by what we do, or permit to be done, but in what we carelessly fail to do." (Meyer) b. He shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard: This was a fair punishment, and significant enough to give a farmer a reason to not allow his animals to carelessly and destructively graze. i. "These laws also began by laying emphasis on the guilt of carelessness. The truth emphasized is that no man must live his life on the basis of selfishness or wholly alone and that wrong inflicted on neighbor by neighbor in the material realm becomes sin against God in the moral realm." (Morgan) c. He who kindled the fire shall surely make restitution: Restitution was also required in cases of vandalism or foolish negligence, even if one kept the property of another. The Mosaic legal system had a high view of personal responsibility, even with the property of others. i. This translates into a proper concern for the property of others today. A Christian, if he backs into someone else's car, will certainly leave a note and make good the damage. A Christian will have proper insurance, guaranteeing they can compensate for someone else's loss. ii. If someone gives you something to hold for them, you are then responsible for it as a faithful steward or manager. This principle also includes what God gives us to manage or steward for Him. d. Shall surely make restitution…he shall pay double: Restitution was paid according to a pre-determined amount or percentage; it was not left to the whim of either the victim or the judge. 3. (9-13) More application of the principle of restitution. "For any kind of trespass, whether it concerns an ox, a donkey, a sheep, or clothing, or for any kind of lost thing which another claims to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whomever the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor. If a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and it dies, is hurt, or driven away, no one seeing it, then an oath of the LORD shall be between them both, that he has not put his hand into his neighbor's goods; and the owner of it shall accept that, and he shall not make it good. But if, in fact, it is stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner of it. If it is torn to pieces by a beast, then he shall bring it as evidence, and he shall not make good what was torn." a. Any kind of lost thing which another claims to be his: In the law of Israel, an owner did not lose ownership simply because the object was lost. If another found the object and owner laid claim to it (with a dispute following), it was to be decided by judges. i. "An object has been lost: the owner later sees a similar object in possession of his neighbor, and claims it as his own. The Israelites apparently did not follow the Anglo-Saxon dictum of 'finders are keepers': a lost object remains the possession of the original owner, who can claim it on sight." (Cole) b. The cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whomever the judges condemn shall pay double: If there was a dispute regarding the loss of property, the judges heard evidence, investigated, and decided who was right and who was wrong. The guilty party had to pay double restitution - whether they were the accused or the defendant. There was a price for false accusation or lawsuit. i. Before the judges: "Hebrew, the gods: so judges are called, if good especially (Psalm 82:6). And the seat of judicature is called the holy place (Ecclesiastes 8:10)." (Trapp) c. If a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and it dies, is hurt, or driven away, no one seeing it: This law considered the situation when something suspicious happens - an animal in the care of another dies, is hurt, or driven away. Yet, it happened with no witnesses (no one seeing it). Shall the testimony of the accused be accepted in such cases? d. Then an oath of the LORD shall be between them both, that he has not put his hand into his neighbor's goods; and the owner of it shall accept that: In such cases, the owner of the animal was obligated to accept the sworn testimony of the accused, unless there was evidence that gave reasonable doubt to the truthfulness of the accused. i. This principle is the foundation of our idea that a man is innocent until proven guilty. In this case, the man's oath was taken as true unless proof to the contrary could be found. ii. He shall bring it as evidence: "Production of the carcase would show that, while the shepherd could not prevent the kill, he was alert enough to stop the devouring of the prey." (Cole) e. The owner of it shall accept that: Though the owner of the animal suffered loss, he was not allowed to compensate the loss by accusing and winning damages against an innocent party. He had to accept the outcome, even though justice left him uncompensated. i. There is a parallel thought in the New Testament, that believers should avoid taking legal disputes among themselves to secular judges. They should allow the matter to be judged by the church (1 Corinthians 6:1-8). 4. (14-15) Restitution principles applied to borrowing and lending. "And if a man borrows anything from his neighbor, and it becomes injured or dies, the owner of it not being with it, he shall surely make it good. If its owner was with it, he shall not make it good; if it was hired, it came for its hire." a. If a man borrows anything from his neighbor: The principles of responsibility and restitution also applied to borrowing and lending. b. The owner of it not being with it…If its owner was with it: The assumption was that if the owner was with the animal or tool (or whatever) as it was used by another, the owner was responsible for the care and use of the object while in his presence. If the owner was not present, the borrower was responsible. c. He shall surely make it good: This was the simple principle meant to guide the judges. The guilty party had to make it good. Distinctions were to be made according to fairness and justice, not simply to reward whoever suffered loss. Sometimes loss is suffered and no one is to blame. B. Moral and ceremonial laws. 1. (16-17) The remedy for pre-marital sex. "If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife. If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the bride-price of virgins." a. If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed: Some claim this passage did not prohibit pre-marital sex; but it did prohibit (or at least strongly discourage) it in practice, because it required a man to either marry or provide for a woman he had pre-marital sex with. i. Virgin: The Hebrew (betulah) "Was an unmarried girl who was always presumed to be a virgin." (Kaiser) ii. Entice a virgin: "Hebrew, over-persuade with her by fair words, which make fools fain." (Trapp) b. He shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife: This law emphasized the principle that there is no such thing as casual sex. Both Old and New Testaments state that sexual relations carry lasting consequences (1 Corinthians 6:15-16). i. "This was an exceedingly wise and humane law, and must have operated powerfully against seduction and fornication; because the person who might feel inclined to take the advantage of a young woman knew that he must marry her, and giver her a dowry." (Clarke). ii. This law encouraged both men and women to value the virginity of a woman. "Since a man has taken a girl without paying bride-price, bride-price he must pay, for who else will pay it now?" (Cole) It's not that the virginity of men was worthless or ignored; yet the law encouraged greater care and preservation for the virginity of women until marriage and the advantageous circumstances for child raising. iii. It is to the great detriment of society and culture when the government works against the value of virginity, and (intentionally or not) supports behavior that doesn't value it or promotes the cheapening of virginity and abstinence until marriage. iv. A man illustrated the value of virginity with a true story about a friend who owned an antique store and had a table for sale. The table was worth $600, but was marked down to $300. A man tried to bargain her down to $200, and not only did she refuse, but she realized the true value of the table, and upped the price to its true worth - even when offered $300. The man finally bought the table for $600, and certainly treated it like a $600 table - because its worth had been recognized and fought for. Some women who know men treat them shabbily contribute to the problem by selling themselves cheaply. c. If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the bride-price of virgins: If the man who took advantage of the woman was considered a completely unacceptable husband by the father of the wronged woman, then that man had to pay the dowry without receiving the bride. This was a strong incentive against taking advantage of young women. d. He shall pay money: This brief presentation of the law gave no penalty to the woman involved. This was because she was thought to be disadvantaged (if a man entices a virgin) and needed to be recompensed. If she was not taken advantage of, then the loss of her virginity and the diminution of her marriage prospects was thought to be punishment enough. i. "This one consideration was a powerful curb on disorderly passions, and must tend greatly to render marriages respectable, and prevent all crimes of this nature." (Cole) 2. (18-20) Three capital crimes. "You shall not permit a sorceress to live. Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death. He who sacrifices to any god, except to the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed." a. A sorceress: Among the ancients, the practice of sorcery had two associations. First, contact with dark or demonic powers or persons. Second, altered states through drugs and potions. There was understood to be a connection between drug taking and occultist practices. i. The law shows that such communication is possible, and the penalty shows that it is dangerous. ii. The King James Version translates sorceress as witch. "An enchantress, sorceress, whose help was sometimes sought in enticing young maids to folly. The man-witch is also here meant, but the woman-witch mentioned; both because women are more inclinable to that sin; and also because the weaker sex is not to be spared for this fault." (Trapp) iii. Taking this noun sorceress, the "verb is to use incantations, magic, sorcery, or the arts of witchcraft. Our English 'witch' is alleged to have come from 'to wit,' i.e., 'to know,' in the adjectival wittigh or wittich, contracted to witch. The Greeks rendered our word by pharmakos ('poisoners'), since sorcerers dealt in drugs and pharmaceutical potions." (Kaiser) iv. "Many of the Israelites had, no doubt, learned these curious arts from their long residence with the Egyptians; and so much were the Israelites attached to them, that we find such arts in repute among them, and various practices of this kind prevailed through the whole of the Jewish history, notwithstanding the offence was capital, and in all cases punished with death." (Clarke) v. "It is clearly against the will of God that in this life men should hold any communication with the spirit world, save that of direct fellowship with Himself, through His Son, by the Holy Spirit." (Morgan) b. You shall not permit a sorceress to live: This was considered a severe enough threat that sorcery was considered a capital crime. This combination of occult practices and drug-induced altered states was seen as destructive to the culture and moral fabric of ancient Israel. i. "Thus with blunt directness and complete finality, the law of God against all traffic with the world of evil spirits was promulgated." (Morgan) ii. "Witchcraft is equally condemned in New Testament days (Acts 13:10; 19:19), but in spite of the practices of the church in the Middle Ages, there is no hint in the New Testament that mediums or witches should be put to death." (Cole) iii. Shall utterly be destroyed: This uses the ancient Hebrew word herem. "Herem is something devoted to God; however, it is not a voluntary but an involuntary dedication. It is now set apart to be banned from the earth." (Kaiser) c. Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death: Bestiality was practiced in the ancient world, and here God commanded specifically against it. i. "This offensive sex act apparently was prevalent among the Canaanites." (Kaiser) "Bestiality was not only an obvious perversion: it figured so often in the Canaanite cycle 'Tales of Baal' that it probably had a religious significance for the Canaanites." (Cole) ii. It is surprising to some that bestiality is legal in some European nations, and a subculture practices and promotes it. Yet there should be no surprise; if God's standard is rejected in one area of sexual morality, then the standards are often left up to the individual to decide. It is Christian civilization and morality that has discouraged and condemned fornication, adultery, pedophilia, polygamy, prostitution, homosexuality, gender confusion and the like. As Christian civilization and morality are increasingly mocked and rejected, it is no surprise that all of these sexual practices are increasingly practiced, supported, and encouraged. iii. Some years ago a student group at a university responded to the school's sponsorship of GLAD (Gay/Lesbian Awareness Days), with a mocking parody they called BAD (Bestiality Awareness Days). University administration did not allow them to promote or carry out their parody celebration; but there was no rational reason to prohibit this apart from a Biblical foundation for morality. iv. If the moral measure for a sexual act is, If it feels good, do it - then there is no moral measure, and the culture will become increasingly depraved until this changes. d. He who sacrifices to any god, except to the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed: In ancient Israel, it was strictly prohibited to sacrifice to the pagan gods. This law was often broken, and this penalty was rarely applied. One rare example of its application was when Elijah executed the prophets of Baal in 1 Kings 18:40. 3. (21) Compassion for the stranger. "You shall neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt." a. You shall neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress him: A good measure of our moral character is found in how we treat a stranger. People often find it easy to treat their own flesh and blood well, but God commands us to have a concern for others - including the stranger. i. The enduring hatred and strife between ethnic and national groups shows just how little humanity has progressed. ii. It is fair to examine how accommodating are we to the strangers among us. If we stay with our own safe group and enjoy all the blessings, and fail to be outreaching and out-looking as a blessing to others, we mistreat a stranger. b. For you were strangers in the land of Egypt: Israel's own experience of being strangers should have given them appropriate sympathy for strangers in their midst. i. God's command that there be kindness and good treatment towards the stranger does not mean that it is not good or fitting that strangers receive permission to live among a new community. The people of Israel were strangers in the land of Egypt, but at the express invitation of Pharaoh (Genesis 47:5-6). Israel was not welcomed into Canaan, and their coming was rightly regarded as a war of conquest. Governments have the right and responsibility to control borders and immigration; yet there is no doubt of the individual's responsibility to neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress him. 4. (22-24) Compassion for the weak and vulnerable. "You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. If you afflict them in any way, and they cry at all to Me, I will surely hear their cry; and My wrath will become hot, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless." a. You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child: The widow and fatherless child were the weakest and most vulnerable members of society. In an unrestrained, survival-of-the-fittest society, they would be the first to suffer abuse and destruction. God here commanded that at the very least, they not be afflicted. i. "It was the prophets who chided Israel for their neglect in this area of oppressing the poor and the weak." (Kaiser) b. I will kill you with the sword: Because of their special vulnerability, God commanded a special care and concern for them, promising to protect them. i. "The society that lacks social justice will itself come under God's judgment." (Cole) 5. (25-27) Compassion for the poor. "If you lend money to any of My people who are poor among you, you shall not be like a moneylender to him; you shall not charge him interest. If you ever take your neighbor's garment as a pledge, you shall return it to him before the sun goes down. For that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin. What will he sleep in? And it will be that when he cries to Me, I will hear, for I am gracious." a. If you lend money to any of My people who are poor among you, you shall not be like a moneylender to him: Interest was prohibited on loans made to the poor and the taking of collateral had to be reasonable. i. "The reason for the prohibition is presumably that the poor man borrows in his need. The loan is seen as assistance to a neighbor, and to make money from his need would be immoral." (Cole) ii. This only prohibited the taking of interest on loans for relief of the poor. Adam Clarke said of the word translated interest: "Neshech, from nashach, to bite, cut, or pierce with the teeth; biting usury. So the Latins call it usura vorax, devouring usury… Perhaps usury may be more properly defined unlawful interest, receiving more for the loan of money than it is really worth, and more than the law allows." Trapp commented on the word interest: "Hebrew, Biting usury." iii. "The prohibition against interest was written with the poor in mind. Commercial loans were not explicitly canned because they were not considered. Out of sixteen biblical passages dealing with loans (but not with interest), not one deals with a commercial loan. Commercial loans simply did not come under the biblical purview." (Gamoran, cited in Kaiser) b. If you ever take your neighbor's garment as a pledge: The fact that one's garment could be used as collateral (under regulated circumstances) shows that these were loans, with repayment expected and secured with collateral. They were not gifts, but loans. i. "Retaining one's outer garment (used as temporary collateral) overnight was strictly forbidden, for even an interest-free loan apparently required some type of pledge or security." (Kaiser) c. And it will be that when he cries to Me, I will hear: God promised to hear the prayer of the poor man when he cried out to the Lord. God's general sympathy for the poor is reflected in the fact that Jesus came from a poor family. When He was dedicated in the temple, shortly after His birth, the sacrifice was that of a poor family: two birds (Luke 2:24). 6. (28-31) Laws regarding holiness and separation unto God. "You shall not revile God, nor curse a ruler of your people. You shall not delay to offer the first of your ripe produce and your juices. The firstborn of your sons you shall give to Me. Likewise you shall do with your oxen and your sheep. It shall be with its mother seven days; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me. And you shall be holy men to Me: you shall not eat meat torn by beasts in the field; you shall throw it

nothing at of , which is


17. Esther 1-2 (A Queen Is Deposed; Esther Is Chosen Queen)

Esther 1-2 (A Queen Is Deposed; Esther Is Chosen Queen)

Esther 1 - A Queen Is Deposed Esther is the last of the historical books of the Bible, so its main character is named Esther - that is, Venus, the morning star, which sheds its light after all the others stars have ceased to shine, and while the sun still delays to rise. Thus the deeds of Queen Esther cast a ray of light forward into Israel’s history from a dark time. A. King Ahasuerus (Xerxes) holds a big feast. 1. (1-2) King Ahasuerus and his domain. Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus (this was the Ahasuerus who reigned over one hundred and twenty-seven provinces, from India to Ethiopia), in those days when King Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the citadel, a. It came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus: This king Ahasuerus is well known to history, though more commonly under the name Xerxes. He inherited the vast Persian Empire from his father, Darius I (who is mentioned in passages such as Ezra 4:24, 5:5-7, 6:1-15; Daniel 6:1 and 6:25; Haggai 1:15 and 2:10). i. The fact of the existence of this king and circumstance is extremely well attested; archaeologists have discovered the ruins of the very palace where these events happened. b. In those days when King Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom: At this time (approximately 483 B.C.), Ahasuerus was planning for a doomed invasion of Greece, which would take place several years later. At this time the city of Athens was in its classical glory and in Greece they were celebrating the 79th Olympic games. i. At this time, the Persian Empire was the largest the world had ever seen. It covered what we call today Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel; and also parts of modern day Egypt, Sudan, Libya, and Arabia. ii. Also at this time Ezra had returned to Jerusalem after it had been conquered by the Babylonians. The temple had been rebuilt some 30 years before, although more simply and withouth the glory of Solomon’s temple. iii. In 40 years, under the successor of Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes I), Nehemiah would return to Jerusalem to rebuild the walls of the previously conquered city. 2. (3-9) Three royal feasts. That in the third year of his reign he made a feast for all his officials and servants; the powers of Persia and Media, the nobles, and the princes of the provinces being before him; when he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the splendor of his excellent majesty for many days, one hundred and eighty days in all. And when these days were completed, the king made a feast lasting seven days for all the people who were present in Shushan the citadel, from great to small, in the court of the garden of the king’s palace. There were white and blue linen curtains fastened with cords of fine linen and purple on silver rods and marble pillars; and the couches were of gold and silver on a mosaic pavement of alabaster, turquoise, and white and black marble. And they served drinks in golden vessels, each vessel being different from the other, with royal wine in abundance, according to the generosity of the king. In accordance with the law, the drinking was not compulsory; for so the king had ordered all the officers of his household, that they should do according to each man’s pleasure. Queen Vashti also made a feast for the women in the royal palace which belonged to King Ahasuerus. a. He made a feast for all his officials and servants: The first feast was for all the government officials, where Ahasuerus showed off the glory and splendor of the riches of his kingdom. This feast lasted for 180 days. b. The king made a feast lasting seven days for all the people who were present in Shushan the citadel: The second feast was for the citizens of the capital city, Sushan and it lasted for seven days. i. The basic reason for these feasts was, of course, pride. The king wanted to impress his subjects with a great display of his own wealth and power and majesty and generosity. This is typical of the way that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those who are great exercise authority over them (Matthew 20:25). There is little doubt that Ahasuerus paid for this feast out of the public treasury. c. There were white and blue linen curtains: In the ancient Hebrew, the white material is literally described as “white stuff.” This may be evidence that Esther was written with a man’s eye for decorating detail, not a woman’s. d. In accordance with the law, the drinking was not compulsory: Among some of the ancients, each guest was obliged to have a drink with the current round, or else leave the party. At this second feast, the king command that each man could drink as he pleased. e. Queen Vashti also made a feast for the women: The third feast was for the women in the royal palace, and was conducted by the wife of king Ahasuerus, Queen Vashti. B. Queen Vashti is deposed. 1. (10-11) King Ahasuerus demands that Vashti display her beauty before the guests at the feast. On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, seven eunuchs who served in the presence of King Ahasuerus, to bring Queen Vashti before the king, wearing her royal crown, in order to show her beauty to the people and the officials, for she was beautiful to behold. a. When the heart of the king was merry with wine: The clear implication is that Ahasuerus was drunk. b. To bring Queen Vashti before the king, wearing her royal crown: According to Jewish tradition, this request came from an argument among the men at the feast as to which country had the most beautiful women. Ahasuerus decided to settle the issue by putting his wife the queen on public display. c. For she was beautiful to behold: It is not specifically said, but the implication is that Vashti was expected to display herself in an immodest way. 2. (12) Queen Vashti refuses to appear before the drunken guests of the feast. But Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s command brought by his eunuchs; therefore the king was furious, and his anger burned within him. a. But Queen Vashti refused to come: Though Vashti was by no means a follower of the true God, she had enough wisdom and modesty to know that this was something she should not do. i. The Bible says that wives have a special responsibility to submit to their husbands (wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord; Ephesians 5:22). Yet it does not mean that a wife must obey her husband if he commands her to sin. Every command to submit on a human level is conditioned by the higher obligation to obey God before man. ii. However, it is important for a Christian in such a situation to maintain a submissive and respectful attitude towards the one in authority. It is possible to disobey the command of another, but do so in a submissive manner. It is impossible to say if Queen Vashti had this attitude in this situation. iii. Jewish traditions say that her refusal had nothing to do with modesty. These stories say that she was ready to appear before the banqueters completely unclothed, except that God smote her with leprosy just as she received the request (an obviously fanciful tradition). b. Therefore the king was furious, and his anger burned: Queen Vashti was therefore in a very dangerous situation. It does not seem that she put herself in this situation, because it seems that she was not even at this banquet. i. Sadly, many women today put themselves in dangerous places, especially where alcohol is involved, showing a severe lack of wisdom. Nevertheless, it certainly gives no justification to the sin of men against an unwise woman in such a situation. ii. “What woman, possessing even a common share of prudence and modesty, could consent to expose herself to the view of such a group of drunken Bacchanalians? Her courage was equal to her modesty: she would resist the royal mandate, rather than violate the rules of chaste decorum. . . . Hail, noble woman! be thou a pattern to all thy sex on every similar occasion!” (Clarke) 3. (13-22) The banishment of Vashti. Then the king said to the wise men who understood the times (for this was the king’s manner toward all who knew law and justice, those closest to him being Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who had access to the king’s presence, and who ranked highest in the kingdom): “What shall we do to Queen Vashti, according to law, because she did not obey the command of King Ahasuerus brought to her by the eunuchs?” And Memucan answered before the king and the princes: “Queen Vashti has not only wronged the king, but also all the princes, and all the people who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus. For the queen’s behavior will become known to all women, so that they will despise their husbands in their eyes, when they report, ‘King Ahasuerus commanded Queen Vashti to be brought in before him, but she did not come.’ This very day the noble ladies of Persia and Media will say to all the king’s officials that they have heard of the behavior of the queen. Thus there will be excessive contempt and wrath. If it pleases the king, let a royal decree go out from him, and let it be recorded in the laws of the Persians and the Medes, so that it will not be altered, that Vashti shall come no more before King Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal position to another who is better than she. When the king’s decree which he will make is proclaimed throughout all his empire (for it is great), all wives will honor their husbands, both great and small.” And the reply pleased the king and the princes, and the king did according to the word of Memucan. Then he sent letters to all the king’s provinces, to each province in its own script, and to every people in their own language, that each man should be master in his own house, and speak in the language of his own people. a. That Vashti shall come no more before King Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal position to another who is better than she: When King Ahasuerus heeded this advice from Memucan, he showed himself to be unreasonable and wrong. He should have honored the dignity of his Queen. Yet, history’s profile of Ahasuerus shows him to be an unreasonable and foolish man in many cases. i. On one occasion, Ahasuerus executed the builders of a bridge because an ocean storm destroyed it; then he commanded that the water and waves be whipped and chained to punish the sea. b. That each man should be master in his own house: The purpose for the harsh treatment of Vashti was so that she would not set a bad example for the other women of Persia. Ahasuerus wanted to reinforce the idea of a man’s leadership in the home. i. They were afraid that because of Queen Vashti’s example, wives would despise their husbands . . . that there would be excessive contempt and wrath; therefore they wanted to insure that each man should be master in his own house. ii. The goal presented here was admirable, and speaks to the need within every man to sense respect and honor from his wife. Paul’s instruction to wives was summed up like this: let the wife see that she respects her husband (Ephesians 5:33). A wife’s respect is the most precious gift she can give her husband. iii. However, the means used here to gain and preserve this respect were foolish. A man cannot demand or coerce respect from his wife - if it isn’t freely given, then it isn’t worth anything. Esther 2 - Esther Is Chosen Queen A. The gathering together of a harem for King Ahasuerus. 1. (1-4) A search is made for a replacement for Queen Vashti. After these things, when the wrath of King Ahasuerus subsided, he remembered Vashti, what she had done, and what had been decreed against her. Then the king’s servants who attended him said: “Let beautiful young virgins be sought for the king; and let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather all the beautiful young virgins to Shushan the citadel, into the women’s quarters, under the custody of Hegai the king’s eunuch, custodian of the women. And let beauty preparations be given them. Then let the young woman who pleases the king be queen instead of Vashti.” This thing pleased the king, and he did so. a. After these things: This is broader than just the events of the previous chapter. Esther 2:16 indicates that there was a four-year span between chapters one and two. During that time King Ahasuerus made his great, unsuccessful invasion of Greece and he came home a defeated man, wanting to cheer his heart through sensual diversions. b. Let beautiful young virgins be sought for the king: The plan was to assemble a harem from the most beautiful women of the land; to bring them into a harem for the king, and to choose the most favored woman to be his queen from that group. This was sort of a “Miss Persian Empire” contest, and the winner would be queen instead of Vashti. c. This thing pleased the king, and he did so: The ancient Jewish historian Josephus says the Ahasuerus had a total of 400 women selected. 2. (5-7) Esther and her family. In Shushan the citadel there was a certain Jew whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite. Kish had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captives who had been captured with Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away. And Mordecai had brought up Hadassah, that is, Esther, his uncle’s daughter, for she had neither father nor mother. The young woman was lovely and beautiful. When her father and mother died, Mordecai took her as his own daughter. a. There was a certain Jew whose name was Mordecai: Mordecai, the cousin of Esther, came to Persia in one of the waves of relocation that the Babylonians imposed on Judah when it conquered that land. b. And Mordecai had brought up Hadassah, that is, Esther, his uncle’s daughter: Esther (whose Jewish name Hadassah means “Myrtle”; the Persian name Esther means “star”) was raised by her cousin Mordecai since the death of her father and mother. i. “In prophetic symbolism the myrtle would replace the briars and thorns of the desert, so depicting the Lord’s forgiveness and acceptance of his people. (Isaiah 41:19; 55:13; cf. Zechariah 1:8)” (Baldwin) ii. They were part of the large Jewish community that was forced to relocate out of Judah, and didn’t decide to return with Ezra. In the day of Mordecai and Esther, the land of Judah was regarded as a wild and backward place. c. The young woman was lovely and beautiful: The Hebrew for lovely and beautiful is literally, “beautiful in form and lovely to look at.” Or, as the NIV has it, lovely in form and features. i. We regard that the Bible is generally given to understatement; when it says that Esther was lovely and beautiful, we know that it isn’t exaggerating. 3. (8) Esther is taken into the king’s harem. So it was, when the king’s command and decree were heard, and when many young women were gathered at Shushan the citadel, under the custody of Hegai, that Esther also was taken to the king’s palace, into the care of Hegai the custodian of the women. a. That Esther also was taken to the king’s palace: It seems that Esther didn’t really have a choice about this. b. Into the care of Hegai the custodian of the women: Hegai was the king’s eunuch (Esther 2:3), a man entrusted with the oversight of the king’s harem for obvious reasons. i. According to Baldwin, Hegai is specifically mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus as being an officer of king Ahasuerus. B. Esther in the courts of the king. 1. (9) Esther’s favored treatment in the palace. Now the young woman pleased him, and she obtained his favor; so he readily gave beauty preparations to her, besides her allowance. Then seven choice maidservants were provided for her from the king’s palace, and he moved her and her maidservants to the best place in the house of the women. a. Now the young woman pleased him, and she obtained his favor: Esther obtained favor with Hegai, the man in authority over her. In this, her godliness ensured a fulfillment of Proverbs 3:3-4: Let not mercy and truth forsake you; Bind them around your neck, Write them on the tablet of your heart, and so find favor and high esteem In the sight of God and man. b. He readily gave beauty preparations to her, besides her allowance: Because of this favor, Hegai gave Esther special beauty preparations, beyond her allowance. He also gave her seven choice maidservants to look after her beauty needs. i. Esther was beautiful to begin with; now she looked like one of those “after” pictures from the glamour photo studios - and she looked that way all the time. ii. The ancient Hebrew word for beauty preparations comes from the root “to scour, to polish.” (Huey) 2. (10-11) Esther conceals her Jewish identity. Esther had not revealed her people or family, for Mordecai had charged her not to reveal it. And every day Mordecai paced in front of the court of the women’s quarters, to learn of Esther’s welfare and what was happening to her. a. Esther had not revealed her people or family: Normally, there is never a good reason for hiding the fact that we are Christians. Far too many Christians act as if they are “secret agents” - and they always conceal who they are in the Lord. i. We must take the warning Jesus gave in Matthew 10:32-33 seriously: Therefore whoever confesses Me before men, him I will also confess before My Father who is in heaven. But whoever denies Me before men, him I will also deny before My Father who is in heaven. We can’t live a life of denial and expect God to recognize us. b. For Mordecai had charged her not to reveal it: However, we do recognize that there are situations where God may have us be reticent about our Christian identity - not for the purposes of permanently concealing it, but waiting for the opportune moment to reveal it. Apparently, this is what Mordecai sensed was right to do in this circumstance, and Esther agreed. i. For example, in some situations one might initially act as if they know nothing when approached by a Jehovah’s Witness or a Mormon, and do it not to deny Jesus, but to seize a strategic opportunity. c. Every day Mordecai paced in front of the court of the women’s quarters, to learn of Esther’s welfare: Mordecai’s great interest in Esther’s state shows his love and concern for her in such a potentially dangerous place. 3. (12-14) The method of preparing and presenting the women before the king is established. Each young woman’s turn came to go in to King Ahasuerus after she had completed twelve months’ preparation, according to the regulations for the women, for thus were the days of their preparation apportioned: six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with perfumes and preparations for beautifying women. Thus prepared, each young woman went to the king, and she was given whatever she desired to take with her from the women’s quarters to the king’s palace. In the evening she went, and in the morning she returned to the second house of the women, to the custody of Shaashgaz, the king’s eunuch who kept the concubines. She would not go in to the king again unless the king delighted in her and called for her by name. a. After she had completed twelve months’ preparation: Persia was one of many countries famous for its aromatic perfumes and ancient customs for the preparations of brides, including ritualistic baths, plucking of the eyebrows, the painting of hands and feet with henna, facial make-up, and applications of a beautifying paste all over the body, meant to lighten the color of the skin and to remove spots and blemishes. i. One reason for the lengthy time of preparation was to tell if the women had been pregnant upon coming into the harem, so that the king would not be charged with fathering a child that was not his. ii. Matthew Poole says that the oils and perfumes were necessary because “The bodies of men and women in those hot countries did of themselves yield very ill scents, if not corrected and qualified by art.” b. Thus prepared, each young woman went to the king: It sounds wonderful – a year of constant spa treatments. Yet the destiny of these women should also be considered: one evening with the king. If he chose them from the 400 others to be his queen, then she would be his companion (until she displeased him). As for the 399 who lost, they were banished to the harem where they stayed the wife or the concubine of the king, but rarely if ever saw him afterwards. And they were never free to marry another man, essentially living as a perpetual widow. 4. (15-18) Esther is selected as queen. Now when the turn came for Esther the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her as his daughter, to go in to the king, she requested nothing but what Hegai the king’s eunuch, the custodian of the women, advised. And Esther obtained favor in the sight of all who saw her. So Esther was taken to King Ahasuerus, into his royal palace, in the tenth month, which is the month of Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign. The king loved Esther more than all the other women, and she obtained grace and favor in his sight more than all the virgins; so he set the royal crown upon her head and made her queen instead of Vashti. Then the king made a great feast, the Feast of Esther, for all his officials and servants; and he proclaimed a holiday in the provinces and gave gifts according to the generosity of a king. a. She requested nothing but what Hegai the king’s eunuch, the custodian of the women, advised: Esther’s humble wisdom was shown in the way that she allowed the custodian of the women to assist her preparations. b. Esther obtained favor in the sight of all who saw her: This was because of both Esther’s godliness and beauty. i. Beauty often gains people (especially women) favor with others. This is a fact that Christians must accept, wisely teaching their children what really matters, and refusing to rely too much on beauty for our judgment of people. c. She obtained grace and favor in his sight more than all the virgins: Because of the great favor that she obtained with the king, Esther was selected to be the queen to king Ahasuerus. i. Esther’s life so far has been remarkable. She was the child of Jewish exiles, who both died; she was raised by her cousin in a foreign and often hostile land; she was taken by compulsion into the king’s harem; she found favor with all whom she met; and she was finally selected to be the queen of the realm. ii. This remarkable course of events wasn’t an accident; it wasn’t just because of luck or fortune or Esther’s good looks or sparkling personality. God had a plan, and Esther is part of it. As Psalm 75:6-7 says: For exaltation comes neither from the east nor from the west nor from the south. But God is the Judge: He puts down one, and exalts another. iii. In exactly the same way, we have a place in God’s plan. Wherever you are at right now, God has a purpose for it - maybe a short purpose, or a long one; perhaps a large purpose or a small purpose, but God has a reason. iv. To this point, the story of Esther also shows us that in the outworking of His plan, God can use the evil of man. God did not make Ahasuerus drunk, or make him demand that his queen present herself in an immodest way before the lords of the kingdom; yet God allowed this wicked action of man to fulfill a purpose in His greater plan. We find assurance in the truth that no other person, no matter how evil they are, can defeat God’s plan for our life, no matter what they have done to you or will do to you. C. Mordecai saves the king’s life. 1. (19-20) Mordecai’s rise in prominence and Esther continues to conceal her Jewish identity. When virgins were gathered together a second time, Mordecai sat within the king’s gate. Now Esther had not revealed her family and her people, just as Mordecai had charged her, for Esther obeyed the command of Mordecai as when she was brought up by him. a. Mordecai sat within the king’s gate: This position indicates that Mordecai was associated with the decision makers and men of influence in the kingdom. b. Now Esther had not revealed her family and her people, just as Mordecai had charged her: Some have thought that the book of Esther carries this idea of concealment too far. This book has been criticized because it does not mention the name of God (as neither does the Song of Solomon). i. Some say that the name of God was left out of Esther because of its use in the festivities surrounding Purim, where people commonly became drunk. One rabbi taught: “A man is obligated to drink on Purim until he is unable to distinguish between ‘Blessed be Mordecai’ and ‘Cursed be Haman.’” Some have wondered if, in that atmosphere, it would be too easy to profane the name of God if it were to be read at such a festival. ii. Others see the name YHWH hidden in acrostics, based on the initial and final letters of successive words in Esther 1:20, 5:4, 5:13, and 7:7. In some manuscripts, the letters in these words are written a bit larger to give them prominence. iii. Perhaps also Esther does not contain the name of God because it was written under Persian rule, and for distribution in the Persian Empire. iv. Most likely, Esther doesn’t have the name of God because it shows how God works behind the scenes; God is always active in Esther, even though it is behind the scenes. 2. (21-23) Mordecai hears an assassination conspiracy and informs the king, saving the king’s life. In those days, while Mordecai sat within the king’s gate, two of the king’s eunuchs, Bigthan and Teresh, doorkeepers, became furious and sought to lay hands on King Ahasuerus. So the matter became known to Mordecai, who told Queen Esther, and Esther informed the king in Mordecai’s name. And when an inquiry was made into the matter, it was confirmed, and both were hanged on a gallows; and it was written in the book of the chronicles in the presence of the king. a. The matter became known to Mordecai, who told Queen Esther, and Esther informed the king: Mordecai’s attitude wasn’t “I’m a Jewish man in exile under a pagan king, so I do not care if he is killed.” Instead, he fulfilled Peter’s thought in 1 Peter 2:17, before Peter ever wrote it: Fear God. Honor the king. i. This threat of assassination was real. Ahasuerus was eventually murdered by his prime minister, who placed Artaxerxes I on the throne. b. Both were hanged on a gallows: The word gallows is literally tree; the idea that they were hanged on a tree probably refers not to a hanging with a noose around the neck, but to impalement on a stake, much like crucifixion. i. “A pointed stake is set upright in the ground, and the culprit is taken, placed on the sharp point, and then pulled down by his legs till the stake that went in at the fundament passes up through the body and comes out through the neck. A most dreadful species of punishment, in which revenge and cruelty may glut the utmost of their malice. The culprit lives a considerable time in excruciating agonies.” (Clarke)

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18. Job 4-7 (Job’s 1st friend Counsels Him; Job Cries Out to God)

Job 4-7 (Job’s 1st friend Counsels Him; Job Cries Out to God)

Job 4 – The First Speech of Eliphaz This begins a long section in the Book of Job where Job’s friends counsel him and he answers them. His friends speak in more or less three rounds, with each speech followed by a reply from Job. At the end of these speeches, God answers Job and his friends and settles the matter. A. The opening comments of Eliphaz. 1. (1-6) Eliphaz calls upon Job to remember the advice he has given to others as a helper of the weak. Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said: “If one attempts a word with you, will you become weary? But who can withhold himself from speaking? Surely you have instructed many, And you have strengthened weak hands. Your words have upheld him who was stumbling, And you have strengthened the feeble knees; But now it comes upon you, and you are weary; It touches you, and you are troubled. Is not your reverence your confidence? And the integrity of your ways your hope?” a. Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered: Eliphaz was from Teman, an Edomite city that was known as a center of wisdom (Jeremiah 49:7). b. If one attempts a word with you, will you become weary? With this tactful beginning, Eliphaz began his speech. We may say that he had earned the right to speak to Job because, in a remarkable display of friendship, he sat wordless with Job through whole week to show his sympathy and brotherhood with the afflicted man (Job 2:11-13). c. But who can withhold himself from speaking? Eliphaz felt compelled to speak; his love and concern for Job strongly motivated him to help his suffering friend. Nevertheless, it will be later found that the advice of Eliphaz and the rest of Job’s counselors was wrong (Job 42:7-8). d. Surely you have instructed many . . . now it comes upon you, and you are weary: Eliphaz began to confront Job with what he saw as his problem. This took a great deal of courage on the part of Eliphaz; he was the first one to speak, and he spoke to a man with an enviable reputation for godliness and one suffering from terrible calamity. i. Yet he pointed at this apparent contradiction in Job’s lament recorded in the previous chapter: That this man who had taught and comforted many in their time of need now seems to despair in his own time of need. ii. “Already there is insinuation that Job is unable to apply to himself what he preached to others.” (Andersen) iii. “This is galling. But hitherto Eliphaz had commended Job; now he dasheth all, and draweth a black line over that he had spoken once. To commend a man with a but is a wound instead of a commendation . . . it sprinkleth black upon white, and so smutteth a man’s good name, which is slander in a high degree.” (Trapp) e. Is not your reverence you confidence? This has the idea of, “Job, does not your despair show that you have lost confidence in your reverence and lost hope in the integrity of your ways?” i. “Men are best known by affliction, and this now showeth of what metal thou art made; for now thou doth cast off thy fear of God, and all thy confidence and hope in him.” (Trapp) ii. This begins a section where Eliphaz (and others) will try to make Job see that his problems have come upon him because of some sin on his part, and that he should confess and repent of his sin in order to be restored. iii. Eliphaz began on the basis of Job’s complaint as recorded in Job 3. He reasoned that Job would not complain in this way unless he was in some way guilty; that his guilty conscience was the root of his suffering. As it turned out, this was a false assumption. Job’s complaint was simply the cry of a life in pain and not because Job consciously or unconsciously understood that he deserved this calamity because of his sin. 2. (7-11) Eliphaz explains what he believed to be the source of Job’s troubles. “Remember now, who ever perished being innocent? Or where were the upright ever cut off? Even as I have seen, Those who plow iniquity And sow trouble reap the same. By the blast of God they perish, And by the breath of His anger they are consumed. The roaring of the lion, The voice of the fierce lion, And the teeth of the young lions are broken. The old lion perishes for lack of prey, And the cubs of the lioness are scattered.” a. Who ever perished being innocent? Here Eliphaz came to the heart of his argument. He boldly said that Job was guilty of some sin because the innocent do not suffer as he had, and the upright are not cut off as he was. i. In this context, cut off means to be forsaken by God and goodness. In later Israel it would often mean to be executed. b. Those who plow iniquity and sow trouble reap the same: Eliphaz spoke convincingly from his own experience (Even as I have seen). Job was reaping trouble, so he must have plowed sin (iniquity) and sown the seeds of trouble. i. The counsel of Eliphaz is full of common sense and rooted in his own observations and experience. We might even say that it is mostly true and can be commonly seen as true. Nevertheless, we also know that in Job’s case he was wrong and this was the wrong counsel (remembering God’s assessment of Eliphaz and Job’s counselors in Job 42:7). ii. Many people today believe the counsel of Eliphaz, and believe it as an absolute spiritual law instead of a general principle. Some take the passage from Galatians 6:7: Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. Yet it is important to understand the context of Paul’s statement, which was encouragement and exhortation for Christians to give materially for the support of their ministers. It is true that the principle of Galatians 6:7 has application beyond giving and supporting teachers and ministers. It has a general application in life; what we get out is often what we put in. Yet Paul did not promote some law of spiritual karma that ensures we will get good when we do good things or always get bad when we do bad things. If there were such an absolute spiritual law it would surely damn us all. Instead, Paul simply related the principle of sowing and reaping to the way we manage our resources before the Lord. He used the same picture in 1 Corinthians 9:11 and 2 Corinthians 9:6-10. iii. Job and his friends have built their whole life on the belief that God helps the good and hinders the bad; that in fact God can be seen as morally good in the affairs of men. “The friends must infer from Job’s suffering that he has sinned; Job must infer from his innocence that God is unjust.” (Andersen) c. By the blast of God they perish: Eliphaz here clearly implied that Job’s suffering came as the judgment of God against him; that the breath of His anger burned against Job. i. The idea is also that the mere breath of His anger is enough to destroy God’s foes. “He puts himself to no great pain to punish them; but blows them away as so many dust-heaps.” (Trapp) d. The teeth of the young lions are broken: Eliphaz painted the picture of how strong the anger of God is, that it is strong enough to humble and defeat even strong young lions. The idea is that the anger of God has also brought Job low. B. A revelation regarding the frailty of man. 1. (12-16) A spirit comes to Eliphaz by night. “Now a word was secretly brought to me, And my ear received a whisper of it. In disquieting thoughts from the visions of the night, When deep sleep falls on men, Fear came upon me, and trembling, Which made all my bones shake. Then a spirit passed before my face; The hair on my body stood up. It stood still, But I could not discern its appearance. A form was before my eyes; There was silence; Then I heard a voice saying: a. A word was secretly brought to me: Eliphaz claimed that he received this word in a dream, when deep sleep falls on men, and he received it by a spirit that passed before his face in his dream. i. “Eliphaz bolstered the authority of his words by an appeal to the supernatural – an eerie and hair-raising experience in which he received a divine oracle.” (Smick) b. A spirit passed before my face: The words in the following section came to Eliphaz from this strange and mysterious spirit. i. “Whether it came from heaven or hell, we know not, for its communication shows and rankles a wound, without providing a cure.” (Clarke) 2. (17-21) What the spirit said. ‘Can a mortal be more righteous than God? Can a man be more pure than his Maker? If He puts no trust in His servants, If He charges His angels with error, How much more those who dwell in houses of clay, Whose foundation is in the dust, Who are crushed before a moth? They are broken in pieces from morning till evening; They perish forever, with no one regarding. Does not their own excellence go away? They die, even without wisdom.’ ” a. Can a mortal be more righteous than God? Eliphaz called attention to the common sinfulness of man. The idea is clear: “Job, we all sin. There is no great shame in admitting that you have sinned and that is why this calamity has come upon you.” b. If He charges His angels with error, how much more those who dwell in houses of clay: Eliphaz made this interesting comment to point out man’s spiritual and moral frailty. He noted that even angels had fallen into error, therefore it should surprise no one that man – including Job – has also fallen into error. i. This statement hit closer to the real truth than Eliphaz could know. It was one of these angels charged with error – Satan himself – who was the real cause of Job’s calamity. Satan also led a large number of angelic beings into rebellion against God (Revelation 12:4, 12:9). The Bible also says that in the age to come, redeemed man will in some way judge these fallen angels (1 Corinthians 6:3). Eliphaz was correct on this point: He charges His angels with error. ii. “It is all very beautiful, but absolutely short-sighted. Eliphaz had no knowledge of those secret councils in heaven, and was making the mistake of attempting to press all things into the compass of his philosophy.” (Morgan) iii. “The speaker seems serenely unconscious that he was saying anything that could drive a knife into the tortured man. He is so carried along on the waves of his own eloquence, and so absorbed in the stringing together the elements of an artistic whole, that he forgets the very sorrows which he came to comfort.” (Maclaren) Job 5 – Eliphaz Explains the Cause of Job’s Troubles A. The fate of the foolish man. 1. (1-7) Eliphaz appeals to common wisdom. “Call out now; Is there anyone who will answer you? And to which of the holy ones will you turn? For wrath kills a foolish man, And envy slays a simple one. a. Call out now; is there anyone who will answer you? Eliphaz begged his friend Job to listen to reason and to agree with the common wisdom regarding Job and his problem. If he would merely consult any godly person, they would tell him the same as Eliphaz did (to which of the holy ones will you turn?) b. For wrath kills a foolish man: Eliphaz did not directly accuse Job; he more suggested that Job do all he could to not be like a foolish man who would be killed by wrath. 2. (3-7) The fate of the foolish man. I have seen the foolish taking root, But suddenly I cursed his dwelling place. His sons are far from safety, They are crushed in the gate, And there is no deliverer. Because the hungry eat up his harvest, Taking it even from the thorns, And a snare snatches their substance. For affliction does not come from the dust, Nor does trouble spring from the ground; Yet man is born to trouble, As the sparks fly upward.” a. His sons are far from safety: These were backhanded references to Job and his own sons. Eliphaz argued that the fact that such great disaster fell upon them proves that they were foolish and in sin. i. Again, we notice Eliphaz’s frame of reference: I have seen. He speaks from his own experience and observation on life. ii. His sons are far from safety, they are crushed in the gate, and there is not deliverer: “There is reference here to a custom which I have often had occasion to notice, that in the Eastern countries the court-house, or tribunal of justice, was at the GATE of the city; here the magistrates attended, and hither the plaintiff and defendant came for justice.” (Clarke) b. Affliction does not come from the dust, nor does trouble spring from the ground: Eliphaz believed that this trouble did not come to Job from nowhere; it didn’t just spring from the ground. The implication is clear: this affliction came upon Job from God. i. “Trouble does not sprout up like weeks in the field. He was implying that one must sow and cultivate trouble.” (Smick) c. Yet man is born to trouble, as the sparks fly upward: This point connects with the one Eliphaz just made. Trouble doesn’t come to man from nowhere; it comes as a judgment from God, or at least because man has sown trouble so now he reaps it. Since just as it is true that as the sparks fly upward, it is also true that man is born to trouble, then it can also be said that all men sin and deserve the affliction and trouble that comes to them. i. As the sparks fly upward: Literally, the Hebrew can be translated, as the sons of Resheph fly upward. “We cannot hope for further progress until we can find out who ‘the sons of Resheph’ are. Since Resheph is a Canaanite god about whom we now know a great deal, the possibility must now be faced that we have here another scrap of imagery from old myths.” (Andersen) B. Eliphaz defends God. 1. (8-16) Eliphaz praises God’s omnipotence and justice. “But as for me, I would seek God, And to God I would commit my cause; Who does great things, and unsearchable, Marvelous things without number. He gives rain on the earth, And sends waters on the fields. He sets on high those who are lowly, And those who mourn are lifted to safety. He frustrates the devices of the crafty, So that their hands cannot carry out their plans. He catches the wise in their own craftiness, And the counsel of the cunning comes quickly upon them. They meet with darkness in the daytime, And grope at noontime as in the night. But He saves the needy from the sword, From the mouth of the mighty, And from their hand. So the poor have hope, And injustice shuts her mouth.” a. As for me, I would seek God, and to God I would commit my cause: Eliphaz said it tactfully, yet he still said it – that Job was not seeking God and was not committing his cause to God in his affliction. b. Who does great things, and unsearchable, marvelous things without number: According to the counsel of Eliphaz, this is why Job should seek God and commit his way to Him. It is because God is a great God, great in both His power over creation (He gives rain on the earth) and in His moral justice (he frustrates the devices of the crafty . . . injustice shuts her mouth). i. Again, the implication is clear. Eliphaz believed that the justice of God, at this present time, worked against Job because Job was in sin and refused to see it. Yet if Job would only see this and repent, perhaps the justice of God would once again work on his behalf. ii. “These lines are a fine example of hymn genre in OT poetry. A similar creedal hymn appears in Isaiah 44:24-28. That is why the apostle Paul could cite a line from Job 5:13 in 1 Corinthians 3:19: ‘He catches the wise in their craftiness.’ But in Eliphaz’s case what is absolutely true is misapplied – the sick from is not the place for theological strictures that may turn out to do more harm than good. . . . Great truths misapplied only hurt more those who are already hurting.” (Smick) iii. He saves the needy from the sword, from the mouth of the mighty: “Thus the meaning is the same as in Psalm 57:4; 55:21; 64:3. . . . ‘Mouth’ is put for the edge of the sword.” (Bullinger) 2. (17-26) Eliphaz attributes Job’s suffering to God’s chastening for sin in his life. “Behold, happy is the man whom God corrects; Therefore do not despise the chastening of the Almighty. For He bruises, but He binds up; He wounds, but His hands make whole. He shall deliver you in six troubles, Yes, in seven no evil shall touch you. In famine He shall redeem you from death, And in war from the power of the sword. You shall be hidden from the scourge of the tongue, And you shall not be afraid of destruction when it comes. You shall laugh at destruction and famine, And you shall not be afraid of the beasts of the earth. For you shall have a covenant with the stones of the field, And the beasts of the field shall be at peace with you. You shall know that your tent is in peace; You shall visit your dwelling and find nothing amiss. You shall also know that your descendants shall be many, And your offspring like the grass of the earth. You shall come to the grave at a full age, As a sheaf of grain ripens in its season.” a. Happy is the man whom God corrects: With poetic power, Eliphaz emphasized his point that Job’s problems are because God corrects His sinful children, and Job is one of those sinful children. b. Therefore do not despise the chastening of the Almighty: Eliphaz did not wish to push Job into despair. He believed that Job should not despise this correcting work in his life, but instead humble himself under it, forsake his sin, and learn from it. c. He bruises, but He binds up . . . He shall deliver you in six troubles: Eliphaz wanted to encourage Job further. “Job, God will heal your wounds and deliver you if you will confess your sin and turn to Him.” Eliphaz continued and described in detail all the blessings of restoration that would come to Job’s life if he would only repent and turn to God (you shall be hidden from the scourge of the tongue . . . you shall laugh at destruction and famine . . . you shall know that your tent is in peace, and so on). i. You shall be hidden from the scourge of the tongue: “Perhaps no evil is more dreadful than the scourge of the tongue: evil-speaking, detraction, backbiting, calumny, slander, tale-bearing, whispering, and scandalizing, are some of the terms which we use when endeavouring to express the baleful influence and effects of that member, which is a world of fire, kindled from the nethermost hell.” (Clarke) ii. Spurgeon preached this sermon on the words “You shall come to the grave at a full age, as a sheaf of grain ripens in its season.” These were his points of development regarding the death of a Christian: · Death is inevitable (You shall come) · Death is acceptable (You shall come) · Death is timely (at a full age) · Death is honorable (as a sheaf of grain ripens in its season) iii. “Even as the color of the wheat is golden, so that it looks more beauteous than when the greenness of its verdure is on it, so the gray-headed man has a crown of glory on his head. He is glorious in his weakness, more than the young man in his strength, or the maiden in her beauty. Is not a shock of corn a beautiful picture of the state of man, moreover, because very soon it must be taken home? The reaper is coming.” (Spurgeon) 3. (27) Eliphaz declares his confidence in his words. “Behold, this we have searched out; It is true. Hear it, and know for yourself.” a. Behold, this we have searched out: Eliphaz wanted to persuade Job, so he gave his statement the authority of communal knowledge (we have searched out). “Job, we all together here – your friends and counselors – have investigated this carefully and know what we are talking about.” i. It is worthy to remember that the Lord singled Eliphaz out at the end of the book for a special rebuke: the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite, “My wrath is aroused against you and your two friends, for you have not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant Job has” (Job 42:7). “Eliphaz’s fault is not that his doctrine is unsound; it is his ineptness as a counselor. True words may be thin medicine for a man in the depths.” (Andersen) ii. “One thing is clear. The words of Eliphaz, however well meant, fall wide of their mark. Truth after truth has been uttered by him. But these truths bring no comfort or conviction to his afflicted friend. To him this wholesome food seems poison.” (Bradley) b. It is true: Eliphaz said this with absolute confidence. “Job, God’s principle of cause and effect together with your reaction to your calamity proves that you were and are in sin and you must repent to be restored.” To Eliphaz and the rest of Job’s friends this was so obvious that it did not need to be proven; he simply confidently explained, “It is true.” i. “It is not what Eliphaz knew that is wrong; it is what he was ignorant of – God’s hidden purpose – that made all his beautiful poetry and grand truth only a snare to Job.” (Smick) ii. “Aspirin is a good and effective medicine. But it is useless against cancer. Similarly, so much of the advice that Eliphaz and the other friends dole out is, in its own right, correct and good and true. But because it is wrongly applied it becomes useless. More than useless, it is a lie.” (Mason) iii. Eliphaz preaches a God who can be figured out. For Eliphaz, there are no unknowns behind the scenes; there is no drama or purpose in the heavens that motivate what God does and what He allows to be done. However, we know this heavenly drama from the first two chapters, and we see how shallow and unknowing the counsel of Eliphaz was. Job didn’t know what we know, but he could feel that the counsel of Eliphaz was wrong in his situation. iv. “Preconceptions exist in our own head; if we start out with the preconception that God will never allow the innocent to perish and then we see a righteous man perishing, we will have to say, ‘You cannot be a righteous man, because my preconception tells me that if you were, God would not allow you to suffer; therefore you are proved to be a bad man.’ ” (Chambers) It was this exact reasoning on the part of the religious authorities of Jesus’ day that motivated them to put him on the cross, and to mock Him at His crucifixion. v. The famous atheist Huxley said, “I object to Christians – they know too much about God.” So did Eliphaz and his friends. “If the study of the Book of Job is making us reverent with what we don’t understand, we are gaining insight. There is suffering before which you cannot say a word . . . all you can do is remain dumb and leave room for God to come in as He likes.” (Chambers) c. Hear it, and know for yourself: In the mind of Eliphaz, Job only needed to accept these obvious truths in order to find the answers to his current crisis. i. “Their persistent mistake was that of attempting to explain everything by their knowledge which, spacious as it was, was altogether too narrow.” (Morgan) ii. “The speech ends with a somewhat self-complacent exhortation to the poor, tortured man: ‘We have searched it, so it is.’ We wise men pledge our wisdom and our reputation that this is true. Great is authority. An ounce of sympathy would have done more to commend the doctrine than a ton of dogmatic self-confidence.” (Maclaren) iii. “It is one of the supreme ironies of this book that only after the arrival of these three bosom friends of his does Job really lose a grip on himself and fall off the edge into despair. Their pedantic theology, their reforming zeal, and their subtle slights are more than the poor man can take, and undoubtedly this backhanded betrayal by his friends is Job’s final and most severe trial.” (Mason) Job 6 – Job Replies to Eliphaz: “What Does Your Arguing Prove?” A. Job laments his affliction. 1. (1-7) Job explains his rash words. Then Job answered and said: “Oh, that my grief were fully weighed, And my calamity laid with it on the scales! For then it would be heavier than the sand of the sea; Therefore my words have been rash. For the arrows of the Almighty are within me; My spirit drinks in their poison; The terrors of God are arrayed against me. Does the wild donkey bray when it has grass, Or does the ox low over its fodder? Can flavorless food be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg? My soul refuses to touch them; They are as loathsome food to me.” a. Then Job answered and said: Job’s friends were kind enough to sit with him in sympathetic silence for some seven days (Job 2:13). Job broke his the silence with an anguished rant (Job 3), and Eliphaz responded with a poetic call to repentance (Job 4-5). Now Job will answer the words of Eliphaz the Temanite. b. Oh, that my grief were fully weighed: Job’s first response to the words of Eliphaz were to complain about the greatness of his suffering, because Eliphaz only made his suffering worse, with his well-intentioned but wrong analysis of Job’s problem. i. This was not only Job’s feeling; it was also the judgment of God as revealed at the end of the Book of Job, where He said of Eliphaz and Job’s other counselors: You have not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant Job has (Job 42:7). c. Therefore my words have been rash: Job’s outburst in Job 3 did not curse God, but it did come close. Job here admitted that his words were indeed rash, but explained that it was because of the excessive heaviness of his grief. i. “Job declared, in effect, that he did not understand the cry because he did not know the pain.” (Morgan) d. The arrows of the Almighty are within me: Job explained why his suffering was so deep and his words were so rash. It was because he felt that God Himself had attacked and cursed him. He felt that God had shot arrows at him; had sent poison against him; and had arrayed His terrors against Job. i. Job both opened (Job 6:4) and closed (Job 7:20) this speech with the picture of God shooting arrows in him. “There is an evident reference here to wounds inflicted by poisoned arrows, and to the burning fever occasioned by such wounds, producing such an intense parching thirst as to dry up all the moisture in the system, stop all the salivary ducts, thicken and inflame the blood, induce putrescency, and terminate in raging mania, producing the most terrifying images, from which the patient is relieved only by death.” (Clarke) ii. “Arrows; so fitly calls his afflictions, because, like arrows, they came upon him swiftly and suddenly, one after another, and that from on high, and they wounded him deeply and deadlily.” (Poole) e. Can flavorless food be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg? Job described how the words of Eliphaz “tasted” to him. They were weak and flavorless, and certainly did not give Job any health or strength. i. “The speech, also, to which Job had listened from Eliphaz the Temanite did not put much sweetness into his mouth; for it was devoid of sympathy and consolation. If you read it at home you will see that it was worthy to be the first of a singular selection of galling utterances. . . . He had spoken as harshly and severely as if he were a judge addressing a criminal who was suffering no more than he deserved.” (Spurgeon) f. Does the wild donkey bray when it has grass? Job insisted that he had reason for his grief. The donkey doesn’t bray and the ox doesn’t low when they have enough food; in the same analogy, Job’s isn’t complaining without reason. i. “The wail is always evident of a want. The wild ass does not bray when he has grass, nor the ox over his fodder.” (Morgan) 2. (8-10) Job longs for God to grant the escape of death. “Oh, that I might have my request, That God would grant me the thing that I long for! That it would please God to crush me, That He would loose His hand and cut me off! Then I would still have comfort; Though in anguish, I would exult, He will not spare; For I have not concealed the words of the Holy One.” a. That it would please God to crush me: Job returns to the theme of his complaint from Job 3, where he mourned the day of his birth and believed he would be better off day. Though Job never seems to have contemplated suicide, he wished God Himself would end his life. i. “When the answer does not come, when instead of the release of cutting off, we have the continuity of pain, and a great silence, then let us remember this story: and remain confident that there is some explanation, and that when it comes, we shall thank God that He did not give us our request.” (Morgan) b. That He would loose His hand and cut me off: The idea may again have God as an archer shooting arrows at Job. He pleads that God might simply launch more arrows and end his life (cut me off). c. I have not concealed the words of the Holy One: Here Job again insists on his basic innocence before God. The calamity in his life was not due to some sin such as concealing the words of the Holy One (perhaps better translated as that I had not denied the words of the Holy One, as in the NIV). i. “With the sense that I have not denied or disobeyed the words of the Holy One. I should die calmly, for I should die innocent.” (Bradley) ii. “He would have one consolation left before he died – that he had not denied the words of the Holy One, though he emphatically rejected the words of Eliphaz.” (Smick) iii. If Job sensed a responsibility to not deny or conceal the words of the Holy One, we have an even greater responsibility. “Did you listen to that splendid sermon? What rhetoric! What oratory! But those poor people in the aisles did not understand a word, or if they did they only comprehended disconnected sentences, and lost the soul of the discourse. Is this right? Is this according to the Scriptural idea of preaching? . . . If the next generation should become more wicked than the present, and still more ignorant of the gospel, the fact will be chargeable upon those who conceal the words of God today.” (Spurgeon) 3. (11-13) Job laments his weakness. “What strength do I have, that I should hope? And what is my end, that I should prolong my life? Is my strength the strength of stones? Or is my flesh bronze? Is my help not within me? And is success driven from me?” a. What strength do I have, that I should hope? Job reflected the sense of hopelessness of the severe and chronic sufferer. Sensing no inner strength to meet the present and future challenges, he felt no hope at all. i. We can sense the depth of Job’s anguish: Is my strength the strength of stones? Is my flesh bronze? b. Is my help not within me? We should not think that Job is like a motivational self-help speaker encouraging himself to looking within for a hidden resource of help. Instead these words from the pain-wracked man sitting on a burned-out place in a garbage dump indicate Job’s absolute sense of helplessness. If Job’s only help is within him, then he has no help. Indeed, all success is driven from him. i. The NIV translation of Job 6:13 is helpful: Do I have any power to help myself, now that success has been driven from me? ii. “The words of Job can bring immense comfort for the simple reason that many sufferers have felt rage but have been too ashamed to express it.” (Smick) B. Job challenges Eliphaz. 1. (14-23) Job criticizes Eliphaz and defends himself. “To him who is afflicted, kindness should be shown by his friend, Even though he forsakes the fear of the Almighty. My brothers have dealt deceitfully like a brook, Like the streams of the brooks that pass away, Which are dark because of the ice, And into which the snow vanishes. When it is warm, they cease to flow; When it is hot, they vanish from their place. The paths of their way turn aside, They go nowhere and perish. The caravans of Tema look, The travelers of Sheba hope for them. They are disappointed because they were confident; They come there and are confused. For now you are nothing, You see terror and are afraid. Did I ever say, ‘Bring something to me’? Or, ‘Offer a bribe for me from your wealth’? Or, ‘Deliver me from the enemy’s hand’? Or, ‘Redeem me from the hand of oppressors’?” a. Kindness should be shown by his friend: Job here made his most basic accusation against Eliphaz. “You should show me kindness, even if were true that I had forsaken the fear of the Almighty.” b. My brothers have dealt deceitfully like a brook: Even though only Eliphaz had previously spoken, Job addressed his brothers collectively. Either this was out of politeness (not wanting to single out Eliphaz), or because Job believed that the attitude and silence of his other companions meant they agreed with Eliphaz. Job accused them of being as unreliable as a snow-fed stream that vanishes when it is hot. i. “Incidentally this touch supports our suspicion that Job’s homeland was to the east of the Lebanon complex, rather than near Edom, where snow waters would not be seen.” (Andersen) ii. “How great a contrast to the love and friendship of Jesus! Not like a brook that dries in the time of drought, but like a well of water springing up within the heart for ever.” (Meyer) iii. For now you are nothing, you see terror and are afraid: “Verse 21 is the climax of Job’s reaction to his friends’ counsel. They offered no help. The verse is like a sermon about the special strength needed to be willing to make oneself available when we see others in a truly dreadful condition. The risk involved makes us afraid.” (Smick) c. Did I ever say: Job wasn’t asking his friends to pay him money or to ransom him from kidnappers. All he wanted was some words of comfort, and he heard none. 2. (24-30) Job challenges his friends to point out his error and lack of discernment. “Teach me, and I will hold my tongue; Cause me to understand wherein I have erred. How forceful are right words! But what does your arguing prove? Do you intend to rebuke my words, And the speeches of a desperate one, which are as wind? Yes, you overwhelm the fatherless, And you undermine your friend. Now therefore, be pleased to look at me; For I would never lie to your face. Yield now, let there be no injustice! Yes, concede, my righteousness still stands! Is there injustice on my tongue? Cannot my taste discern the unsavory?” a. Do you intend to rebuke my words, and the speeches of a desperate one: Job believed that Eliphaz was unduly harsh in his reply and failed to see that his Job’s rant recorded in chapter 3 was made up only of words from a desperate one. i. “Throughout the dialogue they make veiled accusations, deliver general moral pronouncements, hum and haw, and equivocate. But all their insinuations are without substance, and by way of actually identifying and getting at the root of Job’s problem . . . the best they can do is suggest that his ‘attitude’ is all wrong.” (Mason) ii. Eliphaz, in his insensitivity, acted as if Job’s words were as wind. “Do you take me for a desperate and distracted man, who knows not or cares not what he saith, but only speaks what comes first into his mind and mouth? The wind is oft used to express vain words, as Job 15:2; Jeremiah 5:13; and vain things, Job 7:7; Proverbs 11:29.” (Poole) iii. Instead of comforting Job, Eliphaz was as bad as someone who would overwhelm the fatherless and undermine his friend. “Now he seems to retaliate with charges of his own: You would even gamble over an orphan and bargain over your friend. This is pretty rough stuff. There is no more indication that the friends gambled for orphans than there is that Job asked for bribes. Perhaps this is what Job is getting at. But their relationship has certainly deteriorated if they are already swopping insults like this.” (Andersen) b. Now therefore, be pleased to look at me: “Here it appears that throughout Job’s speech the friends have been hanging their heads and refusing to meet his gaze, while in an odd reversal of roles the sick man now holds his head high and looks his sleek and healthy inquisitors straight in the eye.” (Mason) c. Yes, concede, my righteousness still stands! Job very much wanted Eliphaz and his other friends to see that his present calamity was not judgment for some grievous (though hidden) sin. i. The words “teach me,” “cause me,” “what does your arguing prove,” and “concede” are all demands for evidence and proof. “He turns to Eliphaz and says, ‘You say that I’m suffering because of sin, but you’ve never pointed anything out specifically. Teach me and tell me what my sin is. But until you do, there’s no proof of your argument.” (Lawson) ii. Because we know the story-behind-the-story from Job 1 and 2, we understand this to be true. Yet Job’s friends have a very hard time believing this, and will continue the contention with Job over this point. d. Is there injustice on my tongue? Cannot my taste discern the unsavory? Previously in this chapter Job has represented the words of Eliphaz as bits of food; bits that were very unsatisfying to Job in his present suffering. · According to the analogy of animals, if the words of Eliphaz had comforted and satisfied Job, he would not have cried out as he did in Job 3 (Job 6:5) · The words of Eliphaz were like flavorless food (Job 6:6) · The words of Eliphaz were like rotten, loathsome food (Job 6:7) · Job can discern the unsavory character of the words of Eliphaz (6:30) Job 7 – In Response to Eliphaz, Job Cries Out to God A. The comfortless suffering of Job. 1. (1-5) The hard service of Job’s suffering. “Is there not a time of hard service for man on earth? Are not his days also like the days of a hired man? Like a servant who earnestly desires the shade, And like a hired man who eagerly looks for his wages, So I have been allotted months of futility, And wearisome nights have been appointed to me. When I lie down, I say, ‘When shall I arise, And the night be ended?’ For I have had my fill of tossing till dawn. My flesh is caked with worms and dust, My skin is cracked and breaks out afresh.” a. I have been allotted months of futility: Job saw his present suffering like the futile, discouraging work of a servant or a hired man. He felt there was no hope or reward, only weariness. i. The words hard service in Job 7:1 are (according to Adam Clarke and others) descriptive of military service. The Latin Vugate translates, The life of man is a warfare upon earth. The early English Coverdale translation has it, Is not the life of man upon earth a very battle? With this Job communicated both the struggle of life, together with the idea that he has been drafted unwillingly into this battle. b. Wearisome night have been appointed to me: Job described his physical condition in painful terms. He suffered from insomnia and his skin affliction came back again and again. i. Clarke on My flesh is caked with worms: “The figure is too horrid to be farther illustrated.” 2. (6-10) Job mourns the futility of life. “My days are swifter than a weaver’s shuttle, And are spent without hope. Oh, remember that my life is a breath! My eye will never again see good. The eye of him who sees me will see me no more; While your eyes are upon me, I shall no longer be. As the cloud disappears and vanishes away, So he who goes down to the grave does not come up. He shall never return to his house, Nor shall his place know him anymore.” a. My days are swifter than a weaver’s shuttle: Job did not mean this in a positive sense, as in saying “My, look how fast the time is going by.” As described in the previous verses, in this season of affliction time is dragging by for Job through his sleepless and painful nights. Yet when he looked at his life in totality, it seemed to be a meaningless blur, spent without hope and as a breath. i. “Ibn Ezra noted long ago the play on the word [tiqwah, ‘hope’], which can also mean ‘thread.’ Job’s days move fast like a weaver’s shuttle, and they come to an end through want of thread. Both meanings were equally intended. This is the kind of overtone in meaning that cannot be reflected in a translation without a footnote.” (Smick) ii. “Worse than the disease itself, Job lost all hope of being healed. He believed his only release from pain was death.” (Smick) b. So he who goes down to the grave does not come up: This is one of Job’s statements about the afterlife that are sprinkled throughout the book. These statements are a combination of uncertainty (as here) and triumphant confidence (as in Job 19:25-26). B. Job’s complaint to God. 1. (11-16) Job’s anguish: “My soul chooses strangling.” “Therefore I will not restrain my mouth; I will speak in the anguish of my spirit; I will complain in the bitterness of my soul. Am I a sea, or a sea serpent, That You set a guard over me? When I say, ‘My bed will comfort me, My couch will ease my complaint,’ Then You scare me with dreams And terrify me with visions, So that my soul chooses strangling And death rather than my body. I loathe my life; I would not live forever. Let me alone, For my days are but a breath.” a. I will speak in the anguish of my spirit: Job here cried out to God, first wondering if he were not a dangerous creature (as sea, or a sea serpent) that needed to be guarded and restrained by God. i. “We hear of persons being ‘shadowed’ by the police, and certain people feel as if they were shadowed by God; they are mysteriously tracked by the great Spirit, and they know and feel it. Wherever they go, an eye is upon them, and they cannot hide from it.” (Spurgeon) ii. “Listen. To argue from our insignificance is poor pleading; for the little things are just those against which there is most need to watch. If you were a sea, or a whale, God might leave you alone; but as you are a feeble and sinful creature, which can do more hurt than a sea, or a whale, you need constant watching. . . . Do not say, ‘Am I a sea, or a sea-monster, that thou settest a watch over me?’ for the Lord may answer, ‘You are more capacious for evil than a sea, and more wild than a sea-monster.’” (Spurgeon) iii. Indeed, we are more like the sea or the sea-monster than we would like to admit. · The sea is restless, and so is our nature. · The sea can be furious and terrible, and so can we. · The sea can never be satisfied, and neither can sinful man. · The sea is mischievous and destructive, and so is sinful man. · The sea will not obey, and neither will sinful man. iv. Job’s words here remind us of something remarkable. Though his physical suffering was intense and prolonged, as John Trapp wrote, “His greatest troubles were inward.” Job’s spiritual crisis was deeper than his physical or material crisis. b. You scare me with dreams: Job was denied even the comfort of sleep and rest. When he did lay down to sleep (upon his bed or couch), he was disturbed with nightmarish dreams and terrifying visions. i. “He needed rest by sleep, but was afraid to close his eyes because of the horrid images which were presented to his imagination. Could there be a state more deplorable than this?” (Clarke) c. So that my soul chooses strangling . . . I loathe my life: Job’s condition is so miserable that, at this point, his soul would prefer the release of death. i. Job was so miserable that he just said to God, “Let me alone.” “At this moment it appears to Job that God is the tormentor. The reader knows God was using in secondary means and that Job’s conception of God as tormentor was askew.” (Smick) 2. (17-21) Job appeals to God: “Have I sinned?” “What is man, that You should exalt him, That You should set Your heart on him, That You should visit him every morning, And test him every moment? How long? Will You not look away from me, And let me alone till I swallow my saliva? Have I sinned? What have I done to You, O watcher of men? Why have You set me as Your target, So that I am a burden to myself? Why then do You not pardon my transgression, And take away my iniquity? For now I will lie down in the dust, And You will seek me diligently, But I will no longer be.” a. What is man, that You should exalt him . . . And test him every moment?: Job felt at this moment that God’s attention was unwelcome. If all his calamity was from the hand of God, Job wondered why God could not simply leave him alone. i. “The language of verse 17 is too similar to that of Psalm 8 to be a coincidence. Scholars are divided as to which came first.” (Andersen) It would seem best to say that the lines from Job came first, and that David in Psalm 8 re-worked Job’s painful theme into one filled with praise. ii. Job asked, “What is man?” but he didn’t wait for the answer. “Man is more than we guess, else God would never take such time and pains with him. When a lapidary spends years over a single diamond, the most careless observer begins to appraise properly its intrinsic value.” (Meyer) iii. Till I swallow my saliva: “An Arabic idiom, for one instant; Just as we say ‘The twinkling of an eye’ to express the same idea.” (Bullinger) Job wondered why God could not look away from him for just the smallest moment. b. What have I done to You, O watcher of men? “Please God, just leave me alone. How have I wronged You?” Job could not understand why he seemed to be God’s target; and if Job had sinned to cause all his suffering, he asked God “Why then do You not pardon my transgression?” i. Job was so honest with God in passages like Job 7:20 seem to have been altered by Jewish scribes who were uncomfortable with his bold honesty with God. According to Smick, “Ancient scribal tradition and the LXX show the original reading” to be Have I become a burden to you? Most translations, following later Hebrew manuscripts, have it I am burden to myself. Yet the probably original text shows how deep Job’s grief is, feeling himself to be a burden to what feels like an unloving and uncaring God. ii. Job wondered why God bothered with him at all. “Its simple meaning was that God is so great that even if a man did sin, it cannot affect Him. The answer is that this was an altogether too small a thought of God: the truth being that God is so great that He is affected, wounded, robbed by human sin. Job was, like his friends, hindered by a philosophy too narrow.” (Morgan) iii. Once more we benefit from know the story-behind-the-story, which Job and his friends do not know at this point in the narrative. Job believed that God was against him and was punishing him, but it wasn’t true. “Job was not being punished; he was being honored. God was giving to him a name like that of the great ones of the earth. The Lord was lifting him up, promoting him, putting him into the front rank, making a great saint of him, causing him to become one of the fathers and patterns in the ancient Church of God. He was really doing for Job such extraordinarily good things that you or I, in looking back upon his whole history, might well say, ‘I would be quite content to take Job’s afflictions if I might also have Job’s grace, and Job’s place in the Church of God.’” (Spurgeon) c. Now I will lie down in the dust, and You will seek me diligently, but I will no longer be: Job wished he could escape both life and God by going to the dust (his grave). This is one of his obviously pessimistic passages about the afterlife. i. “All Job has known about God he still believes. But God’s inexplicable ways have his mind perplexed to the breaking-point. Job is in the right; but he does not know that God is watching with silent compassion and admiration until the test is fully done and it is time to state His approval publicly (Job 42:8).” (Andersen) ii. “We like to talk about ‘having the faith to be healed,’ but what about having the faith to be sick?” (Mason)

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19. 1 Chronicles 12-17 (David’s Army & Throne; the Ark of the Covenant; The House of God)

1 Chronicles 12-17 (David’s Army & Throne; the Ark of the Covenant; The House of God)

1 Chronicles 12 - David’s Army “Every word of this chapter carries the mind on to great David’s greater Son, and the men He gathers about Him.” (G. Campbell Morgan) A. The devotion of David’s army. 1. (1-2) Even the Benjaminites, the tribal relatives of Saul, come to David. Now these were the men who came to David at Ziklag while he was still a fugitive from Saul the son of Kish; and they were among the mighty men, helpers in the war, armed with bows, using both the right hand and the left in hurling stones and shooting arrows with the bow. They were of Benjamin, Saul’s brethren. a. Now these were the men who came to David at Ziklag: David’s time in Ziklag is described in 1 Samuel 27 and 30. This was a time when David lived in the territory of the Philistines to escape the murderous pursuit of King Saul. b. They were among the mighty men, helpers in the war, armed with bows, using both the right hand and the left: During David’s time in Ziklag, certain mighty warriors came and expressed their allegiance to David and his cause. This was especially remarkable because they were of Benjamin, Saul’s brethren and therefore had much to gain from Saul’s continued reign. They chose David over Saul because they knew that God was with David. i. Judges 3:15 and 20:16 make special notice of left handed warriors; how much more if the soldiers can use both the right hand and the left! 2. (3-15) David’s diverse army. The chief was Ahiezer, then Joash, the sons of Shemaah the Gibeathite; Jeziel and Pelet the sons of Azmaveth; Berachah, and Jehu the Anathothite; Ishmaiah the Gibeonite, a mighty man among the thirty, and over the thirty; Jeremiah, Jahaziel, Johanan, and Jozabad the Gederathite; Eluzai, Jerimoth, Bealiah, Shemariah, and Shephatiah the Haruphite; Elkanah, Jisshiah, Azarel, Joezer, and Jashobeam, the Korahites; and Joelah and Zebadiah the sons of Jeroham of Gedor. Some Gadites joined David at the stronghold in the wilderness, mighty men of valor, men trained for battle, who could handle shield and spear, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as gazelles on the mountains: Ezer the first, Obadiah the second, Eliab the third, Mishmannah the fourth, Jeremiah the fifth, Attai the sixth, Eliel the seventh, Johanan the eighth, Elzabad the ninth, Jeremiah the tenth, and Machbanai the eleventh. These were from the sons of Gad, captains of the army; the least was over a hundred, and the greatest was over a thousand. These are the ones who crossed the Jordan in the first month, when it had overflowed all its banks; and they put to flight all those in the valleys, to the east and to the west. a. A mighty man among the thirty, and over the thirty: As mentioned in the previous chapter, David’s army seemed to be organized in groups of thirty or the leaders of thirty. In the same way, a Roman centurion was supposedly a leader of one hundred soldiers. i. “Certainly ‘Thirty’ is not to be understood in precise numerical terms, as the lists demonstrate, and either is a rather elastic number, or refers to a special kind of military leader. The word ‘Thirty’ may in fact mean an officer of some kind, either an ‘officer of the third rank’ or a member of a special three-man squad directly answerable to the king.” (Selman) b. Mighty men of valor, men trained for battle, who could handle shield and spear, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as gazelles on the mountains: These Gadites were impressive soldiers. · Mighty men of valor: They were men of courage and of a warrior spirit. · Men trained for battle: They were men who paitently received the training they needed to be mighty warriors. · Who could handle shield and spear: They were men who were skilled in the use of their essential weapons (both defensive and offensive), with skill gained from their training. · Whose faces were like the faces of lions: They had the calm demeanor of men who were confident in God; they had the countenance of fierce and calm warriors. “Undaunted, fierce, and terrible to their enemies. They durst look death itself in the face upon great adventures in the field.” (Trapp) · And were as swift as gazelles on the mountains: They were mobile, active men, ready to fight wherever they were needed. i. “The grace God can make us like them. The grace of God can make us brave as lions, so that, wherever we are, we can hold our own, or rather can hold our Lord’s truth, and never blush nor be ashamed to speak a good word for him at all times. He can make us quick and active too, so that we shall be like the roes upon the mountains.” (Spurgeon) c. These are the ones who crossed the Jordan in the first month, when it had overflowed all its banks: As an example of the might of these men, the Chronicler records an instance when these brave warriors crossed the Jordan at a dangerous time (Joshua 3:15 and 4:18). i. Adam Clarke on the first month: “Perhaps this was the month Nisan, which answers to a part of our March and April. This was probably before the snows on the mountains were melted, just as Jordan began to overflow its banks, it made their attempt more hazardous, and afforded additional proof of their heroism.” ii. “These Gadites likewise furnish us with a noble example of strong devotion. When the eleven men determined to join David, they were living the other side of a deep river, which at that season of the year had overflowed its banks, so that it was extremely deep and broad. But they were not to be kept from joining David, when he wanted them, by the river. They swam through the river that they might come to David.” (Spurgeon) 3. (16-22) David receives loyal soldiers at Ziklag. Then some of the sons of Benjamin and Judah came to David at the stronghold. And David went out to meet them, and answered and said to them, “If you have come peaceably to me to help me, my heart will be united with you; but if to betray me to my enemies, since there is no wrong in my hands, may the God of our fathers look and bring judgment.” Then the Spirit came upon Amasai, chief of the captains, and he said: “We are yours, O David; we are on your side, O son of Jesse! Peace, peace to you, and peace to your helpers! For your God helps you.” So David received them, and made them captains of the troop. And some from Manasseh defected to David when he was going with the Philistines to battle against Saul; but they did not help them, for the lords of the Philistines sent him away by agreement, saying, “He may defect to his master Saul and endanger our heads.” When he went to Ziklag, those of Manasseh who defected to him were Adnah, Jozabad, Jediael, Michael, Jozabad, Elihu, and Zillethai, captains of the thousands who were from Manasseh. And they helped David against the bands of raiders, for they were all mighty men of valor, and they were captains in the army. For at that time they came to David day by day to help him, until it was a great army, like the army of God. a. And David went out to meet them: This shows both David’s large heart and his trust in God. He received these soldiers whom he had some reason to suspect. In his words to the sons of Benjamin, he appealed to God for wisdom and righteousness. b. Then the Spirit came upon Amasai: Literally, this “The Spirit clothed Amasai.” This Old Testament phrase is only used Judges 6:34 and 2 Chronicles 34:20, but it may have been in the mind of Jesus when He promised that His followers would be clothed with power from on high (Luke 24:49). i. “Amasai might be identified with Amasa, Absalom’s army commander who was later reinstated by David (2 Samuel 19:13).” (Selman) c. For your God helps you: Whatever the sons of Benjamin knew about David, they knew that God helped David. This made them want to follow him. i. “We have observed God’s singular and gracious care of thee, and kindness to thee, and if we should oppose thee, we should be fighters against God and his word and providence.” (Poole) d. The lords of the Philistines sent him away by agreement: During his time in Ziklag, David attempted to fight with the Philistines against Saul and the army of Israel. The Philistine lords, fearing that David planned to defect to his master Saul, refused to allow David and his mighty men to fight in the battle (1 Samuel 27). e. Until it was a great army, like the army of God: Under the hand of God and His servant David, these mighty men – who began as disaffected people with no where else to go (1 Samuel 22:1-2) – developed into an amazing force. David and his mighty men needed each other and were each nothing without the other. B. The royal army at Hebron. 1. (23-37) The army of the tribes of Israel. Now these were the numbers of the divisions that were equipped for war, and came to David at Hebron to turn over the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the word of the LORD: of the sons of Judah bearing shield and spear, six thousand eight hundred armed for war; of the sons of Simeon, mighty men of valor fit for war, seven thousand one hundred; of the sons of Levi four thousand six hundred; Jehoiada, the leader of the Aaronites, and with him three thousand seven hundred; Zadok, a young man, a valiant warrior, and from his father’s house twenty-two captains; of the sons of Benjamin, relatives of Saul, three thousand (until then the greatest part of them had remained loyal to the house of Saul); of the sons of Ephraim twenty thousand eight hundred, mighty men of valor, famous men throughout their father’s house; of the half-tribe of Manasseh eighteen thousand, who were designated by name to come and make David king; of the sons of Issachar who had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do, their chiefs were two hundred; and all their brethren were at their command; of Zebulun there were fifty thousand who went out to battle, expert in war with all weapons of war, stouthearted men who could keep ranks; of Naphtali one thousand captains, and with them thirty-seven thousand with shield and spear; of the Danites who could keep battle formation, twenty-eight thousand six hundred; of Asher, those who could go out to war, able to keep battle formation, forty thousand; of the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh, from the other side of the Jordan, one hundred and twenty thousand armed for battle with every kind of weapon of war. a. Of the sons of Levi four thousand six hundred: Some think that the Levites were prohibited from going to war, but this is not specifically stated. Numbers 1:47-53 says that in that census they were not to be counted among the other tribes when the men ready for war were numbered, but it does not say that they could never fight for Israel. i. “The Levites were never prohibited from engaging in the military activity, despite their religious duties.” (Selman) b. The sons of Issachar who had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do: Some ancient traditions attribute this understanding of the times to skill in astrology, yet there is no foundation for this speculation. Instead, we should simply see that these sons of Issachar were men who supported King Saul up until the right time, and at the right time gave their support to David. i. “And particularly they showed this point of their wisdom at this time; for as they had adhered to Saul whilst he lived, as knowing the time was not yet come for David to take possession of the kingdom.” (Poole) ii. “Such as well knew what was to be done, and when to do it, by a singular sagacity, gotten by long experience, rather than by skill astrology.” (Trapp) c. Stouthearted men who could keep ranks: The idea behind the word stouthearted is that these were men of a single or whole heart in their devotion to King David. This is reflected in several other translations: · They were not of double heart (KJV) · To help David with undivided loyalty (NIV) · Helped David with an undivided heart (NASB) · Completely loyal to David (NLT) i. “We read in verse 33 of Zebulon, whose warriors were not of a double heart; the margin says that they were ‘without a heart and a heart.’ The double-minded man is unstable in all his ways; he is not to be relied upon in his loyalty or service to his king.” (Meyer) ii. Because they were completely committed to their king, they could also keep ranks – that is, they stayed tight in their formations even under the heat of battle. Their single devotion to their king made them able to stay together as a single unit. iii. “Too many like to break the ranks, and do God’s work independently. Fifty men who act together will do greater execution than five hundred acting apart. . . . Unity is strength; and in their efforts to overthrow the kingdom of Satan it is most essential that the soldiers of Christ move in rank and keep step.” (Meyer) 2. (38-40) Their great support of Israel’s great king All these men of war, who could keep ranks, came to Hebron with a loyal heart, to make David king over all Israel; and all the rest of Israel were of one mind to make David king. And they were there with David three days, eating and drinking, for their brethren had prepared for them. Moreover those who were near to them, from as far away as Issachar and Zebulun and Naphtali, were bringing food on donkeys and camels, on mules and oxen; provisions of flour and cakes of figs and cakes of raisins, wine and oil and oxen and sheep abundantly, for there was joy in Israel. a. To make David king over Israel: This celebration came late (some seven years after the death of Saul), but it did come. The people of God together recognized David as their king. Significantly, David would not force his reign upon the people; he waited until they were willing to make David king over Israel. i. “From the whole it appears most evident that the great majority of the tribes of Israel wished to see the kingdom confirmed in the hands of David; nor was there ever in any country a man more worthy of the public choice.” (Clarke) b. For there was joy in Israel: Receiving their rightful and anointed king brought joy to Israel. i. “The paragraph as a whole, however, shows that the people of God are the real heroes of the chapter. Those Israelites exemplify the principle that when God’s people become committed to one another in obedience service to God’s chosen king, they find both unity and joy.” (Selman) ii. “The enthroning of David was the uniting of the kingdom. Herein is the secret of the unity of the Church. We shall never secure it by endeavouring to bring about an unity in thought, or act, or organization. It is as each individual heart enthrones the Saviour that each will become one with all kindred souls in the everlasting kingdom.” (Meyer) 1 Chronicles 13 – King David Brings the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem A. The attempt to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem. 1. (1-4) The plan to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem. Then David consulted with the captains of thousands and hundreds, and with every leader. And David said to all the assembly of Israel, “If it seems good to you, and if it is of the LORD our God, let us send out to our brethren everywhere who are left in all the land of Israel, and with them to the priests and Levites who are in their cities and their common-lands, that they may gather together to us; and let us bring the ark of our God back to us, for we have not inquired at it since the days of Saul.” Then all the assembly said that they would do so, for the thing was right in the eyes of all the people. a. David consulted with the captains of thousands and hundreds, and with every leader: Notably, the text does not say that David consulted with the LORD. A group of godly men with good intention would soon make a significant mistake because they took counsel with each other, but not with the LORD. i. Payne on to our brethren everywhere who are left: “Literally ‘our brothers that are left.’ This may reflect something of the seriousness of the third major Philistine oppression against Israel, 1010-1003 B.C., which David had just broken (2 Samuel 5:20, 25).” b. Let us bring the ark of our God back to us: This was the ark of the covenant, which God commanded Moses to make more than 400 years before David’s time. It was a wood box (the word ark means “box” or “chest”) completely covered with gold and with an ornate gold lid or top known as the mercy seat. i. The ark of our God was 3 feet 9 inches long, 2 feet 3 inches wide and 2 feet 3 inches high. In it were the tablets of the law that Moses brought down from Mount Sinai, a jar of manna, and the Aaron’s rod that miraculously budded as a confirmation of his leadership. ii. The ark of our God had come back from the land of the Philistines some 70 years before this (1 Samuel 7:1). In those years tt sat at the house of Abinadab, but now David and the people wanted to bring it back to the center of the national consciousness. c. For the thing was right in the eyes of all the people: The idea of bringing the ark of the covenant back to the center of Israel’s consciousness was good; their method of bringing it would soon be exposed as faulty. i. It was good for both David and for the Israelites to have the ark in Jerusalem. “He knew that not he, but Jehovah, was their true King. His own rule must depend upon the will and counsel of God. This it was not only necessary for him to know, the fact must be recognized by the people.” (Morgan) 2. (5-8) The procession of the ark from Kirath Jearim. So David gathered all Israel together, from Shihor in Egypt to as far as the entrance of Hamath, to bring the ark of God from Kirjath Jearim. And David and all Israel went up to Baalah, to Kirjath Jearim, which belonged to Judah, to bring up from there the ark of God the LORD, who dwells between the cherubim, where His name is proclaimed. So they carried the ark of God on a new cart from the house of Abinadab, and Uzza and Ahio drove the cart. Then David and all Israel played music before God with all their might, with singing, on harps, on stringed instruments, on tambourines, on cymbals, and with trumpets. a. To bring up from there the ark of God the LORD, who dwells between the cherubim, where His name is proclaimed: The ark of God represented the immediate presence and glory of God in Israel. David considered it a high priority to bring the ark out of obscurity and back into prominence. David wanted Israel to be alive with a sense of the near presence and glory of God. b. So they carried the ark of God on a new cart: Transporting the ark on a cart was against God’s specific command. The ark was designed to be carried (Exodus 25:12-15) and was only to be carried by Levites of the family of Koath (Numbers 4:15). i. “There it was expressly ordained that the Ark should be carried on the shoulders of the priests, because the cause of God must proceed through the world by the means of consecrated men, rather than by mechanical instrumentality.” (Meyer) ii. We can imagine what these men thought. “Look - we have a new cart for the ark of God. God will be very pleased at our fancy new cart.” They thought that a new technology or luxury could cover over their ignorant disobedience. iii. “The long neglect of the Ark may have rendered these men unfamiliar with the very explicit commands concerning the method of its removal. Or they may have grown careless at to the importance of attending to such details.” (Morgan) iv. The Philistines transported the ark on a cart in 1 Samuel 6:10-11. They got away with it because they were Philistines, but God expected more from His people. Israel was to take their example from God’s Word, not from the innovations of the Philistines. “Israel got into difficulties because they failed to recognize that worship of the true God meant they could no longer simply follow contemporary pagan practices.” (Selman) c. Uzza and Ahio drove the new cart: The meaning of the names of these sons of Abinadab paint a meaningful picture. Uzza means “strength” and Ahio means “friendly.” i. Much service for the LORD is like this - a new cart, a big production, with strength leading and friendly out front - yet all done without inquiring of God or looking to His will. Surely David prayed for God’s blessing on this big production, but he didn’t inquire of God regarding the production itself. This was a good thing done the wrong way. d. Then David and all Israel played music before God: Judging from the importance of the occasion and all the instruments mentioned, this was quite a production. The atmosphere was joyful, exciting, and engaging. The problem was that none of it pleased God because it was all in disobedience to His word. i. We are often tempted to judge a worship experience by how it makes us feel. But when we realize that worship is about pleasing God, we are driven to His word so we can know how He wants to be worshipped. ii. “If you read the story through, you will see that it appears to be an affair of singing, and harps, and psalteries, and timbrels, and cymbals, and trumpets, and of a new cart and cattle; that is about all there is in it. There is not even a mention of humiliation of heart, or of solemn awe in the presence of that God of whom the ark was but the outward symbol. I am afraid that this first attempt was too much after the will of the Flesh, and the energy of nature.” (Spurgeon) B. The death of Uzza and its aftermath. 1. (9-11) Uzza touches the ark and is killed in judgment. And when they came to Chidon’s threshing floor, Uzza put out his hand to hold the ark, for the oxen stumbled. Then the anger of the LORD was aroused against Uzza, and He struck him because he put his hand to the ark; and he died there before God. And David became angry because of the Lord’s outbreak against Uzza; therefore that place is called Perez Uzza to this day. a. When they came to Chidon’s threshing floor: At a threshing floor the whole stalks of wheat are gathered and the chaff is separated from the wheat. There was a lot of chaff in this production, and God would blow away the chaff at Chidon’s threshing floor. b. Uzza put out his hand to hold the ark: This was strictly forbidden. Regarding the transporting of the ark Numbers 4:15 says, they shall not touch any holy thing lest they die. He did it because the oxen stumbled (perhaps seeing the grain on the threshing floor) and he feared that perhaps the ark might fall of the new cart and crash to the ground. He believed that his hand on the ark was better than the ark on the ground. i. Uzza made a decision in a moment to disregard God’s command and do what seemed right to him. This shows us that even our decisions made in a moment matter before God. c. He struck him because he put his hand to the ark: God fulfilled the ominous promise of Numbers 4:15 and struck Uzza. David wanted Israel to know the presence of the LORD and God showed up at Chidon’s threshing floor - but not in the way anyone wanted. i. The sin of Uzza was more than just a reflex action or instinct. God struck Uzza because his action was based upon critical errors in his thinking. · Uzza erred in thinking it didn’t matter who transported the ark. · Uzza erred in thinking it didn’t matter how the ark was transported. · Uzza erred in thinking he knew all about the ark because it was in his father’s house for so long (2 Samuel 6:3) · Uzza erred in thinking that God couldn’t take care of the ark of Himself. · Uzza erred in thinking that the ground of Chidon’s threshing floor was less holy than his own hand. ii. “He saw no difference between the ark and any other valuable article. His intention to help was right enough; but there was a profound insensibility to the awful sacredness of the ark, on which even its Levitical bearers were forbidden to lay hands.” (Maclaren) d. David became angry because of the Lord’s outbreak: David’s anger was based in confusion. He couldn’t understand why his good intentions weren’t enough. God is concerned with both our intentions and our actions. 3. (12-14) David’s fear and God’s blessing on Obed-Edom’s house. David was afraid of God that day, saying, “How can I bring the ark of God to me?” So David would not move the ark with him into the City of David, but took it aside into the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite. The ark of God remained with the family of Obed-Edom in his house three months. And the LORD blessed the house of Obed-Edom and all that he had. a. David was afraid of God that day: He did not need to be afraid of God, but afraid of his own sin. There was no problem with God or with the ark itself (as the blessing on the hose of Obed-Edom demonstrated). The problem was with the lack of knowledge and obedience on the part of David and those who helped him plan the entrance of the ark into Jerusalem. i. “If Chronicles’ readers wanted Israel’s former glories restored, they too must reckon with a God whose dynamic holiness could not be contained within human limitations.” (Selman) b. How can I bring the ark of God to me? David knew it was important to bring the ark of God into the center of Israel’s life. He wanted all Israel to be excited about the presence and glory of God. Because of what happened to Uzza, David felt he couldn’t do what God wanted him to do. i. David’s response in the following chapter shows that he found the answer to his question. He answered the question with the thought later expressed in Isaiah 8:20: To the law and to the testimony! David found the answer in God’s word. ii. The whole account reinforces the principle that God is interested in the process as well as in the outcome. It would never do for David or Israel to have the attitude, “As long as we get the ark to Jerusalem, it doesn’t matter how we do it.” How they did it really did matter, and how we do things today (especially in serving God) also matters. c. Took it aside into the house of Obed-Edom: David did this in fulfillment of God’s word. Obed-Edom was a Levite of the family of Koath (1 Chronicles 26:4). This was the family within the tribe of Levi that God commanded to transport and take care of the ark (Numbers 4:15). d. And the LORD blessed the house of Obed-Edom and all that he had: When God’s Word was obeyed and His holiness was respected blessing followed. God wanted the ark to be a blessing for Israel, not a curse. We might say that the curse didn’t come from God’s heart but from man’s disobedience. i. Selman believes that the name Obed-Edom the Gittite means that he was from Gath, and the blessing on his house is therefore an example of the undeserved blessing of God, with the Lord displaying His grace to both Obed-Edom and to David. However, it seems better to take the observation of Adam Clarke: “That this man was only a sojourner at Gath, whence he was termed a Gittite, and that he was originally a Levite, is evident from 1 Chronicles 15:17-18.” 1 Chronicles 14 - David’s Throne Is Secured At Jerusalem A. David’s home in Jerusalem. 1. (1-2) The royal palace of David. Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, with masons and carpenters, to build him a house. So David knew that the LORD had established him as king over Israel, for his kingdom was highly exalted for the sake of His people Israel. a. To build him a house: This shows David’s influence and importance. Neighboring kings honor him with the finest craftsmen and wood to build him a palace. This relationship with Hiram king of Tyre also shows that David was more than a man of war. He knew how to build important political alliances. b. So David knew: David knew two things that made his reign great. Every godly leader should know these two things well. · David knew that the LORD had established him as king over Israel: David knew that God called him and established him over Israel. · His kingdom was highly exalted for the sake of His people Israel: David knew God wanted to use him as a channel to bless His people. It was not for David’s sake that he was lifted up, but for the sake of His people Israel. 2. (3-7) The sons born to David in Jerusalem. Then David took more wives in Jerusalem, and David begot more sons and daughters. And these are the names of his children whom he had in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Elpelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Beeliada, and Eliphelet. a. David took more wives: This was in direct disobedience to Deuteronomy 17:17: Neither shall he multiply wives for himself, lest his heart turn away. 2 Samuel 5:13 tells us that David also took more concubines when he lived in Jerusalem. i. Chronicles makes no mention of David’s sin with Bathsheba, but after the murder of her husband she was one of the more wives that David added to his household in Jerusalem. ii. “That David took ‘more wives’ was a historical fact but a moral failure, directly contrary to the law . . . This sin led to a whole series of disasters later on.” (Payne) b. David begot more sons and daughters: Certainly David (and everyone else) saw these many children as God’s sign of blessing upon David and his many wives. Yet most of the trouble to come in David’s life comes from his relationship with women and from his children. i. It is often true that the seeds to our future trouble are sown in times of great success and prosperity. In some ways, David handled trials better than success. B. Victory over the Philistines. 1. (8-10) David seeks God in battle against the Philistines at the Valley of Rephaim. Now when the Philistines heard that David had been anointed king over all Israel, all the Philistines went up to search for David. And David heard of it and went out against them. Then the Philistines went and made a raid on the Valley of Rephaim. And David inquired of God, saying, “Shall I go up against the Philistines? Will You deliver them into my hand?” And the LORD said to him, “Go up, for I will deliver them into your hand.” a. All the Philistines went up to search for David: David’s success brought new challenges from the outside. As God worked mightily in David’s life, the devil also got to work and brought opposition against David. i. “The Valley of Rephaim lay southwest of Jerusalem and formed part of the boundary between Judah and Benjamin (Joshua 15:8). It may correspond to the ‘Valley of Baca’ (Psalm 84:6), due to the balsam trees that were there (1 Chronicles 14:14-15). These are named, literally, ‘weepers’ because of their drops of milky sap.” (Payne) b. David inquired of God: As David sought God and looked to Him for guidance he was blessed. God honored David’s dependence on Him and gave him the promise of victory. 2. (11-12) David defeats the Philistines at Baal Perazim. So they went up to Baal Perazim, and David defeated them there. Then David said, “God has broken through my enemies by my hand like a breakthrough of water.” Therefore they called the name of that place Baal Perazim. And when they left their gods there, David gave a commandment, and they were burned with fire. a. God has broken through my enemies: At the battle of Baal Perazim David defeated the Philistines with an overwhelming force, like a breakthrough of water. i. “God’s ‘breakout’ in judgment (1 Chronicles 13:9-12) now becomes a ‘breakout’ in blessing for Israel as well as for Obed-Edom’s household.” (Selman) b. They left their gods there: The Philistines brought their idols to the battle, thinking they would help defeat the Israelites. Because David inquired of God and obeyed God, they burned the Philistine idols. 3. (13-17) David defeats the Philistines again. Then the Philistines once again made a raid on the valley. Therefore David inquired again of God, and God said to him, “You shall not go up after them; circle around them, and come upon them in front of the mulberry trees. And it shall be, when you hear a sound of marching in the tops of the mulberry trees, then you shall go out to battle, for God has gone out before you to strike the camp of the Philistines.” So David did as God commanded him, and they drove back the army of the Philistines from Gibeon as far as Gezer. Then the fame of David went out into all lands, and the LORD brought the fear of him upon all nations. a. David inquired again of God: After the first victory over the Philistines, David was wise enough to wait on the LORD before the second battle. It is easy for many in the same situation to say, “I’ve fought this battle before. I know how to win. This will be easy.” David always triumphed when he sought and obeyed God. b. You shall not go up after them; circle around them: God directed David differently in this battle. Even against the same enemy, not every battle is the same. i. In his commentary on this account in 2 Samuel 5, Adam Clarke noted the remarkable guidance of God in David’s life and asked a good question. “How is it that such supernatural directions and assistances are not communicated now? Because they are not asked for; and they are not asked for because they are not expected; and they are not expected because men have not faith; and they have not faith because they are under a refined spirit of atheism, and have no spiritual intercourse with their Maker.” (Clarke) c. God has gone out before you to strike the camp of the Philistines: At the battle of this David waited for the LORD to strike the camp of the enemy first. The sign of God’s work was a sound of marching in the tops of the mulberry trees. i. “It was not merely a fitful breeze stealing through the leaves; it was not the going of the wind; but of angel squadrons who were proceeding against the enemies of Israel.” (Meyer) ii. At the signal that the LORD was at work, David and his troops rushed forward to victory. This principle is true in our every-day walk with God. When we sense that the LORD is at work, we must go out to battle (advance quickly, 2 Samuel 5:24) and we will see a great victory won. “We must also, in the spiritual warfare, observe and obey the motions of the Spirit, when he setteth up his standard; for those are the sounds of God’s goings, the footsteps of his anointed.” (Trapp) iii. There is something wonderful about the King James Version translation of this account in 2 Samuel 5:24: when thou hearest the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees, that then thou shalt bestir thyself. When you hear the work of God happening, bestir thyself – go out to battle. Spurgeon liked to point out that it said bestir thyself - often we think we must stir others up. That often just becomes hype and emotionalism. Instead, stir yourself. iv. When we see the work of God happening around us, it is like the sound in the mulberry trees - the rustling sound should awaken us to prayer and devotion. A time of crisis or tragedy is also like the sound in the mulberry trees - the rustling sound should awaken us to confession and repentance. “Now, what should I do? The first thing I will do is, I will bestir myself. But how shall I do it? Why, I will go home this day, and I will wrestle in prayer more earnestly than I have been wont to do that God will bless the minister, and multiply the church.” (Spurgeon) v. “Oh, believe in the co-operation of the Holy Spirit. Lonely missionary in some distant station of the foreign field, listen for the moving of the tops of the mulberry trees! God is stirring for thy succor.” (Meyer) vi. “The precise species of the balsam trees is uncertain. Other possibilities include the pear-tree (LXX), mulberry (AV), or aspen (REB, NEB).” (Selman) d. So David did as God commanded him: He did this by waiting for evidence of God’s work and then giving himself completely to the battle. The victory that sprang from this obedience made David and Israel respected and feared among neighboring nations. i. “Because he looked to the Lord for his strength and for his strategy, he was able to beat back to Philistine offenses, to secure the independence of God’s people, and to terminate forever the threat of Philistine conquest and oppression.” (Payne) 1 Chronicles 15 - The Ark Is Brought to Jerusalem A. The assembly of the priests and the Levites 1. (1-2) David’s directions for bringing in the Ark. David built houses for himself in the City of David; and he prepared a place for the ark of God, and pitched a tent for it. Then David said, “No one may carry the ark of God but the Levites, for the LORD has chosen them to carry the ark of God and to minister before Him forever.” a. David built houses for himself . . . he prepared a place for the ark of God, and pitched a tent for it: At this moment of great triumph – bringing the ark into Jerusalem – the Chronicler reminds us that David lived in a house (or several houses) and the ark of the covenant was in a tent. i. Significantly, this tent David prepared for the ark of God was not the tabernacle itself. The tabernacle of Moses was at Gibeon (1 Chronicles 16:39-40). There were several reasons to explain why David did not bring the tabernacle from Gibeon to Jerusalem: · He may have believed if the tabernacle was there the people would be satisfied with that and they would lose the passion and vision for the temple God wanted built. · It may be that the tabernacle was only moved when it was absolutely necessary - as when disaster came upon it at Shiloh or Nob. · David simply focused on building the temple, not continuing the tabernacle b. No one may carry the ark of God but the Levites: This shows that David learned from his past mistake when Uzza was struck dead at the first attempt to bring the ark of the covenant into Jerusalem. 2. (3-10) A list of the priests and Levites who supervised the coming of the ark of the covenant into Jerusalem. And David gathered all Israel together at Jerusalem, to bring up the ark of the LORD to its place, which he had prepared for it. Then David assembled the children of Aaron and the Levites: of the sons of Kohath, Uriel the chief, and one hundred and twenty of his brethren; of the sons of Merari, Asaiah the chief, and two hundred and twenty of his brethren; of the sons of Gershom, Joel the chief, and one hundred and thirty of his brethren; of the sons of Elizaphan, Shemaiah the chief, and two hundred of his brethren; of the sons of Hebron, Eliel the chief, and eighty of his brethren; of the sons of Uzziel, Amminadab the chief, and one hundred and twelve of his brethren. a. “A major problem for many readers is the way that the narrative is interrupted by repetitious lists. For example, just at the moment when the ark is raised on to the Levites’ shoulders, apparently unrelated lists of musicians and gatekeepers occur. . . . the lists actually have an important function in anticipating the next section of narrative. The Levites who sanctified themselves are shown to have had a valid ancestry; this was a live issue in post-exilic Israel.” (Selman) 3. (11-15) The ark is brought to Jerusalem in the right way. And David called for Zadok and Abiathar the priests, and for the Levites: for Uriel, Asaiah, Joel, Shemaiah, Eliel, and Amminadab. He said to them, “You are the heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites; sanctify yourselves, you and your brethren, that you may bring up the ark of the LORD God of Israel to the place I have prepared for it. For because you did not do it the first time, the LORD our God broke out against us, because we did not consult Him about the proper order.” So the priests and the Levites sanctified themselves to bring up the ark of the LORD God of Israel. And the children of the Levites bore the ark of God on their shoulders, by its poles, as Moses had commanded according to the word of the LORD. a. Sanctify yourselves, you and your brethren, that you may bring up the ark of the LORD God of Israel to the place I have prepared for it: This demonstrates David’s commitment to bringing the ark of the covenant into Jerusalem in the right way. He had learned the lesson that the process also matters to God, not only the result. i. It also demonstrates that David understood that it was not only a matter of doing the right things in the process, but in having sanctified men to carry the ark. Ministry that pleases God is done the right way, by sanctified men, for the right end result. ii. “Sanctification required separation from every form of ‘uncleanness’ (Leviticus 16:19; 2 Samuel 11:4), and in the Old Testament might include temporary abstinence from sexual intercourse (Exodus 19:15), dirty clothing (Exodus 19:14), or contact with corpses (Leviticus 21:1-4), or more permanently for the priests, not marrying a divorcee, prostitute, or even a widow (Leviticus 21:13-15).” (Selman) b. For because you did not do it the first time, the LORD our God broke out against us, because we did not consult Him about the proper order: 1 Chronicles 13:1-4 makes it clear that David consulted with his leaders and with the people in a highly democratic way. What he did not do was consult Him [God] about the proper order. B. The celebration at the bringing in of the ark of the covenant into Jerusalem. 1. (16-24) Names of the musicians at the ceremony. Then David spoke to the leaders of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers accompanied by instruments of music, stringed instruments, harps, and cymbals, by raising the voice with resounding joy. So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel; and of his brethren, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and of their brethren, the sons of Merari, Ethan the son of Kushaiah; and with them their brethren of the second rank: Zechariah, Ben, Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattithiah, Elipheleh, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, and Jeiel, the gatekeepers; the singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, were to sound the cymbals of bronze; Zechariah, Aziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah, and Benaiah, with strings according to Alamoth; Mattithiah, Elipheleh, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, Jeiel, and Azaziah, to direct with harps on the Sheminith; Chenaniah, leader of the Levites, was instructor in charge of the music, because he was skillful; Berechiah and Elkanah were doorkeepers for the ark; Shebaniah, Joshaphat, Nethanel, Amasai, Zechariah, Benaiah, and Eliezer, the priests, were to blow the trumpets before the ark of God; and Obed-Edom and Jehiah, doorkeepers for the ark. a. David spoke to the leaders of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers: King David knew a lot about music and singing, but he did not over-manage this ceremony. He delegated responsibility and allowed the leaders of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers. i. Chenaniah: “This appears to have been the master singer; he gave the key and the time, for he presided in the elevation, probably meaning what is called pitching the tune, for he was skilful in music, and powerful in his voice, and well qualified to lead the band: he might have been precentor.” (Clarke) b. By raising the voice with resounding joy: The several musical instruments mentioned were important, but not more important than these joyful voices. The singing was loud and joyful. i. “The phrase ‘according to alamoth’ occurs also in the title to Psalm 46. Since the noun means ‘maidens, virgins,’ such as are mentioned as beating tambourines in ceremonial processions of singers and other musicians (Psalm 68:25), it may indicate music produced in a soprano register.” (Payne) ii. “The phrase ‘according to sheminith’ occurs also in the titles to Psalms 6 and 12. The word is derived from the root for ‘eight’ and is usually thought to indicate music in a lower octave, in contrast to the preceding verse, though it might indicate an instrument that had eight strings.” (Payne) iii. Berechia and Elkanah were doorkeepers for the ark: “They were appointed to keep the door of the tent, in which the ark was to be put and kept, that no unallowed person might press in and touch it; and in like manner they were to attend upon the ark in the way, and to guard it from the press and touch of profane hands.” (Poole) 2. (25-28) The ark comes into Jerusalem. So David, the elders of Israel, and the captains over thousands went to bring up the ark of the covenant of the LORD from the house of Obed-Edom with joy. And so it was, when God helped the Levites who bore the ark of the covenant of the LORD, that they offered seven bulls and seven rams. David was clothed with a robe of fine linen, as were all the Levites who bore the ark, the singers, and Chenaniah the music master with the singers. David also wore a linen ephod. Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouting and with the sound of the horn, with trumpets and with cymbals, making music with stringed instruments and harps. a. To bring up the ark of the covenant from the house of Obed-Edom to the City of David with joy: David was glad to know that the presence and glory of God could bring blessing instead of a curse. He was also glad to see that when they obeyed God they were blessed. i. When the worship was in the proper order it was still filled with joy and gladness. It is a mistake to feel that “real” worship must be subdued or solemn or only in a minor key. b. God helped the Levites who bore the ark: It wasn’t so much that the ark of the covenant was so heavy that they needed God’s help to carry it. Rather, there was considerable pressure and stress in bearing a burden that had recently resulted in a sudden death. They needed God’s help to deal with the spiritual pressure of this ministry. c. The offered seven bulls and seven rams: David was careful to not neglect the institution of sacrifice in this second attempt to bring the ark of the covenant into Jerusalem. i. 2 Samuel 6:13 says that they sacrificed every six steps in the procession, “Because Uzzah perished when he had gone but six paces, say some. Every man that seeth another stricken, and himself spared, is to offer sacrifices, yea, to keep a passover for himself.” (Trapp) d. David also wore a linen ephod: It is a mistake to think that David was immodest. As were all the Levites indicates that David was dressed just like all the other priests and Levites in this procession. e. Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouting: This shows that David brought the ark to Jerusalem with a big production - bigger than the first attempt. David was wise enough to know that the problem with the first attempt wasn’t that it was a big production, but that it was a big production that came from man and not from God. i. This is essentially the same account recorded in 2 Samuel 6, except in 2 Samuel the leadership of David is emphasized, and in 1 Chronicles 15 the participation and support of all Israel is emphasized. Both accounts are correct; David was the leader, but it wasn’t a one-man show; all Israel brought up the ark. ii. “The primary change is that the homecoming of the ark . . . has become a corporate act of all Israel rather than an expression of David’s personal faith.” (Selman) 3. (29) David’s wife Michal despises David. And it happened, as the ark of the covenant of the LORD came to the City of David, that Michal, Saul’s daughter, looked through a window and saw King David whirling and playing music; and she despised him in her heart. a. Michal, Saul’s daughter, looked through a window and saw King David whirling and playing music: David didn’t hold back anything in his own expression of worship. He didn’t dance out of obligation but out of heartfelt worship. He was glad to bring the ark of the covenant of the LORD into Jerusalem according to God’s word. i. This expression of David’s heart showed that he had a genuine emotional link to God. There are two great errors in this area - the error of making emotions the center of our Christian life and the error of an emotionally detached Christian life. In the Christian life emotions must not be manipulated and they must not be repressed. ii. From our knowledge of ancient and modern culture we can surmise that David’s dance wasn’t a solo performance. The context clearly puts him together with the other priests and Levits, and he probably danced with simple rhythmic steps together with other men in the way one might see Orthodox Jewish men today dance. In this context, David’s linen ephod means he set aside his royal robes and dressed just like everyone else in the procession. iii. It should also be observed that David’s dancing was appropriate in the context. This was a parade with a marching band, a grand procession. David’s dancing fit right in. If David did this as the nation gathered on the Day of Atonement it would be out of context and wrong. b. And she despised him in her heart: 2 Samuel 6:20-23 tell us more of Michal’s complaint and of David’s response to her. He sarcastically said to him, How glorious was the king of Israel today, uncovering himself today. Michal seemed to indicate that she didn’t object to David’s dancing, but to what David wore when he set aside his royal robes and danced as a man just like the other men celebrating in the procession. David acted as if he were just another worshipper in Israel, and this offended Michal. i. In response, David told Michal that his actions were before the LORD; that is, he simply explained the truth: “I did it for God, not for you.” He went on to explain to her, and will be humble in my own sight. What David did was humbling to him. He didn’t dance to show others how spiritual he was. ii. “The incident illustrates the perpetual inability of the earthly minded to appreciate the gladness of the spiritual.” (Morgan) 1 Chronicles 16 - David’s Psalm of Thanks A. The ark is brought into the prepared tent. 1. (1-3) David gives the assembly a feast. So they brought the ark of God, and set it in the midst of the tabernacle that David had erected for it. Then they offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before God. And when David had finished offering the burnt offerings and the peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD. Then he distributed to everyone of Israel, both man and woman, to everyone a loaf of bread, a piece of meat, and a cake of raisins. a. They brought the ark of God, and set it in the midst of the tabernacle: After many years - since the ark was lost in battle - the ark is returned to the center of Israel’s national consciousness. The emblem of God’s presence and glory was set at its proper place in Israel. b. When David had finished offering burnt offerings and peace offerings: The burnt offerings spoke of consecration. The peace offerings spoke of fellowship. This was a day of great consecration and fellowship with God. It was also a great barbeque and meal for all the people. i. These sacrifices were an important part of the ceremony, neglected in the first attempt to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem. “These pointed them to Christ, freeing them from their sins, both from the crime and from the curse; these taught them thankfulness for Christ, and all benefits in and by him.” (Trapp) ii. “The second item of food (known only here and in 2 Samuel 6:19) was either a cake of dates or a ‘portion of meat’ (REB, NEB, NSRV; cf. GNB, AV) – if the latter is correct, it was an especially generous act since meat rarely appeared on domestic menus in ancient Israel.” (Selman) iii. “Most flesh from the peace offerings was eaten by the people themselves, sitting down, as it were, as guests of God’s table, in a meal celebrating the restoration of their peace with him.” (Payne) 2. (4-6) Worship leaders are appointed to lead the congregation. And he appointed some of the Levites to minister before the ark of the LORD, to commemorate, to thank, and to praise the LORD God of Israel: Asaph the chief, and next to him Zechariah, then Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, and Obed-Edom: Jeiel with stringed instruments and harps, but Asaph made music with cymbals; Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests regularly blew the trumpets before the ark of the covenant of God. a. And he appointed some of the Levites to minister before the ark: At the end of this spectacular day of celebration, David established an enduring institution of worship and commemoration at the ark of the covenant. It wasn’t to be a one-day high, but an ongoing ministry unto God. i. “David’s appointment then of Levites to minister in music and praise to God marks a significant advance in the history of Israel’s worship. His previous arrangements for music had been devised for just one occasion; but now a continuing service is envisioned.” (Payne) b. He appointed some of the Levites . . . to commemorate: In the Levitical appointments for that day and beyond, David selected some Levites to focus on commemorating what great things God had done. Simply remembering God’s great works is an important and often neglected part of the Christian life. Spurgeon (in his sermon The Recorders) noted several ways that we can help ourselves remember the great things of God: · Make an actual record of what God has done, keeping a written journal. · Be sure to praise God thoroughly at the time you receive His goodness. · Set apart time for meditation on the good things God has done. · Talk about His mercy often to other people. · Use everything around you as reminders to the goodness of God. c. Asaph the chief: This indicates that David though the Levites had appointed Heman as the leader of worship (1 Chronicles 15:17), at this time David elevated Asaph to this position. i. “No reason is given, though Asaph did represent the senior Levitcal clan of Gershon (1 Chronicles 6:39-43). Personal ability may also have been a contributing factor, for Asaph and his descendants are listed as composers for twelve of the inspired Old Testament psalms.” (Payne) B. David’s song of thanksgiving. 1. (7) The psalm written for the special occasion. On that day David first delivered this psalm into the hand of Asaph and his brethren, to thank the LORD: a. David first delivered this psalm: David was known as sweet psalmist of Israel (2 Samuel 23:1), and he specially wrote the following psalm to thank the LORD on the day the ark of the covenant was brough to Jerusalem. i. “The Psalm is found in the Book of Psalms; its first movement (8-22) in Psalm 105:1-15; its second movement (23-33) in Psalm 96:1b-13a; its third movement (34-36) consisting of a quotation of the opening and closing sentences of Psalm 106:1-47 and 48.” (Morgan) ii. “All three of the canonical psalms that he quoted are anonymous, ‘orphan psalms’ (without title) in the Old Testament Psalter; but on the basis of the king’s use of them here, they should indeed be classed as his.” (Payne) 2. (8-13) The call to praise. Oh, give thanks to the LORD! Call upon His name; Make known His deeds among the peoples! Sing to Him, sing psalms to Him; Talk of all His wondrous works! Glory in His holy name; Let the hearts of those rejoice who seek the LORD! Seek the LORD and His strength; Seek His face evermore! Remember His marvelous works which He has done, His wonders, and the judgments of His mouth, O seed of Israel His servant, You children of Jacob, His chosen ones! a. Oh, give thanks to the LORD! Like many psalms, this one begins with a call to praise, viritually in the form of a commandment. Yet the psalm breathes with too much excitement for this to be a true command; it is an exhortation to the community of God’s people to join in praise to their God. i. “All the good that we enjoy comes from God. Recollect that! Alas, most men forget it. Rowland Hill used to say that worldlings were like the hogs under the oak, which eat the acorns, but never think of the oak from which they fell, nor lift up their heads to grunt out a thanksgiving. Yes, so it is. They munch the gift and murmur at the giver.” (Spurgeon) b. Give thanks . . . call upon . . . make known . . . sing . . . talk . . . glory . . . seek . . . remember: In a few verses, David lists a remarkable number of ways (at least eight) one can praise and glorify God. Some of them speak directly to God (such as sing psalms to Him), some speak to others about God’s greatness (make know His deeds among the peoples), and some are a conversation with one’s self (remember His marvelous works). i. Meyer on talk of all His wondrous works: “We do not talk sufficiently about God. Why it is so may not be easy to explain; but there seems to be too great reticence among Christian people about the best things. . . . We talk about sermons, details of worship and church organization, or the latest phase of Scripture criticism; we discuss men, methods, and churches; but our talk in the home, and in the gatherings of Christians for social purposes, is too seldom about the wonderful works of God. Better to speak less, and to talk more of Him.” ii. “If we talked more of God’s wondrous works, we should be free from talking of other people’s works. It is easy to criticise those we could not rival, and carp at those we could not emulate. He who could not carve a statue, or make a single stroke of the chisel correctly, affects to point out where the handicraft of the greatest sculptor might have been improved. It is a poor, pitiful occupation, that of picking holes in other people’s coats, and yet some people seem so pleased when they can perceive a fault, that they roll it under their tongue as a sweet morsel.” (Spurgeon) iii. “There is no gifted tongue requisite, there are no powers of eloquence invoked; neither laws of rhetoric nor rules of grammar are pronounced indispensable in the simple talk that my text inculcates, ‘Talk ye of all his wondrous works.’ I beg your pardon when you say you cannot do this. You cannot because you will not.” (Spurgeon) c. O seed of Israel . . . His chosen ones: This call to praise is directed to the people of God. As will be noted later in the psalm, all creation has a responsibility to praise its Creator; but this is the special responsibility of God’s people. 3. (14-19) Remembering God’s covenant with His people. He is the LORD our God; His judgments are in all the earth. Remember His covenant forever, The word which He commanded, for a thousand generations, The covenant which He made with Abraham, And His oath to Isaac, And confirmed it to Jacob for a statute, To Israel for an everlasting covenant, Saying, “To you I will give the land of Canaan As the allotment of your inheritance,” When you were few in number, Indeed very few, and strangers in it. a. His judgments are in all the earth: David will soon begin to sing about the special relationship between the LORD and His covenant people. Yet he prefaced those ideas with the thought that God is the Lord of all the earth. His authority is not limited to His covenant people. b. Remember His covenant forever: God wanted His people to never forget the covenant He made with them. God’s dealing with man through history has been based on the idea of covenant. · God made a covenant with Abraham regarding a land, a nation, and a particular messianic blessing (Genesis 12:1-3). · God made a covenant with Israel as a nation, regarding a law, sacrifice, and choice of blessing or cursing (Exodus 19:5-8). · God made a covenant with David regarding the specific lineage of the Messiah (2 Samuel 7). · God made a covenant with all who would believe on His Son, the New Covenant through Jesus Christ (Luke 22:20). i. It was entirely appropriate that this psalm focuses on the idea of His covenant, because it was written for the arrival of the ark of the covenant into the place David prepared for it in Jerusalem. ii. “In the restoration of the Ark after a period of neglect, the people found a sure token of that mercy.” (Morgan) c. To you I will give the land of Canaan: David here highlighted the promise of land that God made to Abraham as part of His covenant with the patriarch (Genesis 12:1 and 13:14-17). The land belonged to the descendents of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob through this covenant. i. In this we see that this portion of the psalm is largely meant for teaching. This stanza was not primarily intended as a declaration of praise to God, but as informing the worship of God’s people. 4. (20-22) God’s protection upon His people. When they went from one nation to another, And from one kingdom to another people, He permitted no man to do them wrong; Yes, He rebuked kings for their sakes, Saying, “Do not touch My anointed ones, And do My prophets no harm.” a. When they went from one nation to another: In the story of the arrival of the ark of the covenant recorded in 2 Samuel, this psalm of David is not included. Here we see why the Chronicler – writing shortly after the Babylonian exile – was anxious to include it. This line of David’s psalm praises God for His providential protection of His people when they were out of the Promised Land. b. He permitted no man to do them wrong: One might say that this was inaccurate – after all, the oppressive Pharaohs seemed to do much wrong to Israel. Yet, in the longer view of seeing God’s good work even through such painful times, David can truthfully say “He permitted no man to do them wrong.” c. Do not touch My anointed ones, and do My prophets no harm: This seems to refer to God’s people as a whole instead of particular anointed individuals or individual prophets. 5. (23-30) The command to praise the LORD. Sing to the LORD, all the earth; Proclaim the good news of His salvation from day to day. Declare His glory among the nations, His wonders among all peoples. For the LORD is great and greatly to be praised; He is also to be feared above all gods. For all the gods of the peoples are idols, But the LORD made the heavens. Honor and majesty are before Him; Strength and gladness are in His place. Give to the LORD, O families of the peoples, Give to the LORD glory and strength. Give to the LORD the glory due His name; Bring an offering, and come before Him. Oh, worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness! Tremble before Him, all the earth. The world also is firmly established, It shall not be moved. a. Sing to the LORD, all the earth: God’s covenant people have a special responsibility to praise Him, but all the earth should also proclaim the good news of His salvation day to day. i. It is only good news when it is His salvation. My salvation isn’t enough to save me. I need His salvation to save me. This is something worth proclaiming. ii. “There is not one of us but has cause for song, and certainly not one saint but ought specially to praise the name of the Lord.” (Spurgeon) b. Declare His glory among the nations: David is back to a particular address to the people of God, imploring them to tell everyone of the greatness of God, and His superiority above all gods. i. The reason for His superiority is simple: all the gods of the peoples are idols, but the LORD made the heavens. The covenant God of Israel is real and is the Creator of all things, in contrast to the mere statues of the nations. c. Give to the LORD glory and strength: This is not in the sense of giving something to God that He does not already have. It is in the sense of crediting to God what He actually does possess, but what man is often blind to. d. Worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness! God’s holiness – His “set-apart-ness” – has a wonderful and distinct beauty about it. It is beautiful that God is God and not man; that He is more than the greatest man or a super-man. His holy love, grace, justice, and majesty are beautiful. 6. (31-33) Creation praises God. Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad; And let them say among the nations, “The LORD reigns.” Let the sea roar, and all its fullness; Let the field rejoice, and all that is in it. Then the trees of the woods shall rejoice before the LORD, For He is coming to judge the earth. a. Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad: David knew that creation itself praised God. He knew that the beauty and power and skill and majesty of creation was itself a testimony of praise to its Creator. b. Let them say among the nations: Israel had the word of God to tell them of God’s reign and His coming judgment. The nations have the testimony of creation to tell them

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20. Exodus 19-20:20 (Israel Meets God at Mount Sinai & God Gives Ten Commandments to Moses)

Exodus 19-20:20 (Israel Meets God at Mount Sinai & God Gives Ten Commandments to Moses)

Exodus 19 - The Nation of Israel Comes to Mount Sinai A. Coming to the Mountain. 1. (1-2) Israel camps at Mount Sinai. In the third month after the children of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on the same day, they came to the Wilderness of Sinai. For they had departed from Rephidim, had come to the Wilderness of Sinai, and camped in the wilderness. So Israel camped there before the mountain. a. They came to the Wilderness of Sinai: It took them three months of trusting God to get to this place, but they finally arrived. They saw God's deliverance from Egypt, received His guidance on the way to go, saw His glorious victory at the Red Sea, received God's miraculous gifts of food and water, and they saw a prayerful victory won over the Amalekites. i. Israel stayed in the Wilderness of Sinai until Numbers 10. More than 57 chapters of Scripture are devoted to what happened to Israel in the year they camped at Mount Sinai. ii. "The word conventionally translated 'wilderness' is not a sandy desert, but grazing country, not settled by man." (Cole) b. So Israel camped there before the mountain: In one sense, all that went before was meant to bring them to this place. This was the beginning of the fulfillment of what God said in Exodus 3:12: this shall be a sign to you that I have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God on this mountain. i. Sinai was the place where Moses met God at the burning bush. The whole nation of Israel would soon experience some of what Moses did at the burning bush. Moses could lead them to this mountain for this experience because he had already been there. The people could not go farther than their leader. ii. If the traditional site of Mount Sinai looks like anything, it looks like a huge pulpit - a sudden, steep outcropping of mountain out in the wilderness. Here, God preached one of the most dramatic sermons ever heard. iii. Yet there is good reason to believe that the traditional site of Mount Sinai - on the Sinai Peninsula - is not the correct location of the mountain where all this came to pass. · According to Exodus 2:15, 3:1, and 3:12 this mountain was in the region of Midian, which was on the east side of the Gulf of Aqaba, east of the Sinai Peninsula. The ancient land of Midian is in the modern nation of Saudi Arabia. · In Galatians 4:25, the Apostle Paul clearly described Mount Sinai as being in Arabia. Though some claim that this can also be understood as extending to the Sinai Peninsula, this isn't the normal understanding of where Arabia is, either in the modern or the ancient understanding. · There is significant evidence - both historic and archaeological - to associate the Arabian mountain Jebel al-Lawz with the site of Mount Sinai. 2. (3-4) God reminds Israel of His great power and care for them. And Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain, saying, "Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel: 'You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings and brought you to Myself.'" a. Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain: Moses, led by God, went up on the mountain to meet with God as he had before - and the LORD spoke to Moses again. b. Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob: With this title God associated the nation with the weakest and least stable of the patriarchs. At this point they acted more like Jacob than like Abraham or Isaac. c. You have seen what I did to the Egyptians: God gave a message to Israel through Moses, a message regarding His purpose and destiny for Israel. This destiny was based on what God already did for them in the great deliverance from Egypt. d. I bore you on eagles' wings: An eagles' wings are strong and sure; but they also speak of careful protection. It is said that an eagle does not carry her young in her claws like other birds; the young eagles attach themselves to the back of the mother eagle and are protected as they are carried. Any arrow from a hunter must pass through the mother eagle before it could touch the young eagle on her back. i. "This metaphor is developed most extensively in Deuteronomy 32:11, where the loving compassion, protection, strength, and watchfulness of God is compared with the majestic bird's attributes." (Kaiser) e. And brought you to Myself: The deliverance (I bore you on eagles' wings) was for fellowship (brought you to Myself). God didn't deliver Israel so they could live apart from God, but so they could be God's people. 3. (5-6) God reveals His plan and destiny for Israel. "'Now therefore, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be a special treasure to Me above all people; for all the earth is Mine. And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.' These are the words which you shall speak to the children of Israel." a. If you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant: God would soon make a formal covenant with Israel at Mount Sinai. Before He did, He revealed what He wanted to do to for an obedient Israel. i. Before God called Israel to keep His law, He commanded them to "keep My covenant." The covenant was greater than the law itself. The covenant God made with Israel involved law, sacrifice, and the choice to obey and be blessed or to disobey and be cursed. b. Then you shall be a special treasure to Me: God intended for Israel to be a special treasure unto Him. He wanted them to be a people with a unique place in God's great plan, a people of great value and concern to God. It wasn't as if God ignored the rest of the world (for all the earth is mine), but that He was determined to use Israel to reach the earth. i. The Apostle Paul also wanted Christians to know how great a treasure they were to God; he prayed they would know what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints (Ephesians 1:18). ii. "Where his treasure is, there is a man's heart. If it is in ships on the treacherous sea, he tosses restlessly on his bed, solicitous for its safety. If it is in fabrics, he guards against moth; if in metal, against rust and thieves. And is Christ less careful for his own?" (Meyer) c. You shall be to Me a kingdom of priests: God intended for Israel to be a kingdom of priests, where every believer could come before God themselves, and as a group they represented God to the nations. i. "The whole nation was to act as mediators of God's grace to the nations of the earth." (Kaiser) "God's 'particularist' choice of Israel has a wider 'universalist' purpose." (Cole) ii. Peter reminds us we are a royal priesthood (1 Peter 2:9), those who serve God as both kings and priests (and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, Revelation 1:6). d. And a holy nation: God intended for Israel to be a holy nation, a nation and people set apart from the rest of the world, the particular possession of God, fit for His purposes. i. Peter reminds us we are a holy nation, His own special people, that you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light (1 Peter 2:9). As God's people, we must be set apart, thinking and doing differently than the flow of the world in general. 4. (7-9) The people agree to obey the covenant. So Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before them all these words which the LORD commanded him. Then all the people answered together and said, "All that the LORD has spoken we will do." So Moses brought back the words of the people to the LORD. And the LORD said to Moses, "Behold, I come to you in the thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and believe you forever." So Moses told the words of the people to the LORD. a. Laid before them all these words which the LORD commanded him: The people are later challenged to receive the covenant again, after they heard its terms, and they received it again (Exodus 24:1-8). i. Here they said, "All that the LORD has spoken we will do." "Their answer was sincere, but it was ignorant." (Morgan) Later they would say it again, in an even more formal arrangement (Exodus 24:1-8). ii. "Even so with us. We say, 'All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do,' and we fail. But God never fails. He waits and pursues His own way of grace and government." (Morgan) b. Moses brought back the words of the people to the LORD: Moses here acted as a true priest, as an intermediary between God and the people. Yet God spoke audibly to Moses (that the people may hear when I speak with you) so everyone would know that it was really God speaking to Moses. 5. (10-13) God commands that His holy presence on Sinai be respected. Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their clothes. And let them be ready for the third day. For on the third day the LORD will come down upon Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people. You shall set bounds for the people all around, saying, 'Take heed to yourselves that you do not go up to the mountain or touch its base. Whoever touches the mountain shall surely be put to death. Not a hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned or shot with an arrow; whether man or beast, he shall not live.' When the trumpet sounds long, they shall come near the mountain." a. Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow: God was going to appear to Israel in a spectacular way; and before this could happen, the people had to prepare themselves. b. You shall set bounds for the people all around: As God promised to reveal Himself on Sinai He told Israel, Stay away. There were boundaries that could not be crossed. Israel had to keep distance behind a barrier, and the penalty for failing to keep their distance was death (shall surely be put to death). i. Not a hand shall touch him: Any person or animal killed for getting too close would be regarded as so unholy they could not even be touched, they had to be executed with a stones or arrows. ii. If there is anything basic to human nature, it is that we need boundaries. In setting these boundaries and providing the death penalty for breaching them, God showed Israel that obedience is more important than their feelings. We don't doubt that some bold Israelites felt like going beyond the boundaries, but they were to submit their feelings to obedience. c. When the trumpet sounds long: The people could only come near at God's invitation, and the trumpet signaled that the invitation was open. At the sounding of the trumpet they could come up to the boundaries, but not beyond them. 6. (14-15) Commands for ceremonial purity and cleanliness. So Moses went down from the mountain to the people and sanctified the people, and they washed their clothes. And he said to the people, "Be ready for the third day; do not come near your wives." a. Sanctified the people, and they washed their clothes: The people immediately prepared for the revelation of God that was promised for the third day. b. Be ready for the third day: The meeting with God could only come at the third day. God promised to reveal Himself on the third day, and they had to wait for it. c. Do not come near your wives: The rest of the Scriptures do not teach that there is any inherent uncleanness in sexual relations. This command was peculiar for this event. In this situation, God wanted the people to demonstrate their desire for purity by putting on clean clothes and restraining desires, even legitimate desires. i. "Men must come before God with the best preparation they can get." (Trapp) B. God's presence on the mountain. 1. (16-19) God's terrifying presence on Mount Sinai. Then it came to pass on the third day, in the morning, that there were thunderings and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain; and the sound of the trumpet was very loud, so that all the people who were in the camp trembled. And Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. Now Mount Sinai was completely in smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire. Its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. And when the blast of the trumpet sounded long and became louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by voice. a. Thunderings and lightnings, and a thick cloud: These signs of power and glory signaled the presence of God. The whole environment spoke of God's presence in a terrifying sense. b. The sound of the trumpet was very loud: What Israel saw and felt in the thunder, lightning, the cloud, the smoke, and the earthquake was terrifying; but each of these are natural (though frightening) phenomenon. Yet the sound of the trumpet did not come from the camp, but from heaven itself. No wonder that all the people who were in the camp trembled. c. Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God: At the sound of the trumpet, Moses led the people up to the barrier at the base of Mount Sinai, where they could see, smell, hear, and virtually taste the fire which covered the mountain - as well as feel the earth shake under their feet when the whole mountain quaked greatly. d. When the blast of the trumpet sounded long and became louder and louder: In the midst of all this, the sound of the trumpet blast became longer and louder and longer and louder, until Moses spoke to God, and God answered him by voice. Collectively, Israel heard the Lord God speak from Mount Sinai in an audible voice. 2. (20) Moses goes up on Mount Sinai to the immediate presence of God. Then the LORD came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. And the LORD called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. a. Then the LORD came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain: God came in a special presence to Mount Sinai, ready to meet with Moses as a representative of the whole nation of Israel. b. And Moses went up: God came down, and Moses went up. As the people trembled in terror at the foot of the mountain, Moses needed courage to go to the top and meet with God. It took courage for Moses to go up in the midst of all the thunder, lightning, earthquakes, fire, and smoke. i. Yet Moses knew God not only in terms of this awesome power, but also in terms of His gracious kindness. 3. (21-25) God tells Moses to go back down and warn the people again about respecting the holiness of His presence on Sinai. And the LORD said to Moses, "Go down and warn the people, lest they break through to gaze at the LORD, and many of them perish. Also let the priests who come near the LORD consecrate themselves, lest the LORD break out against them." But Moses said to the LORD, "The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai; for You warned us, saying, 'Set bounds around the mountain and consecrate it.'" Then the LORD said to him, "Away! Get down and then come up, you and Aaron with you. But do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to the LORD, lest He break out against them." So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them. a. Go down and warn the people: Those who through rebellion, curiosity, or simple daring presumed to go up on the mountain would perish. The glory and greatness of God wasn't to be a matter subjected to scientific inquiry or a way to prove one's own manhood. b. The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai: Just because God called Moses and Aaron up did not mean there was an open invitation for the whole nation to meet with God on Mount Sinai. c. Do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to the LORD: The whole idea at Sinai was exclusion. Exodus 19 describes the awe and fear each Israelite must have felt at Mount Sinai. It is easy to think that this alone inspired them to a holy lifestyle. i. Many today feel we need to get more of the thunder and fire and trembling of Mount Sinai into people as a way of keeping them from sin. Yet, not forty days from this, the whole nation would have an orgy around a golden calf, praising it as the god that brought them out of Egypt. ii. "Awe is one thing: the submission of the will is another." (Chadwick) Israel had plenty of awe, but little submission of their will. iii. Hebrews 12:18-24 says clearly that under the New Covenant we come to a different mountain, that our salvation and relationship with God is centered at Mount Zion, not Mount Sinai. · Sinai speaks of fear and terror, but Zion speaks of love and forgiveness. · Sinai is in a dry desert, but Zion is the city of the Living God. · Sinai, with all its fear and power is earthly; but the Mount Zion we come to is heavenly and spiritual. · At Sinai, only Moses could come and meet God; at Zion, there is an innumerable company, a general assembly. · Sinai had guilty men in fear, but Zion has just men made perfect. · At Sinai, Moses is the mediator, but at Zion, Jesus the mediator. · Sinai put forth an Old Covenant, ratified by the blood of animals; Zion has a New Covenant, ratified by the blood of God's precious Son. · Sinai was all about barriers and exclusion; Zion is all about invitation. · Sinai is all about Law, Zion is all about grace. iv. Therefore, we shouldn't come to Zion as if coming to Sinai. We must put away our hesitation and get bold in coming to God. Even so, there is much for us to learn at Mount Sinai. We learn of God's holy requirements and what we have to do before we can come to Him. In a similar manner to those at Mount Sinai, there are things we must to do meet with God. · We must receive God's word · We must be set apart · We must be cleansed · We can only come after the third day · We must respect God's boundary · We must restrain the flesh · We must know we come to a holy God v. "Reader, art thou still under the influence and condemning power of that fiery law which proceeded from his right hand? Art though yet afar off? Remember, thou canst only come nigh by the blood of sprinkling; and till justified by his blood, thou are under the curse. Consider the terrible majesty of God. If thou have his favour thou hast life; if his frown, death. Be instantly reconciled to God, for though thou hast deeply sinned, and he is just, yet he is the justifier of him that believeth in Christ Jesus. Believe on him, receive his salvation; OBEY his voice indeed, and KEEP his covenant, and THEN shalt thou be a king and a priest unto God and the Lamb, and be finally saved with all the power of an endless life. Amen." (Clarke) Exodus 20 - The Ten Commandments A. Four commandments regarding our conduct before God. 1. (1) Preface to the Ten Commandments. And God spoke all these words, saying: a. And God spoke: It is proper to believe that God spoke these words to Israel as a whole, as they assembled together at the foot of Mount Sinai. There, God answered him [Moses] by voice (Exodus 19:19), as Moses stood among the people at the foot of Mount Sinai. i. "These commandments were after all addressed to the ordinary Israelite, not to the religious elite of the day: they are expressed in strong simple terms, understandable to all, and deal with the temptations of the common man, not of the theologian." (Cole) ii. After this, the people asked that God not speak with them directly, and that Moses be the messenger (Exodus 20:18-19). After this, Moses went back up the mountain to receive more revelation from God for the people (Exodus 20:21). iii. In reading and thinking through these commandments, it should be always remembered that Israel first heard these commands spoken by God from heaven in an audible voice. This made the strongest, most authoritative impression upon the people possible. b. God spoke all these words: The following laws were not invented at Mount Sinai. A few aspects of the Mosaic Law show new revelation, but for the most part it simply clearly and definitely lays out God's law as it was written in the heart of man since the time of Adam. i. "It is wrong to steal, or murder, or covet, not primarily because these sins are forbidden by the Decalogue. They are forbidden by the Decalogue, because they were previously forbidden by conscience; and they are forbidden by conscience because they are forbidden by the nature of things; and the nature of things is God." (Meyer) ii. "It has been well said that the commandments are God's nature expressed in terms of moral imperatives." (Cole) iii. In his book The Abolition of Man, C.S. Lewis explained how there certainly is a universal morality among men. He gave concrete examples of how all cultures in the past were able to agree on the basics of morality because these principles are implanted in the heart and mind of mankind. iv. All cultures have said murder is wrong, and kindness is good. All agree that we have particular obligations to our family. All say that honesty is good and that a man cannot have any woman he wants. They agree that stealing is wrong and that justice is good. There are no cultures where cowardice is good and bravery is bad. c. God spoke all these words: This God-based moral code set the God of Israel - the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob - apart from the commonly worshipped gods of the pagan world at that time. They were often just as immoral or more immoral than their human followers. i. The God-based moral code also established that this people, this nation of Israel belonged to God and not to Moses. This wasn't Moses' law (though we often casually refer to it as such). Rather, God spoke all these words, and Moses nor any other man was never to think of himself our allow others to think of him as above the law. God was above all, and His law was and is the expression of His will. ii. The Code of Hammurabi is another well-known set of laws and principles from this same approximate period. There are some similarities between the Ten Commandments/Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi, but the differences are even more profound. While Hammurabi mentions the gods of Babylon, the emphasis is clearly on him as the king and lawgiver (with divine authority, of course). The Code of Hammurabi begins with page after page of how wonderful Hammurabi is and how much he has accomplished. Hammurabi is clearly above his own law, since he was the embodiment of the law. Not so with Moses; the emphasis is clear: God spoke all these words, and no man is above the law. d. God spoke all these words: We need God to morally instruct and guide us. Though these principles resonate with the human conscience (both individually and collectively), they are certainly not the only influence upon our thinking and behavior. We need to know that there is a God in heaven who expects certain moral behavior and that there are consequences from obeying or disobeying these commands. i. The Ten Commandments (and all of the Law of Moses that follows) is a God-based moral code. It doesn't just say that certain behavior is unwise or unhelpful; it says that God commands us to do or not do certain things, and it either says or implies that: · God sees our obedience or disobedience. · God measures our obedience or disobedience. · God, in some way, rewards our obedience and punishes our disobedience. ii. Without a God-based moral code, it is difficult or impossible to answer the question "Why?" in response to any moral demand. iii. The idea of a God-based moral code seems to become less and less popular. While the idea of a moral code remains strong, the tendency grows that the moral code should be based on an individual's inner sense of right or wrong, good or bad - and not upon a standard set by God. iv. There is a persistent impulse to make one's own moral code, apart from God or His revelation. In the late 1980s, media mogul Ted Turner suggested replacing the Ten Commandments with his own "10 Voluntary Initiatives." Mr. Turner's list is conspicuous in its failure to mention God or religion in any way. These were Mr. Turner's Voluntary Initiatives: 1. I promise to have love and respect for the planet earth and living things thereon, especially my fellow species--humankind. 2. I promise to treat all persons everywhere with dignity, respect, and friendliness. 3. I promise to have no more than two children, or no more than my nation suggests. 4. I promise to use my best efforts to save what is left of our natural world in its untouched state and to restore damaged or destroyed areas where practical. 5. I pledge to use as little nonrenewable resources as possible. 6. I pledge to use as little toxic chemicals, pesticides, and other poisons as possible and to work for their reduction by others. 7. I promise to contribute to those less fortunate than myself, to help them become self-sufficient and enjoy the benefits of a decent life, including clean air and water, adequate food and health care, housing, education, and individual rights. 8. I reject the use of force, in particular military force, and back United Nations arbitration of international disputes. 9. I support the total elimination of all nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons of mass destruction. 10. I support the United Nations and its efforts to collectively improve the conditions of the planet. e. God spoke all these words: The Bible tells us that the law is holy, just, and good (Romans 7:12). It tells us that every good and perfect gift comes from God (James 1:17). These commandments are good gifts that came to Israel and humanity at Mount Sinai. The Ten Commandments are good because: · They show the wise moral guidance and government of God. · They answer the need of mankind for moral guidance and government. · They give us a way to teach morality. · They would make the world so much better if obeyed. · They are good for all humanity; some of the Law of Moses is specific unto Israel, but the Ten Commandments are universal. · They are good when they are promoted and held as ideals, even when they are not perfectly obeyed. i. "The 'ten words' are at once the beginning and the heart of the Mosaic revelation." (Cole) f. God spoke all these words: It is important for us to know, understand, receive, and obey all of these commandments in a fully Biblical perspective, also taking into account what the rest of the Book of Exodus the New Testament also tells us about the law of God. i. The Ten Commandments were never given with the thought that one might earn heaven by obeying them all perfectly or adequately. The covenant God made with Israel at Mount Sinai was much bigger than the law, though that was its first and perhaps most dramatic aspect. Another aspect of the covenant was sacrifice, which was given because both God and Israel knew that it was impossible for them to keep this law perfectly, and they must depend on the sacrifice of an innocent victim as a substitute for the guilty law-breaker. In this sense, the Ten Commandments were like a mirror that showed Israel their need for sacrifice. ii. These Ten Commandments can also be summarized as Jesus did in Matthew 22:35-40: Then one of them, a lawyer, asked Him a question, testing Him, and saying, "Teacher, which is the great commandment in the law?" Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.' This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets." This simplification doesn't eliminate the Ten Commandments; it fulfills them, showing us the heart and desire of God for His people. The problem is that we haven't kept the two commandments either, much less the ten. iii. More importantly, we know that Jesus Himself was the only one to ever keep the law perfectly - either in the ten or the two. He never needed to sacrifice for His own sin, so could be the perfect sacrifice for our sin. Wonderfully, His obedience is credited to those who put their love and trust in Him. Romans 8:2-3 puts it this way: For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh, that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. This is God's amazing promise to those who repent and believe on Jesus. iv. The law is a schoolmaster to us (Galatians 3:22-25). Before God's plan of salvation in Jesus Christ was fully evident, we were kept under guard by the law - both in the sense of being bound by the law, but also held in protective custody. The law, through its revelation of God's character and its exposure of our sin, prepares us to come to Jesus - but after we have come, we no longer have to live under our tutor (though we remember the behavior he has taught us). v. From the perspective of the entire Bible, we can say that the law of God has three great purposes and uses: · It is a guardrail, keeping humanity on a moral path. · It is a mirror, showing us our moral failure and need for a savior. · It is a guide, showing us the heart and desire of God for His people. vi. "The great message of the Christian faith is, therefore, that we are free from the Law's condemnation in order that we may be able to fulfill its obligation by the power of [Jesus] within us." (Redpath) vii. "My obedience therefore is not legal, but inspired by love and empowered by God's Holy Spirit. Does New Testament grace allow a lower standard than Old Testament law? The standard under grace is higher." (Redpath) viii. The Ten Commandments are often organized into two groups. The first four focus on our conduct toward God, and the next six on our conduct toward one another. 2. (2-3) The first commandment: no other gods before Me. "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before Me." a. I am the LORD your God: In the ancient world (including Egypt), men worshipped many gods. Here Yahweh (the LORD), the covenant God of Israel, set Himself apart from any of the other supposed deities. i. In these first few words, God both reminded and taught Israel essential facts or principles about who He is, about His nature. · God is above nature; He is not merely the personification of fire, or the wind, or the sun, or the sky, or any other created thing. · God is personal; He is not a depersonalized force; He relates with and communicates to man in an understandable way. God has a mind, a will, a voice, and so forth. · God is good; He had done good for Israel and now does good for them in giving these commands, the keeping of which not only pleases Him, but is genuinely best for humanity. · God is holy; He is different than the supposed gods of the pagans, and He therefore also expects His people to be different. ii. It seems that the structure of these commands and covenant were familiar in the ancient world. "Most scholars point to the similarity between this historical prologue (followed by its stipulations, witnesses, and provisions for succession) and the great suzerain-vassal treaty forms of the ancient Near East." (Kaiser) b. Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage: Before God commanded anything of Israel He reminded them what He had done for them. This was a clear foundation: because of who God is, and what He has done for us, He has the right to tell us what to do - and we have the obligation to obey Him. i. "God did not promulgate a code of laws for the children of Israel, while they were in bondage, telling them that if they would obey it, He would deliver them. He brought them out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, and then gave them His law." (Morgan) ii. "God's blessings are binders; every deliverance is a tie to obedience." (Trapp) c. You shall have no other gods before Me: The first commandment logically flowed from understanding who God was and what He had done for Israel. Because of that, nothing was to come before God and He was the only God we worship and serve. i. In the days of ancient Israel, there was great temptation to worship the gods of materialism (such as Baal, the god of weather and financial success) and sex (such as Ashtoreth, the goddess of sex, romance, and reproduction), or any number of other local deities. We are tempted to worship the same gods, but without the old-fashioned names and images. ii. It has been said (perhaps first by John Calvin) that human nature is like an idol factory that operates constantly. We constantly deal with the temptation to set all kinds of things before or competing with God and His preeminent place in our life. d. No other gods before Me: This does not imply that it is permissible to have other gods, as long as they line up behind the true God. Instead the idea is that there are to be no other gods before the sight of the true God in our life. According to Cole, before Me is literally, To My face. i. This means God demands to be more than added to our lives. We don't just add Jesus to the life we already have. We must give Him all our life. ii. Failure to obey this commandment is called idolatry. We are to flee idolatry (1 Corinthians 10:14). Those lives marked by habitual idolatry will not inherit the kingdom of God (1 Corinthians 6:9-10, Ephesians 5:5, Revelation 21:8, 22:15). Idolatry is a work of the flesh (Galatians 5:19-20), which marks our old life instead of the new (1 Peter 4:3), and we are not to associate with those who call themselves Christians who are idolaters (1 Corinthians 5:11). 3. (4-6) The second commandment: You shall not make for yourself any carved image…you shall not bow down to them. "You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve them. For I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me, but showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments." a. You shall not make for yourself a carved image: The second commandment prohibited not only idolatry regarding false gods (overlapping with the first commandment), it also forbids with making an image of any created thing that we might worship (you shall not bow down to them nor serve them). i. Some take this command to prohibit any kind of representation of God, such as with a painting of Jesus or a picture of a dove to represent the Holy Spirit, or any other representation. However, others emphasize that the prohibition is actually in the making of an image that would be or would likely be worshipped (you shall not bow down to them nor serve them). ii. Speaking later of Israel's experience at Sinai, Moses wrote: And the LORD spoke to you out of the midst of the fire. You heard the sound of the words, but saw no form; you only heard a voice (Deuteronomy 4:12). This established the principle that the worship of God was to be word-based and not image-based. b. Or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath: In that day as well as in our own, worship was tied closely with images - idealized images, or even images in the mind of man. God will not allow us to depict Him with any such image, nor replace Him with another image. i. The second commandment doesn't forbid making an image of something for artistic purposes; God Himself commanded Israel make images of cherubim (Exodus 25:18, 26:31). It forbids the making of images as an aid or help to worship. "If the making of cherubim was permitted, then the prohibition of the 'image' will refer only to the making of direct objects of worship." (Cole) ii. "To countenance its image worship, the Roman Catholic Church has left the whole of this second commandment out of the decalogue, and thus lost one whole commandment out of the ten; but to keep up the number they have divided the tenth into two." (Clarke) iii. In John 4:24 Jesus explained the rationale behind the second commandment: God is Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth. The use of images and other material things as a focus or help to worship denies who God is (Spirit) and how we must worship Him (in spirit and truth). iv. Paul reminded us of the danger and futility of trying to make God into our own image: Professing to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man; and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things. (Romans 1:22-23) c. For I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God: God is jealous in the sense that He will not accept being merely added to the life; He insists on being supreme, and does this out of love. i. "God's jealousy is love in action. He refuses to share the human heart with any rival, not because He is selfish and wants us all for Himself, but because He knows that upon that loyalty to Him depends our very moral life…God is not jealous of us: He is jealous for us." (Redpath) ii. " 'Zealous' might be a better translation in modern English, since 'jealousy' has acquired an exclusively bad meaning." (Cole) d. Visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me: This does not mean God punishes people directly for the sins of their ancestors. The important words are of those who hate Me. If the descendants love God, they will not have the iniquity of the fathers visited on them. i. "'This necessarily implies - IF the children walk in the steps of their fathers; for no man can be condemned by Divine justice for a crime of which he was never guilty." (Clarke) ii. "Children who repeat the sins of their father evidence it in personally hating god; hence they too are punished like their fathers." (Kaiser) iii. Yet, the focus here is on idolatry, and this refers to judgment on a national scale - nations that forsake the LORD will be judged, and that judgment will have effects throughout generations. e. But showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments: It's possible for everyone to receive God's mercy; if they will only turn to Him in love and obedience. 4. (7) The third commandment: You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain. "You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain." a. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain: There are at least three ways this command is commonly disobeyed. · Profanity: Using the name of God in blasphemy and cursing. · Frivolity: Using the name of God in a superficial, stupid way. · Hypocrisy: Claiming the name of God but acting in a way that disgraces Him i. Jesus communicated the idea of this command in the disciples' prayer, when He taught us to have a regard for the holiness of God's name (Hallowed be Your name, Matthew 6:9). b. For the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain: The strength of this command has led to strange traditions among the Jewish people. Some go to extreme measures to avoid violating this command, refusing to even write out the word God, in the fear that the paper might be destroyed and the name of God be written in vain. 5. (8-11) The fourth commandment: Remember the Sabbath day. "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God. In it you shall do no work: you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates. For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it." a. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy: The command is to respect the seventh day (Saturday) as a day of rest (you shall do no work). This rest was for all of Israel - for the son and the servant and the stranger - even including cattle. i. This is an important principle that might be too easily passed over. Here God declared the essential humanity and dignity of women, slaves, and strangers, and said they had the same right to a day of rest as the free Israeli man. This was certainly a radical concept in the ancient world. ii. "The baser sort of people in Sweden do always break the Sabbath, saying that it is for gentlemen to keep that day." (Trapp) b. To keep it holy: God commanded Israel - and all humanity - to make sure that there was sacred time in their life, separated time of rest. i. In their traditions, the Jewish people came to carefully quantify what they thought could and could not be done on the Sabbath day, in order to keep it holy. For example, in Luke 6:1-2, in the mind of the Jewish leaders, the disciples were guilty of four violations of the Sabbath every time they took a bite of grain out in the field, because they reaped, threshed, winnowed, and prepared food. ii. Ancient Rabbis taught that on the Sabbath, a man could not carry something in his right hand or in his left hand, across his chest or on his shoulder. But he could carry something with the back of his hand, his foot, his elbow, or in his ear, his hair, or in the hem of his shirt, or in his shoe or sandal. Or on the Sabbath Israelites were forbidden to tie a knot - except, a woman could tie a knot in her girdle. So, if a bucket of water had to be raised from a well, an Israelite could not tie a rope to the bucket, but a woman could tie her girdle to the bucket and pull it up from the well. iii. In observant Jewish homes today, one cannot turn on a light, a stove, or a switch on the Sabbath. It is forbidden to drive a certain distance or to make a telephone call - all carefully regulated by traditions seeking to spell out the law exactly. c. For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth: God established the pattern for the Sabbath at the time of creation. When He rested from His works on the seventh day, God made the seventh day a day of rest from all our works (Genesis 2:3). It's as if God said, Having too much to do isn't an excuse from taking the rest you need - I created the universe and found time to rest from My work. i. When God told them to remember the Sabbath, He told them to remember the rest. "The term 'Sabbath' is derived from the Hebrew verb 'to rest or cease from work.'" (Kaiser) The most important purpose of the Sabbath was to serve as a preview picture of the rest we have in Jesus. ii. Like everything in the Bible, we understand this with the perspective of the whole Bible, not this single passage. With this understanding, we see that there is a real sense in which Jesus fulfilled the purpose and plan of the Sabbath for us and in us (Hebrews 4:9-11) - He is our rest, when we remember His finished work we remember the Sabbath, we remember the rest. iii. Therefore, the whole of Scripture makes it clear that under the New Covenant, no one is under obligation to observe a Sabbath day (Colossians 2:16-17 and Galatians 4:9-11). Galatians 4:10 tells us that Christians are not bound to observe days and months and seasons and years. The rest we enter into as Christians is something to experience every day, not just one day a week - the rest of knowing we don't have to work to save ourselves, but our salvation is accomplished in Jesus (Hebrews 4:9-10). iv. The Sabbath commanded here and observed by Israel was a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ (Colossians 2:16-17). In the New Covenant the idea isn't that there is no Sabbath, but that every day is a day of Sabbath rest in the finished work of God. Since the shadow of the Sabbath is fulfilled in Jesus, we are free to keep any particular day - or no day - as a Sabbath after the custom of ancient Israel. v. Yet we dare not ignore the importance of a day of rest - God has built us so that we need one. Like a car that needs regular maintenance, we need regular rest - or we will not wear well. Some people are like high mileage cars that haven't been maintained well, and it shows. vi. Some Christians are also dogmatic about observing Saturday as the Sabbath as opposed to Sunday. But because we are free to regard all days as given by God, it makes no difference. But in some ways, Sunday is more appropriate; being the day Jesus rose from the dead (Mark 16:9), and first met with His disciples (John 20:19), and a day when Christians gathered for fellowship (Acts 20:7 and 1 Corinthians 16:2). Under Law, men worked towards God's rest; but after Jesus' finished work on the cross, the believer enters into rest and goes from that rest out to work. vii. But we are also commanded to work six days. "He who idles his time away in the six days is equally culpable in the sight of God as he who works on the seventh." (Clarke) Many Christians should give more "leisure time" to the work of the LORD. Every Christian should have a deliberate way to serve God and advance the Kingdom of Jesus Christ. B. Six commandments regarding our conduct before God and man. 1. (12) The fifth commandment: Honor your father and your mother. "Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long upon the land which the LORD your God is giving you." a. Honor your father and your mother: This command is wise and good, because honor for parents is an essential building block for the stability and health of all society. If the younger generations are constantly at war with older generations, the foundations of society will be destroyed. i. To honor one's parents includes to prize them, to care for them, and to show respect or reverence to them. The command is given to children, but not for only while they are children. "This is not a popular doctrine in our modern world, where youth is worshipped, and old age dreaded or despised. The result is the folly by which men or women strive to remain eternally youthful, only to find it an impossible task." (Cole) ii. Jesus used the way the Pharisees interpreted this commandment as an example of how one might keep the law with a limited interpretation yet violate the spirit of the commandment (Matthew 15:3-6). b. That your days may be long: In Ephesians 6:2 Paul repeated this command, emphasizing the promise stated here, that your days may be long upon the land. Rebellion is costly, and many have paid a high price personally for their rebellion against their parents. i. "A good child lengtheneth his father's days; therefore God promiseth to lengthen his." (Trapp) 2. (13) The sixth commandment: You shall not murder. "You shall not murder." a. You shall not murder: In Hebrew as well as in English there is a distinction between to kill and to murder. As opposed to killing, murder is the taking of life without legal justification (execution after due process) or moral justification (killing in defense). i. "Only two words are used in Hebrew, as blunt as the order 'no killing' would be in English." (Cole) ii. Kaiser on rasah: "Hebrew possesses seven words for killing…If any one of the seven words could signify 'murder,' where factors of premeditation and intentionality are present, this is the verb." (Kaiser) iii. This important distinction explains how someone can quite consistently argue for the principle of capital punishment and the prohibition of murder. When carried out properly, capital punishment is killing with legal justification. b. You shall not murder: Jesus carefully explained the heart of this commandment. He showed that it also prohibits us from hating someone else (Matthew 5:21-26), because we can wish someone dead in our hearts, yet never have the nerve to commit the deed. Someone may not kill from a lack of courage or initiative, yet his or her heart is filled with hatred. 3. (14) The seventh commandment: You shall not commit adultery. "You shall not commit adultery." a. You shall not commit adultery: Clearly, the act itself is condemned. God allows no justification for the ways that many often seek to justify extra-marital sex. It is not to be done, and when it is done it is sin and it damages. i. "For a man to have intercourse with another man's wife was considered as heinous sin against God as well as man, long before the law, in patriarchal times (Genesis 39:9)." (Cole) ii. Because there are different punishments for adultery (Deuteronomy 22:22) and the seduction of a virgin woman (Exodus 22:16-17, Deuteronomy 22:23-29), adultery is distinguished from pre-marital sex in the Old Testament. Each is wrong, but wrong in sometimes-different ways. iii. Some years ago there was a Christian music industry singer named Michael English. He lost his recording contract and marriage over adultery with another Christian singer. Afterward he said of his adultery and its aftermath: "Maybe God allowed this to happen to make me see I needed some freedom." No! b. You shall not commit adultery: The New Testament clearly condemns adultery: Now the works of the flesh are evident, which are: adultery, fornication uncleanness, licentiousness…(Galatians 5:19). The act is condemned, but not only the act itself. i. More than the act itself, Jesus carefully explained the heart of this commandment. It prohibits us from looking at a woman to lust for her, where we commit adultery in our heart or mind, yet may not have the courage or opportunity to do the act (Matthew 5:27-30). We aren't innocent just because we didn't have the opportunity to sin the way we really want to. ii. "As to the word adultery, adulterium, it has probably been derived from the words ad alterius torum, to another's bed; for it is going to the bed of another man that constitutes the act and the crime." (Clarke) 4. (15) The eighth commandment: You shall not steal. "You shall not steal." a. Not steal: This command is another important foundation for human society, establishing the right to personal property. God has clearly entrusted certain possessions to certain individuals, and other people or states are not permitted to take that property without due process of law. b. Not steal: We can also steal from God. Of course, this demands we honor God with our financial resources, so we are not guilty of robbing Him (Malachi 3:8-10). But we can also rob God by refusing to give Him ourselves for obedience and His service, because He bought us and owns us: knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold…but with the precious blood of Christ (1 Peter 1:18-19) i. 1 Corinthians 6:20 gives the same idea: For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. c. Not steal: Ephesians 4:28 gives the solution to stealing. Let him who stole steal no longer, but rather let him labor, working with his hands what is good, that he may have something to give him who has need. 5. (16) The ninth commandment: You shall not bear false witness. "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor." a. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor: The primary sense of this command has to do with the legal process. Yet it is common to speak in an informal court, where what we say is taken seriously and truth or error matters for us and for others. i. In an extended sense, we can break the ninth commandment through slander, tale bearing, creating false impressions, by silence, by questioning the motives behind someone's actions, or even by flattery. ii. "Slander…is a lie invented and spread with intent to do harm. That is the worst form of injury a person can do to another. Compared to one who does this, a gangster is a gentleman, and a murderer is kind, because he ends life in a moment with a stroke and with little pain. But the man guilty of slander ruins a reputation which may never be regained, and causes lifelong suffering." (Redpath) iii. "Talebearing…is repeating a report about a person without careful investigation. Many, many times I have known what it is to suffer with that. To repeat a story which brings discredit and dishonor to another person without making sure of the facts, is breaking this commandment…How many people, especially Christian people, revel in this, and delight in working havoc by telling tales about others. To excuse the action by saying they believed the report to be true, or that there was no intention to malign, is no justification." (Redpath) iv. Inappropriate silence may also break this command. "When someone utters a falsity about another and a third person is present who knows that statement to be untrue but, for reasons of fear or being disliked, remains quiet, that third person is as guilty of breaking this law as if he had told a lie." (Redpath) v. "Neither bear it, nor hear it; raise, nor receive wrong reports of another; [do not] make a lie, nor love it when it is made." (Trapp) b. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor: The New Testament puts it simply. Do not lie to one another, since you have put off the old man with his deeds (Colossians 3:9). Lying and false representations belong to the old man, not to the new life we have in Jesus. i. "How very strange that we have ever come to think that Christian maturity is shown by the ability to speak our minds, whereas it is really expressed in controlling our tongues." (Redpath) ii. "What a startling revelation it would be if a tape recording could be played of all that every church member has said about his fellow members in one week!" (Redpath) iii. Satan is always there to encourage a lie (John 8:44; Acts 5:3); and Jesus Himself was the victim of false witness (Mark 14:57); in some ways, we might say this was the sin that sent Jesus to the cross. 6. (17) The tenth commandment: You shall not covet. "You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor's." a. You shall not covet: All the first nine commands focus more on things we do; the tenth deals straight with the heart and its desires. i. Literally, the word for covet here means, to pant after. "Hebrew hamad, 'desire', is in itself a neutral word. It is only when misdirected to that which belongs to another that such 'desire' becomes wrong." (Cole) ii. Covetousness works like this: the eyes look upon an object, the mind admires it, the will goes over to it, and the body moves in to possess it. Just because you have not taken the final step does not mean you are not in the process of coveting right now. b. Your neighbor's house…wife…ox…donkey: Covetousness can be expressed towards all sorts of things; it is the itch to have and to possess what someone else has. It speaks of a dissatisfaction with what we have, and a jealously towards those who have something better. i. Hebrews 13:5 puts it well: Let your conduct be without covetousness; be content with such things as you have. For He Himself has said, "I will never leave you nor forsake you." ii. This last commandment is closely connected with the first commandment against idolatry: For this you know, that no… covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God (Ephesians 5:5). iii. Jesus gave a special warning about covetousness, which explained the core philosophy of the covetous heart: And He said to them, "Take heed and beware of covetousness, for one's life does not consist in the abundance of the things he possesses." (Luke 12:15) C. The nation's great fear of the presence of God. 1. (18) The people stand afar off. Now all the people witnessed the thunderings, the lightning flashes, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood afar off. a. All the people witnessed the thunderings, the lightning: Awesome sights and sounds came from Mount Sinai together with the speaking of the law. All of the phenomenon together made for an overwhelming scene. i. Lightning flashes: "The word here is unusual and might be translated 'torches', meaning 'flashes' or 'fireballs'. This is the same word used for the symbol of God's presence that Abraham sees at the making of God's covenant with him (Genesis 15)." (Cole) ii. The mountain smoking: Deuteronomy 5:23 explains why the mountain smoked; it says the mountain was burning with fire. b. They trembled and stood afar off: The awe of all the phenomenon did nothing to draw the people closer to God; it only made them stand afar off. 2. (19) The request of the people. Then they said to Moses, "You speak with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die." a. Let not God speak with us: One might think that Israel loved the dramatic experience at Mount Sinai, and especially the honor of hearing God's voice like a loudspeaker from heaven. Instead, because of the great awe and dread they felt, they wanted God to stop speaking to them directly. i. Biblically speaking, an up-close encounter with God could just as often be troubling as it might be comforting. Israel could not see, feel, and hear this much from God and not at the same time be acutely aware that He is perfect and holy and they were not. ii. This is a typical reaction of those who came into the presence of God, such as Isaiah who felt undone before God (Isaiah 6:1-5) and John who fell as a dead man before the Lord (Revelation 1:17). iii. "What Israel dreaded, Moses coveted (Exodus 33:18)." (Cole) b. You speak with us, and we will hear: The people promised to hear and (by implication) obey the word of God that came to them by Moses. They failed in this promise, both soon after this and in the longer term. i. In following generations, Israel interpreted the law downward so it could be more easily obeyed, removing the heart and intent of the law. Jesus exposed this shallow understanding of the law in His Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:17-48). This progressed to the point where Saul of Tarsus could say and mean of himself, concerning the righteousness which is in the law, [I was counted] blameless (Philippians 3:6). c. Let not God speak with us, lest we die: In drawing back from direct dealing with God, Israel wanted Moses to be their mediator, fearing death if they did not have a mediator. i. Man's desire for a mediator - someone to act as a go-between with us a God - is only good if it is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, for there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus (1 Timothy 2:5). 3. (20) The purpose for this fear. And Moses said to the people, "Do not fear; for God has come to test you, and that His fear may be before you, so that you may not sin." a. Do not fear; for God has come to test you: The people of Israel wanted to separate themselves from the manifest presence of God, but God meant it for good to test them. · The test revealed to them what kind of God they served: a God above nature, personal, good, and holy. · The test revealed to them what God's expectations were, that God is a moral God who expects moral behavior from His people. · The test revealed to them their own weakness and need for God's grace, help, and rescue. b. That His fear may be before you: This distinguishes between two kinds of fear. Do not fear speaks of the tormenting fear that comes from both guilt and danger. That His fear may be before you speaks of the attitude of honor and reverence that leads to respect and obedience. i. "Fear not. And yet fear." (Trapp) ii. Though it is better to obey God out of fear than to disobey Him, God's ultimate motivation for obedience is love. This is clear from 1 John 4:18-19: There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear involves torment. But he who fears has not been made perfect in love. We love Him because He first loved us. c. So that you may not sin: Israel did not learn this lesson well. In approximately 40 days they danced around a gold calf with both idolatry and immorality (Exodus 32).

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