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1. Free Indeed 2014 // Session 1

Free Indeed 2014 // Session 1

The opening session for a Harvest-wide Ontario men's conference, Free Indeed.


2. Free Indeed 2018 // Session 1

Free Indeed 2018 // Session 1

Paul Tripp


3. Free Indeed 2015 // Session 1

Free Indeed 2015 // Session 1

Breaking Free from Religion // Jeff Schwarzentraub


4. Free Indeed 2017 // Session 1

Free Indeed 2017 // Session 1

Vance Pitman


5. Free Indeed // Session 1

Free Indeed // Session 1

Harvest Bible Chapel Oakville sign language interpreting ministry. This is the opening session for a Harvest wide men's conference for Ontario. The sign language interpreting ministry can be experienced live during our 11:15am service every Sunday. Visit harvestoakville.ca to find out more.


6. Free Indeed 2019 // Session 1

Free Indeed 2019 // Session 1

Pastor Ted Duncan


7. Free Indeed 2017 // Session 1


8. (1970) hippies vs. reality part 1

  • Published: 2011-02-12T00:07:26+00:00
  • Duration: 219
  • By overgroun
(1970) hippies vs. reality part 1

part 2: http://vimeo.com/24453374 The hippie footage was filmed at The Isle of Wight music festival in 1970. read more about the festival here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isle_of_Wight_Festival_1970 Also included: Schoolhouse Rock: Interplanet Janet Dance session vol. 2 ReAnimated Audio Visual Entertainment clips from 1950s TV music is part of a mix by Trafik. You can download the entire DJ set for free here: http://hybridized.org/sets/454 Track mixed is Psycorps - "Echoes (Petter's Airguitar Mix)" The Isle of Wight Festival is a music festival which takes place annually on the Isle of Wight, England. It was originally held from 1968 to 1970, the venues being Ford Farm (near Godshill), Wootton and Afton Down (near Freshwater) respectively. The 1970 event was by far the largest and most famous of these early festivals; indeed it was said at the time to be one of the largest human gatherings in the world, surpassing the attendance at Woodstock. Included in the line-up of over fifty performers were The Who, Jimi Hendrix, Miles Davis, The Doors, Ten Years After, Emerson Lake and Palmer, Joni Mitchell, The Moody Blues, Melanie, Donovan, Free, Chicago, Richie Havens, John Sebastian, Leonard Cohen, Jethro Tull, Taste and Tiny Tim. The unexpectedly high attendance levels (mostly non-tickets holders - tickets for the four days cost £3) meant that local authorities and the festival organizers could not supply adequate amenities and guarantee public safety for all in attendance. Such concerns led, in 1971, to Parliament passing the "Isle of Wight Act" preventing gatherings of more than 5,000 people on the island without a special licence. The 1970 festival was filmed by a professional film crew directed by Murray Lerner, but the footage wasn't released until 2003 when a television documentary was made. A DVD was released in 2005 entitled "A Message to Love: The Isle of wight Rock Festival 1970." [1] A number of the performances by individual bands have also been released. The event was revived in 2002 at Seaclose Park, a recreation ground on the outskirts of Newport. It has been held annually since that year, progressively extending itself northwards beyond Seaclose Park along the fields of the eastern Medina valley. Many notable artists have performed since its revival including The Rolling Stones, Muse, Donovan, Ray Davies, Robert Plant, David Bowie, Manic Street Preachers, The Who, R.E.M., Coldplay, The Proclaimers, Bryan Adams and The Police. It was sponsored by Nokia from 2004 to 2006. The promoters of the event now are Solo Music Agency and promotions. Apart from being held somewhere on the Isle of Wight, and featuring the now customary artwork of Dave Roe, there is no connection with the festivals of 1968–1970. www.facebook.com/overgroun


9. The Humidity Session: Friday Night Florida Bouldering (The Clean Version 8/22/11) Duration: 6:45

  • Published: 2011-07-28T19:25:44+00:00
  • Duration: 405
  • By Wes Walker
The Humidity Session: Friday Night Florida Bouldering (The Clean Version 8/22/11) Duration: 6:45

[ The Clean Version update of 8/22/11...Removed a few interview sections (was poor sound quality) ;) added some footage of Harrison Lane, Jake Lane (gettin' strooong!), and Mr. Lane (one cool dad!). Also added some slacklining in a lighting storm! Should have used the last 5 minutes (The jammin' part) of Lynyrd Skynyrd's song entitled "FREEBIRD" ] The Inaugural Glidetrack experiment: After much research, I decided to drop $350 bones on a Glidetrack SD Shooter. It arrived in the mail on a Friday evening, as I was on my out out the door to a Friday night bouldering session at Harrison's garage. I planned on coming back to the house later that night to start experimenting. Just as I got in my truck, I realized that a bouldering session would be a fun experimental "first trial" with the Glidetrack. I ripped it open, bypassed the instructions, and threw it in the truck. Link for Glidetrack Sd Shooter product review: http://vimeo.com/7404769 THE RIG: Canon 5D Mark II DSLR, Canon 24-105 mm lens, Canon EF 15 mm f/2.8 Fisheye lens, Flashpoint CF Tripod F1328, Giottos Pro Ball Head, Glidetrack Shooter SD (39 inch), Flashpoint 160 LED dimmer light...and most importantly, my beloved headlight. Edited in Final Cut Pro X, which went on the market last month...Despite all the fussing and complaining from the old school, it's quite the revolutionary video editing program. Indeed, "iMovie on steroids." THE LOCATION: The back wall of Harrison & Jake's garage. Fruit Cove, Florida (South of Jacksonville) THE DATE: Friday, July 22nd, 2011. 9:00 pm- 2:00 am-ish THE LINEUP: The best climbing coach ever --> Artie Littlefield, Joe Py, Katrin Bell, Jeff Barnard, Jake Lane, Harrison Lane, Mr. Lane, Jonathan Kalantar, and Florida's finest: Kevin Kalantar... (Kevin is one of the strongest climbers I've ever crossed paths with. He's only 17, only been able to climb real rock a few times, and already sending V12 in highschool. Big things to come in the future!) A Florida garage, 100 degree temps, negative friction, midnight mosquitoes, 1 giant box fan, 1 female & 8 dudes, and a radio permanently stuck on a Southern Rock station....THE ABSOLUTE EPITOME OF STOKED. I am constantly amazed at how a piece of plywood with some weird plastic shapes screwed into it can keep a group of hungry climbers fixated for hours and hours on end Props to the Jacksonville climbing community. A tight-knit group of righteous individuals. And they (we) don't just settle for the mundane life inside a gym. Mention an 8 hour roadtrip to touch real rock for two days, and they (we) will drive through the night to meet you...(although, I might get there a little later than anticipated ;) TUNES (in line-up order) 1. Pretty Lights - Finally Moving (James Brown remix) from the new release entitled "Unreleased 2010 Remixes" ....Never heard of Pretty Lights? Enhance your life now and click on the link below to download his albums directly from his website... FREE: http://prettylightsmusic.com/#/downloads 2. Emancipator - Old Devil(Kept Blue Remix) Album: Emancipator Remixes. I liked this guy when I heard his original album entitled "Soon It Will Be Cold Enough"....decent enough....but, his Remixes album is a cut above the rest...quality. 3. Emancipator - Rattlesnakes (saQi Remix)


10. Truth be told,"BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0.3 the end of the first set

Truth be told,

Compassionate Sound and Motion Productions Presents Truth be told! "BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0. 1- Winter always turns into spring in my students lives jazzdrumlessons.com/ for music, stories and for progress of students to see the studio click on Compassionate Sound & Motion Recording bumarrecords.com/ for bugalu's top 15 videos and new recording studio click on Compassionate Sound & Motion Recording for bugalu total videos 456 vimeo.com/bugalusmith/videos Truth be told! "BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0. 1- "Winter always turns into spring for all of my students around the world! Yeah yesterdays concert 3/16/2010 only at the Terrace Lounge with John Esposito piano and Lew Scott bass Marvin Bugalu Smith drums The music will be good for sure so stay tuned yeah the, music last night was better then Hollywood for sure, and remember this that the winter in my boys lives on the drums always turns into spring in my boys lives on the drums. the whole show was smoking everyone played very well indeed In 2009 I Bugalu said 2010 is the year that we here at Bumar records in association with Compassionate Sound and Motion Productions will open up all of the music to the whole world this is one of the reasons we have started to make music videos playing funky music. We at Bumar want to cover all types of music as we are just experimenting with sound and all of the colors and shapes that music wholes in it’s self. My staff Is made up of students that have studied with me over the years and have learned well the Art of drumming I have been teaching my staff all aspects of drumming from beginning to end, so all drummers know that they need a band to pull the colors from the music. This is where the compassion comes into view. This puts our company in a very nice place for me, the teacher, Because our staff is all contained in the drummers themselves. So here’s a dream come true story Andrew Greeney who’s my best friend and student and who will inherent all of my teaching and drums and all of my computer’s All that I have I will leave to him Now When I got the 24 Track Mobile Recording I gave classes on it on the job right in the Terrace Lounge At the jam session I showed Andrew everything that I knew about recording and mixing I did this with compassion Since then Andrew is studying private with a master studio recording engineering This wonderful master studio recording engineering Is called Malcolm Cecil who won a Grammy four doing four Albums with Steve Wonder the most famost is Inner vision by Steve Wonder Andrew did one month with Malcolm Cecil and he did two Mobile Recording this music is our new sound It’s truth be told,"BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, Stay tuned Every time I play with John Esposito and Lew Scott the level of the music goes to a higher level, one that’s filled with joy and renewal like the music that is presented at the Terrace Lounge the music is live and unrehearsed therefore this music is in the moment and is constantly changing and expanding growing and dying with renewal in the movement of time I love playing at this level because the intuitive self of our lives kicks in on the bandstand and you know without knowing this is Perfection it can be heard in these cuts I give all these wonderful players, and my wonderful drum crew and all of the people in the place and all that you see, and hear back to the universe for the peace of the world I do this with a Compassionate heart Steve Habib :wrote Better Than Hollywood Series 28,No.'s 1 - 3 Terrace,Newburgh,N.Y. Marvin Bu Ga Lu Smith's TRUTH BE TOLD: I realized that the joy on Marvin's face each time he is playing those drums is knowing that he continues to PLANT SEEDS OF TRUTH in each of his students about becoming more aware of their individual uniqueness and how to communicate themselves to an audience without sounding like others. Many times students depend on "THEIR CHOPS" or technical abilities. This is great if you want to sound like a machine but if you want to contribute to the music, you must first learn how to be yourself and not someone else. Marvin Bu Ga Lu Smith's greatest attribute is not only how to teach the instrument but how to communicate the music that is inside the person's SOUL. This one of a kind individuality is what makes the performer DIFFERENT from anyone else. That's why Marvin sounds like Marvin,Elvin Jones sounds like Elvin Jones, Art Blakey sounds like Art Blakey but some students NEVER go beyond studying the sounds of these masters. When a student finally reaches the level where he can FORGET all the technical stuff and NOT depend on the memorized,mechanical stuff, then and only then, can he start to reach the level that the masters have reached and that's the secret: PLAY WHO YOU ARE AND EXPRESS YOUR FEELINGS, NOT THE FEELINGS OF OTHERS. The image that comes to my mind many times is that of an early morning jogger. If I get up early in the morning to jog in order to keep physically fit, but don't really LOVE the sometimes ecstatic rhythm and feeling of movement with THE UNIVERSE, then my excersize is OUT OF HARMONY with my living.Then if on top of this DISHARMONY the rest of my day is crammed with strain, ego and activity which is HARMFUL to my health, I am pushing physical fitness into a separate compartment of my life and NOT REALLY CARRYING THE NATURAL RHYTHM OF RUNNING THROUGHOUT MY ENTIRE DAY! I like the image of running because it relates to the body and as a drummer I think it's important to connect your body and soul to TIME THE MASTER and UNIVERSAL RHYTHM. THE BALANCE is what you're hearing when Marvin is playing. When others perform with Marvin I can hear this beautiful BALANCE of PEACE and JOY enter into each player. I hear players performing on the highest levels as they feel what THE MASTER is communicating. NOW it's time for each student to become more of himself and learn from Marvin how to release their individualism and uniqueness through the instrument remembering that the instrument is only a tool, a resource and that it is the human person who is the music and the one who has this music deep inside themselves. It's NOT to be found anywhere else. YOU ARE THE DRUM with or without the instrument. The music has been created before it is communicated to another. The student MUST learn this and NOT LOOK FOR APPLAUSE OR ACCEPTANCE. The teachings all have to do with LIFE'S EXPERIENCES and communicating them through the instrument. Play as if you will NEVER HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO PLAY AGAIN and you want to tell others what you have to say NOW, IN THE MOMENT, WHILE IT'S HAPPENING. DON'T PLAY WHAT SOMEONE ELSE HAS ALREADY SAID, THAT'S NOT WHAT THIS IS ALL ABOUT,AT LEAST NOT IN JAZZ. LOVE TO ALL OF YOU, HABIB Steve Habib On listening to the performance of the first track, #1 I noticed how the beater on Marvin's bass drum came apart and had to be fixed. He continued the motion of TIME while John NEVER stopped the flow of colors and excitement and when Marvin came back with FULL MOTHER DRUM SOUND added back into the kit, the entire trio lifted up into a dimension that can only be explained by each individual player and each individual listener. THE MUSIC WAS SMOKIN on this particular track and I think it is a combination of the return of the full drum sound with the bass drum hard and full on the bottom as well as the SUPERIOR PLACEMENT OF ALL THE MIKES BY ANDREW GREENEY. I noticed a fantastic difference between the full, clearer and deeper sound on this session compared to all the sessions previous to this one. Andrew has done a MASTERFUL JOB using his ears and the additional knowledge he's been gathering from studying with Mr. M. Cecil. The placement of mikes behind the drums making use of wall reflection has also made a difference. The clarity is the key and the free flowing air space that is allowiing the bass tones to move. Higher tones are also able to be cleaner and crisper as is evident in the beautiful sound of Marvin's RIDE and CRASH. BRAVO MY MUSICIAN FRIENDS FOR A WONDERFUL HIGH LEVEL MUSICAL,SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE. JOHN ESPOSITO IS A PIANO MASTER along with LEW SCOTT, A BASS MASTER! THE LOVE FOR THE MUSIC IS EVIDENT AS TRACK #1 IS ON FIRE! Steve 10 hours ago · Steve Habib On listening to the performance of the first track, #1 I noticed how the beater on Marvin's bass drum came apart and had to be fixed. He continued the motion of TIME while John NEVER stopped the flow of colors and excitement and when Marvin came back with FULL MOTHER DRUM SOUND added back into the kit, the entire trio lifted up into a dimension ... See More 10 hours ago · Steve Habib We now have documentation of how the music can effortlessly reach higher levela naturally and without thought. Track #1 on Series 28 shows the temporary absence of bass drum and the injection after repair, The listener was conditioned to hearing the music without actually knowing that the bass drum was temporarily missing but the music ran to higher peaks because of the NEW INJECTION. WOW! 9 hours ago Marvin bugalu Smith drums Chief Executive Officer & President John Esposito piano and writer at bumar records . Lew Scott bass.and writer at bumar records. Jan Jurgielewicz IV drums Chief Information Officer & Vice President. Fitzgerald Sam drums and moving camera 1` Andrew Greeney drums Director Of Technical Operations Ben New Some - tenor sax and writer at bumar records Pete Chernic tenor sax Peter Valbra tenor sax http://www.vimeo.com/10280965 bugalu drums http://www.jazzdrumlessons.com/ http://www.bumarrecords.com/


11. truth be told,"BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0. 1-8

truth be told,

Compassionate Sound and Motion Productions Presents Truth be told! "BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0. 1- Winter always turns into spring in my students lives http://jazzdrumlessons.com/ for music, stories and for progress of students to see the studio click on Compassionate Sound & Motion Recording http://www.bumarrecords.com/ for bugalu's top 15 videos and new recording studio click on Compassionate Sound & Motion Recording for bugalu total videos 456 http://www.vimeo.com/bugalusmith/videos Truth be told! "BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0. 1- "Winter always turns into spring for all of my students around the world! Yeah yesterdays concert 3/16/2010 only at the Terrace Lounge with John Esposito piano and Lew Scott bass Marvin Bugalu Smith drums The music will be good for sure so stay tuned yeah the, music last night was better then Hollywood for sure, and remember this that the winter in my boys lives on the drums always turns into spring in my boys lives on the drums. the whole show was smoking everyone played very well indeed In 2009 I Bugalu said 2010 is the year that we here at Bumar records in association with Compassionate Sound and Motion Productions will open up all of the music to the whole world this is one of the reasons we have started to make music videos playing funky music. We at Bumar want to cover all types of music as we are just experimenting with sound and all of the colors and shapes that music wholes in it’s self. My staff Is made up of students that have studied with me over the years and have learned well the Art of drumming I have been teaching my staff all aspects of drumming from beginning to end, so all drummers know that they need a band to pull the colors from the music. This is where the compassion comes into view. This puts our company in a very nice place for me, the teacher, Because our staff is all contained in the drummers themselves. So here’s a dream come true story Andrew Greeney who’s my best friend and student and who will inherent all of my teaching and drums and all of my computer’s All that I have I will leave to him Now When I got the 24 Track Mobile Recording I gave classes on it on the job right in the Terrace Lounge At the jam session I showed Andrew everything that I knew about recording and mixing I did this with compassion Since then Andrew is studying private with a master studio recording engineering This wonderful master studio recording engineering Is called Malcolm Cecil who won a Grammy four doing four Albums with Steve Wonder the most famost is Inner vision by Steve Wonder Andrew did one month with Malcolm Cecil and he did two Mobile Recording this music is our new sound It’s truth be told,"BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, Stay tuned Every time I play with John Esposito and Lew Scott the level of the music goes to a higher level, one that’s filled with joy and renewal like the music that is presented at the Terrace Lounge the music is live and unrehearsed therefore this music is in the moment and is constantly changing and expanding growing and dying with renewal in the movement of time I love playing at this level because the intuitive self of our lives kicks in on the bandstand and you know without knowing this is Perfection it can be heard in these cuts I give all these wonderful players, and my wonderful drum crew and all of the people in the place and all that you see, and hear back to the universe for the peace of the world I do this with a Compassionate heart Steve Habib :wrote Better Than Hollywood Series 28,No.'s 1 - 3 Terrace,Newburgh,N.Y. Marvin Bu Ga Lu Smith's TRUTH BE TOLD: I realized that the joy on Marvin's face each time he is playing those drums is knowing that he continues to PLANT SEEDS OF TRUTH in each of his students about becoming more aware of their individual uniqueness and how to communicate themselves to an audience without sounding like others. Many times students depend on "THEIR CHOPS" or technical abilities. This is great if you want to sound like a machine but if you want to contribute to the music, you must first learn how to be yourself and not someone else. Marvin Bu Ga Lu Smith's greatest attribute is not only how to teach the instrument but how to communicate the music that is inside the person's SOUL. This one of a kind individuality is what makes the performer DIFFERENT from anyone else. That's why Marvin sounds like Marvin,Elvin Jones sounds like Elvin Jones, Art Blakey sounds like Art Blakey but some students NEVER go beyond studying the sounds of these masters. When a student finally reaches the level where he can FORGET all the technical stuff and NOT depend on the memorized,mechanical stuff, then and only then, can he start to reach the level that the masters have reached and that's the secret: PLAY WHO YOU ARE AND EXPRESS YOUR FEELINGS, NOT THE FEELINGS OF OTHERS. The image that comes to my mind many times is that of an early morning jogger. If I get up early in the morning to jog in order to keep physically fit, but don't really LOVE the sometimes ecstatic rhythm and feeling of movement with THE UNIVERSE, then my excersize is OUT OF HARMONY with my living.Then if on top of this DISHARMONY the rest of my day is crammed with strain, ego and activity which is HARMFUL to my health, I am pushing physical fitness into a separate compartment of my life and NOT REALLY CARRYING THE NATURAL RHYTHM OF RUNNING THROUGHOUT MY ENTIRE DAY! I like the image of running because it relates to the body and as a drummer I think it's important to connect your body and soul to TIME THE MASTER and UNIVERSAL RHYTHM. THE BALANCE is what you're hearing when Marvin is playing. When others perform with Marvin I can hear this beautiful BALANCE of PEACE and JOY enter into each player. I hear players performing on the highest levels as they feel what THE MASTER is communicating. NOW it's time for each student to become more of himself and learn from Marvin how to release their individualism and uniqueness through the instrument remembering that the instrument is only a tool, a resource and that it is the human person who is the music and the one who has this music deep inside themselves. It's NOT to be found anywhere else. YOU ARE THE DRUM with or without the instrument. The music has been created before it is communicated to another. The student MUST learn this and NOT LOOK FOR APPLAUSE OR ACCEPTANCE. The teachings all have to do with LIFE'S EXPERIENCES and communicating them through the instrument. Play as if you will NEVER HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO PLAY AGAIN and you want to tell others what you have to say NOW, IN THE MOMENT, WHILE IT'S HAPPENING. DON'T PLAY WHAT SOMEONE ELSE HAS ALREADY SAID, THAT'S NOT WHAT THIS IS ALL ABOUT,AT LEAST NOT IN JAZZ. LOVE TO ALL OF YOU, HABIB Steve Habib On listening to the performance of the first track, #1 I noticed how the beater on Marvin's bass drum came apart and had to be fixed. He continued the motion of TIME while John NEVER stopped the flow of colors and excitement and when Marvin came back with FULL MOTHER DRUM SOUND added back into the kit, the entire trio lifted up into a dimension that can only be explained by each individual player and each individual listener. THE MUSIC WAS SMOKIN on this particular track and I think it is a combination of the return of the full drum sound with the bass drum hard and full on the bottom as well as the SUPERIOR PLACEMENT OF ALL THE MIKES BY ANDREW GREENEY. I noticed a fantastic difference between the full, clearer and deeper sound on this session compared to all the sessions previous to this one. Andrew has done a MASTERFUL JOB using his ears and the additional knowledge he's been gathering from studying with Mr. M. Cecil. The placement of mikes behind the drums making use of wall reflection has also made a difference. The clarity is the key and the free flowing air space that is allowiing the bass tones to move. Higher tones are also able to be cleaner and crisper as is evident in the beautiful sound of Marvin's RIDE and CRASH. BRAVO MY MUSICIAN FRIENDS FOR A WONDERFUL HIGH LEVEL MUSICAL,SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE. JOHN ESPOSITO IS A PIANO MASTER along with LEW SCOTT, A BASS MASTER! THE LOVE FOR THE MUSIC IS EVIDENT AS TRACK #1 IS ON FIRE! Steve · Steve Habib On listening to the performance of the first track, #1 I noticed how the beater on Marvin's bass drum came apart and had to be fixed. He continued the motion of TIME while John NEVER stopped the flow of colors and excitement and when Marvin came back with FULL MOTHER DRUM SOUND added back into the kit, the entire trio lifted up into a dimension ... See More 10 hours ago · Steve Habib We now have documentation of how the music can effortlessly reach higher levela naturally and without thought. Track #1 on Series 28 shows the temporary absence of bass drum and the injection after repair, The listener was conditioned to hearing the music without actually knowing that the bass drum was temporarily missing but the music ran to higher peaks because of the NEW INJECTION. WOW! 9 hours ago Marvin bugalu Smith drums Chief Executive Officer & President John Esposito piano and writer at bumar records . Lew Scott bass.and writer at bumar records. Jan Jurgielewicz IV drums Chief Information Officer & Vice President. Fitzgerald Sam drums and moving camera 1` Andrew Greeney drums Director Of Technical Operations Ben New Some - tenor sax and writer at bumar records Pete Chernic tenor sax Peter Valbra tenor sax http://www.vimeo.com/10280965 bugalu drums http://www.vimeo.com/10283899 bugalu drums http://www.vimeo.com/10286299 bugalu drums http://www.jazzdrumlessons.com/ http://www.bumarrecords.com/ Marvin bugalu Smith drums Chief Executive Officer & President John Esposito piano and writer at bumar records . Lew Scott bass.and writer at bumar records. Jan Jurgielewicz IV drums Chief Information Officer & Vice President. Fitzgerald Sam drums and moving camera 1` Andrew Greeney drums Director Of Technical Operations Ben New Some - tenor sax and writer at bumar records Pete Chernic tenor sax Peter Valbra tenor sax Steve Habib :wrote Better Than Hollywood Series 28,No.'s 1 - 3 Terrace,Newburgh,N.Y. Marvin Bu Ga Lu Smith's TRUTH BE TOLD: http://www.vimeo.com/10280965 bugalu drums http://www.vimeo.com/10283899 bugalu drums http://www.vimeo.com/10286299 bugalu drums http://www.jazzdrumlessons.com/ http://www.bumarrecords.com/ http://www.jazzdrumlessons.com/ http://www.bumarrecords.com/


12. Truth be told,"BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0.2

Truth be told,

Compassionate Sound and Motion Productions Presents Truth be told! "BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0. 1- Winter always turns into spring in my students lives jazzdrumlessons.com/ for music, stories and for progress of students to see the studio click on Compassionate Sound & Motion Recording bumarrecords.com/ for bugalu's top 15 videos and new recording studio click on Compassionate Sound & Motion Recording for bugalu total videos 456 vimeo.com/bugalusmith/videos Truth be told! "BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, N0. 1- "Winter always turns into spring for all of my students around the world! Yeah yesterdays concert 3/16/2010 only at the Terrace Lounge with John Esposito piano and Lew Scott bass Marvin Bugalu Smith drums The music will be good for sure so stay tuned yeah the, music last night was better then Hollywood for sure, and remember this that the winter in my boys lives on the drums always turns into spring in my boys lives on the drums. the whole show was smoking everyone played very well indeed In 2009 I Bugalu said 2010 is the year that we here at Bumar records in association with Compassionate Sound and Motion Productions will open up all of the music to the whole world this is one of the reasons we have started to make music videos playing funky music. We at Bumar want to cover all types of music as we are just experimenting with sound and all of the colors and shapes that music wholes in it’s self. My staff Is made up of students that have studied with me over the years and have learned well the Art of drumming I have been teaching my staff all aspects of drumming from beginning to end, so all drummers know that they need a band to pull the colors from the music. This is where the compassion comes into view. This puts our company in a very nice place for me, the teacher, Because our staff is all contained in the drummers themselves. So here’s a dream come true story Andrew Greeney who’s my best friend and student and who will inherent all of my teaching and drums and all of my computer’s All that I have I will leave to him Now When I got the 24 Track Mobile Recording I gave classes on it on the job right in the Terrace Lounge At the jam session I showed Andrew everything that I knew about recording and mixing I did this with compassion Since then Andrew is studying private with a master studio recording engineering This wonderful master studio recording engineering Is called Malcolm Cecil who won a Grammy four doing four Albums with Steve Wonder the most famost is Inner vision by Steve Wonder Andrew did one month with Malcolm Cecil and he did two Mobile Recording this music is our new sound It’s truth be told,"BETTER THAN HOLLYWOOD” Series`28, Stay tuned Every time I play with John Esposito and Lew Scott the level of the music goes to a higher level, one that’s filled with joy and renewal like the music that is presented at the Terrace Lounge the music is live and unrehearsed therefore this music is in the moment and is constantly changing and expanding growing and dying with renewal in the movement of time I love playing at this level because the intuitive self of our lives kicks in on the bandstand and you know without knowing this is Perfection it can be heard in these cuts I give all these wonderful players, and my wonderful drum crew and all of the people in the place and all that you see, and hear back to the universe for the peace of the world I do this with a Compassionate heart Steve Habib :wrote Better Than Hollywood Series 28,No.'s 1 - 3 Terrace,Newburgh,N.Y. Marvin Bu Ga Lu Smith's TRUTH BE TOLD: I realized that the joy on Marvin's face each time he is playing those drums is knowing that he continues to PLANT SEEDS OF TRUTH in each of his students about becoming more aware of their individual uniqueness and how to communicate themselves to an audience without sounding like others. Many times students depend on "THEIR CHOPS" or technical abilities. This is great if you want to sound like a machine but if you want to contribute to the music, you must first learn how to be yourself and not someone else. Marvin Bu Ga Lu Smith's greatest attribute is not only how to teach the instrument but how to communicate the music that is inside the person's SOUL. This one of a kind individuality is what makes the performer DIFFERENT from anyone else. That's why Marvin sounds like Marvin,Elvin Jones sounds like Elvin Jones, Art Blakey sounds like Art Blakey but some students NEVER go beyond studying the sounds of these masters. When a student finally reaches the level where he can FORGET all the technical stuff and NOT depend on the memorized,mechanical stuff, then and only then, can he start to reach the level that the masters have reached and that's the secret: PLAY WHO YOU ARE AND EXPRESS YOUR FEELINGS, NOT THE FEELINGS OF OTHERS. The image that comes to my mind many times is that of an early morning jogger. If I get up early in the morning to jog in order to keep physically fit, but don't really LOVE the sometimes ecstatic rhythm and feeling of movement with THE UNIVERSE, then my excersize is OUT OF HARMONY with my living.Then if on top of this DISHARMONY the rest of my day is crammed with strain, ego and activity which is HARMFUL to my health, I am pushing physical fitness into a separate compartment of my life and NOT REALLY CARRYING THE NATURAL RHYTHM OF RUNNING THROUGHOUT MY ENTIRE DAY! I like the image of running because it relates to the body and as a drummer I think it's important to connect your body and soul to TIME THE MASTER and UNIVERSAL RHYTHM. THE BALANCE is what you're hearing when Marvin is playing. When others perform with Marvin I can hear this beautiful BALANCE of PEACE and JOY enter into each player. I hear players performing on the highest levels as they feel what THE MASTER is communicating. NOW it's time for each student to become more of himself and learn from Marvin how to release their individualism and uniqueness through the instrument remembering that the instrument is only a tool, a resource and that it is the human person who is the music and the one who has this music deep inside themselves. It's NOT to be found anywhere else. YOU ARE THE DRUM with or without the instrument. The music has been created before it is communicated to another. The student MUST learn this and NOT LOOK FOR APPLAUSE OR ACCEPTANCE. The teachings all have to do with LIFE'S EXPERIENCES and communicating them through the instrument. Play as if you will NEVER HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO PLAY AGAIN and you want to tell others what you have to say NOW, IN THE MOMENT, WHILE IT'S HAPPENING. DON'T PLAY WHAT SOMEONE ELSE HAS ALREADY SAID, THAT'S NOT WHAT THIS IS ALL ABOUT,AT LEAST NOT IN JAZZ. LOVE TO ALL OF YOU, HABIB Steve Habib On listening to the performance of the first track, #1 I noticed how the beater on Marvin's bass drum came apart and had to be fixed. He continued the motion of TIME while John NEVER stopped the flow of colors and excitement and when Marvin came back with FULL MOTHER DRUM SOUND added back into the kit, the entire trio lifted up into a dimension that can only be explained by each individual player and each individual listener. THE MUSIC WAS SMOKIN on this particular track and I think it is a combination of the return of the full drum sound with the bass drum hard and full on the bottom as well as the SUPERIOR PLACEMENT OF ALL THE MIKES BY ANDREW GREENEY. I noticed a fantastic difference between the full, clearer and deeper sound on this session compared to all the sessions previous to this one. Andrew has done a MASTERFUL JOB using his ears and the additional knowledge he's been gathering from studying with Mr. M. Cecil. The placement of mikes behind the drums making use of wall reflection has also made a difference. The clarity is the key and the free flowing air space that is allowiing the bass tones to move. Higher tones are also able to be cleaner and crisper as is evident in the beautiful sound of Marvin's RIDE and CRASH. BRAVO MY MUSICIAN FRIENDS FOR A WONDERFUL HIGH LEVEL MUSICAL,SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE. JOHN ESPOSITO IS A PIANO MASTER along with LEW SCOTT, A BASS MASTER! THE LOVE FOR THE MUSIC IS EVIDENT AS TRACK #1 IS ON FIRE! Steve 10 hours ago · Steve Habib On listening to the performance of the first track, #1 I noticed how the beater on Marvin's bass drum came apart and had to be fixed. He continued the motion of TIME while John NEVER stopped the flow of colors and excitement and when Marvin came back with FULL MOTHER DRUM SOUND added back into the kit, the entire trio lifted up into a dimension ... See More · Steve Habib We now have documentation of how the music can effortlessly reach higher levela naturally and without thought. Track #1 on Series 28 shows the temporary absence of bass drum and the injection after repair, The listener was conditioned to hearing the music without actually knowing that the bass drum was temporarily missing but the music ran to higher peaks because of the NEW INJECTION. WOW! 9 hours ago Marvin bugalu Smith drums Chief Executive Officer & President John Esposito piano and writer at bumar records . Lew Scott bass.and writer at bumar records. Jan Jurgielewicz IV drums Chief Information Officer & Vice President. Fitzgerald Sam drums and moving camera 1` Andrew Greeney drums Director Of Technical Operations Ben New Some - tenor sax and writer at bumar records Pete Chernic tenor sax Peter Valbra tenor sax http://www.vimeo.com/10280965 bugalu drums http://www.jazzdrumlessons.com/ http://www.bumarrecords.com/


13. THE KING'S SON & THE EMPEROR'S DAUGHTER complete (90 minutes)

THE KING'S SON & THE EMPEROR'S DAUGHTER complete (90 minutes)

a 90 minute collage of text, music and images, based on the lives of rabbi nachman of breslav and salon hostess rahel varnhagen. the lives of these two historical persons overlapped during the first decade of the 19th century. rabbi nachman of breslav founded the breslav hassidic sect in the ukraine, and rahel varnhagen was a salon hostess of the jewish enlightenment movement, known as the "haskalah", in berlin. i combined their biographies and imagined what might have happened in reality and in fantasy if nachman showed up at rahel's salon and attempted to bring the assimilating jews there back to the fold of orthodox judaism. the 90 minute show begins in the style of naturalism and evolves into an expressionistic fantasy being woven by the two main characters, in which nachman projects onto rahel the role of "the shekhinah" ( female aspect of god and also the jewish people in relation to god), while rahel projects onto nachman the role of messiah. so we end up at the end of the show with a fantasy marriage of the jewish people and the jewish messiah at the end of days, without forgetting for a moment that in real life these two never met and as a matter of fact rahel converted to christianity and married the german protestant nobleman august varnhagen. IN THE ESSAYS THAT FOLLOW THE SHOW HAS ITS ORIGINAL NAME, "RAHEL! RAHEL!". I CHANGED THE NAME AFTER I DISCOVERED ON THE NET THAT PAUL NEWMAN MADE A MOVIE WITH THAT NAME BACK IN THE 1960'S. TO VIEW OR DOWNLOAD ALL OF MY VIDEOS, PLUS 1500 PAGES OF MY EXPLANATORY ESSAYS (ALL AT NO CHARGE) PLEASE VISIT MY WEBSITE: franklynwepner.com. ALSO PLEASE NOTE MY NEW EMAIL ADDRESS, IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO SHARE WITH ME ANY COMMENTS ABOUT MY WORK: [email protected] IN THE LISTING OF VIDEOS THE LETTERS (HQ) REFER TO A HIGHER QUALITY VERSION OF THE VIDEO, WHICH IS AVAILABLE TO YOU IF YOUR COMPUTER CAN HANDLE IT. APPRECIATING MY MUSICAL SHOW "RAHEL! RAHEL!" 1. GENERAL THEORY Of course, the best way to begin to appreciate most works of art is just to experience them a few times and form your own conclusions. The opinions of the creator of an artwork are merely incidental at that stage of the process. And certainly once an artwork is created it takes on a life of its own, just like a child more and more slips out of the control of its parents. Nevertheless, I think we will agree that this particular artwork is unique in its form, what it seeks to accomplish, and the demands it makes on its audience. "Rahel! Rahel!" is an ambitious project which reaches out beyond the realm of art and grapples with major issues of religion and philosophy. Whether I as the author have succeeded in my project is for you the audience to decide, but since my artwork is intended to operate on several different levels I feel it appropriate for me to lay out for you the plan of what might be there for you if I have succeeded in carrying out my original goals. Just as I did not compromise in creating the piece, I will not compromise here in discussing the piece. If you don't "get it", maybe I failed and there ain't nothing there to "get" in the first place. Or if you don't "get it", maybe you need to do some homework on your own, or just give up on it and go do something else more appropriate for your talents. Nachman of Breslav wrote "my Torah is entirely 'b'hinot' ". "B'hinot", in Hebrew, means "aspects of", "associations", "points of view". For example, if I think of vanilla ice cream then I can associate to that idea chocolate ice cream, or cows, or a forest of vanilla beans somewhere in Madagascar. In other words, there is no limit to the range of possible associations I might get. Nachman might have said instead, "my Torah is entirely induction", and then we would contrast inductive logic to deductive logic. Deductive logic begins with a single idea and like an upside down tree follows the ramifications of that idea out into the myriad subdivisions and corollaries of that idea. Scientific textbooks usually are written deductively. Inductive logic begins with the vast realm of concrete living awareness experiences and step by step moves up the upside down tree back to a single encompassing idea that strives to somehow include all of the original experiences in its breadth. Francis Bacon in the 14th century championed inductive logic. Theologically speaking, Breslav kabbalah is inductive thinking, while Chabad kabbalah is deductive thinking. Nachman begins with a wide range of Torah texts and trusts in associative links to get to his main points, while Shneur Zalman, author of the Chabad "Tanya", writes an orderly textbook in which he systematically lays out his major and minor premisses. But both authors are using the same tree style thinking. Nachman moves up the upside down tree, while Shneur Zalman moves down the upside down tree, the kabbalistic tree of life on which the "sefirot" (points of view) are hanging like Christmas tree ornaments. For philosophy in general, this tree is the tree of dialectical thinking, whether we are forking from one branch to two or from two branches to one. Both types of forking involve moving logically from thesis to antithesis to synthesis in one way or another. Dialectical thinking underlies much of world culture, whether in religion, philosophy, healing or the arts. Turning now to "Rahel! Rahel!", this work is offered as an example of dialectical thinking, especially in the inductive tradition which we find in the work in Nachman of Breslav. It is therefore one more chapter to be added to Nachman's own "Likutei Moharan" ("Collected Essays"). I do in this piece what he does in Likutei Moharan, with the addition that I insert the man Nachman himself into the same dialectical process he uses. I begin with Nachman's biography and writings. Then I work by associations and trust that somehow you as audience will have the intelligence, motivation and patience to "get it" when it all comes together at the end. Or if you don't get it on your own, perhaps you will get it once I show you what I am driving at. You might not agree with my interpretation, but at least I hope you will consider it for a moment. The piece begins with two dialectically opposite points of view, that of Rahel (Varnhagen) and that of Menachem (code for Nachman). Specifically, I begin with Hannah Arendt's "Rahel Varnhagen" text, and Nachman's "Likutei Moharan". At the beginning I make no attempt to bridge the gap. On the surface, it is a story of how some religious fanatic shows up at a wild secular party looking for trouble. Nachman wants to bring Rahel back to the fold of orthodox Judaism. Lots of luck! That is to say, theatrically speaking the piece begins in the style of "naturalism", real life melodrama between good guys and bad guys. Who is the good guy depends upon your own point of view. I personally see value and garbage, sense and nonsense, in both camps. But by the end of the show we have left naturalism behind and we are at a different level altogether, that of symbolism. For gradually Menachem begins to see in Rahel the embodiment of "the Shekhinah", while gradually Rahel begins to see in Nachman the coming Messiah. Menachem is quite explicit, and gives us an extended lecture about how Rahel is the Shekhinah, the female aspect of God. Rahel also gives us an extended lecture about how she herself is the Shekhinah of God. But nowhere does she say that Menachem is the Messiah. Rather she comes to that conclusion by means of a deep metaphor, that of the "night" in the song "Night And Day". She discovers that by killing off Menachem (in the form of Captain Ahab) she also is dying. This is a transparent alllusion to the underlying dialectic of the whole project. The thesis and the antithesis need to suffer death in order that the new encompassing synthesis can emerge. Rahel and Menachem are the thesis and the antithesis, while the End of Days, or Jewish Messiah, or Jesus, or whatever label you wish to use is the emerging synthesis. Dialectical thinkers here refer to the "negation of the negations", since each extreme of the polarity is itself a negation of the original Oneness. So the label "Messiah" refers here merely to the emerging Oneness, what Gestalt therapists label "the coming solution". This way of thinking runs the risk of putting God within the dialectic, as Hegel was wont to do. But pietists like Nachman of Breslav counter this tendency by emphasizing the power of the Void as a stage of the dialectic, the moment at which we allow ourselves to not know the answer for a long enough time to discover some new ideas. Now I do not want to get involved in the battle over which flavor of Messiah is the most tasty. I personally identify with the Jewish community, and I am an ardent Zionist, as will be clear to you if you read my show about the Cave of Machpelah. However, in this RAHEL show I leave that question hanging by having the wedding of Menachem and Rahel followed by Rahel's allusions to Jesus. I could have added another scene and had her extol the virtues of Mohammed or the Buddha, and the basic meaning of the play would have remained the same. Just as we can look in the direction of "the coming solution" to get the big picture, likewise we can look back in the direction of "origin" to seek an initial Oneness that has been negated by the necessities of existences. The forward looking direction is that of Aristotle's "final cause", which is to be attained via committed authentic action. The backward direction is that of Plato's "anamnesis", "not forgetting", and the emphasis in anamnesis is on entering the void of "not knowing". This is what kabbalists, following Rabbi Isaac Luria, label "tsimtsum", contraction of ego. In any real happening the two points of view, that of Aristotle and that of Plato, are intertwined, and RAHEL! RAHEL! is no exception. But if we look back to a hypothetical place before this play begins, then what or who is the Oneness that is implied? What or who is the Oneness that is fragmented as the play begins? From the point of view of a dialectical therapy, such as Gestalt Therapy, we can infer that since Rahel and Menachem are the antitheses, therefore I as their author must be the Gestalt client who is presenting my own search for integration by means of this playwriting project. At the same time, to the extent that you can identify with the characters I have created you as audience member also are invited to be that Gestalt Therapy client undergoing your own healing vicariously, as though you are attending a groupwork Gestalt session at which I am doing most of the work and you are sitting patiently watching. 2. PRACTICE RAHEL! RAHEL! is a collage of music, text and images, at the same time it is a tragic drama in the tradition of Aristotle's theory of tragedy. That is to say, it is Brechtian formalism and Stanislavsky naturalism at the same time. It is Plato and Aristotle simultaneously. The tragedy aspect of the script is that both sides of the dialectic, Nachman and Rahel, need to die in order for the final Oneness to emerge, like the legendary phoenix, from their ashes. The junk collage builds up a wide range of "b'hinot", a net of associations, that undergoes Platonic collection, or gestalt formation, or a figure/ground reversal. These fragmentary associations then coalesce at the end into a single idea. That final single idea is the messianic notion that the one and the many, God and the world, somehow can - in the manner of Humpty Dumpty - be put back together again. As the play goes on this quest for the one in the many, identity in difference, or return to origin focuses on Menachem's aggressive approach to Rahel and her aggressive defense against his preaching. The dialectical process requires that there be two opposite extremes that burn each other up in a final conflagration, and that is the reason for all the creative aggression. The battle of Ahab and the Goddess Of The Ocean is the peak moment of the dialectic, in which the two fanatics do each other in. Each has evolved into a caricature of itself. Ahab symbolizes a hyper-chassid determined to embody the Talmudic story about the big fish that spouts the two messiahs by harpooning Moby Dick. He sees himself simultaneously as the final Messiah Son Of David and the penultimate Messiah Son Of Joseph. The latter, the warrior messiah, operates on the level of "the spirit of Cain", as a force of evil on the other side, with a lust for bloody vengeance in his crusade to accomplish positive holy objectives. Likewise Rahel, by taking Fichte's philosophy of Romantic Individualism to its absurd Nazi limits fancies herself to be the warrior Great Lady Of The Ocean, making a joke out of Zohar kabbalah in the process. The complex junk collage symbolizing the final battle between Menachem and Rahel, between Gog and Magog as it were, is at the same time the moment of Platonic collection and Aristotelian tragedy. At that point I call up a text of Julia Kristeva about how the female side represents what she labels the explosion of the Semiotic into the Law Of The Father. We can say the same thing by referring to Aristotle's final cause or Plato's anamnesis as the healing Oneness that blasts the pseudo-wholeness of a rigid structure to pieces and restores the primordial free flow of energy and infinite possibilities to the world. From this point of view the Indian guru Rajneesh wrote, "it is only pure if it is chaotic". The Law Of The Father here is any myopic reduction of religion to an oversimplified do-it-or-else rulebook taught to children at a tender age, and swallowed whole as an unassimilated introject. Just as Rahel is demolishing Menachem's simplistic Judaism, Menachem is demolishing Rahel's simplistic Nazi totalitarianism. Visually I associate the right angles of a swastica to the squares of a checker board, and this accounts for the checker board wings that the Goddess Of The Ocean is wearing. 3. RAHEL! RAHEL! AND LIKUTEI MOHARAN In my essays on Likutei Moharan I decode Nachman's kabbalistic word salad of b'hinot into basic philosophical ideas. Let's review some of that process here, and relate the theory to the RAHEL show as an example of practice. First of all, the notion of the Shekhinah, which in the kabbalah is a legend with endless ramifications and endless layers of associations. One metaphor Nachman uses is that of two birds that when they fly properly represent the pure singing of a properly inspired singer or prophet. In any concrete living experience a person, as it were, radiates out (from his forehead, it is said) a ray of holy light, which Nachman sees as a holy pidgeon or canary or eagle or whatever. At that same moment, the object of our attention or awareness likewise emits a holy pidgeon or canary or eagle or whatever. The holy birds meet halfway, fall in love, come to an orgasm of oneness in the manyness, and voila! We get a moment of healthy, contactful experience in our life. Nachman might have gotten the idea from Aristotle's theory of psychology, or from the notion of a phoenix arising from the ashes of two other dead birds, or more likely he got the idea from various Torah commentaries on Genesis, commentaries which focus on the moment at which Adam generates Eve from his own being. If so, then bird A is Adam, while bird B is Eve, and the ongoing world of our contact boundary of lived experience is the messianic state of authentic action or the primordial state of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden where the pure rivers of experience flow endlessly. Adam is continually "knowing" Eve in a state of ongoing orgasm. In the RAHEL show, I have Menachem (Adam, bird A, sefirah chochmah) projecting onto Rahel the role of Eve, bird B, sefirah binah, in an idealistic passion to restore the experience of "oneness in manyness" to the Jewish people as a whole. The encounter of the two birds, of Adam and Eve, of chochmah and binah, ideally generates a moment of authentic healthy action or enlightenment, depending upon whether your perspective is Aristotle or Plato. The Shekhinah is, then, the side that Adam projects out of himself. On a macrocosmic scale the Shekhinah is the female aspect that God as male projects out of Himself. Of course, in the microcosm of human experience things never go quite according to Divine expectations, and the next thing you know this pure phenomenological process is stymied when Eve/Lilit/ Moon gets fed up with shining only by reflected light, and she wants to compete with Adam/Sun as the generator of her own holy light. Things then can get quite complicated, as the plot of the RAHEL show indicates. For on the one hand Menachem wants to restore the Shekhinah, his other half, to her original purity and power to hasten his own integration, and on the other hand his efforts at dominating her accomplish the exact opposite result. She rebels and is all set to gobble him up after cooking him and his cohorts in a big black pot. Likewise, Rahel is no more successful in projecting Menachem as her own Shekhinah, when she herself assumes the traditional masculine macho role. She uses the cannon as a substitute penis, her own Moby Dick to do her projecting! I, Franklyn Wepner, as author, of this kaleidoscopic collage of images, I keep discovering new nuances of interpretation, and I invite you to get your own hits and come up with your own "Torah" exegesis. Referring back to Nachman's analogy of the two birds, the unpure state of two rabid birds (since doves originally were dinosaurs) pecking at each other, Nachman relates to an unholy cantor singing primarily to impress his wife or to advance professionally in the system. Since Menachem and Rahel end up "following after their eyes", worshipping the golden calf, being possessed by the "spirit of Cain", hence they deserve to be demolished as the play draws to its conclusion. Menachem and Rahel, as caricatures of themselves, both end up stuck on the "day" side of reality, while it is the "night" side of reality which remains the true ground of experience. The final moments of the play represent this figure/ground reversal, as the night reasserts it authority as the One capable of encompassing the Many. The epilogue scene makes the statement that this primordial One/night is not just Jewish property, but is available to all life through the dialectical process which the play embodies. Amen. 4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This show, like Likutei Moharan, is a collage of fragments. No one fragment is the main idea of the show, but certainly all of them need to be acknowledged and given credit. If I overlook a few, it is because there are so many of them. In a sense, life is one big plagiarism, which we label "tradition" or "learning". Do I need to run around getting permission from 100 artists and writers? Probably not, and perhaps I will get sued one day. First of all I will acknowledge the Torah which Nachman pilfered to write Likutei Moharan and Arthur Green pilfered to write "The Tormented Master". Then I will acknowledge the writings of Rahel Varnhagen, which Hannah Arendt pilfered to write "Rahel Varnhagen". Certainly the drawings of shtetl life of Reiss and the photos of Vishniac deserve mention, as well as the paintings of Chagall, of which three appear here. I ought to acknowledge the music of the western culture from which I stole the rules of harmony and counterpoint which underlie my musical score. And certainly Rabbi Danny Schultz deserves mention, for inspiring my portrayal of the great rebbe Mordecai Daniel of Schultzrina at the time I was living in the Diaspora Yeshiva of Jerusalem in 1982. Overall, this whole process of video collaging would not have been a realistic option had it not been for the powerful resources which the Art Explosion and the Google libraries of images makes available. Last but certainly not least, there is my mama, my dear "chicken soup mama" who, incidentally, never bothered to distinguish between milchik and fleishik, or even between kosher and nonkosher! But nevertheless, certainly her heart was all for me, and without her endless support and encouragement and love the junk collage that is Franklyn Wepner would never have coalesced into the artist Franklyn Wepner. ........................ SUMMARY OF THE SCENES PART 1 "the lost princess" SCENE 1: Berlin, 1806. Jewish salon hostess Rahel Levine, alone in her boudoir, soliloquizes about her dissatisfaction with her Jewish upbringing, which to her mind is the cause of all the frustrations she has experienced in life. She would like to change herself completely. SCENE 2: Menachem of Saslov (i.e., Nachman of Breslav) protests to the reigning Hassidic rebbe, Mordechai Daniel of Schultzrina, against what he regards as a preoccupation with the externals of Jewish life rather than commitment to Torah study and prayer. A celebration of the holiday of "Shavuous is taking place, but Menach feels that only he is actually receiving the Torah at this moment. SCENE 3: Locked in the stocks by Rebbe Mordechai Daniel, Menachem tells us the story of the Lost Princess: a King (God) momentarily angered by his favorite daughter ) tells her to go to the devil. And in the morning she is nowhere to found. Seeing the misery of the King over her absence, the Viceroy (Messiah) sets out to seek her. He finds her in the palace of the devil. Symbolically Rahel here represents "the Shechinah", from the Hebrew root "to dwell". The implication is that the Jewish people has the potential to embody God's living presence ("dwelling") here on earth so long as it does sell its soul to the devil. PART 2 "nachman at rahel's salon" SCENE 4: Menachem is present at the salon of Rahel, i.e., at what he sees as the palace of the devil, in an effort to bring the Jews that are there back to traditional Judaism before they intermarry with the gentile aristocrats and artists who also attend the salon. Rahel and the Protestant Count Karl Gustav von Finkenstein sing a passionate Mozart style love duet, amid antisemitic gossip directed against Rahel. SCENE 5: Count Genz taunts Menachem, who is playing chess, with the fact that he saw Rahel in the park on the Sabbath riding in a carriage. In a song, Rahel strongly defends her right "to say no to remembering my Jewish race". SCENE 6: Rahel invokes the writings of Fichte, who advocates freeing children from the heavy hand of tradition and developing in them instead the free use of their natural reason. In this way they will grow up to be "cultivated personalities", such as the glorious free spirits present in this salon now SCENE 7: This scene is a Brechtian formalist style theatrical caricature of those "cultivated personalities" imagined by Fichte and worshipped by Rahel. SCENE 8: Menachem is talking to G-d, pouring out his heart about his triumphs and failures. He sings "Comfort Ye". The text of the song states that the Jewish people (the "Shekhinah" or "Divine Presence" here on earth which is represented by Rahel) have already received from God a double portion of punishment, and they therefore should return to God their father, who now will be compassionate. Menachem gives us an example of how he uses a Talmudic text as a basis for spiritually inspired free interpretation. His meditations lead him to a deeper sense of his own mission as "tzaddik ha-dor", the "righteous man of his generation". He sees himself as the contemporary embodiment of the Messianic soul, which reappears in each generation. First this soul was that of Moses, now it is his, and soon it will be that of the Messiah. PART 3 "rahel betrayed" SCENE 9: Rahel relates a dream. She is standing in the stone ruins of a castle, high on a cliff. An angry mob demands that Finkenstein (their king and the person by whose side Rahel now is standing) allow them to throw her over the cliff. Terrified, Rahel in her dream screams to Finkenstein for his protection, but he hands her over to the mob. As she falls over the cliff she awakens, only to find Finkenstein standing by her side and giving her a "dear John" rejection message. Rahel is furious and humiliated. She blames all her misfortunes, once again, on the fact of her "infamous" (Jewish) birth. SCENE 10: Menachem expresses his sympathy for the sufferings of Rahel, which he regards as the sufferings of the Shekhinah. The time has come, he concludes, for his own major project to begin. He shares with the audience his belief that he himself is the Messiah. Not just the Messiah of the seed of David is he, but also the Messiah of the seed of Joseph - the warrior Messiah whose sword prepares the way for the final Day of Judgment. Menachem now asks his disciples (the audience) to choose, each one for himself, whether or not he wishes to accompany him on this dangerous mission to the Holy Land. With those few that decide to remain with him, he shares his Messianic teachings. This small band is to be the vanguard which prepares the way for an exodus of the Jews from Europe and Czar Alexander's Russia to the Holy Land. To those that falter in their resolve for the task, Menachem gives advice. "Then you must sing and dance and clap your hands many times! Above all, do not despair!" One's joyous side must dance to force his own melancholy side to join in the struggle, just like dancers in a group grab a hesitant onlooker and encourage him to join their dance. These are basic principles of the Breslaver sect of Hassidim which Nachman of Breslav (i.e., Menachem in this play) is founding. Then Menachem does a full-scale dance of theurgy to mobilize the divine powers (and the audience) for the coming journey. SCENE 11: Rebbe Mordecai Daniel sends the sheriff (who happens to have a Texas accent, 10-gallon hat, six-gun and star) to bring Menachem before the "beyt din" (religious court). Mid much Kafka-esque ritualistic chanting and tribal drumming, witnesses confirm every charge the Rebbe makes and then the sheriff hauls Menachem off to the hoosgow. The sheriff warns the audience (Menachem's disciples): "Ah siggest yiz make easel's scare 'roun these parts a while". As the sheriff demands, an intermission follows. PART 4 "king's son & emperor's daughter" SCENE 12: Menachem tells another story. The daughter of an emperor and the son of a king fall in love. Their parents forbid the marriage, so the lovers hire a ship and flee. On a distant shore they get lost from each other in the woods. A different ship happens to sail by, rescues the princess and takes her back to the country it sailed from. There the king of that country offers to marry her. He gives the princess 3 ladies to wait on her while she is making up her mind. The the princess makes the ladies drunk by giving them wine, and while they sleep she sails off with them in the king's ship. SCENE 13: At sea in a tiny cardboard cutout boat, the four women share their frustrations in regard to men. They would like to rearrange the world, and they sing "If God Were A Lady Like Me". God offers them helpful advice. He informs them that if they would merely consult the holy Zohar (book of Jewish kabbalistic wisdom written in the 15th Century C.E.) they will find written there (in Book 2, Section 50B) that indeed God is a lady just like them. SCENE 14: The ladies do as the Lord suggests. They discover that the Zohar text is exactly what they had in mind. Rahel and the 3 ladies act out the text by taking on the roles of Shekhinah (Rahel as the Goddess, Great Lady of the Ocean) and the Guardians of the Shekhinah (the 3 ladies as Warriors). They express all this in a Kabuki style dance of Samurai warriors. Menachem, off to the side, invites his disciples (the audience) to participate mystically in this sacred rite, which in terms of traditional Jewish symbolism represents (1) "creation" as the mystical descent of the Shekhinah from heaven ("Keter) into the physical world ("Malchut"), (2) the Shekhinah's spiritual struggle combatting evil down here in the world, and (3) the final re-ascent to God of the Shekhinah (Rahel) via a mystical marriage with the soul of the Messiah, i.e., with him, Menachem. PART 5 "two endings" SCENE 15: Like Popeye with a can of spinach, Rahel now is empowered by spiritual energy. Rahel as the Shekhinah (Goddess of the Great Ocean) now gets her turn to run the show, dishing out divine retribution as it suits her fancy. She begins with the Finkenstein mannequin, dealing with him Samurai warrior style. Next come along Captain Ahab, Starbuck and Stubbs (three major characters from Melville's "Moby Dick") in their whaling dinghy and in hot pursuit of the Great White Whale. The point here is that just as Rahel has now gone overboard in her power/holiness trip, so has Menachem done likewise. Ahab in hot pursuit of the Great White Whale is played by Menachem in hot pursuit of the Holy Land which at the moment equates with hot pursuit of Rahel's Great White Bosom. The resulting clash of opposite extremes (Rahel vs. Menachem) is a theatrical metaphor for the Battle of Gog and Magog, of opposite X/-X evil forces, which must precede the coming of the Messiah according Jewish tradition. So what to the audience reads as ultra avant garde experimental theater actually is merely 15th Century C.E. Jewish mysticism. Rahel's side wins. The women cannibalistically boil up Ahab, his crew and his boat in a big black cardboard cutout pot and serve them up for dinner. After dinner the women sing a whaler's song and drink a toast. SCENE 16: Along with these eschatological happenings comes a similar use of "language" in the text of the play. French feminist (post-Brechtian formalist, deconstructionist) theoreticians of today, such as Julia Kristeva, maintain that rational language must be deconstructed into what reads as avant garde poetry. One way to do this is by intercutting very different texts, in order to create a sea of new possibilities, associations, meanings and ideas. Onstage the audience sees the intercutting of Zohar mystical jargon and Moby Dick whaling jargon into a very carefully worked out word salad with all sorts of textual and mise-en-scene allusions. The feminist literary critics regard coherent use of language surrender to "the tyranny of the symbolic father, the phallic law giver". But now (since "God Is A Lady Like Me") things will be different! Rahel and her feminist warriors commandeer the large phallus-like cannon which Ahab has brought onstage. At last they have the phallus! So when Menachem sends angels to set things aright, Rahel - wearing Ahab's coat and hat and smoking one of his cigars - thoroughly enjoys her ejaculations shooting the angels down from their celestial heights, i.e., inseminating them. One after another angel (fertilized egg) plops ingloriously into the briney deep, accompanied by the sound effect of a toilet flushing. This sort of female/male battleground is a parody of the sacred marriage of the Shekhinah with the Messiah, the best we can do in our pre-messianic times - an age in which most marriages either never happen or end in divorce. The idealistic true messianic style marriage union will happen in Scene 18. SCENE 17: The Messianic Age is dawning, and Rahel now identifies with her "night", grounded, roots, Shekhinah side. From that point of view she sings "Day and Night", in which the lyrics state that night "deceptively transforms these shadows (day's illusions, ego games) into life's ground and native soil". Having failed in killing off Menachem and what he represents, Rahel now allows him to embrace and dance with her. Menachem likwise has learned that joyous dancing is a better means than is a violent power trip to attain messianic goals. Dialectically speaking, we can say that the original Rahel/Menachem pair of opposing egos (thesis vs. antithesis) has died in the struggle and that both emerge reborn as a higher, more enlightened spiritual way of being (the synthesis). Rahel says: "So I have killed you after all, for I am dying with you!" Kabbalists will observe here the negation of negations of the One Without A Second, which restores the oneness of God at the End Of Days. SCENE 18: A traditional Jewish wedding now unfolds, the wedding of Rahel (the Shekhinah) with Menachem (the soul of the Messiah). The divine couple and the rest of the cast dance the traditional wedding dances. SCENE 19: But a surprising epilogue follows. Rahel returns to her boudoir and confides to the audience: "What a history . . . to have been born a Jewess, I would not now have missed it at any price!" The actress playing Rahel then steps out of character and shares with the audience the disconcerting fact that as a matter of fact Rahel at age 43 did intermarry. The character Rahel at 63 and near death then speaks to her Protestant husband August Varnhagen of her love for Jesus and her admiration of Mary. The audience is left with two different endings for the play, and by implication each audience member is invited to think about the play and to arrive at his own conclusions - in keeping with the Brechtian epic theater tradition to which this play belongs. Will you think dialectically and regard the ending as the triumph of idealistic truth over all the obstacles that enchain the human spirit, or will you think with ordinary everyday cause and effect logic and find yourself wondering "how come this play doesn't make sense?" PHILOSOPHICAL OVERVIEW The author is of the opinion that the true "history" that Rahel "would not now have missed at any price" is: (1) what Hegel calls "the phenomenology of the spirit", or an "objective history" rather an everyday ego dominated, illusionary "subjective history", (2) which is what therapists call working through the blocks to our awareness and the "games we play" to get to authentic action in our lives, (3) which is what literary critics call a complete dramatic action, in this case spread out over the events enacted by both Rahel and Menachem rather than combined in the life of just one character, (4) which is what neo-Platonic thinkers such as Philo call the path of the logos embodying pure Platonic ideas, (5) which is what Christians call the "stations of the cross" as embodied ideally in the life of Jesus, (6) which is what Maimonides in his "Guide For The Perplexed", and in the tradition of Aristotle, calls the system of concentric spheres or heavens leading down from and back up to God (God being conceived as the Unmoved Mover or Active Intellect), (7) and which is what Jewish kabbalists call emanation of the "Word of God" or "hish'tal'sh'lut", from the Hebrew: "to make a chain". The chaining is a chain of "sefirot", from the Hebrew "to count" pure numbers (like Pythagoras) or to enumerate a sequence of pure ideas or different points of view (like the Greek "logos" or account). The "hish'tal'sh'lut" is a descent down the chain and an ascent back up the chain - from the highest sefirah ("Keter") down to the lowest sefirah ("Malchut") and then back up again. The ascent or "t'shuvah" (Hebrew: "returning") is the pathway back to our lost unity with God. The different one sided points of view which Rahel and Menachem embody along this pathway are incomplete versions of the Name of God, while the play as a whole seeks to approach - but only asymptotically - the Great Name (or Naming) of God. As the Jewish prayer service tells us, "On that day will God and His Name be One". (8) Menachem embodies the soul of the Messiah, the possibility of God in human experience as symbolized by the notion of the complete Name. Rahel, on the other hand, embodies the Shekhinah, all the partial Names distributed among the many created creatures, especially among the different individuals of the Jewish people. The sacred marriage of Menachem and Rahel symbolizes the integration of the one with the many, which has an endless number of representations in cultural traditions all over the world. For Jews the union of God (the One) with the Jewish people (the Many or Shekhinah) is focused especially on key moments in the ritual calendar, especially the moment of the "L'chah Dodi" prayer, song and dance on Friday nights at the beginning of the Sabbath. The Hebrew is: "Come, my friend, and let us greet the Sabbath Queen or Shekhinah". (9) You did not come to an avant garde theater script for a Torah lesson, but you got one anyway. I fooled you! The word Torah has two possible Hebrew roots. (1) "Hora'ah", which means "instruction", and (2) "tur", which means "to seek, investigate, search", i.e., to take a journey of discovery, which is what this play represents. The descent and ascent of the Shekhinah is one way this Torah experience is symbolized in Jewish tradition. The pathway (Torah) away from and back to what in this play is labeled "God" is a possibility for human consciousness. We have the option to travel it or we can find other things to do with our allotted time. And we can use either sacred or secular terminology to describe the trip. This play uses both.


14. Larry Halloran on HB2372 interview on KAKE

  • Published: 2011-03-17T02:17:11+00:00
  • Duration: 954
  • By Bob Bowser
Larry Halloran on HB2372 interview on KAKE

What we DIDN't see... the good stuff hit the cutting room floor so they could EMPHASIZE "the color of one's skin" which is NO where to be found in the Bill. www.kslegislature.org/li/b2011_12/year1/measures/hb2372/ Larry's Testimony in Support of HB 2372 Testimony of Larry Halloran in support of HB 2372; Chairman Kinzer and Members of the House Judiciary Committee, We ask for your support of HB 2372; An Act concerning immigration; requiring verification of employment eligibility and making other amendments concerning immigration. The fundamental question today is not illegal immigration itself. If we are a nation of laws and are faithful to our obligations as citizens or legislators then we will rightfully conclude that the rule of law is the bedrock foundation of our society and passage of this legislation should require little debate. I would not dispute that employer and citizen alike have found the blind eye beneficial to their pocket book but financial gain, open borders or humanitarian compassion are not acceptable substitutes for the rule of law. Yesterdays benefit (however perceived) is today's liability as our citizens find themselves struggling to meet the increased burden of illegal immigration on our society that cannot be measured in financial terms alone. The blessings and benefits of America are bountiful. But, if they are to be preserved for our posterity and those seeking the benefit of citizenship they must be secured by principled adherence to our state and federal Constitutions. Illegal immigration is a festering cancer that damages both our society and those unlawfully seeking employment. It creates the necessity for a second society operating under the radar that inhibits the necessary assimilation of new immigrants into the America family. We are no longer concerned with a few thousand illegal immigrants that could be easily absorbed but rather tens of millions that now tax the limits of our social networks. It is past time for the half measured approaches, nod and wink policies and felonious excuses of citizen, employer and legislator alike related to the employment eligibility of illegal immigrants are put to rest. It is time that a lawful approach to employment eligibility verification becomes the rule for all employers and the accepted social norm for all citizens. Of even greater importance is that you, the citizen legislator, honor your oath of office and uphold the rule of law. Our Founders studied the laws and customs of many nations (both failed and existing) and took from them guidance for our Constitution that best protected a free people and society. For over 200 years, our Constitution has served as the legal binder for our citizens and those wishing to assimilate into a free society. Today, many seek to dilute the authority of our Constitution through substitution of unlawful privileges that in essence establish an equal but separate society within our borders. A society that stands in stark contrast and in opposition to the fundamental necessity of assimilation at the expense of individual liberties guaranteed to all by our Constitution. Such practices serve to disadvantage the citizens and legal immigrants that play by the rules and adhere to our laws by granting unearned favor to the illegal immigrant. Surely, we are all aware of the inequities, consequences and unquestionable failures of equal but separate jurisprudence practiced at times within our own society. To turn a blind eye or foster such practices is treasonous to our founding principles, documents and the faith of those who gave all to defend and preserve the greatest grant of freedom ever known to man; America. The challenges before us in preserving the free society and America are indeed great but do include a provision for national suicide. Tolerance does not beget equal but separate in a free society but instead requires assimilation through shared core values and equal application of the laws Thank you for your favorable support of HB 2372, your service and the defense of freedom for all. Respectfully, Larry Halloran, Chairman Wichita - South Central KS 912 Group Mulvane, KS 67110 Testimony of Lana Reed in Support of HB 2372 Testimony Of Lana Reed Provided Pursuant to K.S.A. 75-2973 Kansas Whistleblower Act On The HB 2372 Before the House Judiciary Committee "Under the current SRS system Kansas taxpayers are having millions of dollars stolen from them through fraud. Perhaps worse Kansas citizens, who are footing the bill, are being denied benefits that illegal aliens are approved for. The SRS system works for the illegal aliens and the illegal aliens know how to work the system...." p.12 Representative Lance Kinzer, Chairman Thursday, March 10, 2011, 3:30 p.m. 785-296-7692 Table of Contents Executive Summary. Fraud in the Kansas SRS System.. Hiding Illegal Aliens and Fraud. Types of Fraud. Fake Documents. Legitimate SSNs. Multiple Identities. Living the Good Life. Is it really the good Life?. Who is benefiting from this illegal labor?. Cost for Fake Documents. Proration: Special Treatment of Illegal Aliens Over Kansas Citizens. Three Strikes You're Out. Over Whelming the System.. Don't Rock the Boat. Conclusion. Executive Summary I was employed by the Social and Rehabilitation Services (SRS) for two and ½ years. During that time I witnessed overwhelming levels of fraud and corruption resulting in the waste of millions of tax payer dollars. Most the fraud was conducted pursuant to policies of the SRS which required employees to turn a blind eye to fraud and abuse of the welfare system in a magnitude of millions of dollars. The policies in use at the SRS discriminated against Kansas citizens and law abiding immigrants in favor illegal aliens. Over this period of time the "Proration" policy, which provided benefits to illegal aliens that were denied to citizens and legal immigrants, just for Johnson and Wyandotte Counties, cost taxpayers $2,276,544.00 annually. On a daily basis I witnessed the use of fraudulent documents as well as the fraudulent use of multiple social security numbers not yet "assigned" to an individual. The frontline SRS case workers are being overwhelmed by the increase of usage of the system by illegals aliens. When I started my case load was suppose to be 130. It actually was more in the range of 160. By the time I left it had increased to over 260 or a 63% increase. This was in spite of the fact the bilingual caseworkers had increased from two, me and one in Wyandotte, to six, a 400% increase, by the time I left the SRS. As the performance standards remained the same over this two and one half year period the only way to maintain the required performance numbers was to sacrifice the fraud detection and verification procedures. This meant that the fraud detection and verification would have to be minimized or skipped altogether or the caseworker could not meet achieve the number of cases they were required to process (approve). Ninety-Nine percent (99%) of my families were illegal aliens with citizen children. Less than 10 families had legal permanent residence. Virtually all of whom used fraudulent documents or fraudulently used documents to support their application for assistance. Fraud in the Kansas SRS System Witness Background I was employed as a bilingual Human Service Specialist at theSocial and Rehabilitation Services (SRS) assigned to the Johnson County Kansas office in Overland Park, KS from 7/2008 to 10/2010. I determined eligibility for food assistance, TANF (Welfare), and Medicaid/Medicare/ SOBRA. (SOBRAS are emergency medical which mainly consisted of primarily paying 100% for illegal alien labor and delivery, and emergency services such as gall stones, heart attacks etc.) I also determined eligibility to pay for child care for the citizen children so the illegal alien parents could work illegally. Hiding Illegal Aliens and Fraud In the SRS system illegal aliens were coded as "DF" (fraud) prior to 1997. This code counted their full gross income in determining benefits. In an explanation to me on why we now prorate income instead of counting the full gross like citizens for Food Assistance, I was told the federal government did not allow coding permanent residence that hadn't been here 5 years as DF (fraud) [i] since they were here legally. So instead of using "DF" for illegal aliens and coding "DI" for permanent residents we had to begin using a "DI"[ii] code for both. [iii] Types of Fraud Fake Documents Of my cases eighty three per cent (83%) had false Social Security Numbers (SSN) a majority of which had not yet been" issued by the Social Security Administration". The remaining 17% were paid in cash which we had to use written statements on the amount. There was no way of proving exactly how much money they were making. We had to accept a customer statement that they had no bank account or were paid in cash as true. My former clients would sometime have more than 2 or 3 social security cards but only report one for benefits so they wouldn't go over the gross limit. Right before I left in October, in an exact incident as this one, I was told to call it "client error" when I encountered it instead of prosecuting it as fraud. Even after we spent tax dollars having an investigator find this person working at two jobs and had an open and shut case. Upon doing the required SSN check on SWSS (Soc Securities database) the SSNs would come up as "impossible", "surnames" don't match, no Bendex etc. But mostly they would come back with no "return message at all". When finding multiple SSNs for one individual I would enter that information in the alias screen with all the names, birth dates and SSNs they use. I do not have a number at this time for how many of my caseload used multiple SSNs, but that can be obtained from SRS reports. The number is significant. Most caseworkers didn't have time or even knew how to put that info in the computer system (It is a cumbersome system from 1987) so most of these false SSNs are hard copy and buried in the files. I also ran SAVE[iv] on Permanent Residents cards. One instance the man in the waiting room had a woman's card. He had superimposed his photo. He readily admitted it was fake and per policy I used it for the mandatory photo ID. It is a standard practice to request all false ids and socials to determine wages in order to determine eligibility. On occasion I would see a fake driver's license, however due to the hologram that is difficult to fake. And it wouldn't matter anyway because I was required to use it for photo ID. Most volunteer the documents are fake and they say the SSN ("No es bueno" It isn't good) They know and have been coached that the federal law doesn't allow a social worker to report their fake documents or status to immigration. The policy made a caseworker complicit in their illegal activity. Legitimate SSNs Some had "legitimate" SSNs showing wages of people in other States which clearly indicates identity theft. This was few and far between. When doing wage verifications using the "Work number" which indicates where in the US the given SSN showed wages. I would see a person's wages from another State. I was told to disregard those and process anyway on the check stubs they gave me. The Client stated they weren't a private investigator in Texas, an engineer, an insurance salesmen etc. so those wages were not used in determining benefits. We had to accept the word of someone committing identity fraud as truth. Multiple Identities I spent 30 minutes with the Olathe Police Dept. trying to verify if an absent parent was really absent and on the list for deportation. He had 7 names and 3 different birthdates. I was assured that what he was convicted for he would definitely be deported. The wage earner was indeed absent. I had an illegal alien parent molest their 13 year old child. The child was taken away and could only return if the parent wasn't in the home. The parent skipped town and now they probably have another name in another State starting another family where the abuse can continue. It was very difficult to determine who was in the lobby to see me because our receptionists didn't speak Spanish and the name they were giving on their "ID" was not the name they gave us on their account. This happened on a daily basis. I accumulated 150 Instant messages with the front desk in a 6th month period of me going to the lobby for people that were not in my caseload, or to find out who they were and what they wanted. Per policy I had to be in the lobby within 15 minutes to meet customer service expectations even though most came without an appointment. They could be using their mother's last name, their father's last name or another name entirely. The IDs again didn't match what was in our system. Sometimes IDs didn't match the birthdates. I gave these instant messages to my management through the grievance procedure with KOSE because to continue to go to the lobby and take care of my increasing caseload was getting very challenging and impossible to do well. It is difficult to run the "look ups" and "checks" when I had to run to the lobby for anyone who showed up with no appointment. If a citizen came in with that many aliases or giving a different name than was on their ID they would be investigated for fraud or arrested. Living the Good Life When confronting a client about their bank statement showing Southwest Airline tickets and a balance higher than $2000, which is the maximum an applicant to have to receive benefits per policy, they said they kept the family's money in their bank account, it wasn't all theirs. Since we take an "average" I had to approve their application. At their interim review they dutifully kept it low but they had $150 shoes bought on PayPal. Their minimum was within the guidelines they was approved. One of my permanent resident's families was actually convicted for fraud with a $16,000 overpayment. They originally indicated $0 income, no bank accounts. We have to take "client statement" as true. They applied and were approved for everything. Food Assistance, TANF, Medicaid, Child Care. They should never have been approved. They owned a duplex part of which was rented out in Wyandotte County. They lived in Johnson County in a home paid for by their family members. That duplex was unreported income. They were fraudulently receiving Social Security money from a family member who died in Central America. Coroners in other countries do not have to report deaths to social security. The only reason it was found out, was because I sent the investigator out to check household composition for a suspected absent parent wage earner in the home. The illegal "lover" absent parent was there with their mutual child. The spouse filed for divorce and the financial information became public record which our fraud dept used to prosecute the fraud and the overpayment. The above relates to an individual, the term "they" is for gender masking. The only way the State of KS can recoup these huge overpayments is to hope they apply for assistance again so we can deduct a percentage out of their benefits dollars. In other words they make payments on their prior fraud. The recoupment rate on fraud on my caseload otherwise is very low. The policy to recoup after giving money out in "error" costs the State of KS in the millions. With caseloads increasing, a caseworker doesn't have time to do "look ups". Additionally requesting fraud investigation were frowned on in my last couple of months at SRS for lack of investigators on both the English Caseloads and Spanish speaking caseloads. Is it really the good Life? 80% of my caseload suffered at some point with abuse and domestic violence. The husband can beat them "What are they going to do call the police and get deported?" Some don't know how to drive or speak enough English to get around. They just endure the abuse. Employers and Landlord can and do abuse them. Again... "What are they going to do call the police and get deported?" To not enforce our laws is to allow exploitation of people who have made themselves vulnerable to bullies, thugs and crooks. As parents we teach our children that rules are there for a reason and to protect us. I had a client with 6 citizen children that had a lump in her breast. Even if the Komen foundation could give her a free mammogram who would pay for the expensive cancer treatments? Is it better to watch her die with no treatment or have those 6 children parceled out in the system as wards of the State when they dies? I had a client who gave birth naturally in Mexico no problems, turned out they discovered they was allergic to latex while giving birth here. They coded. The State of KS paid for Labor and Delivery under SOBRA but the hospital had to eat the cost for 3 months in a coma. Who is going to pay for her ongoing therapy? One client was dragged 20 feet by a tractor. Who pays for his external colon? Is that a medical emergency covered under SOBRA? The Workman's comp didn't want to pay because. "How were they certain it was from the tractor accident? If a citizen gives birth or has a medical emergency without insurance they are 100% responsible for their hospital bills. There is no SOBRA for citizens. Citizens go bankrupt paying medical and hospital bills. That is a citizen's only choice. Who is benefiting from this illegal labor? I naively asked one of my clients why they didn't come in legally. They told me, "No le dan visas a gente como nosotros". They don't give visas to people like us. We don't have land or money. They is right. We would consider them risks to being wards of the State. They would wind up at SRS. And they would have to pass a test in English to become citizens. How can they do that if they can't read or write English or Spanish? I asked her how much it cost to get across the border they said $2000 per person. If you believe like I do that 30,000,000 people are here illegally that is 60 billion dollars. So you can get perspective, that dollar amount is equivalent to the GNP of the country of Bolivia. If you believe our official government figures of 9-12 million, then that is still 24 billion dollars in human trafficking. Who is benefiting from illegal labor because it isn't the citizen's of the United States. And you have to ask how does a person who can't read or write pay $2000 per person. Cost for Fake Documents Applicants have told me they can get a false SSN for $50.00 and a false Passport or Permanent Resident card for $500-1000. I did not see false passports however I was told that was the going rate. When I asked them how they knew they were not buying someone else's number they told me they had a "maquinita" a machine that showed it wasn't being used by someone else. And they were right. What are the odds that a caseload of 265 families, that the majority of those using false social security numbers are also unassigned? In other words this is not"guessing" or using random numbers. Proration: Special Treatment of Illegal Aliens Over Kansas Citizens Under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) regulations the states have the option to base welfare benefits (for food assistance) illegal aliens on Gross Income, which is the method used for U.S. citizens, or to "Prorate" income of the illegal aliens. Kansas has chosen the Proration option. I was told these decisions are bureaucratic they are not done by legislation. The illegal alien proration for food assistance makes illegal aliens with citizen children eligible for food while citizens with the same amount of income and household composition (number of people in the household) are denied such benefits. There is no incentive to become a permanent resident, if they did they would fall under the same rule as citizens and not have their income prorated causing them to exceed the income limit for food assistance. There is no illegal alien proration for citizens and someone with legal status. We always count the full income for citizens and permanent residents who have been here for more than 5 yrs. There were incidents where permanent residents would receive food assistance up until they reached their five years then they had to be told they were now over income because they had legal status here. Put yourself in the caseworker's shoes while trying to explain that. It was standard policy to take falsified documents, permanent resident cards, as long as the ID had a picture matching the client. Mostly I used their countries' Voter ID or their country's driver's license for photo ID. Although not required for expedite, I always asked for a birth certificate and SSN of citizen children for ID. In fact it was important to keep track of all the socials they used so we could determine benefits for them. I was officially trained to do look ups on all children's social security numbers as well to see if there were any wages on them. I had 3 year olds flipping burgers etc. Mostly I had people with multiple socials. This made it really difficult to determine exact gross income. This fact and the illegal alien proration for food assistance made "denying" for over income very rare. In fact most of my day was spent approving applications and reviews. I rarely denied anyone. Under the proration method illegal alien households consistently receive benefits that households of Kansas citizens are denied . Under the proration method the ratio of legal to illegal members of the household is used to reduce the gross monthly income which determines benefit eligibly and amounts. A household comprised of one illegal alien mother with a child born in the United States, who are considered a U.S. citizen, the proration is 50% so the gross income of the household is reduced by 50% for purposes of determining if the household is eligible for food assistance and how much. 100% of the gross income of households comprised of only U.S. citizens is considered in determining benefits. This has the effect of excluding the U.S. citizen households for benefits. Also under the USDA regulation if the applicant cannot prove or refuses to prove their status i.e., provide documents of such, they are considered illegal aliens. This encourages citizens to lie about their status and discourages illegal aliens from trying to obtain a legal status as it would exclude them from or reduce their welfare benefits. TAF grants[v] are also prorated for illegal aliens but never for citizens. Although TANF money is not available to illegal aliens, it is allocated to them through the proration of the TANF grants which increases the benefits to the citizen children. Thus allocating money to illegal aliens that is illegal for them to have to boost benefits to the household. Thirty per cent (30%) of my cases were over the gross income limit for food assistance The proration allowed them to receive the benefit while citizens of equal household composition would be denied. I came up with an approximate cost of this policy and gave it to my manager in 2009. The cost for my cases and the other three bilingual case workers in Johnson and Wyandotte counties amounted to approximately $2,276,544.00 annually in benefits that if they were citizens would never have been issued at all. When I told my boss that nationally this could equate to billions of dollars he jokingly replied "is that all?" The proration still exists. Nothing was done about it. He said "Call my congressmen". Which is what I have been doing for the last 2 years. Three Strikes You're Out The policy is 3 frauds and no more assistance. What this equates for citizen families is the wage earners no longer get assistance from the State of KS but their eligible children still do. Each time they are convicted of fraud their benefits cease for a period of time. There is no punishment for illegal alienfraud because the proration already is designed to exclude part of the wage earners income. However, when coded DF the system counts all the income and excludes the adults. The illegal alien family does not really experience any financial difference. They can and do get another social reapply for food assistance with less income and we are required to approve their application if they have citizen children. The attitude became why spend tax dollars to send an investigator out when they are going to get benefits anyway? The policy should not be 3 strikes you are out but one and you are done... Over Whelming the System When I started with the SRS in 2008 I was the only bilingual worker for the Overland Park SRS office. By the time I left in 2010 SRS had added a total of three bilingual workers and Wyandotte County was up to three as well. This was a 500% increase in less than three years. This system punished the diligent employee who wanted to not only do their job right but do the right thing. Our processing requirement was to have more than 93% of the food assistance applicants correctly processed in thirty days. This should be enough time to run checks and verify wages etc. However, due to the high attrition (my team completely turned over 100% from 2 years ag0) constant reassigning of cases, the caseloads went beyond burdensome making maintaining "statistics" for performance based evaluations and doing "fraud" checks next to impossible. As a result most of the applicants were not properly checked. Even if I sent out the investigator and found another wage earner, the proration guaranteed that the income wouldn't be all counted and after the rent deduction, the standard utility deduction etc the family would be approved anyway. When I first started I had a cap of eight new applicants per week. The last year they uncapped me and I had to take whoever walked in the door. If 8 walked in one day (and they did) I had to take them. Originally I was told my caseload would be 130. My caseload hovered around 160 when I was capped. Uncapped my caseload went to over 260, almost a 63% increase in cases. Of course the performance standard was not changed. And, things only became worse. The last months I worked for SRS so many English Caseworkers were leaving that I was required to take English cases. English workers had had enough of the caseloads, high expectations and the fraud and were leaving in record numbers. This was very stressful since I was only trained on the illegal aliens with citizen children and I was not accustomed to Work Programs for citizens receiving benefits. Citizens are required to comply with work programs to get TANF. My citizen children's parents (illegal aliens) who received TANF were not required to do work programs. I rarely had clients on TANF. Over 95% of my caseload was working compared to 40% unemployed in the English Citizen Caseload. The illegal alien proration for food assistance allowed two wage earners to work and still get benefits. My clients didn't need vehicle money, job coaching, interview clothes etc to get a job. The only time they didn't have a job was in the winter when landscaping/construction was down. When the weather got warmer they would immediately get off TANF and return to only food assistance and child care for benefits so they could continue to work illegally. Getting jobs was no problem for my caseload that was their objective when they crossed the border. In essence the SRS subsidized the wages of the illegal aliens, allowing them to get by on a reduced wage, and otherwise help them to work illegally in this country at the expense of taxpayers and citizens who could not afford to work at the same wage without the government subsidy. Don't Rock the Boat I felt because I started questioning the Illegal Alien proration, I got a target on my back. Most caseworkers didn't want me to rock the boat they were trying to get to retirement or become vested. But secretly the caseworkers hoped my Union grievances on the lobby policy would succeed since they were hopelessly overloaded. The lobby policy, was a customer service expectation of getting out to the lobby within 15 minutes of a client coming in whether they had an appointment with us or not. This seriously ate into the "look up and verify" procedure time. Making fraud easier to miss. The caseworkers in SRS are given very little respect by management or the clients. It is a thankless job. I admire those State employees. It is unbelievable what they have to endure in order to make a living. It is because management did not listen to my protests on the proration and the fraud that I joined the Union where I was guaranteed my grievances could be documented and heard. Management doesn't listen to workers suggestions because they don't respect the workers. It is of utmost importance to relay that I felt I was required to go along with fraud in order to keep my job there. Management certainly didn't listen to what I was saying or take it seriously and they denied every grievance and especially didn't listen to KOSE (State Employee Union) grievances. If you don't listen then how are you going to fix a problem? At some point one realizes SRS management did not want to fix the problem at all. Conclusion Under the current SRS system Kansas taxpayers are having millions of dollars stolen from them through fraud. Perhaps worse Kansas citizens, who are footing the bill, are being denied benefits and assistance. The SS system works for the illegal aliens and the illegal aliens know how to work the system. Under the SRS system Kansans were treated as second class citizens in their own country by the government that was supposed to be working for them and was spending their money. SRS denied citizens benefits that were readily provide to illegal aliens. Citizens were punished for fraud but illegal aliens were not affected by the "punishment" with the current policies in place. Even the law abiding legal immigrants were put at a disadvantage compared to the illegal aliens. A system that rewards illegal activity only begets more illegal activity. Thank you for the opportunity to testify. Respectfully Submitted, Lana Reed ________________________________________ [i] Wage earning aliens who are here legally as permanent residence do not get benefits under federal for five years. However the children get benefits whether they are legal are not. They get a proration (DI) [ii] DI means [iii] DI is also used for citizens who are under a work penalty in TANF (welfare). Again wage earners are coded DI, but the children still get benefits. [iv] SAVE is a system to verify the validity of a permanent residence card. (Immigration/Homeland Security) SRS Gives Preference to Illegal Aliens over Kansas Citizens; Has Policy to Ignore Fraud Cost Taxpayers Millions? SRS Gives Preference to Illegal Aliens over Kansas Citizens; Has Policy to Ignore Fraud Cost Taxpayers Millions? By Richard Fry I attended the hearing yesterday (3/10/11) on the Kansas omnibus "immigration" bill HB2372. This bill was largely drafted by current Secretary of State Kris Kobach. The bill includes an Arizona SB1070 type provision, tightens up the providing of benefits to illegal aliens, implements E-verify for state contractors and holds dishonest and unfair businesses accountable for "recklessly" violating the law by hiring illegal aliens. As usual the supporters of the bill were outnumbered. The proponent conferees (those giving "testimony") were outnumbered 3 to 1 and the attendees at least 2 to 1. Of course many of the opponent conferees and attendees were lobbyist or representatives of trade groups. It was disappointing to have the Unified Government of Wyandotte County represented by a paid lobbyist. Citizens as Props Conservatives Outnumbered Again As usual there was speculation as to why the supporters of progressive principles (global citizens and open borders) were able to outnumber those who stood for the rule of law; Constitutional governance and fiscal conservatism were once again out numbers. Part of the problem was the very late notice of when the hearing would be held. Most only received notice of the hearing on Tuesday or Wednesday. Not much notice if you are trying to reshuffle your work scheduled or arranging to have your kids picked up from school. Although this was a particularly short notice the hearings are almost always too short to accommodate the average citizen. Sometimes it feels as if we "conservatives" are still the props in the conservative politicians' play rather than the main character with our politicians in a supporting role, as it should be. As with most factors relating to these types of issues there is a double standard anyway. In the 2010 session there were dozens of conferees supporting the Tenth Amendment Resolution (TAR) and only one conferee who testified against it. Likewise, of the over 500 attendees I did not see one person opposed to the TAR. However, at every opportunity the committee chairman, Tim Owens, mentioned that those present were the outspoken voices (loud mouths) for the measure but that there were many silent voices that opposed it and they, the politicians, had to represent the silent voices as well. Of course I have never heard Senator Owens plea for the "silent" voices before and certainly not for a conservative cause. SRS gives preference to Illegal Aliens over Citizens and Approves of Fraud An interesting development was the testimony of a former SRS caseworker who testified about the SRS policy to ignore fraud and to discriminate against citizens in favor of illegal aliens in awarding benefits. In determining eligibility for benefit the SRS considers the entire gross wages of the household, at least for citizens. Apparently Kansas has adopted an OPTION for illegal aliens whereby they "prorate" some of the income the illegal alien (make illegally) to the illegal aliens and some to the "citizen" kids of the illegals. They only count the income allocated to the kids as the household income thereby reducing the gross income and making some illegal households eligible for benefits when a citizens household would be denied benefits and giving the illegal household more benefits that a citizen's household with the same "gross" gross income and the same number of people in the household. This is clearly preferential treatment for illegal aliens over U.S. citizens and law abiding immigrants. The witness estimated that this "proration" costs Kansas taxpayers over 2.7 million dollars per year just in Johnson and Wyandotte counties. The witness noted that 83% of their caseload had false Social Security Numbers (SSN) and a majority of these had "unassigned" SSNs i.e., valid SSNs that had not yet been assign to an individual by the Social Security Administration. This sounds like an inside job to me. As a matter of SRS policy the case workers had to accept fraudulent documents and were required to code fraud (DF) by illegals as noncompliance with SRS internal requirements for those seeking employment (DI). Also whereas citizens caught in fraud were prosecuted and suffered a loss of benefits the illegals really suffered no real loss of benefits. And it goes on and on. When the caseworker brought these issues to management they showed no concern and no changes were made. Perhaps there wasn't any concern because it was a waste of your money, my fellow citizens, not "management's". I don't want those types of people working for me. The Usual Suspects Of course the lobbyist or other representatives of the contractors and builders association, the hotel and entertainment industries, the agricultural industry including the ranchers were well represented and the various Chambers of Commerce. Yes representatives of those who are widely known to be the biggest users and abusers of illegal aliens. It was the same old story: e-verify will cost too much to implement and maintain (evidence shows otherwise), it will subject business to unfair scrutiny and fines and this is a matter for Congress. First, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that immigration is limited to who gets into the country, under what conditions and who and how they leave. Immigration authority does not extend to regulation and / or licensing of business, employer - employee relations, who drives, who has to pay what tuition etc. these are powers left to the states under their general police power. So no it is not a federal matter. I do not know why no one challenges these progressive folks on this assertion. Second, in the 1982 case of Pyler v Texas the Supreme Court noted that Congress had been neglecting the immigration issue for thirty years. That has been almost thirty years ago, so Congress has neglected the illegal alien problem for almost sixty (60) years. In 1986 when the first Amnesty was given to illegals (there have been at least six since then) the estimated population was about 3.4 million. Now most experts agree it is between twenty and thirty million. Reality check! Congress is not going to address this problem unless forced to. Third, it's unfair to honest businesses and their employees to allow the unscrupulous businesses to get an unfair advantage by using illegal aliens as their labor force. I doubt if there are any honest companies in the house framing, roofing and sheet rocking businesses anymore. Other industries are under attack. Fourth, they do not address all the other costs we citizens have to endure because of the presence of illegal aliens. Many of the costs are not financial. What cost do you put on the deterioration of our society and culture due to the breakdown of the rule of law, the almost 90,000 deaths here of our fellow citizens, and the stealth implementation of Spanish as our second language. Conclusion Once again a lot of our public servants are not listening to what "We the People" want. They are trying to do what they think is best for us, the world or who knows what else. The bottom line is we citizens are tired of being treated as a second class citizen in our own state and country and having to foot the bill to boot. The reason we have not made more progress with our efforts to take back control of our government is not enough Americans are informed or involved. There is no longer a good reason for them to not be getting better informed and more involved. There are way too many people ringing the warning bell on what is going on to not invoke sideliners duty to investigate for themselves. At this point they should be considered greedy, lazy or plain un-American. Perhaps we should start directing some of our heat their way. Second, we continue to play the other side's game. Most of us want to continue to be politically correct and excessively civil. Some are afraid if we get too assertive we will be called an angry mob, kooks, Astor-turf, tea baggers, racist, and right- wing extremist and so on and so forth. Wake up they are already doing that. Some say if we get too assertive with our politicians they will not help us or do what we ask. Wake up! Most of them are not doing anything for us now. Even Christ displayed some good ole righteous indignation on occasion and I think we should as well. "Cry Me A Rio Grande - Kansas" Although this article was written in 2010, little has changed with regard to the opposition to HB 2372 this year, it is just a different day at the same old place and it was the Senate that killed SB 458 two years before SB 1070 was introduced in Arizona. Will the Kansas House now fold to Big Business and Special Interest groups that do not have the interest of Kansas Citizens at heart? Larry From the NOlathe Blog By: Ken Dunwoody http://nolathe.net/2010/09/08/cry-me-a-rio-grande-kansas/ Cry Me A Rio Grande Kansas! September 8, 2010 by nolathe During the last several months, I can not think of one day when I turned on the news that the Arizona Immigration Law SB-1070 requiring enforcement of Federal Immigration Laws wasn't in play somewhere. A Time Capsule might look like this: 􀁺 Localized demonstrations of illegals demanding the same rights as "other citizens" 􀁺 Demonstrators denigrating the U.S. Flag and raising the Mexican National Flag 􀁺 Boycotts of Arizona business and activities (even by schools) 􀁺 Support for SB-1070 from other States (except Kansas) 􀁺 President of Mexico files protest of discrimination 􀁺 U.S. Attorney General files suit against Arizona (SB-1070) 􀁺 U.S. Secretary of State complains to United Nations on SB-1070 Even here in Kansas we watched as Co-Author of SB-1070 and candidate for Kansas Secretary of State Kris Kobach invited America's Sheriff Joe Arpaio to Olathe. Following threats of protests the event was moved to a more secure facility in Overland Park and even there experienced protests and a bomb threat. A 'State summation' of the bill reads "The bill would require all state officials, agencies, and personnel to fully comply with and support the enforcement of federal immigration laws. The bill would also require all law enforcement officers to inquire into the citizenship and immigration status of any person arrested for a violation of state law or municipal ordinance, regardless of the person's national origin, ethnicity, or race. If an arrestee is determined to be an alien, the bill would require the officer to verify if the alien is lawfully present in the U.S. with the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and cooperate with any request made by ICE to detain or transfer the alien to the custody of the federal government. The bill would also prohibit any official or agent of a state, county, or city law enforcement agency from being restricted from information regarding any individual or exchanging the information with any other federal, state, or local government agency. Also, the bill would prohibit state, county, or city law enforcement agencies from discouraging officers to ask individuals their citizenship or immigration status." So what does all this have to do with Kansas and why would I chose to write about it again as I have clearly shown in previous postings that our Kansas elected government is very pro-illegal immigration? Well, once again a reader of NOlathe has supplied some great material to pursue but please first read these two posts as preparation: 1. http://nolathe.net/2010/02/17/kansas-senate-funds-illegal-immigration/ 2. http://nolathe.net/2010/02/18/topeka-the-ultimate-one-party-town/ Let's start with the 'State summation' above, it was written by Duane A. Goossen, Kansas Director of the Budget on February 27, 2008 regarding Kansas SB-458. http://www.kslegislature.org/fiscalnotes/2008/458.pdf Huh? I thought we were talking about illegal immigration enforcement in Arizona? How did we end up here? Well, two years before Kris Kobach co-authored Arizona SB-1070 he co-authored Kansas SB-458. Wait until you see who testified in opposition of Kansas SB-458 http://www.kslegislature.org/bills/2008/458.pdf I think one could easily predict "lawn care", "construction", "law firm" companies and any organization with Hispanic in the title to be listed in opposition. Take a look- Verbal Testimony- Opposing SB458 1. Wichita Independent Business Association, President and Kansas Independent Business Coalition President, Tim Witsman. 445 N. Waco Street, Wichita, KS 67202 2. Artistic Designs Lawn and Landscape Inc. HR Manager, Nestor Leon. PO Box 860576, Shawnee, Kansas, 66286. 913-888-7320 3. Catholic Diocese of Dodge City, Sister Gemma Doll 4. Hermes Company, Inc. Dalton Hermes, owner 5. Julie Frady 6. Kansas Board of Regents, Reginald L. Robinson, President, and CEO. 1000 SW Jackson, Suite 520, Topeka, KS 66612. 785-296-3421 7. Kansas Catholic Conference, Arch Bishop Joseph F. Naumann, D.D, 6301 Antioch, Merriam, KS 66202. 913-722-6633 8. Kansas Chamber of Commerce, President and CEO, Amy Blankenbiller. 835 SW Topeka, Blvd, Topeka, KS, 66612. 785-357-6321 9. Kansas Farm Bureau, Terry D. Holdren, National Director 10. Kansas Grain and Feed Assoc. Duane Simpson, CEO/Vice President. 816 SW Tyler, Suite 100, Topeka, KS, 66612. 785-234-0461 11. Kansas Independent Oil and Gas Assoc. David M. Dayvault, President, Abercrombie Energy, LLC. CFO, 800 SW. Jackson St. Suite 1400, Topeka KS, 66612 12. League of Kansas Municipalities, Sandy Jacquot, General Council. 300 SW 8th Ave. Topeka, KS, 66603. 785-354-9565. 13. Johnson County Government, The Johnson County Board of County Commissioners, Steward J. Little, PhD, Little Government Relations. 800 SW Jackson, Suite 914. Topeka, KS 66612. 885-235-8187. 14. MO/KS American Immigration Lawyers Association, Angela J. Furguson, Chairman. 15. Public Health Dept. Director, Joseph M. Connor. 619 Ann Ave. Kansas City, KS, 66101. 913-321-4803. 16. Central Plains Development, Owner, Robert A. Snyder. 3620 Sunnybrook, Wichita, KS. 67210. 316-312-3583. 17. Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church of Topeka, Sister Maria Luz Hernandez 18. Society for Human Resource Management, Director of Governmental Affairs, Michael P. Aitken 19. The Mdivani Law Firm LLC, Emily Haverkamp, Immigration Attorney. 7007 College Blvd. Suite 460, Overland Park, KS. 66212 913-317-6200 [email protected] 20. The Mdivani Law Firm LLC, Mira Mdivani, Immigration Attorney, 7007 College Blvd. Suite 460, Overland Park, KS. 66212. 913-317-6200. 21. Kansas Business Coalition, Ally Devine Written Testimony- Opposing SB458 1. United Methodist Women of the Kansas East Conference, President Sue Littrell, and Social Action, Susan G. Fowler. 2. Heritage Lawns LTD, Wes Ory, President 3. Wichita Area Builders Association, President/CEO Wess Galyon 4. Artistic designs lawn and landscape, Inc. Duane Lukowsky, PO Box 860576, Shawnee Kansas, 66286, 913-888-7320 5. Associated General Contractors of Kansas, Associate Government Affairs Director, Eric Stafford, 200 SW 33rd Street, Topeka, KS 66611, 785-266-4015 6. Associated Builders and Contractors, Inc. HOA Chapter, Jim Kistler, President and CEO, 6950 Squibb Road, Suite 418, Mission, KS, 66202 913-831-2221 7. Dominican Sisters of Great Bend Kansas, Sister Rene Weeks, OP President 8. Grass Roots Inc. President, Lance Shelhammer, II. Olathe KS. 9. Topeka Kansas Chamber of Commerce, Christy Caldwell, Vice President Government Relations. [email protected] 10. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce of Greater Kansas City, President and CEO, Carlos Gomez. 11. Home Builders Association of Greater Kansas City, MO. 600 E. 103rd St. Kansas City, MO 64131. 816-942-8800 12. Home Builders Association of Greater Tulsa, Oklahoma, Paul Kane 13. Social Security Administration, Assistant Inspector General for the Office of Audit, Steve Schaeffer 14. Justice and Peace Center, Sisters of St. Joseph, Sister Esther Pineda, CSJ. Concordia, KS, 15. Kansas Building Industry Assoc, Inc, Executive Director, Chris Wilson 16. Kansas Business Coalition, Amy Blankenbiller 17. Kansas Cooperative Council, Executive Director, Leslie Kaufman, PO Box 1747 Hutchison, KS, 67504. 785-233-4085. [email protected] 18. Kansas Corporation Commission, Mathew A. Spurgin, Litigation Council. 1500 SW Arrowhead Rd, Topeka, KS 66604, 785-271-3100 19. Kansas Families for Education, Executive Director, Kathy Cook. 15941 W. 65th Street, #104 Shawnee KS, 66217. 913-825-0099 20. Kansas Manufactured Housing Assoc. Executive Director, Martha Smith. 3521 SW 5th Street, Topeka, KS 66606, 785-357-5256. [email protected] 21. Kansas Pork Association President/CEO, Tim Stoda. 2601 Farm Bureau Rd. Manhattan, KS, 66502. 785-776-0442. [email protected] 22. Kansas Restaurant and Hospitality Association, Don Sayler, President/CEO, 3500 N. Rock Road, Building 1300, Wichita, KS, 67226. 800-369-6787. [email protected] 23. Kansas Society of Human Resource Management - State Council Wichita Society of Human Resource Management, Trinidad Galdean, 8301 E. 21st Street North, Suite 370, Wichita, KS, 67206. 316-609-7900 24. Kansas National Education Association, Mark Desetti. 715 SW 10th Ave. Topeka, KS 66612. 785-232-8271. 25. Kansas League of United Latin American Citizens, Policy and Advocacy Director, Elias L.Garcia. 26. Community Activist, Topeka, Nancy Ochoa. 27. Overland Park Chamber of Commerce, Vice President of Government Relations, J Kent Eckles. 9001 W. 110th Street, Suite 150, Overland Park, KS, 66210. 913-491-3600. 28. Sisters of Charity of Leavenworth, Member of Leadership Team, Sister Linda Roth 29. The Builders Association and Kansas City Chapter, AGC, Director of Governmental Affairs, Dan Morgan. 632 W. 39th Street, Kansas City, MO. 64111. 816-531-4741. 30. The Kansas Contractors Association, 316 SW 33rd Street, Topeka, KS. 66605. 785-266-4152 [email protected] (written) NEUTRAL/INFORMATIONAL TESTIMONY 1. Kansas Dept. of Health and Environment, Division of Health Cindi Treaster, Director Farm worker, Refugee and Immigrant Health 2. Kansas Association of Chiefs of Police, Ed Klumpp (written) We find that Kansas cities (League of Kansas Municipalities), Johnson County Board of Commissioners, Overland Park Chamber of Commerce and the Social Security Administration are PRO-ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION? Okay, it's still up to a vote, so how did our Kansas Senators vote on SB-458? The Kansas Senate with a Republican Majority must surely respect the Kansas Republican Party Platform and vote in support of SB-458 right? REPUBLICANS VOTING YES [2011 Update] Jim Barnett, Emporia. Les Donovan, Wichita. Tim Huelskamp, Fowler. [U.S. Congress] Nick Jordan, Shawnee. Phil Journey, Haysville. Ralph Ostmeyer, Grinnell. Peggy Palmer, Augusta. Mike Petersen, Wichita. Dennis Pyle, Hiawatha. Mark Taddiken, Clifton. REPUBLICANS VOTING NO [2011 Update] Barbara Allen, Overland Park. Pat Apple, Louisburg. Karin Brownlee, Olathe. [Kansas Secretary of Labor] Terry Bruce, Hutchinson. Pete Brungardt, Salina. Jay Scott Emler, Lindsborg. [Majority Leader] Carolyn McGinn, Sedgwick. Steve Morris, Hugoton. (President) Roger Pine, Lawrence. Roger Reitz, Manhattan. Derek Schmidt, Independence. (Majority Leader) [Kansas Attorney General] Vicki Schmidt, Topeka. (Assistant Majority Leader) Jean Schodorf, Wichita. (Assistant Majority Whip) Ruth Teichman, Stafford. Dwayne Umbarger, Thayer. John Vratil, Leawood. (Vice President) Susan Wagle, Wichita. Dennis Wilson, Overland Park. David Wysong, Mission Hills. REPUBLICANS NOT VOTING Julia Lynn, Olathe. DEMOCRATS VOTING YES Jim Barone, Frontenac. Mark Gilstrap, Kansas City. DEMOCRATS VOTING NO Donald Betts, Wichita. Marci Francisco, Lawrence. Greta Goodwin, Winfield. David Haley, Kansas City. Anthony Hensley, Topeka. Laura Kelly, Topeka. Janis Lee, Kensington. Chris Steineger, Kansas City. So to all you Kansans that firmly support Arizona SB-1070 and want to vote those bums out that oppose it, how about we start with Kansas SB-458 and vote our own bums out first! Real Change has to start in our own backyards. Until then, Cry Me a River Kansas! I'll start with bum-ett Karin Brownlee who's only contribution on illegal immigration was to make it illegal for illegal aliens to be forced to pay union dues. You think I'm kidding?


15. [English Voiceover] Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah(HA) - Press Conference - August 09, 2010

[English Voiceover] Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah(HA) - Press Conference - August 09, 2010

The full text of the press conference held by Hezbollah Secretary General Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah on Monday August 9th, 2010 at Shahed Hall – Airport Highway In the Name of Allah, The Compassionate, The Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, The Lord of the world. Peace be on the Seal of prophets - our Master and Prophet Abi Al Qassem Mohammad - and on his chaste and pure Household, chosen companions and all prophets and messengers. Brothers and sisters! Ladies and gentlemen! Peace be upon you all and Allah's mercy and blessing. First, I have promised to hold a press conference in which I present indications and data that open new horizons which help in accusing the Israeli enemy of assassinating martyr Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri. This is exactly what I promised of, and I will fulfill my promise tonight Inshallah. Also since I made my announcement to this effect, comments from one party were issued: Why now? Why not years before? Why did you hide this data? Why are you unveiling it now and talking about it? Apart from the means, background and technique in which this issue was evoked – as we will talk seriously because we do not want to get engaged with each other – I will leave answering this question to the end of the press conference because the data which I will present will help, taking its nature and timing into consideration. That will help very much in answering this question. Indeed I must welcome all of you and thank you for this important and great attendance. It goes without saying that the event, the topic, the cause, the stage and the challenge necessitated on you this level of responsibility – and you are competent for this responsibility. Welcome then. I also thank all the media outlets that will show interest in what I will say and broadcast it live on air. As usual, there are several topics: I will try to be as quick as possible. I will talk also in classical Arabic to generalize the benefit abroad. I will be as quick as possible to make full use of time though the case deserves considerable time from all of us. The first topic: Israel's accusation of Hezbollah. This is an indispensable prelude. The Israeli enemy had been working on this since the very beginning and especially after the event of September 13th, 1993. All of us – all the Lebanese – know that on that very day Oslo Accord was inked. Hezbollah organized a protest in the southern suburb (Dahiyeh); it was opposed by the Lebanese government which was then under Premier Hariri. Fire was opened on the demonstrators; ten martyrs fell and more than 50 were wounded. At the time, a kind of political tension and conflict took place between Hezbollah and the first government of Premier Hariri and with Premier Rafiq Hariri in person. This is well known. The Israelis intruded through one of their agent at the time who contacted one of the security internals in the party of Premier Hariri. He worked at convincing him that Hezbollah is plotting to assassinate him and is now in the execution stage. He particularly accused brethren martyr Imad Mughniyeh and others of what he claimed and the data he gave. To comprehend the issue, I would like to present it in my way: Months after the event of September 13th, 1993, Syrian Intelligence and pursuant to a command by General Ghazi Kanaan, arrested one of the Islamic Resistance cadres in Sidon – namely brethren fighter Hajj Ali Deeb who is known as Abu Hassan Salameh and who was later killed by the Israelis. When you listen to the collaborator talking about Abu Hassan Salameh, he would be meaning brethren Ali Deeb. Brethren Ali Deeb was arrested in ambiguous unknown conditions. Days later, I knew that brethren Abu Hassan Salameh is in Anjjar. So I went to meet General Ghazi Kanaan, and I called on him to set free the brethren. He told me that he sent him that morning to Damascus and that the issue is in Damascus by now. I blamed him saying: What is the story? Has you summoned him from me for interrogation, you know that we would have responded. You know we respond in such issues especially if the case is sensitive. General Ghazi told me: (Indeed let no one say I am referring to deceased persons because the document exists and will be presented in a while) Some days ago, Premier Rafiq Hariri paid me a visit and told me: I have some data; there is a very close person to Hajj Imad Mughniyeh. He is either a politburo or one of the very close bodyguards to Hajj Imad. He attended a session (this reminds me of Zuheir Essedeeq) with Hajj Imad Mughniyeh and Abu Hassan Salameh among others whom he did not know by name. In the session, they plotted to assassinate you. The assassination will take place through ambushes which will be set for you in this road and on that road. He gave him some details. General Ghazi carries on saying: We can't remain silent on that because this is an assassination operation which is being set for the Premier. We can't contact Imad Mughniyeh but we can reach Abu Hassan Salameh. Thus we arrested him. I told him: Good. Six days of interrogation – allow me to say of "Anjjari" interrogation - during which the bones of Abu Hassan Salameh were 'crushed' so that he confesses and acknowledges of the incident but Abu Hassan used to tell them that is not true. This is sheer falsehood. He used to deny that absolutely. He was sent to Damascus, and he was interrogated there too. General Ghazi told me: The case is now in Damascus. I wrote then a letter to late President Hafiz Assad. He referred the case to General Ali Duba. (Now we are talking about alive persons). He called me to have a meeting with me. I went to meet General Ali. He got an investigation file. The result of the investigation in Damascus also was that the story is baseless. Indeed things took place then and there is no time to mention them now. Brethren Abu Hassan was set free and he returned to Beirut. Two years following this incident (which took place by the end of 1993 and early 1994) i.e. in 1996, the security of the Resistance was pursuing an Israeli collaborator who used to take shots of headquarters, houses and personalities in the southern suburbs of Beirut (Dahiyeh) and in the South. Finally the brethrens could arrest him. The name of the collaborator is Ahmad Nasrallah. He is not a relative of mine indeed because he is from another village. But now he is not a relative even of his own family because the collaborator does not belong to his father, mother and family. The interrogation with collaborator Ahmad Nasrallah was over photographing houses and headquarters. What did you photographed? What did you provide the Israelis with? The story of Premier Rafiq Hariri, General Ghazi Kanaan and Abu Hassan Salameh was not in our minds at all. However, in the process of the interrogation, he mentioned the story and we have as prolonged record of that. However due to the importance of the time element and the time limit, we will listen in a while to some of the confessions of this collaborator. He confessed and said: I contacted one of PM Hariri's internals and told him that I am close to Hajj Imad Mughniyeh. He also mentioned a name – Mohammad Afif – and said that he does not in fact know someone with this name. I gave him false illusionary information for several months. (See what this collaborator did. He used to demand on the security body of Premier Hariri to avoid moving on such and such highway because his information says that Hezbollah will ambush him there or place a booby-trapped car there, and tell them that he must take another highway. For an interval of time, he could control the movement of Premier Hariri's motorcade. He then quoted (And this is very serious) Abu Hassan Salameh as saying that during the session he suggested (And Abu Hassan is from Sidon so his suggestion is typically from Sidon too) that they may kill MP Bahiyeh Hariri. Then Premier Hariri will be obliged to come to Sidon to receive condolences and then they would kill him in Sidon. This is the complete fabrication which was presented by the Israeli collaborator to Premier Hariri's security body. Then I handed a copy of the tape to General Ghazi Kanaan, and the collaborator was also handed to the concerned security apparatuses. He was jailed until 2000. In February 2000 and before the liberation he was set free for reasons which I do not know. He fled within few days to the border line and thereof to Occupied Palestine and he is still there. His family followed him or he fled with his family and he is still there in Occupied Palestine where he works for recruiting Lebanese for the enemy. This is the beginning then. Collaborator Ahmad Nasrallah could, and following dictations from the Israeli enemy, implant this fabrication. So our story with false witnesses started a long time ago. Here is a biography for Ahmad Nasrallah and a sound bite for him: The report: Name: Ahmad Hussein Nasrallah Date and place of birth: Khiam, 1967. Nationality: Lebanese. He is an Israeli collaborator who resides currently in Occupied Palestine. He was arrested in 1996 and remained in jail until 2000 when he was set free on February 3rd, 2000. He fled to the occupied border line on February 14th, 2000 and thereof he fled to Occupied Palestine in May 2000. His family members came back from Occupied Palestine to Lebanon in groups via Naqura border gate. During his presence in Occupied Palestine, he partook in several recruitment operations for Lebanese to work for the enemy. He provided Premier Hariri with false information via one of the persons who work for PM Hariri: Illusionary information about Hajj Imad Mughniyeh; Hezbollah intends to assassinate Premier Hariri and had executed to this effect several unsuccessful attempts; a booby-trapped car is set and will target Premier Hariri - he eyed it on St. Michael crossing; Hezbollah has the intention of targeting Premier Hariri via persuading him to come to Sidon after brethren martyr Ali Deeb kills MP Bahiyeh Hariri in Sidon. Collaborator Ahmad Hussein Nasrallah (Sound bite): My name is Ahmad Hussein Nasrallah. I know a man who works for Rafiq Hariri since 1988 or 1989. He used to work at Al Hariri Institute near the house of my sister. On the day of the massacre of September 1993, I was going to visit my sister and the incident took place. He asked me what took place. What do you have to say? Was it a massacre? I told him they say that things are not going smoothly. They want to kill Rafiq Hariri. So if there was something against Hariri you may benefit from me. After a week or two, I saw him and told him it seems they are preparing something against Rafiq Hariri. He told me are you able to know anything to this effect? Can you make sure if there is something being prepared? I told him yes I can be sure. I can collect information whether there is anything prepared or not. After around a week or four or five days I saw him and told him there is a person whom we may benefit from. His name is Mohammad Afif who works with Imad Mughniyeh and who works in a security way. There is an attempt to kill Hariri. I told him what is the communication means between you and me – in case anything takes place? I took a date after a week so that he gives me a mobile phone. On that date he gave me a mobile phone. So in every time I used to tell him: There is a booby-trapped car and give him its descriptions. I used to tell him there is something prepared for Hariri. (Don't let your master go and come. Always warn him. I used to tell him at time where is you master? I used to know when there is a session for the government and tell him let your master be aware. There is a booby-trapped car on the way to Baabda. Let your master be aware. Once I told him that Imad Mughniyeh is going to Hamra if any one may watch him or anything of this sort. Once I told him the story of Bahiyeh – that there is an assassination attempt against Bahiyeh so if they kill Bahiyeh Hariri, Premier Hariri will visit Sidon. When he comes they will kill him while on the way to Sidon. This was set by Abu Hassan Salameh who lives in Sidon. Thus was the story of killing Bahiyeh. So whenever I go and come back from the South, I would tell him I saw the men of Abu Hassan Salameh on my way. As for Mohammad Afif, there is no one with this name. I fabricated this name for an illusionary guy who works with me and with Imad. As for Imad Mughniyeh I do not know him. I never in my life saw him but I hear of his name. Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah: This is evidence on the primary Israeli fabrication deluding Premier Hariri to this effect. It goes without saying that then we may suppose that the martyr Premier did not inform General Ghazi Kanaan only but also informed the rest of his friends in Syria, his close team, his French, Saudi, Gulf, European friends and others. Indeed one can't remain silent on such a critical issue. Thus the Israelis could implant in the minds of many that there is an illusionary conspiracy of this kind. We suffice ourselves with this extent and move to the second part. Second under the topic of Israel's accusation of Hezbollah: We found that the Israelis on February 14th, 2005 made haste and accused us of the assassination. Since the very beginning they stuck to this accusation for years until reaching Dir Spiegel and what follows Dir Spiegel. You have listened recently to Israeli comments on the issue. Still and also not to consume much of time, we will watch a brief report on some samples of Israel's accusations of Hezbollah. The Report: The Israeli accusation of Hezbollah – Statements made by Israeli officials and the comments of the Israeli media accusing Hezbollah of standing behind the crime. On February 14th, 2005, the Israeli Radio commented on the killing of Premier Hariri saying he had considerable conflicts with Hezbollah. On February 17th, 2005, Yadiot Ahranot published a report in which it mentioned the Military Intelligence Branch – Aman - as saying that the Branch has completed a new report which indicates that Hezbollah is the side responsible of liquidating former Lebanese Premier Rafiq Hariri. On February 17th, 2005, Amnon Dahan from Shas Party said that based on Aman report Hezbollah has assassinated Hariri and backed tightening the grip around Hezbollah and freezing its activities. Worth mentioning that journalist Amos Har'il wrote a report in Haartez on May 25th, 2010 and presented a file to Aman by the end of 2001 - i.e. three years before the assassination took place in which he expected that Hariri be assassinated on the hands of Hezbollah. War Minister Ehud Barak on May 24th, 2009 i.e. after Dir Spiegel Report, stressed that the STL has accused Hezbollah and not Syria. On May 29th, 2009, the military reporter of Jerusalem Post – Jacob Katz - quoted Barak as saying that it seems the UN report will reveal that Hezbollah is responsible of killing former Lebanese PM Rafiq Hariri. The enemy's Foreign Minister Avigdor Liebermann on May 24th, 2009 and following Dir Spiegel Report stressed that an international arrest warranty must be issued against Nasrallah and he must be arrested by force and taken to for trial. On February 10th, 2010, Naenae news Website reported Liebermann as accusing Hezbollah of being responsible for killing Premier Hariri and said addressing Saad Hariri: My heart is with Hariri. Hezbollah organization killed his father. Thus he is a hostage. I believe that his views towards Hezbollah are by far better than ours. Sayyed Nasrallah: We suffice ourselves with this limit as regarding the first topic. Now I will move to the second topic which is our accusation of the Israeli enemy of being responsible of the assassination operation. Under this topic there are four subtopics. First: Israel has the capability. I do not believe we need to have evidence that Israel has the capability to carry out this type of operations and similar operations that took place in Lebanon especially following 2004. The Israeli enemy history is full of operations that targeted Lebanese leaders whether in Lebanon or abroad. However in Lebanon in particular we do not need to mention a lengthy list of names of those who were killed by the Israeli enemy. Perhaps one of the best arenas in which the enemy enjoys a high capacity to execute such assassination operations is Lebanon which comes after Occupied Palestine. It's better than any other country because of its geographical situation: there is a long territorial border and a long shore. When tackling the activities of the collaborators we will mention how Israelis enter via Lebanese shores and ports at times into Lebanon and stay for weeks and for various periods of time. So the Israeli enemy has the capacity and the opportunity as well. Today it is being revealed that the enemy has many collaborators in various specializations. That means that in any field they want, there are collaborators in Lebanon. This is what has been revealed so far, and what is not revealed yet is even greater. Second: The interest and the motive. In brief, this is a political analysis but it is based on decisive conclusions. Everyone knows that Israel's enmity to the Resistance in Lebanon is great, strong and bitter. It is as such towards all the resistance movements in Lebanon especially to Hezbollah. The Israeli enemy is interested in benefiting from any military or security or internal chance to exterminate the resistance or to disarm it at least. It is taken for granted also that Israel has animosity towards Syria because it opposes a comprehensive settlement with Israeli conditions which wastes Arab rights and because Syria sticks to its rights and protects the resistance in Palestine and protects and supports the resistance in Lebanon. Frankly speaking, Israel's problem with Syria when it was in Lebanon was not that Syria is running Lebanon or is practicing mandate over Lebanon or appoints the government… That's not Israel's problem. Israel's problem with Syria is that Syria used to support and back the resistance movements in Lebanon and in Palestine. I know and I am obliged to say that. I have previously said so but now I will say the following: President Bachar Assad had personally told me that in 2004 and few weeks before the issuance of UN Security Council Resolution 1559, that an Arab leader paid him a visit and informed him that the US and the international community do not mind keeping Syrian forces in Lebanon, (Here I would like to remind you of Al Arz (The Cedars) Revolution and uprising and all the political movements that took place then with the hope that through this political bustle the Syrian Forces would withdraw from Lebanon). So they do not mind that Syrian Troops remain in Lebanon but they have a problem in the troops transgressing Al Awali River and go deep into South Lebanon until reaching the international frontiers. There are also two conditions: The first condition: disarming Hezbollah and the second condition: disarming Palestinian camps. Assad answered then that the Resistance in Lebanon is part of strategic national security which no one may dispense with, and that Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982 and could not disarm the camps. He returned with this response – meaning no. So Syria was negotiated to stay in Lebanon or to withdraw from it weeks before Resolution 1559 was issued. So it was necessary that a great event take place in Lebanon which might be exploited and invested to achieve these goals: Withdrawing Syria from Lebanon, besieging and isolating the Resistance before hitting it to disarm it. Thus was the great earthquake on February 14th, 2005. The assassination of PM Hariri came in this perspective and his blood was invested to withdraw Syria from Lebanon and it is now being used to besiege the resistance and to stage an aggression against it. This is the motive and the interest. Third: The Israeli technique: The Israeli technique in work. Tackling the Israeli technique in work will help us in understanding the indications, data and signs which I will present Inshallah. As for the Israeli method of operations, when the Israelis want to stage any security operation or a military operation with a security trait, they depend on several elements: First: Aerial surveillance: The Israeli enemy has various reconnaissance means: small and huge, and of various shapes and the most important of which is what the Lebanese know as the MK drone. Even the people in villages know the MK. A surveillance plane surveys the regions, roads, cities, houses, motorcades, the movement of individuals, gatherings, fortifications and the deployment of military forces and the like. Second: Technical Control: That means wiretapping devices, monitoring devices, cameras installed in various places and maximum benefit from mobile phones. Third: Field Surveillance through collaborators or spies or through Israeli commandos that descend to the land and make field surveillance and not being content with aerial scanning. Field surveillance provides detailed and at times precise information which may not be available through aerial surveillance. Fourth: Logistic support which means providing or admitting weapons, explosives, exploding apparatuses and transportation means to the field of the operation until reaching the execution stage Fourth: Here we will start talking about indications and data. Do the Israelis have a true security, intelligence operative activity since 2004 till now or not? Some used to deal with the issue as if the Israelis do not have an operative activity. Consequently, following every assassination that used to take place in the Lebanese arena, fingers used to point directly to Syria and Syria's allies or the so called Lebanese-Syrian joint security system. When we answer this question we may read and reach somewhere in comprehending the assassinations and the links between these operations and their taking place during the past years. We start with the collaborators. The majority of these collaborators were arrested in 2009 – 2010. For those who would like to ask me whether my information is new or old, I say that the security apparatuses started seriously arresting collaborators in 2009. Why is that so? This is another field for research. We start with the collaborators. I will talk about sample collaborators and their confessions not to Hezbollah but to the official Lebanese security bodies during official interrogation sessions. These collaborators were referred along with the interrogation records to the Public Prosecution. Some contents of the records were leaked and written in media outlets. However they were not taken into consideration as they ought to. We will take samples of collaborators. Following every collaborator, I will give a short comment to complete the idea. We start with the first collaborator: Report: We present for you the names of some collaborators who confessed of staging surveillance activities, explosions, communication operations, installing monitoring cameras as well as determining the places of persons whom the enemy assassinated in a direct way. Some of them also confessed of transporting explosives and requisites. -Collaborator Philipos Hanna Sader; He used to gather information about the President of the Republic and the Commander of the Army. Philipos Hanna Sader. Date of Birth: 1964. An Israeli collaborator. He started spying for the Israeli enemy in 2006 and was arrested in 2010 by the Lebanese security bodies. His role was to gather information about Lebanese military posts some of which for the Lebanese Army and collecting executive information about Lebanese political and military leaderships and figures. Prominent confessions: Following are the most prominent aims which the collaborator worked at pursuant to Israeli commands according to the information he presented: - His Eminence the President of the Republic General Michel Sleiman: information about his house in Amsheat; external descriptions, entrances, roads leading to it, how far it is from the shoreline, the duration which is needed to reach it on feet and by car from the shoreline, nearby parking. -Army Commander General Jean Qahwaji's: Information about his personal yacht. His Eminence Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah: If we considered for a while the mission which this collaborator – i.e. Sader - was asked to do, I must mention that field surveillance is an advanced step which precedes execution. That's because with this step the file of the operation is completed. It is followed with providing the capabilities and executing the operation. If the Israelis wanted general information about the house of the President of the Republic and its surrounding, they will be content with aerial surveillance. But in this case the collaborator is executing what the Israelis demanded on him to do. There is an Israeli official who operates him and calls on him to go and collect detailed and precise information about the house: the entrances, the surrounding… There is a very important thing which I would like you to keep in mind while watching the clips which have to do with the assassination of Premier Rafiq Hariri. It's the coastal shore. The Israelis are always interested in searching for a location for the operation which is near to the coastal shore. Thus they demanded from this collaborator to go to the shore and go on feet to the house of the President of the Republic to see how much time it consumes. Then they asked him to drive there to see how much time it consumes. Is this a survey to collect information for the fun of that or is it to perform an assassination operation in that area? This collaborator also confessed that he surveyed in details the yacht of the Army Commander which is in the port. Why did he inspect the yacht? Simply he might install a bomb or anything else in the yacht to target the Army Commander. Here I would like to stop for a while. This has not remained a secret in Lebanon. It was published in some newspapers. It was mentioned in the interrogation, sealed and referred to the Public Prosecution. How did this event pass in the country? Suppose that the Lebanese security bodies have arrested a Lebanese person who claimed that the Syrian Intelligence has charged him of a mission of this kind or that Hezbollah has charged him of a mission of this kind. How would be the situation in the country then? But since the Israelis are accused, the case was wrapped in 24 hours. Media outlets mentioned that for one day and the story was over. But who are the persons who are the target of the surveillance? They are the President of the Republic and the Lebanese Army Commander and not ordinary figures in the country. I want to put the basis to be careful with the rest of the collaborators and their revelations. Why did not the International Investigation Committee meet with this collaborator and with the others who have made similar confessions? Maybe it might find a link between this collaborator and the operating official and other collaborators who were involved in similar operations. A liar false witness came to Lebanon; based on his testimony, four senior officers and other persons from Abdul Aal family and from other respectable families were hurled in prison for four years. Senior Syrian officers were summoned to Vienna and were interrogated there as well as in Damascus. Still such a piece of information along with scores of similar revelations from collaborators do not necessitate on the international community or from the Lebanese government or from anyone in this world to ask for an interrogation with the Israeli officers who operate these collaborators to see what they are doing in the Lebanese arena, whom they want to kill after the figures the already killed. This is only a point for consideration. I hope you will keep that in mind while presenting the rest of the collaborators. Also keep in mind the places the Israelis ask about their proximity from the coastal shore. We move to another collaborator. Report: Collaborator Said Tanios Alam He was charged of gathering information about Samir Geagea and Premier Saad Al Hariri. Name: Said Alam Date of birth: 1958 Nationality: Lebanese. An Israeli collaborator. He started working for the Israelis in 1990. He was arrested in 2009 by the Lebanese security bodies. Informative role: He was charged of collecting executive information about official political and party figures. Most prominent confessions: Following are the most prominent aims which the collaborator worked at pursuant to Israeli commands according to the information he presented: - PM Saad Al Hariri: Determining the times in which he attends at the house of Samir Geagea. - The Head of the executive body in Lebanese Forces Samir Geagea: Monitoring his movements in Al Arz – The Cedars – especially the movement of his motorcade; Monitoring his movements after leaving Al Arz; Determining the frequency by which some politicians visit coffee shops in Byblos. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: This is the second collaborator as you might have noticed. The Israeli operating officers charged him of collecting field and detailed information about who? Hezbollah leaderships? No. rather about LF Chief or the Head of the executive body in the Lebanese Forces Samir Geagea: while in Al Arz, after leaving Al Arz. In the interrogation report there are other details which we do not want to spend our time talking about. He was charged of determining when PM Saad Hariri visits Samir Geagea. Why does Israel want to monitor Samir Geagea? Why does Israel want to monitor PM Saad Hariri when he visits Samir Geagea? Why? This question is to be posed on everyone, and let everyone answer this question. This is an answer to all those who ask why March 14 leaders are being killed. That's because it was demanded that March 14 leaders be killed so that the blame would fall on Syria and its allies and the Resistance. The last confession is information about the frequency of visits paid by some politicians to the coffee shops in Byblos. As far as I know it is not Mohammad Fneish, Mohammad Raad or Sheikh Naim who go to the coffee shops in Byblos. Indeed our brethrens in the National Free Party go to Byblos. However most of those who go to Byblos are from March 14 Bloc. So the collaborator is charged of monitoring the coffee shops and who visits frequently these coffee shops. What is the nature of this surveillance? Why does the Israeli operative charge him of that? The third collaborator. Report: Collaborator Mahmoud Rafea. Date of Birth: 1949. Nationality: Lebanese An Israeli collaborator. He started collaboration in 1993. He was arrested in 2006 by the Lebanese security bodies. His most prominent confessions: - Partaking in four assassination operations which targeted martyrs Ali Deeb, Jihad Jibril, Ali Saleh and brothers Majzoub. - Partaking in installing several bombs between 1999 and 2005 such as Naemeh bomb in 1999 and Zahrani bomb in 2005. - Receiving, lodging, helping and transporting a number of Israeli groups inside the Lebanese territories. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: Now we come to collaborator Mahmoud Rafea. He targeted leaderships in the Resistance. He officially confessed of that. Just to make the Arab viewers acquainted with this piece of information as the Lebanese know that: the Military Court issued a death penalty against this collaborator. He confessed of all the crimes he perpetrated. Here I would like to stress two points: The first point is Zahrani bomb. In the concluding section and as pertaining to the technical aspect which we would reach we wanted to tackle this issue for a while. But after more scrutiny it was revealed that this topic deserves not to be squeezed and handled briefly in this press conference. We believe that Zahrani bomb which was installed by the end of 2005 but the army intelligence discovered and dismantled it was targeting Speaker Nabih Berri. Indeed Mahmoud Rafea does not know whom does the bomb target, and I believe him because he is just an executive person. He is demanded to transport the bomb and at times help in installing the bomb but he later and after the bomb explodes knows whom did it target. To this extent their masters and operatives belittle them. This bomb was highly critical and dangerous. Its report and shots exist. Some of these shots were published in the media. The bomb is 100% Israeli and Mahmoud Rafea confessed of that and the bomb itself bears witness of that from the technical perspective. This indicates that the Israelis - whom in our opinion killed the Sunni Premier Rafiq Hariri early in 2005 but failed to evoke a sedition which they wanted to ignite between the Shiites and the Sunnites in Lebanon - plotted to assassinate the Shiite Speaker so that this sedition works but Allah protected Lebanon again. I hope the Zahrani bomb topic remains in your minds. Maybe one day we would say very important things about it. The second point which took place in 2005 and which we must take into consideration is that Mahmoud Rafea confessed of receiving, lodging, helping and transporting a number of Israeli groups inside the Lebanese territories. He used to receive the groups but he did not know where they go and what they do. They remain for a period of time then come back and he would carry them to the sea or to the barbed wire between Lebanon and Occupied Palestine. Now did the International Investigation Committee (and I do not want to turn the meeting to a condemnation for the International Investigation Committee. I am only saying this incidentally) ask Mahmoud Rafea about these Israelis whom he used to receive in the Lebanese territories and whom other collaborator also confessed of receiving: What did they do in Lebanon? Noteworthy that such operations took place in that year which witnessed a great number of indications. Would the officers who operated Mahmoud Rafea and the groups which were received in Lebanon be summoned by the International Investigation Committee? We move to the next collaborator. Report: Collaborator Nasser Nader: Date of Birth: 1965. Nationality: Lebanese An Israeli collaborator. He started collaboration in 1997. He was arrested in 2009 by the Lebanese security bodies. His most prominent confession is partaking with the executive group which assassinated martyr Ghaleb Awali in Dahiyeh in 2004. Worth mentioning the collaborator used to reside in Jal Al Deeb. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: This collaborator is an executive partaker. I do not know where the serious interrogation with him reached in other perspectives especially that he is a Muslim and a Shiite from the South but used to live in Jal Al Deeb pursuant to a request from Israeli Intelligence to perform his missions. This evokes several questions. Still here I would like to comment saying that on the very day on which brethren Ghaleb Awali was martyred, a statement under the name of Jund Al Sham adopted the assassination of Ghaleb Awali. This reveals that the mind of the Israelis is too small. They wanted to convince Hezbollah that so called Jund Al Sham Organization – which existed then – assassinated Awali. That means they wanted to accuse a Sunnite organization of killing a Shiite cadre in the Resistance. The next collaborator. Report: Collaborator: Faisal Muqaled Date of Birth: 1977. Nationality: Lebanese An Israeli collaborator. He started collaboration in 2003. He was arrested in 2006 by the Lebanese security bodies. His most prominent confession was transporting back and forth Israeli executive members through the sea. Some of these members used to stay in Lebanon for several weeks. He used to transport huge black bags and logistic materials in addition to some weapons. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: What we said a while ago applies on this collaborator - transporting groups in 2006. These groups used to remain for weeks in the Lebanese territories. He used to carry them to and back to the sea. What did these groups use to do? Did they gather information? Do Israelis lack collaborators and spies to collect information so that they be obliged to dispatch members from the Mosad or from the Israeli Army to the Lebanese territories to stay there for weeks? This collaborator along with other collaborators confessed of receiving black bags which hold explosives or weapons and the like. They used to put them in definite places or hideaways in Mount Lebanon and return after a duration of time to find that these bags were transferred and they used to put in their places other bags which the Israelis handed them. The next collaborator: Report: Collaborator Adib Alam Date of Birth: 1942. Nationality: Lebanese An Israeli collaborator He started in collaboration in 1994. He was arrested in 2009 by the Lebanese security bodies. Most Prominent confessions: -He surveyed and took pictures for several Lebanese coastal and mountain regions and roads. -He partook with his wife collaborator Hayat Slumi in surveillance operations as a prelude to one of the assassination operations – namely the assassination of brothers Al-Majzoub. -He brought along into Lebanon several intelligence apparatuses and materials. -He provided the enemy with a number of mobile phones numbers and recharging cards. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: I will wrap up the part which has to do with the collaborators. As for this collaborator, what I said before applies on him. These collaborators made confessions before the official Lebanese apparatuses under the current state and not for the Syrian mandatory state or for the joint Lebanese-Syrian Security system. These collaborators made their revelations and what we presented is just a simple sample of the many collaborators. I call that a definite side collect the confessions of these collaborators and draw a diagram of their work in various sectors, regions, places and specialties. Then let this side make a deep scrutiny of the active movement of the collaborators especially in the past few years whether on the information level or on the operational level. Whoever wants to know who assassinated Premier Hariri and who was behind the various assassinations and explosions that took place in Lebanon must start from here and not from the false witnesses. Fifth: The communication file. I have only two words to say to this effect. In the light of arresting important collaborators in the communication field and their confessions, it is decisively confirmed that the Israeli enemy has very great technical control on the communication field. So the enemy does not need to operate these collaborators in a detailed way because the technical services offered by these collaborators are enough to enable the Israeli enemy to achieve whatever he wants through the sizable capacity of the technical services. This must be tackled by specialists. The decisive conclusion is that Israelis have technical control on the Lebanese arena especially on the field of communication. Through the mobile phone they might tap on any person or target. They might tap about his surrounding and decide his place with precision and his movement very accurately should they want to target him in an assassination operation. This is a new given which has become decisive following the latest arrests and the disclosure of the communication sector before the enemy. Sixth: Here we come to the very sensitive point. It is aerial surveillance. This is the cornerstone in all what Israel perpetrated and perpetrates on the Lebanese arena. As I said at the very beginning, the Israelis have well known high capabilities in this field. They have various kinds of reconnaissance drones. They have drones that scan and execute at the same time. Israel is one of the most important countries that manufacture reconnaissance drones. It even sells drones to Turkey, Russia, and India among other countries around the world. That's because in this perspective it has high technical and technological development. So in Lebanon Israelis scan the target locations whether a house or a road or the motorcade and the paths it frequently drives through. So they depend on aerial surveillance as a cornerstone and wrap their case at times with some detailed data through field surveillance if they needed that. Now we come to the secret I want to reveal tonight. Indeed I am revealing it to the public opinion. As for the Israelis, we believe that after Ansariyeh Operation, they analyzed and evaluated the whole matter and took several procedures. Now I will mention things in details. Prior to 1997, the Islamic Resistance in the South and through a definite technical effort was able to catch the transmission of an Israeli spy plane (MK) photographing several places in South Lebanon and sending them directly to an Israeli operations center. Transmission means that the spy plane through a wireless technique could transmit directly (exactly like live broadcasting) to an operation center in Occupied Palestine. The brethrens managed to access this transmission. Consequently while the footages and the photographs are transmitted live to the enemy's operation center, they are at the very moment being received to the Resistance operation center. That was a technical achievement by the Resistance men – by Lebanese men who graduated from Lebanese schools and institutions. Well, we kept this to ourselves and started receiving the captured footages and photographs. At the beginning I confess (as we are realistic and objective as well), things were difficult because interpreting these footages and photographs needed specialization which was not sufficiently available. Even more, interpreting these footages needs direct acquaintance with the land. It also needs to compare the satellite scanning and the footage to identify that this footage is in this village, in this region, in this road, in that city or in other locations. No one may understand these footages directly even if he intercepted these footages and recordings. That needs specialization and professionalism as well as capabilities which were not sufficiently available. Second: Our technical capacities didn't give us the opportunity to intercept all what all spy planes transmit at a time because as you know several spy planes used to fly over South Lebanon at a time. At the same time other spy planes would come over Dahiyeh, Beirut, the North and Bekaa. In fact we did not have the capability to intercept everything. We used to receive things and there were things which we used not to receive. I also believe that following Ansariyeh incident (the major operation in Ansariyeh), the Israeli enemy took precautionary measures and encoded the transmission. So some of what they used to capture was transmitted by the spy planes encoded to the operation centers. Then we used to face the problem of decoding. At times they used to make uuencoded transmissions. Then we used to understand exactly what was taking place. So the clear footages are understood while the encoded footages posed a problem. Following this prelude I say that the brethrens intercepted footages captured by an Israeli spy plane (What you will watch in a while). They were footages from the shore moving towards the orchids. The spy plane moves over a definite way before reaching a blacktopped road that leads to the village of Ansariyeh. However at the first encounter, we did not know where that is. But since it is in the South and because our cadres are from the South we gathered to find out for which region these footages are. Well the satellite footage which exists now was new to us then, and we used to depend on rural human expertise. Well brethrens, let's see where this image is and in which village especially that we have a key element which is the shore whereof one might commence to reach that region. We could know the location scanned by the enemy drones and the roads it focused on. We started analyzing as we had no given. Will the Israelis stage an operation in that region? We supposed that they will stage an operation. So on that road that leads to that location we installed several ambushes, and our men remained there for several weeks. I will not specify the duration but I will say for several weeks. One long dark night, on September 5th, 1997, an Israeli Commandos came from the sea - It was a naval commandos - and moved on the very surveyed road. They remained moving on all night long until they reached one of the ambushes set by our men. The confrontation took place there. Bombs were detonated. It seems that the Israelis were also holding bombs and that was what led to their killing. As much as I remember, they were 15. Twelve were killed on the spot. Two were wounded. There remained one who contacted the support group. There was also a support group somewhere else. (You will watch it in the clip). Israeli helicopter intervened to rescue whoever remained and to evacuate the bodies. Well, in that dark night, they possessed night vision while we didn't. That reason somehow was behind the enemy's superiority. They could evacuate the bodies and the wounded. There remained some limbs which we negotiated on later… You will also watch footages taken by a reconnaissance plane that intervened and captured footages for helicopters which were trying to assist the support group. Indeed we could not film the operation field directly. Indeed there must be an MK drone which was filming the combat and Al Ansariyeh Operation scene directly. Now we will watch the clip. Indeed we do not have enough time to present everything. We will present the part necessary for us to build on for the rest of our speech. Footages from Ansariyeh Operation: Report: September 5th, 1997. The footage shows Ansariyeh village and the point of landing of the Israeli Commandos on the shore. Then we see their path until reaching the point of clashing and the landing of the helicopter. The Israeli spying plane which signal the Islamic Resistance intercepts monitors the landing point, the path of the commandos until reaching the clashing point. The arrow shows the path which is a side road between the orchids which leads to the Ansayriyeh-Lubyeh Road where the clashes took place. The clashing point was at the gate of the orchid where the Islamic Resistance ambushed the antagonistic force. Here we see Ansariyeh-Lubyeh main road. The circle shows the location where the rescue and evacuation plane landed. These are the operation footages broadcasted by the media. The helicopter is evacuating the soldiers. They appear moving towards it. These are the footages captured by the Israeli spy plane and which the Resistance intercepted: a group of soldiers gathering in a circular way near the helicopter landing spot; another helicopter landed and is evacuating soldiers. They are carrying the body limbs and the wounded. The enemy soldiers move towards the helicopter. The helicopter has the soldiers on its board. Inside the circle appears the area were the rockets fired by the Islamic Resistance fell to block the rescue operation. This is a satellite footage and the other footage is captured by the spying plane to the same path starting with the landing point to the clashing point. Both footages coincide: the clashing point at the gate of the orchid; the landing of the helicopters near the road between Ansariyeh and Lubyeh; the point where the shells fired by the Resistance fell. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: What does this conclusion mean? That means first that it gives an authenticity to this tactic. It asserts that the surveillance of the path leading to this place was a prelude to a security operation – a commandos security operation. So far we do not know for sure the aim of the operation. Next to that road there is a water path above which there is a small bridge. Did they want to put a bomb underneath to target the Resistance cadres who might move on that road, or did they want to kidnap one of the Resistance leaderships. That is left for scrutiny. However, this is a sample on which we will build. To confirm this idea we will give two samples only due to the time limit or else we have several examples of Israeli aerial surveillance that were preparing for assassination operations. Israeli drones used to scan the location and the building and also survey other locations which later are revealed to be the places in which they install the bomb to assassinate these men. Now we have footages taken by the spy planes. Indeed we must hint to an important point. Filming does not mean that the operation will take place after one, two or three days. At times it might continue for months or for years, and surveillance is repeated twice and thrice. In the two clips we will present two you, there are footages for the preparation stage but we do not have footages for the brethren's motorcade or for his car which was targeted at the time of detonation. That's despite the fact that an MK drone was there in the skies during the detonation but maybe it might be transmitting encoded images which remained problematic to us. Thus what we will present is but the preludes which the Israelis depended on to execute the assassination operation later on. The first sample is for the preparation for the assassination of martyr Abu Hassan Salameh or oppressed brethren Ali Deeb whom we talked about a while ago. Report: Monitoring Martyr Hajj Ali Deeb (Abu Hassan Salameh) in 1997. A satellite footage for the City of Sidon: It shows the place of work of Martyr Ali Deeb in Abra region near the Evangelists Girls School. It also shows the path the Martyr used to travel along towards the city of Sidon until reaching the targeting point. The spying plane monitors the house of Martyr Abu Hassan in Ghaziyeh. In Abra region the spying plane monitors the martyr's working place. This monitoring lasted for two years before executing the assassination operation on August 16th, 1999 through installing a bomb near Abra-Sidon road. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: Indeed we are being brief to gain time because we still have the important section. The second sample is for the first and second preparations for the assassination of Martyr Mahmoud Majzoub. So we have the first surveillance and the second surveillance because in the second operation he was martyred. Report: Monitoring Martyr Mahmoud Al Majzoub in 1998: The city of Sidon: The satellite footage shows the house of Martyr Mahmoud Al Majzoub inside the city. This is the house of Martyr Al Majzoub monitored by the spying plane. It is monitoring the cars near it. Following this surveillance, a bomb was installed in his car. Then it was detonated; his wife and son were wounded. A spying plane monitors the working place of martyr Al Majzoub. It also monitors the cars in the surrounding. The enemy intelligence could assassinate him with his brother Nidal on Friday May 26th, 2006 i.e. after 8 years of industrious work to target him. Worth mentioning that collaborator Mahmoud Rafea confessed of having an essential role in this operation in which officers from the enemy intelligence partook in addition to the runaway collaborator Hussein Khattab. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: Following this presentation, I move to what is linked to martyr PM Rafiq Hariri. However, a short lead in is indispensable. Following the martyrdom of MP Hariri, I visited his family in Kraitim and I met with the whole family who were gathering. The family called on me that Hezbollah help in the investigation within its available capabilities. We then formed a joint committee in which some leaders in Hezbollah partook. The family of martyr PM Rafiq Hariri was represented then by Mr. Wissam Al Hassan before he headed the Information Branch. The crime scene was reviewed. Even more, the committee was provided with data about the movement of PM Hariri as Al Hassan was the head of PM Hariri's bodyguards: his motorcade, the paths he used to follow, the places he used to head for… A primary study was set then on the operation. However political developments took place in the country and everything was over at that limit. The country moved towards accusing Syria, the officers, the joint Lebanese-Syrian security system… Then came Dir Spiegel and the false witnesses were revealed. The four officers were set free, and the accusation headed in another direction. For those who blame me for talking based on articles in newspapers I say: Lebanese political leaderships heard from political leaderships in various place around the world what I mentioned. They heard what I mentioned months before. So we formed a team and this is what I mentioned in my previous speech. It is really a special team. We told them: Brothers let's sit down and search seriously. When the information became available that gave us a strong indication to the effect of the Israeli methodologies. Collaborators who surveyed or had active participations in the execution of operations might have been pulled out of the country knowing that a great number of collaborators fled during the past few years. The Israelis might have as well taken precautionary measures and pulled out these collaborators, and there remained the collaborators who are carrying on their work. Those who were arrested were involved in executing operations that took place mainly in 2006. One of the ideas which were presented by that committee was that well we have archives. Some are clear to us for various regions. We used to record but we used not to follow up because our priority was the Resistance headquarters, leaderships and axes. So let's go back to the archives to the period that preceded February 14th, 2005. Let's search among these films and try to compare them to the map of the movement of martyr Rafiq Hariri: the motorcade, the places he used to go to… Is there any aerial surveillance to these places? Might the surveillance indicate that it had executive features or not? We remained working for almost a year, and here we confess that in the past few weeks the brethrens came under great pressure as we were still with the first section of the material. We were still reviewing many of these films. In fact the brethrens spent hundreds of hours reviewing these films and searching in them as it goes without saying that we needed satellite films and persons who are acquainted with the various Lebanese regions especially that we were not closely acquainted with some regions. Through this study we reached very important and remarkable conclusions. That was what I meant with indications and given. If we added what we reached to the antecedents which we tackled before we go towards accusing Israel. We will present footages for surveillances carried out by the Israeli enemy the majority of which and the most important of which are above Beirut. The footages which we will present to you are indeed not all the documents we possess. That in fact needs long time. They are rather samples for Israeli surveillance done at various times. So they are not all taken in one time but over an interval of time - meaning from late 90s to the early 2000 until 2005. You will also notice as you watch that the scanned location is monitored from various and different perspectives. That means it was not captured as a matter of chance or to collect general information. Rather when they approach some turns and some definite locations from various perspectives and from various places that means – according to experts – that it was an executive preparatory surveillance. What we will present first has to do with Beirut. The second clip pertains to the path linking between Beirut and the resort of PM Hariri in Fakra region. The third footage has to do with Sidon. I would like to take into consideration also that the Israeli enemy especially in the footages of Beirut and the path to Fakra takes extra care in turns. That's because when there is a motorcade and armored cars, it goes without saying that when they reach a turn, the cars will slow down for sure. This is called a mortal spot. I have expertise in that because I used to ride in such motorcades. Notice the surveillance of turns from various perspectives especially the turns which are adjacent to the coastal shore. Do you still remember what we said on surveying the house of the President of the Republic Michel Sleiman? First we will watch the Israeli aerial surveillance of Beirut City: Report: Israeli spying planes surveying several places in the city of Beirut. A satellite footage for the city of Beirut and the circles show the castle of PM Rafiq Hariri in Kraitim, the governmental castle in Sanaea, the new governmental castle and the point where PM Hariri was targeted. We see a general footage for the governmental castle in Sanaea. The Israeli drone monitors and films the castle in Sanaea. The previous governmental castle is monitored while focusing on the surrounding roads in the direction of Al Hamra Street and in the opposite direction near Sanaea Park. This is a general footage for the new governmental castle, Najmeh Square and the Parliament. Thereof the camera moves to make a complete survey of the coastal sidewalk starting from St George Hotel until reach Raouche. Later and after targeting PM Hariri, it was made clear that he used to pursue two paths more than others when heading towards the Parliament and his castle in Kraitim while following more the coastal road. First: from St. George to the AUB Beach in Al Manara to the Military Beach to Dbeibo to KFC intersection towards Shatila street which is considered a main entrance to Kraitim and Hariri's castle. The second path starts with Bliss Street until reaching the Sportive Club facing the Military Beach where the path hereof coincides with the first path until reaching Kraitim and Hariri's castle. It is possible to reach the first path through the coastal highway or through Phoenicia descend. Here we return to the coastal road. The Israeli drone monitors the coastal road from the AUB Beach towards St. George then Ain Mreisseh until reaching St. George Hotel where PM Hariri was targeted. These footages were captured by the drone at various dates. It monitors the same place where MP Hariri was targeted. The point where MP Hariri was targeted is monitored from various perspectives and at various times. The red circle shows the targeting point. This is the continuation of the first path. The circle shows Al Manara Turn. The drone surveys the new Al Manara (Lighthouse) Turn between Riviera Hotel and the Military Beach. It scans road corners precisely and at various dates and from various perspectives. This is another footage for the New Lighthouse Turn from another perspective and at a different time. This is also a footage monitoring the coastal road from the AUB Beach until reaching the new Lighthouse Turn towards the Military Beach. This is the continuation of the first path until reaching Dbeibo Turn which is encircled. It is also an appropriate point to execute the targeting. The drone's surveying camera monitors Dbeibo Turn also at various times and from various perspectives. This is the continuation of the first path until reaching Kraitim and the circle shows an appropriate point to execute the targeting. This is a detailed scanning taken by the drone while focusing on KFC intersection at the entrance of Kraitim from Raouche. As for the second path it commences with Clemonso Street passing in front of the AUB through Bliss Street until reaching the Sportive Club. The circles show the appropriate points to execute the targeting. Here near the Military Beach the first and the second paths meet on the coastal highway. Here the enemy's drone focuses on the road with precision and further focuses on the appropriate points for execution. Here is a continuation of the path until reaching Dbeibo Turn followed by the entrance of Kraitim and KFC interception then PM Hariri's castle in Kraitim. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: I have an important question on what we watched and what we will watch in a while. In all the regions which the Israelis survey, do you know that there are headquarters for Hezbollah or the Resistance or houses for Hezbollah leaderships or gathering points for Hezbollah? Why are the Israelis then following this track especially the turns and intersections leading to Kraitim? Have you noticed how long did they pose and focus on these locations? Indeed I reiterate that these were captured at different times. The St George spot was monitored from various perspectives and at different times especially at the point which is nearest to the coastal shore what gives the Israeli a very high capacity to execute an operation. Also keep in mind: Is this merely accidental? Is this a chance and another chance and another chance? There are coincidences which are tackled by some and on which an indictment is being fabricated. So are these chances also acceptable to be adopted by the investigation to build on an indictment? This is as far as Beirut City is concerned. PM Hariri used to leave Beirut towards Fakra where there is his resort. Here we will watch Israeli surveillance of the obligatory path. That means whoever wants to go from Beirut to Fakra has to take this binding path and pass through a specific turn in particular. Report: The enemy spying plane monitors the northern exit of Nahr AlKalb Tunnel that leads towards Junyeh. It focuses its monitoring on the cars moving northward. The spying plane films generally Junyeh- Dbaiyeh area. The camera moves around before reaching the region of Ouon Siman- Fakra-Farayeh which is covered with snow. The spying plane monitors in particular Yassou Al Malak Turn on an ascending road. This path is pursued by those heading towards Farayeh-Fakra. The satellite footage shows the path leading to the Yassou Al Malak Turn on an ascending road. Worth mentioning that this is a binding path to reach Fakra as there is no other path from the coastline road. This road was usually pursued by Martyr PM Rafiq Hariri when heading towards Fakra. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: In that area and at that turn in particular, is there any Resistance figures? No one from the resistance lives there or visits that area frequently or travels on that path. Are we to say it is a path used by Hezbollah to transfer ammunition? It's not so as well. Is it a road traveled by Hezbollah leaderships? Indeed not. So why and for whom are this road, turn and curve which is near the shore being monitored. Let's watch the last clip which has to do with Sidon City. You will notice that the camera monitors a main road and does not move towards a definite center. Indeed the footage starts before Awali River and even before Jiyeh and moves until reaching Sidon. It chooses the road and moves until it reaches the surrounding of the house of Mr. Shafiq Hariri. At other times it returns to monitor the house of Mr. Shafiq Hariri from various perspectives. So the aim of the drone's movement is to survey the road that leads directly to that house. It did not go to any intersection or any other direction which leads to a headquarter for the Resistance or to the Popular Organization or the Islamic Jamaa or to the house of any of the leaderships. So it is clear that the target of the surveillance is to monitor that path in particular. Report: The spying planes also monitored the highway between Beirut and Sidon. This clip shows the highway in Jiyeh. The spying plane monitors the traffic. This is Al Awali Bridge. Here the drone starts monitoring the entrance to Sidon, then the roads inside Sidon and the traffic. This is the coastline highway and Sidon entrance. It carries on monitoring towards Najmeh Square. The is Zaateri Mosque. Here the Israeli drone reaches over Najmeh Square. It moves towards Elia Round. It's remarkable that the drone moves towards the house of Shafiq Hariri, the brother of the martyr PM. The Israeli drone monitors the house of Mr. Shafiq Hariri and the surrounding streets. It also monitors its entrance. The footage focuses on a car about to leave the house. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: That is as far as the technical side is concerned. We consider that these footages and clips which were captured at different times, for different locations and from various perspectives can't be a matter of coincidence. If you put in the hands of any group of experts this given, they will confirm for you that whoever is carrying this surveillance is preparing the part that constitutes the first leg of the execution of an operation. I still have two rapid indications. The first sign comes as the seventh topic: the enemy's aerial movement on the day of the assassination. Allow me not to reveal a secret. I promised to reveal one secret. I can not bear disclosing two secrets. But if one day we were before a serious responsible investigation, I will have no problem then in revealing the other secret. We have confirmed information – we could collect confirmed information - related to the Israeli enemy aerial movement on February 14th, 2005 whether it has to do with the AWACS on which we will feature a report in a while or with the Israeli air force or other movements which has to do with the Israeli aerial movement. You know that if an AWACS drone is over a region facing the Lebanese shore, this drone would then be equipped with the capacity to tap, to technically control and to lead operations. So let's watch this report on the aerial movement together: Report: On February 13th, 2005, Israeli spying planes flying over Sidon and its surroundings accompanied by war planes hovering over the regional waters adjacent to Sidon coastline from 10:40 to 1:45. Hours before the assassination of PM Hariri, an Israeli drone was surveying the Sidon-Beirut-Junyeh coastline passing over the Capital Beirut as Israeli warplanes were flying over the regional waters adjacent to Beirut from 8:45 to 11:55 pm. On Monday February 14th, 2005 from 9:20 to 11:15 an interrupted warplanes movement was recorded in the Lebanese airspace. From 10:00 to 2:30, an AWACS plane was flying adjacent to the Lebanese coastline reaching Beirut. From 10:30 to 12:40 spying planes and signal and electronic intelligence war planes were active adjacent to the Lebanese coastline until reaching the Beirut. Worth mentioning, the explosion which led to the killing of martyr PM Rafiq Hariri took place at 12:56 pm. A day after the explosion, Israeli warplanes were recorded flying from Tyr till Sidon until reaching the regional waters adjacent to Beirut from 11:09 am to 12:18 pm. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: Any international investigating side may receive this schedule for the Israeli movement if the Israelis themselves are ready to confess. They may also receive it from friendly states which have radars in the region which may record and monitor the whole aerial movement which took place then. Through a serious investigation, the validity of this schedule may be verified. We are sure of this evidence, or else we do not risk and feature anything we are not sure of its validity. The last sign is something new even to us. In the past few weeks another evidence became available to us that one of the executive collaborators – Ghassan Al Jid who had harbored an executive team which had to do with the assassination of Martyr Ghaleb Awali (or Martyr Ali Saleh) in his house – was present at the scene of the operation in St George on February 13th, 2005. Indeed we have gathered information about this collaborator since a period of time and submitted them to the Lebanese security bodies especially to the effect of his involvement in the assassination of Martyr Ghaleb Awali (or Martyr Ali Saleh) before having the data related to his presence in St. George area on February 13th, 2005. However this collaborator fled from Lebanon before the Lebanese security bodies arrest him. Report: The movement of spies that coincided with the assassination: One of the most dangerous executive collaborators – Ghassan Gorges Al Jid - was present at the crime scene on February 13th, 2005 i.e. one day before the assassination of Hariri. Name: Collaborator Ghassan Gorges Al Jid Nationality and date of birth: Lebanese – 1940. An Israeli collaborator who started collaboration in the early 90s. He fled Lebanon in 2009. His security role: Receiving and evacuating Israeli intelligence members at the Lebanese shores and the territorial borders. Most of these members enter stealthily to execute logistic executive missions such as transferring bombs and black bags. He also partook in several security missions. Most prominent logistic activities: On Wednesday March 24th, 2004, at night an Israeli group which consists of two security officers at least entered the Lebanese territories through the sea at Jiyeh shore where it stayed for fifty hours in Mount Liban accompanied with the above mentioned collaborator. On December 12th, 2004 he partook in assassinating martyr Ghaleb Awali through transporting the executive group to the location of the operation then evacuating them from there after the event. The file of the above mentioned collaborator was submitted to the security bodies in 2006 but he fled before being arrested in 2009. His Eminence Sayyed Nasrallah: This is as far as this collaborator is concerned. We also have our own evidences. If one day there was formed a serious investigation committee which is not accused or politicized, this will be a part of what we might cooperate together on to reach the truth. This is the group of indications I have. I do not claim I am presenting decisive evidences so that no one argues with me over that later on. We are presenting indications and signs and asking questions which will open new horizons for the investigation. If there is a truth and someone who wants to reach the truth, he must work on this given and for the first time open the door of investigation on the Israeli assumption after more than five years have passed on the assassination attempt. We keep the rest to another time because we are living in a treacherous deceptive time. Indeed as I have promised I will not tackle the International Investigation Committee or the STL. I am committed to the appeasement. We might have breached this commitment a little when making some interpretations. Well this is the given we have and which have been available after the arrest of the collaborators in 2009-2010. This has helped us to move in this direction. Thus we presented this given now. Were we not obliged to present them now we would have taken some more time to reach a better and stronger given. This is some of what I wanted to present to you tonight. I apologize for the long time I took, but that was indispensable. We tried to concise the material as much as possible to present it tonight. Questions and answers: Q: We thank you for the data you provided the Lebanese people, the Arabs in general and the world with. I absolutely evaluate that you limited your speech on the data that has to do with the Israeli enemy and the possibility of Israel having a role in the assassination of PM Martyr Rafiq Hariri. However, there is always a political logic which sees this assassination operation as part of a continuous political sequence that might have started with Resolution 1559 and carries on with various political stations before reaching the assassination and then what followed it: the political investment of the assassination and all the repercussions that were issued from that appalling crime. Consequently it is difficult to separate between the political repercussions, the sequence of these repercussions and the results we reached, then switching the accused sides pursuant to the requirements of that political movement: first Syria and labeling innocent all other sides approximately, then setting Syria innocent and accusing – even if with clamor – Hezbollah. Does this political review which is being concluded meet with the course you have presented? A: The logical objective rational political review which you have presented and what is being evoked reach the very outcome. I totally agree with what you said, but I wished to stay as far as possible from political reviews and political analyses so that it won't be said that I am drawing conclusions based on analyses. I wished to go more towards what is related to indications, given and data which might be set as the basis that opens new horizons in the investigation, or else we totally back the political given and the political review which you have presented. Q: As you have said these signs and indications do not form decisive evidence but are enough to make us move towards investigating with the Israeli enemy. What will be the position of the Resistance and Hezbollah if the international Investigation Committee or the STL ignored this given, and Lebanese sides whether the Opposition, the Loyalists, March 8 or March 14 blocs did not respond to this effect? That's because really we were surprised with very important given which makes no investigator able to neglect investigating with Israel? A: Such negligence will assert our logic, convictions and accusation of the International Investigation Committee that it is politicized, and this is enough for us. Q: You have presented events which you called indications that finger point at Israel that it might have perpetrated this crime. Don't this given and indications deserve from Your Eminence presenting them to the STL that was established to this effect perhaps it causes a great turnabout in the course of the investigation. Will you present this given to the STL? A: You indeed mean the International Investigation Committee and the General Prosecutor Bellemar. Unfortunately, we do not trust the investigation and that side. But I have said and here I will say again that if the Lebanese government – and it is concerned in that – decides to charge a trusted Lebanese side, we will cooperate with it. We are ready to submit this given to the Lebanese government and the side which it commissions. Thereof, whether the Lebanese government presents this given to the International Investigation Committee or not will be its concern. I do not believe that the Investigation Committee – and because of its previous and current performance – is really a committee to be entrusted with the truth, and I have my evidence on that. However I will pull off my evidence for a later time. Q: Is it true that you provided PM Saad Hariri by the end of 2005 and early 2006 with some data that indicates that there is a team belonging to the Resistance Security body which is monitoring an Israeli collaborator in Beirut and Kisirwan who used to travel along the roads which PM Rafiq Hariri used to pass through in the last months before his assassination? Is it true that you presented this data to PM Hariri through Colonel Wissam Al Hassan in response to the given or conclusions available to the Information Branch which says that there is a team from the Resistance Security linked to the group which used to monitor PM Hariri before his assassination? Which security body did you provide information about Ghassan Al Jid with in 2006? A: I will answer later the last question when I will talk about the collaborators and the spying network and the general performance in the country. As for the first question, that is true. We were tracking an Israeli agent and we offered information about our tracking of this collaborator. However we did not have any information then that the collaborator has to do with the assassination of Premier Rafiq Hariri. Had we have any data we would have submitted it then and presented now. Q: Why did Hezbollah remain silent over such criminal evidences all through these years while seeing the country on the verge of assassination? If the issue of spying plane monitoring which we saw is something new and you recently concluded that you possess it, what about the collaborator whose pictures you presented. This has been available since 1996. Why have you remained silent all through this period of time over such criminal evidences? Why did not Hezbollah speak out until the sword reached its neck and when it became in danger? Is this fear alone what moved you to present the indications? Finally and to be somehow skeptical, Israel scans all of Lebanon and every corner in Lebanon. So you might have taken these footages from a long Israeli film. This press conference might lead you to the international tribunal. What do you say? A: First, the case of Ahmad does not form criminal evidence. That's why I did not mention him with the evidences but rather put under an independent title. I cited him as a witness to say that the Israelis have implanted in the mind of PM Hariri something of this sort. However I did not consider that what Ahmad Nasrallah performed is a proof besides being criminal evidence. If I were a judge I would not have considered it criminal evidence. I cited him under the title of Israel's accusation of Hezbollah and not in the course of our accusation of Israel. Evoking such issue in the media wouldn't have had any significance in the previous stages. But yes, in this integrated presentation it might be a helping element which supports and further clarifies things while making more indications. But if I presented it all alone in 2005 or 2006 or 2007 saying this is what Ahmad Nasrallah did, it will be said but who is accusing you. No one did accuse you. Why did we talk about Ahmad Nasrallah? Still you have heard many frequently talking in the country following my speech weeks ago. My tackling of the indictment and my defense have become evidence for my conviction. What if I evoked the issue of Ahmad Nasrallah previously and that is not criminal evidence. They will say what is your story? You are not accused. No, that does not form criminal evidence. As for the clips and aerial surveillance footage, the enemy may carry general filming. But filming different definite places from definite and different perspectives at different and various times is an indication of a surveillance that precedes operations and not aerial tourism. Thus experts may discuss that and rely on it. Q: You said that Ahmad Nasrallah could control the path of PM Hariri's motorcade in 1996. So why did not Israel assassinate him in 1996? Did you inform PM Hariri of that back in 1996 until February 14th, 2005? The second question: As for the filming, surely the clips we saw are but excerpts. For example the coastal road which you said they filmed but has no headquarters for Hezbollah, then had headquarters for the Syrian forces near the Sportive Field in Jal Al Bahr. Even the KFC checkpoint was there. Even more we did not see footages of Kraitim Castle or Fakra Castle? When the Israelis want to execute an assassination operation, they will monitor all the entrances and exits to those regions. A: As for the first question, back in 1996 there was not a great political scheme on the level of Lebanon and on the regional level which necessitates an assassination operation of the level of the assassination of PM Rafiq Hariri. Had Israel in 1996 assassinated PM Rafiq Hariri, all the local, regional and international repercussions that took place following 2005 would not have taken place. There wasn't any George Bush. I do not know how mature the French stance was then. The presence, influence and popularity of PM Hariri on the Lebanese level were only in their beginning. That's besides the internal statue quo and the regional situation. Then the assassination operation would not have achieved the great political project Mr. Talal talked about at the beginning. The assassination operation came in the framework of a political scheme which started in 2000 and which is related to the whole region: Lebanon, Syria and Palestine were but chains in this great political scheme which led to the invasion of countries (Iraq and Afghanistan) and led to wars and also led to assassination operation as important as the assassination of PM Hariri. As for the filming, the clips we presented are footages of turns where there are no Syrian checkpoints or Hezbollah headquarters. This is first. Second, there are footages which we did not present. That does not mean that the Israelis did not film them. I said a while ago that the MK drone was over the car of martyr Abu Hassan Salameh when the assassination operation was executed, but we have no footage for that. It was above the house of Al Majzoub when the assassination was executed but we have no footage. At times it was over the houses of leaderships. I was a Secretary General before the war but I do not have a footage taken by the Israeli reconnaissance plane which used to film our house in Haret Hreik and the headquarter of the secretariat in Haret Hreik. Are we to say that it did not film them? How did it bombard them during the war then? However I do not claim – and this is what I said at the very beginning – that we intercept all the footages. If we do not have footages that does not mean they did not film. That is one. Second, they might have filmed them but we could not have intercepted them due to the codification. What you said to the effect of not having footages for some places is not a proof that there isn't any filming. I am saying that I possess these clips. It's supposed that the Israelis have an answer for that before the international investigation committee: Why were they filming these places and focusing on them at different times and from different perspectives? Q: Whom do you want to convince today? Hezbollah masses are with Hezbollah and perhaps today they are more with Hezbollah to the effect of this conviction. The other masses and due to political aligning in Lebanon will not be convinced by all what you have presented today. This was made clear in political statements which were made prior to the press conference. Does it soothe you that an indictment be issued without internal political coverage? Is this what you are seeking? Moving to another topic, is it true that you told the Army Commander when he visited you lately that you are ready to hand the members accused in the indictment but whoever wants to arrest them is to assume the responsibility, and that he told you – and the political leadership in Lebanon also – that the army won't be a dagger in the back of the Resistance. Consequently you protected yourself as far as the Lebanese Army is concerned in case the indictment was issued and started with the post indictment issuance era. A: What you said did not take place between me and the Army Commander. What has to do with the indictment and the way of dealing with it when it is issued come in time. As for the first question, we do not want to issue an indictment. We do not want to increase the conviction of the convinced or convince those who do not want to be convinced. All through the previous week until today I have been reading for one of the politicians – So it is not one statement. He made four or five statements since my last speech until today - saying that the evidences provided by Nasrallah are invalid. Before even knowing the evidences and what I might talk about he considered everything invalid. I do not argue with such people. All what I am saying is that we want the truth really, and we want to help in achieving the truth, but we are very much interested in making the Lebanese, Arab, Islamic and international public opinion acquainted with what we have. That's because the central target of the indictment which is said to be issued is above all distorting the image of Hezbollah and labeling Israel innocent. So part of the existing battle is a public opinion battle. Some have spent $500 million in Lebanon only – They did not say how much they spent in other countries, other Arab satellites and other newspapers. They are talking about Lebanon - to distort the image of Hezbollah. So there is the battle of the image and the public opinion. In as much as we are concerned and interested in helping in the investigation to reach the truth, we are concerned in getting truthfully engaged – others might not talk with such frankness - in the public opinion battle and say that the Resistance is oppressed, falsely accused and aggressed against. This is what I started with on the very first day, especially that some are working night and day to label Israel innocent. Whoever wants to be convinced, it's up to him. I do not want to force anyone to accept or not to accept. Even I was realistic in what I presented. I said they are indications and not decisive evidences. However the gate before this supposition must be opened because for five years neither the STL nor the International Investigation Committee nor anyone in Lebanon took one step and went towards the Israeli supposition. Even in Lebanon no one worked on that. What I did is that this supposition has indications which I want the people to know and get acquainted with. Q: What would be the reaction of Hezbollah in particular if Hezbollah members were accused of assassinating PM Hariri? Would Hezbollah withdraw from the government? Would another May 7th take place? The other question is a demand which I hope you will accept: Would you accept to give AFP a special interview? A: I can't promise anyone because if I promised you I will be obliged to fulfill my promise and my circumstances might not help. So I apologize for not promising you. Maybe one day that might take place, for everything might take place. As for the first question, the press conference is dedicated for what I talked about. I will tackle everything that has to do with the indictment, the future and the repercussions in due time, Inshallah. Q: As for the aerial footages, have you intercepted footages that have to do with monitoring other figures who were assassinated at the same era as PM Rafiq Hariri. Second, with what means it was evident that Ghassan Al Jid was present in St George area? Does it have technical or informative evidence? A: We have focused in the past few months in reviewing the films and the documents that have to do with the movement of the motorcade of PM Hariri. We did not have enough time to review footages for other personalities. We might carry on with that later. If we reached anything we might announce it or give it to the concerned Lebanese authorities. As for Ghassan Al Jid, I mentioned that if a serious investigation committee was formed, we are ready to present the evidence on his presence there on February 13th, 2005, but we are not to say everything in the media today. Q: We have noticed that you did not stress on the telecommunication file especially that it seems that the STL will rely on this file primarily through monitoring specific calls. What do you have to say to this effect? A: I did not focus on the telecommunication file because that will lead us to talk about a file we want to push with it what is prepared for us in the indictment. This will be tackled later. I have limited my word regarding the telecoms in as much as saying that it helps the Israelis in having a technical control for executing an assassination operation. But in fact I also have things to say on the telecoms issue and I have documented data also. However everything related to the telecoms topic is intentionally pulled off to the day on which I will handle the indictment and what the indictment is said to be based on. Then we will talk about that. Q: You have talked about a calming attempt which was brought about by the tripartite summit which took place in Beirut. Is it possible that we know what this summit had told you? Is it true that the Saudi King talked in the Lebanese way and said that "he will take this issue to his hert" and told you one way or another that he guarantees that no indictment will be issued against you? I have another question. You talked about a follow up committee between you and the family of PM Hariri which was represented in the committee by Wissam Al Hassan. Is it possible that we know when did this relation deteriorate and mutual mistrust overwhelmed instead? A: Starting with July War. On the light of July War and what took place in July War the relation deteriorated. Until before July War we were in contact always. There were frequent meetings. Even a short time before the war on the National Dialogue Table MP Saad Hariri invited me to Kraitim and I went there and we had dinner. There were many friends and part of the meeting had to do with the investigation, the truth and the data we had then. But what took place in July War in fact led to the deterioration of this relation. Anyway, it's not time to talk about that now. As for the first question, I do not have anything to say more than what I said in my speech a week ago. I said that we understood from the tripartite Arab summit that there is a serious Arab attempt to block the way before the Israeli dreams. Q: In your viewpoint do you believe the court which you describe as Israeli and which the counselor of Sayyed Ali Khamenai referred to as Israeli-American deserves disclosing one of the secrets of the resistance via analyzing the footages taken by the MK drone as if it is a defense strategy and the secret now is revealed to the Israelis. Does that deserve revealing a secret? The second question is that PM Saad Hariri's counselor Mohammad Shatah said that PM Saad Hariri is ready to meet you. Are you ready for this meeting? Will you call on him frankly to quit the STL? A: As for revealing the secret, well protecting Lebanon and the Resistance before what is threatening it through the performance of the international investigation and the STL deserves sacrificing our blood and not only revealing secrets. Consequently there is no problem. Second, it is true I am revealing a secret to the public opinion, but as for the Israelis one way or another after Ansariyeh Operation, they took this supposition into consideration and resorted to encoding the footages. Consequently, revealing the secret will not make us lose much from what we hope to preserve or keep to ourselves. Second, in fact, there is no severance of relations between PM Saad Hariri and me. There is contact. Even while I am delivering my speeches during the past weeks, there was a meeting between the political assistant brethren Hajj Hussein Khalil and PM Saad Hariri in his house. On the day of Adeisseh incident and since I did not use the phone, I asked brethren Hajj Hussein Khalil to call PM Saad Hariri in Sardinia. So we were in contact and tackled the developments in the South. In fact there is no break off. May a meeting take place? A meeting may take place at anytime. Will I ask him to give up the STL? I will not ask anything from him whether to give up the STL or annul the indictment or give up Bellemar. Indeed in many of my speeches, I said that the issue of the assassination of PM Hariri is not anymore a familial right. From the legitimate perspective they are entrusted of his blood. But he has become also a national responsibility. Lebanon as a whole, along with Syria and the Palestinian cause to some extent have been influenced by the event. In case I met with Sheikh Saad as we used to meet previously and discussed this issue more than once, we will say we want the truth and justice. For five years the truth was lost behind the false witnesses and those who fabricated them. Now we must not allow the Israelis again to cover up the truth, and we are ready for everything that will help in revealing the truth. Q: We had a problem tonight because though you presented such evidences and indications but you still insist on your fixed stance to the effect that the STL is not serious. Did this media appearance today only aimed at turning over the Lebanese and Arab public opinion or they were legal evidences and indications? If they are legal evidences and indications why don't you take them directly to the STL? Worth mentioning that the STL has previously received General Jamil Assayed and listened to his viewpoint in the topic he was demanding. A: It's true it received him and listened to his viewpoint. But what was the result? Tell me what was the outcome? Q: The issue is still a lawsuit, and the debate was public. This is what is important. A: I have answered this question a while ago. I said I will not go to a side which I do not trust. When we some time ago responded to the International Investigation Committee to interrogate with our brethrens as witnesses we accepted to go only to offer help and because we knew that if we did not go to the investigation we will cause an uproar in Lebanon, the region and the world. They will all say was Hezbollah not involved, they would have gone to the interrogation as they were summoned as witnesses. This was why we went to the investigation. I have tackled this issue through the TV and in a very clear way. That's why I do not cooperate with a side which I do not trust. Let there be a side which we trust and we are ready to the maximum cooperation. Q: Following the last two answers you gave, let me benefit from your large-heartedness and say as we look to our lines we find that our majority is from one color. So allow me to pass on the views of the other color. Your Eminence, though you had all of this information, you partook in a national unity government. The 13th Clause in the government's ministerial statement provides for cooperating with the STL. Has the expiry date of that become near? Second, last March 31rst and after the members belonging to Hezbollah were summoned, you pledged to cooperate with the STL. Does today's press conference end the expiry date of that too? A: As for part one of the question, we had a discussion then. Our brethren ministers remember very well. The leadership of Hezbollah had the idea of showing reservation on the STL because that was clear to us. We said that today we will not tackle the STL. There will come a day when everything will be revealed and we will talk about everything with documentation. Several brethrens suggested that we show reservation. Others had other view saying that will make a problem and cause an unnecessary argument in the country as everyone knows our position from the STL. It was as if we wanted to show reservation on the STL in as much as some parties want to show reservation on the equation of the Army, the people and the Resistance. Thus we discarded with that idea. However our stance from the STL is known and old. As for whether we cooperate or not, that will be clear in the next date with the International Investigation Committee. See how much in a hurry they are. They had their summer vacation. We were moving with the investigation but they informed us that they will take their summer vacation before the uproar would take place. The vacation extends until after Al Fitr Eid. So let's fast and enjoy Al Fitr Eid. After the holiday the date will be due and we will announce our position. Q: As a sequel to the previous question on sacrificing one of the most important secrets of the Resistance security operation, perhaps the masses of the Resistance are thinking to what extent revealing this secret will influence the Resistance surveillance and intelligence capability in its war with the Israeli enemy. Perhaps some among the Resistance masses are saying this is a great blunt. A while ago you clarified this issue. Part two of the question: You have mentioned in the presentation course that one of the many goals of the STL and the misguidance and the indictment as well as the Israeli sedition is creating a gap between the Sunnites and the Shiites. Today what do you say to our brethren Sunnites in Lebanon and in the Arab world after presenting these indications and data on the involvement of Israel – which must be the common enemy to all Muslims and Christians in Lebanon and perhaps to the whole humanity in the world. A: As for the first question, the Resistance masses and the resistance fighters know that we study our steps very well. Let them be assured as to what we will miss or what we will not miss. They are very much assured. Anyway, we might've talked about one eye but perhaps there are several eyes Inshallah. As our capacities, expertise, capabilities and readiness develop we are able to take risks in any of the various fields which we are engaged in. As for the second point, everyone knows that the main obsession or interest of Hezbollah has become the movement of this Resistance and its absolute commitment to the Lebanese national unity between Muslims and Christians and the other sects and factions. Hezbollah takes pain to preserve the Islamic unity, to avoid internal clashes and struggles and to give priority to the conflict with the Israeli enemy. Hezbollah's historic course is as such. Consequently, Hezbollah will carry on in this track. When I tackle the indictment, the STL or the International Investigation my problem is with Israel and America and with those who manipulate the STL. My problem is not with my Sunnite people in Lebanon or with my Sunnite people in the region so that I would be obliged to address them with a special speech tonight. Peace be upon you and Allah's mercy and blessings.


16. AMISOM commanders meet over military operations

AMISOM commanders meet over military operations

STORY: AMISOM commanders meet over military operations DURATION: 3:14 SOURCE: AMISOM PUBLIC INFORMATION RESTRICTIONS: This media asset is free for editorial broadcast, print, online and radio use. It is not to be sold on and is restricted for other purposes. All enquiries to [email protected] CREDIT REQUIRED: AMISOM PUBLIC INFORMATION LANGUAGE: ENGLISH NATURAL SOUND DATELINE: 11/FEBRUARY/2019, MOGADISHU, SOMALIA SHOT LIST: 1. Pan shot, Simon Mulongo, the Deputy Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission (DSRCC) arriving to open the sector commanders conference 2. Med shot, senior AMISOM military officers attending the meeting 3. Med shot, DSRCC Simon Mulongo and Lt. Gen. Tigabu Yilma, AMISOM Force Commander at the meeting 4. Med shot, AMISOM sector commanders and partners from US Army and the European Union Training Mission attending the conference 5. Wide shot, Maj. Gen. Charles Tai Gituai, Deputy AMISOM Force Commander in charge of Operations and Plans speaking at the conference 6. Med shot, sector commanders listening at the conference 7. Wide shot, Maj. Gen. Charles Tai Gituai speaking 8. Med shot, AMISOM senior military officers listening 9. Med shot, Lt. Gen. Tigabu Yilma and Maj. Gen. Tai Gituai listening 10. Close up shot, Maj. Gen. Maurice Gateretse, Deputy Force Commander in charge of Support and Logistics listening 11. Wide shot, sector commanders attend the conference 12. SOUNDBITE: (English) Simon Mulongo, Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission (DRSCC) for Somalia “The African Union Commission is determined to use the available resources effectively. We need to work with whatever little we have. We have to use the resources that we have to do our best and that is why the new CONOPS is extremely important to you as sector commanders.” 13. Med shot, senior military officers listening to Lt. Gen. Tigabu Yilma, AMISOM Force Commander 14. Close up shot, Brig. Michael Kabango, Uganda People’s Defence Force (UPDF) Contingent Commander in Somalia at the conference 15. Med shot, sector commanders listening during the meeting 16. SOUNDBITE: (English) Lt. Gen. Tigabu Yilma Wondimhunegn, AMISOM Force Commander “Today, this conference brings us together to discuss salient matters concerning the operationalization of the CONOPS 2018. The preparation and development of the CONOPS 2018-2021, of which I am aware that most of you participated in, was finalized and was approved during the Military Operations Coordination Conference (MOCC) on November 30, 2018, by the Chiefs of Defense Forces of the all Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs) and partners.” 17. Med shot, AMISOM sector commanders and partners from US army and European Union Training Mission at the conference 18. Wide shot, AMISOM sector commanders and partners from US army and European Union Training Mission at the conference 19. SOUNDBITE: (English) Lt. Gen. Tigabu Yilma Wondimhunegn, AMISOM Force Commander “In order to implement the Concept of Operations effectively, we have to concentrate in conducting targeted proactive offensive actions on Al-Shabaab to degrade its capability, deny them freedom of action and movement and secure our friendly forces in fulfillment of our mandate.” 20. SOUNDBITE: (English) Maj. Gen. Charles Tai Gituai, Deputy AMISOM Force Commander in charge of Operations and Plans “This first meeting as the Force Commander (Lt. Gen. Tigabu Yilma Wondimhunegn) is a great opportunity for you to meet the sector commanders for the very first time, that you will be able to listen to their presentations and as we start the new year, this being the first meeting of the sector commanders, it is going to be indeed very important for you to get to know how things are done here.” 21. Wide shot, sector commanders leaving the conference room at the end of the first session 22. Med shot, group photo Story AMISOM commanders meet over military operations Mogadishu, 11 February 2019 - Military commanders of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), are meeting at the senior leadership level, to develop a comprehensive plan that will guide the implementation of the new Concept of Operations (CONOPS), which was approved by the Military Operations Coordination Committee (MOCC) - a forum of Chiefs of Defence Staff and designated representatives of Troop and Police Contributing Countries, the Federal Government of Somalia, the UN, development partners, and the AU Peace and Security Council, in November 2018. The plan, will among others, identify activities and operations to be implemented under CONOPS and at the same time layout a timeframe and logistical support needed to implement the activities. In attendance are sector commanders who lead military contingents from Troop Contributing Countries to AMISOM; representatives from the Somali National Army (SNA), the UN and development partners.


17. THE ROOM part 2 (of 3) gestalt muslcal monologue based on chagall's "the birthday"

THE ROOM part 2 (of 3)  gestalt muslcal monologue based on chagall's

part 2 (of 3) of "THE ROOM": A GESTALT MUSICAL MONOLOGUE BASED ON CHAGALL'S "THE BIRTHDAY". see the commentary: "BACON, HAMANN & NACHMAN" at my website, franklynwepner.com. in spring 1991 a young man i used to know (who surprisingly has the same name that i have) improvised this monologue while living in a small rented room in brooklyn, new york. the original tape included music which he improvised simultaneously with the text. that tape with the original music is lost, but fortunately the text which i typed up based on that tape is still here in 2012, 21 years later in israel. so we have, first of all, the interesting situation of a stodgy 70 year old israeli recreating the work of a lusty 50 year old new yorker. during those 20 years the stodgy 70 year old has written loads of essays about the same process that the lusty 50 year old was probing rather naively. and so at the risk of making a mountain out of a mole hill i am referring you to an essay i wrote recently about section 4 of nachman of breslav's "collected essays" ("likutei moharan"), entitled: "bacon, hamann & nachman". if the video is itself borders on the limits of acceptable free expression on the net - even for secular folk - likewise this essay is sure to raise a few dozen red flags among the faithful of the breslaver sect. how dare i compare their beloved nachman to the likes of gestalt therapists, renaissance scientists and christian theologians! my justification is that for those who wish to get beyond the words and get to the ideas underlying the words, my video, nachman's "likutei moharan" and the work of perls, bacon and hamann are all, in fact, saying more or less the same thing. of course, moses is not jesus, and the man/woman relationship in the video is not quite exactly the way breslavers envision the kabbalistic chochmah/binah, wisdom/understanding, relationship of the holy "sefirot" (numbers, enumeration of the divine attributes). rather, let the overall "existential message" of the gestalt therapy process i am carrying out on chagall's painting symbolize "chochmah" (wisdom, the idea, integration), which is the end result of integrating inductively, intuitively, all the different elements of the painting ("binah", understanding, fragmentation). then, imagine the all these fragmented elements (room, floor, walls, air, man, woman, etc.) need to be impregnated by "the word" which is the existential message of the "dreamwork" i am doing on the painting. and now perhaps the correspondence becomes more clear. of course, this implies that you, the audience person, use all your wits when you seek to grasp the existential message of the video, and not filter out most of it due to emotional prudery or intellectual laziness. after all, "b'chochmah pote'ach sh'arim", "with wisdom he opens the gates". FRANKLYN WEPNER [email protected] June 2009 LM 4: BACON, HAMANN AND NACHMAN CONTENTS (1) INTRODUCTION (2) BACON TO HAMANN TO NACHMAN (3) BACON AND PERLS (4) LM 4 (5) HAMANN ON LANGUAGE: (a) imagery ("bilder") (b) analogy (c) parataxis (d) paradox (e) multiple levels of language (f) affective terminology (6) CONCLUSION REFERENCE: "JOHANN GEORG HAMANN, BY JAMES O'FLAHERTY (1) INTRODUCTION FW: The Breslaver Hassidic movement as it is set up and operates today is an introverted sect, in contrast to the Chabad Hassidic movement which is set up and operates today as an extroverted sect. Breslavers tend to keep to themselves, while Chabadniks drive around town in Mitzvah Tanks seeking wayward Jews as potential recruits. But opposite as the two sects are in that respect, one thing they have in common is an aversion to "philosophy" in its traditional academic sense. Both sects condemn "philosophy" as "chochmot chizoniot" (external wisdom) or "avodah zorah" (strange work). even through ironically they both embody philosophy in the most profound manner possible. Breslav is largely Jewish neo-Platonism, while Chabad is largely Jewish rationalist Aristotelianism. However, since, of course, their educational curriculums contain no Philosophy 101 course. they pay the price of ignorance and intolerance as a result. The Chabad press, for example, once published Nissan Mindel's excellent "The Philosophy of Chabad", but today that book is almost impossible to find, and Chabad has no plans to republish it. The book is being supressed most likely because in that book Mindel contends that Chabad is ideologically within the tradition of Moses Maimonides' "Guide For The Perplexed", which, as everybody except Chabadniks themselves know, is ideologically within the tradition of Aristotle. Breslavers are even more anti-rational than Chabadniks, since their theory base is primarily neo-Platonic mysticism. Merely mention the word Plato at a Breslaver shul on the Sabbath, and you can be sure nobody will invite you to dinner! Or go to a Breslaver mikvah after demonstrating your philosophical insights concerning the writings of Nachman, and there is a possibility that after you emerge from the holy waters you will not find the clothes you hung up! FW: Another price that Hasidic sects pay for ignoring their intellectual roots is mistranslating the writings of their own originators. The originators, fortunately, were profound philosophers, but much of what they are philosophizing is wasted on their disciples, who are preachers of the sect rather than teachers of the Word. Preachers of a sect aim at building up the sect by glorifying their colleagues, in this case the "tzaddikim" (Hebrew: pius ones) or "talmid chachams" (Hebrew: wise students, students of wisdom) of the local congregation. Teachers, on the other hand, have a primary loyalty to the subject matter they teach, i.e., to the truth. By translating the phrase "talmid chacham" as "Torah scholar" rather than as "student of wisdom", the deeper reference of the word "chochmah" (wisdom) to the right pillar of the tree of life, or inductive logic, goes into the trash can, and we end up with the notion that anybody who sect leaders designate as "Torah scholar" is thereby empowered to serve as a spiritual guide. But preachers are not necessarily teachers, and so most talmid chacham's today are serving the needs of the sect rather than propagating the message of the sect founder. Thus, for example, Nachman's emphasis on the individual's search for God by "hitbod'dut" (being alone with God) is these days transformed into a typical cult emphasis on groupie gatherings, mob hysteria, guru adoration, nonsense "bubbeh maysehs" (Yiddish: grandmother stories), 18th century sect uniforms and scribbling the name of Nachman of Breslav on public buildings. Have you heard, for example, the bubbeh mayseh about how Nachman himself is sitting up there somewhere near God's footstool sending letters or emails to the chosen few?! What ever happened to the basic belief of Judaism that God is One, not two or three or whatever? FW: But fools step in where angels fear to tread, as the saying goes, and so this essay is all about the roots of the Breslaver Hasidism in the neo-Platonic tradition as this was modified by Francis Bacon in the scientific renaissance of the 16th century. As if this topic is not heretical enough, I will in this work find much of the support for my contentions in the writings of a Christian theologian whose writings appeared in Europe not far from the doorstep of Nachman, fifty years or so before Nachman wrote his main work, his "Collected Essays" (Hebrew: Likutei Moharan). Now, I am not at all claiming here that Nachman plagiarised Johann Georg Hamann, since it is extremely unlikely that a person growing up in the communities that Nachman did had direct contact with the work of Hamann. But the mere historical fact that the two authors published books dealing with similar topics in a similar manner in the same historical period certainly suggests that they both were tapping parallel Christian and Jewish threads of the religious world that flourished in 18th and 19th century Eastern Europe. One can muse that perhaps Nachman during his occasional trips to Lemburg for medical treatment or to dialogue with members of the Haskalah movement thriving there did come upon a Yiddish translation of something by Hamann or by one of the followers of Hamann, but to date there is little basis for such fantasies. FW: My goals in this essay are modest. I will make use of an excellent commentary upon the work of Hamann by James O'Flaherty, his "Johann Georg Hamann", Twayne Publishers, and merely demonstrate how the same six key ideas which, he maintains, underlie the work of Hamann can be used as a royal highway to quickly penetrate what appears to be in the writings of Nachman of Breslav an impenetrable hermeneutic jungle. As a prelude to my interweaving of Hamann and Nachman, I will tap a bit of the philosophical tradition which underlies both authors, in particular the work of Francis Bacon who lived in the 16th century. Why Francis Bacon? Because even though Hamann and Nachman are often cited as the epitome of anti-rationalism, yet at the heart of both authors is a sort of logic which is quite profoundly rational. We will contrast inductive logic, what Bacon calls concrete, analogical logic based upon juxtaposing ideas, with deductive logic, which is abstract, mathematical, systematic, and based upon arranging ideas in syllogisms. Once we grasp this distinction between the two types of logic, we will understand why in essays that embody reasoning of the inductive sort, Hamann and Nachman can tell us - without fibbing - to avoid like the plague "philosophy" or "reason" and rely upon faith. The two theologians simply are splitting hairs between induction (which they like) and deduction (which they do not like). They mystify us, however, by calling deduction "philosophy" and induction "kabbalah" or "Judaism or "the Word of God". But obviously any philosophy or theology worth the name must incorporate both sorts of thinking. So let's stop mixing up apples and pears and recognize both of them as nutritious fruit! The Word of God is smart enough to encompass both the left pillar of sefirot (deduction, differentiation, creation, the downward path), and the right pillar of sefirot (induction, integration, redemption, the upward path back to God). We are dealing, after all, with the dialectical tradition of mainstream Judaism, within which Chabad appeals to folks that stress the left pillar, while Breslav appeals to folks that stress the right pillar. For the Catholics analogous slots are occupied by the Dominicans (rationalists) and the Franciscans (pietists), respectively. O'Flaherty says it well: O 87. A superficial analysis of Hamann's prose may result in the conclusion that its all too frequent obscurity is rooted in sheer irrationalism. This is, however, by no means the case. Its obscurity derives for the most part from an excessive use of intuitive reason rather than from true irrationalism - quite a different matter. Having seen to what extent Hamann is committed to intuitive or analogical reasoning, while at the same time rejecting the abstractions of the Enlightenment, we can more readily understand why he alternates between praise and vilification in his references to reason. Thus, when he makes such statements as "Faith has need of reason just as much as reason needs faith", "Without language we would have no reason, without reason no religion," As soon as one knows what reason is, all conflict with revelation ceases, since Hamann is obviously referring to what he considers the legitimate use of reason." FW: Most of the essays that constitute Nachman's Likutei Moharan anthology would serve as examples of Nachman's use of intuitive reason, of induction, and I have here merely selected LM 4 arbitrarily from the list. Like the others, the overall structure of LM 4 consists of a Houdini magical demonstration of how just about anything can be seen as an aspect of anything else, without losing the encompassing subordination of particulars to emerging generalities. The longer the process of finding associations and aspects (Hebrew: "behinot") goes on, the more the series of particular items coalesces into higher and higher levels of integration and encompassing general ideas. But let's now zoom in and be specific. On the side of the particulars Nachman cites at the outset a Talmudic yarn calculated to boggle any deductively oriented mind and delight the imagination of most 5 year olds. Here is the Talmudic fable. LM 4:10 Rabbah bar bar Chanah recounted: One time we were traveling on a ship and we saw this fish in whose nostrils was sitting a mudeater. The fish died and the water tossed it about and cast it ashore. It destroyed sixty cities. Sixty cities then ate from it. Sixty cities salted its flesh. And from one eyeball they filled three hundred kegs with oil. When we returned after twelve months time, we saw them sawing planks from its bones with which to rebuild those cities. (Bava Batra 73b) FW: And on the other end of the chain of exegesis in LM 4 Nachman presents his final inductively derived generalization. LM 4:11. This (the above Talmudic story) is the explanation of the opening verse: "I am God your Lord Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery." FW: The entire essay LM 4 is a string of associations and analogies that begins with the ship, the fish, the mudeater, the cities, the oil and the bones and gradually arrives at a level of intuitive wisdom sufficiently profound to qualify as an important contribution to our grasp of the meaning of God's role in the Exodus saga. You will see, of course, that during this intuitive, inductive process of "behinot" there are very few abstract, deductive syllogisms of the sort "if A and B, therefore C". The process is mostly intuitive leaps of the sort, "this is an aspect of that, and that is an aspect of something else". My project, then, outrageous as it might appear to be at the outset, is to apply an account of the methodology of Christian theologian Johann Georg Hamann, in an effort to decode the compositional procedure which Nachman has followed in this LM 4 essay. First I will set out some simple logical rules that Francis Bacon gave us in the 16th century, and then I will present a grid of six linguistic techniques which, according to O'Flaherty, 18th century Romanticism overlaid on Bacon's framework. In a word, 16th century Bacon plus 18th century Romanticism together give us a key to decode much of the vast, profound, Scriptural and kabbalistic tapestry which is the work of either Hamann or Nachman of Breslav. I am grateful to O'Flaherty for making these connections clear to me and encourage you also to profit from the work of an excellent teacher by reading his book. Just substitute Moses for Jesus as you read and your Jewish ego will be immune to indoctrination! (2) FROM BACON TO HAMANN TO NACHMAN Here then, to start off, is a brief chapter summarizing the contribution of Francis Bacon concerning these matters. My text is simply a presentation of the succinct summary given us by Vatican priest Frederick Copleston in his "History of Philosophy", Volume III. But Hamann and Nachman of Breslav are figures of the late18th century, and so in their work a tradition of Romantic style exegesis and poetry overlays and masks the underlying rigorous logical foundation provided by Bacon. Bacon's theory of induction is the philosophical seed of which Hamann and Nachman are glorious flowerings. For what appears in their work to be the exact opposite of scientific rigor is indeed, as I shall demonstrate here, a meticulously devised associative network of the most profound logical interconnections. Let us begin, therefore, with the basic logical principles of Francis Bacon, which are spelled out quite clearly by Copleston in his presentation of the influence of the new Renaissance sciences on philosophy. C 289. As a preliminary, one may remind oneself of the two elements of scientific method, namely the observational and inductive side and the deductive and mathematical side. The first aspect of scientific method, namely observation of the empirical data as a basis for induction and for discovering causes, was stressed by Francis Bacon. C 300. [According to Bacon] the purpose of science is the extension of the dominion of the human race over nature; but this can be achieved only by a real knowledge of nature; we cannot obtain effects without an accurate knowledge of causes . . . The syllogism (deduction) consists of propositions; and propositions consist of words; and words express concepts. Thus, if the concepts are confused and if they are the result of over hasty abstraction, nothing which is built upon them is secure. Our only hope lies in true induction. . . finding the truth may proceed from sense and the perception of particulars to immediately attainable axioms and thence gradually and patiently, to more general axioms. . . this is the true way. The mind proceeds from a careful and patient examination of particulars to the interpretation of nature. . . . Induction starts with the operation of the senses; but it requires the co-operation of mind, though the mind's activity must be controlled by observation . . . Bacon rejects the syllogism on the ground that induction must take its rise in the observation of things, of particular facts or events, and must stick to them as closely as possible. The logicians wing their way at once to the most general principles and deduce conclusions syllogistically . . . In induction we proceed in the opposite direction to that in which we proceed in deduction. C 302. But to attain a certain knowledge of nature is not so easy or simple as it may sound at first hearing, for the human mind is influenced by preconceptions and prejudices which bear upon our interpretation of experience and distort our judgments. It is necessary, then, to draw attention to "the idols and false notions" which inevitably influence the human mind and render science difficult of attainment unless one is aware of them and warned against them. Hence Bacon's famous doctrine of "the idols". There are four main types, the idols of the tribe, the idols of the cave or den, the idols of the market place and the idols of the theater . . . (a) The "idols of the tribe" are those errors, the tendency to which is inherent in human nature and which hinder objective judgment. For example, man is prone to rest content with that aspect of things which strikes the senses . . ."for what a man would like to be true, to that he tends to give credence". Further the human mind is prone to indulge in abstractions, and it tends to conceive as constant what is really changing or in flux. (b) The "idols of the den" are the errors peculiar to each individual, arising from his temperament, education, reading and the special influences which have weighed with him as an individual. These factors lead him to interpret phenomena according to the viewpoint of his own den or cave. (See Plato's metaphor of the cave.) (c) The "idols of the market place" are errors due to the influence of language . . . Sometimes words are employed when there are no corresponding things. (d) The "idols of the theater" are the philosophical systems of the past, which are nothing better than stage plays representing unreal worlds of man's own creation. C 305. The best demonstration is experience. But it is necessary to make a distinction. Mere experience is not enough . . . True experience is planned, . . . proceeding by an orderly and methodically inductive process. What, then, is true induction, positively considered? Human power is directed to or consists in being able to generate a new form in a given nature. (Read: a new gestalt in a new situation, here and now.) From this it follows that human science is directed to the discovery of the forms of things. Form does not refer to the final cause; the form or formal cause of a given nature is such that "given the form, the nature infallibly follows". It is the law which constitutes a nature. . . . the primary task is to prepare a "sufficient and good natural and "experimental history" based on the facts (Read: what Hegel labels an "objective history" in contrast to our subjective illusions.) . . . These tables having been constructed, the work of induction really begins (Read: what Nachman is referring to when he says, "my Torah is entirely behinot", i.e., a string of associations and interpretations.) . . . which is not completed until a positive affirmation is arrived at. (For example, the "existential message of the dream", which emerges at the end of a three hour gestalt dreamwork session, which is what Maimonides labels the unripe fruit of prophecy now ripened into a Word of God.) (3) BACON AND PERLS FW: But before we jump into the great ocean, the turbid waters of inductive interpretations and Romantic theological poetry that is the work of Hamann and Nachman, let us stop at the banks of the ocean and examine a rather clearcut version of the same process, a contemporary example cut from the same cloth. I refer to the Gestalt Therapy lore of Frederick Perls, which while it makes no pretense of being the basis of a religious sect, probably has attracted more devotees worldwide than the opus of either Hamann or Nachman of Breslav. Perls gives the seeker after truth a rather simple task to explore. He tells me, his gestalt therapy client, to talk about what pops into my awareness and to stay in the here and now. Focusing this process on a dream raises the efficiency level, but just shooting the breeze also will yield useful results. Now, if I accept Fritz's invitation and set out on this verbal monologue, a mysterious sequence of events is likely to unfold. As I listen to what comes out of my mouth and respond to those sounds, a sort of instantaneous feedback system is generated. In fact, it is genesis in the most profound biblical sense. For lo and behold, I begin to create a world. I am operating, as says Maimonides in his "Guide For The Perplexed", "in the image of God". For I am copying the manner in which God does His creating. We need to distinguish the path of Fritz Perls from the path of Sigmund Freud in these matters. For if the therapist has me lie down while I do my dreamwork monologue, and if he hides behind me and limits much of his function to being a tape recorder documenting my output, then the setting is Freudian. But if, on the other hand, the therapist takes an active role, helping me to take responsibility for my actions and deal actively with the impediments to truth which come up along the way, then we have the Gestalt approach. From the theological point of view, the crucial element that Perls and Freud share here is that language is the medium for a truth search, and that man speaking is paralleling God creating His world. FW: Entering even further into theological analogies to psychological processes, do we not have here also the unfolding of the love affair of Adam and Eve, as I, the subject, the kabbalistic First Adam, emanate language, the object, Eve from my own being and then precede to constantly impregnate it/her with my ideas as my dreamwork monologue goes on and on? Just label me, as Nachman does, the Talmid Chacham, wise student learning as I go along, and label my verbal output "my world", and we have the makings of a kabbalistic mystical system, with chochmah (Hebrew: wisdom) impregnating binah (Hebrew: building a world) with ideas. In the neo-Platonic version of the kabbalistic tradition, all this is unfolds on the level of pure Platonic ideas, known as "sefirot". The Hebrew word "sefirah" means "number", as in the use of numbers by Pythagoras in Greek philosophy to relate theological truth. In terms of the Romanticism of the 18th century I am, furthermore, during the course of my Gestalt monologue generating "poetry", in the sense of an emotionally grounded form of linguistic action. Returning to Francis Bacon, let me repeat the previous quote and we will explore what else we may learn from it. C: Human science is directed to the discovery of the forms of things. Form does not refer to the final cause; the form or formal cause of a given nature is such that "given the form, the nature infallibly follows". It is the law which constitutes a nature. . . . The primary task is to prepare a "sufficient and good natural and "experimental history" based on the facts. . . These tables having been constructed, the work of induction really begins . . which is not completed until a positive affirmation is arrived at. FW: Let us interweave these words of Bacon with the Gestalt therapy monologue. The monologue of here and now verbal expression is part of the flow of here and now contact experiences. These experiences constitute what Bacon labels an objectively real "experimental history based on the facts", and what Hegel labels an "objective history" of real experiences. Then, "these tables having been constructed the work of induction really begins, which is not completed until a positive affirmation is arrived at". The positive affirmation that is the result of the work of induction is a new idea which is the result of "Platonic collection", i.e., gestalt formation or a figure emerging from a ground here and now. In Gestalt dreamwork, this could be, for example, the "existential message of the dream" that might occur to the protagonist after three hours of exploring his objective history in the here and now dreamwork process. The protagonist is working his way up from specific concrete contact moments, weak gestalts (Perls), low level monads (Leibniz), some would say angels (Maimonides), towards more and more encompassing strong gestalts, monadologies, some would say archangels. Maimonides labels them "cherubim", since the Hebrew root is "karov" (near), and cherubim are closer to the oneness that is God than are ordinary angels. The new idea emerging from the void of not knowing the answer is what Bacon labels "the form of things", the "law which constitutes its nature". He is referring to the distinction between matter and form, the form being the idea which is the gestalt or pattern which man imposes upon the items of his sensory and motor experience. Nachman says in LM 1:1, "The Jew must always focus on the inner intelligence/idea of every thing, and bind himself to the wisdom and inner idea that is to be found in each thing. This so that the idea which is in each thing may enlighten him, that he may draw closer to God through that thing." We already have here the logical seed upon which Nachman built his LM 4, but as a transition into the text of Nachman let us see what his contemporary Hamann has to say concerning similar matters. Hamann is a convenient bridge here, linking Francis Bacon with Nachman of Breslav. O: While it is correct to say that Hamann stands in the empirical tradition of Francis Bacon, John Locke, and Hume, the important qualification must be added that for him experience is always crystalized in language. There exists, of course, an inner correlate of the objective facts of language, the invisible essence of our soul which is conjoined with the outer correlate by an "incomprehensible bond", which he describes, invoking religious terminology, as a "sacrament". But whatever the nature of the inner correlate, it is the evidence of the objective facts of language to which Hamann appeals, and from which he draws inferences as to the nature of mind and of reality. "I concern myself with the letter and with what is visible and material" . . . In his view God is above all a speaking God, indeed an Author: "God reveals Himself; the Creator of the World is a Writer". It is always God's Word which evokes our rational powers in the first place. Hamann employs a sexual metaphor in this connection, stating that our reason must be "impregnated" by the "seed of the divine Word". FW: It is this mysterious freely associating monologue in the here and now, this mix of thinking and speaking unimpeded by the distractions of everyday cause and effect logic, which is the open sesame which for inductive "science" (from the Latin, "scire", to know) unleashes something analogous to The Word. C: Such unity as man possesses is mysterious in its origins, and derives from a source which lies outside of himself. Only through the individual positive response to the Logos can man's collective powers of faith, passion, and reason be brought into harmony. Otherwise they fall all too easily into strife with one another. For Hamann God is the One in whom all opposites coincide, and it is this principle of the coincidentia oppositorum which, embodied in the Logos and manifested above all in the "form of a servant" in which Christ appeared, which succeeds in reconciling the opposites within the human psyche. . . . "Here on this earth there is no possibility of a metamorphosis or transfiguration into the divine nature, but only the old message of rebirth". FW: Jews do not need the allusion to Jesus as "the form of a servant". In LM 4, which we are considering here, Nachman attributes to Moses the same function. LM 4:9. This is: "No man knows [the burial place of Moses] - even Moses did not know. For he was negated in Ein Sof (Hebrew: God as Endless). All this was at his death. However, also during his lifetime Moses certainly stripped away all corporeality and attached himself to the Light of Ein Sof. But then, this stripping was in an aspect of "the living creatures ran [from being an ego] and returned [to being an ego](Ezekiel 1:14). This is because the Holy One desires our service, as is written (Yom Kippur Liturgy), "You desire praise from mounds of dust, from lumps of clay." FW: Hamann, writing only a few years before Nachman, created his own theology by portraying language as a powerful creative or destructive force in the world. We need not now grope further back into the history of religion to find other predecessors of Hamann and Nachman. It is sufficient to recognize that the two authors here under scrutiny are drinking from the same fountain, with some minor variations. One of these is the question whether we are to label the holistic embodiment of language the Jesus function or the Moses function. We will ignore that battle, but now we are ready to appreciate Nachman's contribution in LM 4 to this linguistically inspired tradition of the theology of The Word. As we read, we will keep in mind (a) that YHVH and the Talmid Chakham (wise student, Torah Scholar) are standing in for the subject, the Divine Author learning as he creates His world, and (b) that Elohim is standing in for the object, the world being created, and (c) that the Kingdom of God, Malkhut d'Kedushah, is standing in for the language of the dreamwork monologue on the material level. The problem, for Nachman in particular and for Romanticism in general, is that language in its pure, primordial form of "poetry" has been co-opted by the system of deductive logic and lost its original roots in inductive logic. For Nachman, as for Hamann, it is only the complete system encompassing deduction and induction in a higher synthesis which will give us a "foretaste of the World to Come", the messianic idea, and get us out of Egyptland. This is a longing, paradoxically, on the one hand for the messianic future and on the other hand for the pre-Industrial middle ages of shtetl life. Nachman is talking primarily about a Gestalt or hitbod'dut (being alone with myself and talking to God) monologue here, even though he provides a second level of meaning for those not privy to philosophy and linguistics, and for those who need an excuse to follow Torah Scholars and other gurus blindly. For as a matter of fact, (a) hitbod'dut and (b) confessing in front of a Torah Scholar, and (c) doing a Gestalt Therapy monologue, all mean the same thing, given the manner in which the concepts are used in Breslav theology. FW: Confessing in front of a Wise Student means doing my Gestalt Therapy monologue in the manner of a feedback loop and carefully (as the "subject") paying attention myself to what comes out of my mouth (the "object"). Just substitute "God is listening" for "I am listening" or "the wise student is listening" and this will be clear. Basically, it is The Author, the Creator, the Gestalt client, who is listening to Him creating, and this feedback loop by itself re-animates the dead forms, the self-interrupting non-creative speech habits and manipulations, which man in his Fallen state tends to spew forth. In the down-to-earth jargon of Fritz Perls, instead of verbalizing my usual elephantshit in defense of my ego games, I need to emanate poetry, sacred truth from my true source. What clearly distinguishes Breslav pietism from Chabad rationalism is the emphasis on being alone before God, me being immersed in my monologue and relying on faith, rather than me being part of a vast pyramid of scholars and relying on guidance from a Jewish pope on the top of the pyramid. The Catholic parallel here is the Dominican sect versus the Franciscan sect, or more generally the Catholics versus the Protestants. Or perhaps you prefer Kant's distinction between critical judgment and aesthetic judgment. (4) LM 4 FW: Here, then, is the beginning of Nachman's LM 4, as it is published by the official Breslaver translators. Let's immerse ourselves in Nachman's poetically inspired prose for a few moments, to get a sense of the overwhelming assault to which our rational, deductive faculties is subjected in such an experience. PROLOGUE. I am God your Lord, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery. (Exodus 20:2) LM 4:1. When a person knows that everything that happens to him is for his benefit, this perception is a foretaste of the World to Come. As said, "When He is YHVH, I will praise His word; when He is Elohim, I will praise His word" (Psalms 56:11). And this perception is a foretaste of the World to Come, as our Sages taught: "On that day God shall be one and His name one" (Zechariah 14:9). They asked: Is He now not one? And our Sages answered: At present the blessing "Who is good and beneficent" is recited over good, whereas "the truthful Judge" is recited over bad. But in the Future it will be entirely "Who is good and beneficent"(Pesachim 50a). The holy name YHVH and the holy name Elohim will be totally one. LM 4:2. Now it is impossible for a person to grasp this perception except when he uplifts Malkhut d'Kedushah (Kingdom of Holiness) from its exile among the nations. For presently, malkhut and rule the nations. This is the reason . They nurse from the aspect of Malkhut, which is called Elohim, as is written (Psalms 74:122) "Elohim is my King from long ago". But when a person raises Malkhut from among the nations, it is the fulfillment of the verse (Psalms 47:8) "For Elohim is King of all the earth." LM 4:3 Yet it is impossible to return the kingdom to the Holy One, except by means of spoken confession in the presence of a Talmid Chakham (Torah scholar). Through this one rectifies the aspect of Malkhut and raises it to its source. [Take d'varim (words) with you and return to YHVH (God) (Hosea 14:3)] This is the meaning of "Take D'VaRim with you . . ." - i.e., spoken confession. This is the aspect of Malkhut, as in, "one DaBoR (spokesman) to a generation" (Sanhedrin 8a) - dabor connotes and ruler. " . . . and return to YHVH - so that they rectify and elevate the aspect of d'varim/Malkhut/Elohim to [the level of] YHVH. As mentioned above, "When He is YHVH I will praise His word; when He is Elohim, I will praise His word." This is, to know that everything that happens to him is all for his good, and to recite the blessing "Who is good and beneficent" over everything. LM 4:4 Knowing all this is called complete awareness. For the essence of awareness is the union of . This is called daat. In other words, he does not differentiate between lovingkindness and judgment, but blesses "Who is good and beneficent" over everything. This is called "YHVH is one and His Name is one". As our Sages taught: In the Future there will be total oneness and it will be entirely "Who is good and Beneficent". This is: YHVH is echod (one) [and His Name is echod]." "His Name corresponds to Elohim/Malkhut, as is written (2 Samuel 8:13) "David made a name for himself" - . Echod has the same numerical value as ahavah (love). Therefore, whether it be YHVH - which is compassion - or whether it be "His Name" - which corresponds to Elohim judgment - all is for your benefit and a result of the love which the Holy One has for you. As it is written, "For those whom God loves He rebukes (Proverbs 3:12); and "Of all the families of th earth I knew only you [Israel}]. That is why I will punish you for all your iniquities (Amos 3:2). (5) HAMANN ON LANGUAGE FW: Rather than a crystal clear Torah message graspable by deductive logic, the above word salad strikes us as a murky bowl of borsht or shabbat cholent. Therefore, we will turn now to Bacon and to Hamann to help us get our bearings in decoding Nachman's Torah offering. The allusion to goyishkeit suggested by the names "Bacon" and "Ham" need not, I hope, deter us! I stated above that aside from the philosophy of language, much of Hamann (and Nachman) is an update on the philosophy of Francis Bacon, in the context of an 18th century aesthetics of Romanticism. In support of that contention, here are six specific techniques of Romantic style poetic expression which, according to O'Flaherty, lend themselves to the purposes of intuitive (inductive) rather than abstract (deductive) reason. but to start off here is Hamann's version of Francis Bacon. O 83. In order to comprehend Hamann's understanding of reason it is necessary to distinguish between two modes of cognition, namely, the intuitive and the abstract . . . Abstract reason affects language in precisely the opposite ways from intuitive reason . . . "Human living seems to consist of a series of symbolic actions by means of which our soul is capable of revealing its invisible nature, and produces and communicates beyond itself an intuitive knowledge of its effective existence" FW: And now comes Hamann's list of the six Romantic techniques for poetic expression, which in the sequel we will illustrate using the text of Nachman's LM 4. In my essay our focus is to illustrate these six techniques. Therefore, we will not give as much attention as perhaps we should to other important aspects of Nachman's text. Since most of what Nachman has to say he says again and again, we surely will run into these other themes in the sequel. Here, then, is a preliminary listing of Hamann's six techniques of language expression. O 83. Since in Hamann's view there is no thought apart from language, it seems quite appropriate that we should look to language for the earmarks of reason. It will be seen that there are six salient features which characterize the language of intuitive reason, i.e., reason functioning within its appropriate limits. To be specific, we may say that intuitive reason manifests itself in language by the following: (a) the abundance of concrete images (Bilder); (b) the employment of analogical reasoning; (c) the frequent recourse to paradoxes; (d) the presence of multiple levels of meaning; (e) paratactic sentence structure; and (f) the presence of affective terminology. O83 FW: We will examine how Hamann explains these six poetic tools, and at the same time we will illustrate how Nachman of Breslav brings over each technique into the realm of Hasidic Torah commentary. (a) CONCRETE IMAGERY OF EXPERIENCE VS. ABSTRACT RELATIONSHIPS OF WORDS O 84. Hamann maintains that natural language is, to adopt Henri Bergson's phrase, "molded on reality". Ordinary language or "the language of nature" is for him the historically developed vernacular of a people, which has been "unimproved" by grammarians or the creators of technical jargon. It is this kind of language which can be raised to the level of poetic expression . . . Wrote Hamann, "The sphere of poetry does not lie outside of the world as a fantastic possibility conceived by the brain of a poet; it strives to be precisely the opposite, the unadorned expression of truth, and must for just that reason reject the deceptive finery of the alleged reality of the man of culture" . . . Hamann's conviction is grounded in the essential nature of both God and man. Hence, God, "the Poet at the beginning of days", always speaks to man in poetic language. "The Scriptures cannot speak with us as human beings otherwise than in parables because all our knowledge is sensory, figurative; and because understanding and reason transform the images of external things everywhere into allegories and signs of more abstract, more intellectual, more lofty concepts." FW: Analogous to Hamann's theory of poetic expression is that of today's Gestalt therapists, as laid out by Perls, Hefferline and Goodman in their text, "Gestalt Therapy". For Gestaltists poetic speech refers to contactful speech, supported by man in action, rather than man stuck at an impasse and brooding abstractly about his life. The choice is between a concrete reality and mere aboutism. If I see a fly buzzing over there and I say, "I am aware of that fly buzzing over there", that is "language molded to reality", even more so if I identify with that fly and say "I am a fly buzzing over here, hoping that my buzzing will get you interested in my ideas." By identifying with the fly, finding the inner idea of that fly as Nachman puts it in LM 1:1, I am concretely at this moment in touch with my existence. But if I am an entomologist and I say "flies are arthropods", that particular fly out there has disappeared from my life into abstract jargon. Verbalizing has replaced poetry. The fly buzzing out there had the potential to be part of my existence, say, my tragic death as one day it may buzz around my rotting corpse, while the "arthropod" of an entomologist is cut off from my existential experience by being locked into a grid of dead, abstract terminology concerning, for example, information about how many legs it has. Likewise God, the "poet at the beginning of days" is engaged in a living action of creating His world, while a geologist who lists the layers of rocks making up a particular mountain range is cut off from the real experience of creating that mountain range. How does Nachman of Breslav deal with this requirement that expression be poetic? That is to say, how do Nachman's Torah commentaries serve as a symbolic overlay for human action? First of all, he is assuming he, Nachman, the writer, and we, his readers, and also the protagonist he is describing all are spiritual pilgrims, seeking to return to God. All three personnas therefore share a common grounding in concrete here and now experience. Let us see how all this works in the continuation of Nachman's LM 4 text. LM 4:5 And a person's iniquities are on his bones, as is written (Ezekiel 32:27), "And their iniquities will be etched upon their bones". Each sin has its own combination of letters. When a person commits a particular sin, a negative letter combination is etched upon his bones. This brings the spoken aspect of the prohibition which he has transgressed into the realm of impurity. In other words, he brings the aspect of Malkhut among the nations, giving them the power to rule. For example: If he transgressed the utterance of the prohibition "You shall have no [other gods besides Me]" (Exodus 20:3), then he destroys the utterance's positive letter combination and forms a negative letter combination. This letter combination is etched upon his bones "It is your iniquities that have turned away these things (Jeremiah 5:25). And it is written, "Evil is the deathblow of the wicked" (Psalms 34:22). By means of spoken confession, however, the letters disappear from the bones into which they have been etched and are transformed into the words of confession. For speech emanates from one's bone, as is written (Psalms 35:10), "All my bones will say". He tears down the negative structure and combinations, and from [the letters] builds Makhut d'Kedushah. This is what the Sages said: During the time the Israelites traveled in the desert, Yehudah's bones rolled about [in his coffin] until Moshe said (Deuteronomy 33:7) "Hear, O God, the voice of Yehudah" (Sotah 7b). Moshe requested that the Holy One remember for Yehudah's sake the confession he had made. And this is just what happened. Thus it was specifically "his bones rolled about", as is written, "and their iniquities will be etched upon their bones." But by means of the confession they were rectified and each one went into its place. And Yehudah corresponds to Malkhut - an allusion that the aspect of Malkhut is rectified through spoken confession. This was accomplished with the aid of Moshe, who recalled the confession. For it is necessary that the confession take place in the presence of a Talmid Chakham. And every Torah scholar is an aspect of Moshe "Moshe, you said it well" (Shabbat 101b). By Moshe's mentioning the confession, it was considered as if [Yehudah] had now confessed . This caused the aspect of Malkhut to be rectified and the negative letter combination, which had been etched upon [Yehudah's ] bones to be torn down. FW: There is a real life struggle going on here in Nachman's text, involving bones, Yehuda and Moshe, as though the story has been told around a campfire or dreamed by a Gestalt client. Nachman is not merely "talking literature", but is presenting an epic human action being carried out by a protagonist, and by implication also by a reader who is struggling with the iniquities etched in his own bones. Moses first identifies with the needs of the bones of Yehudah. Then the confession, hitbod'dut, mini-Gestalt session that Moses expresses in language brings those needs of Yehudah into the midst of a committed authentic action by Moses. Moses as strong gestalt and encompassing messianic monad here fulfills the logical function of induction, Platonic collection, in relation to the bones and essences of the existence of Yehudah. The parallel to Gestalt dreamwork is very clear here. According to Perls, we must identify with each of the different images and aspects of the dream we are exploring, in order to grasp the overall existential message of the dream. We move from ordinary everyday objects, like trees and clouds and bones, more and more in the direction of encompassing ideas, encompassing essences of our existence, as we move inductively upwards towards the final encompassing existential idea and message of our work on this particular dream. And yet in this dreamwork process everything must remain concrete, articulated, eventually, in terms of the unfinished business of important childhood relationships. The inductive ascent is not at the same time a flight to abstractions. That is to say, the three personnas involved in the ongoing storytelling process are active readers. They (we) maintain their (our) identification with the story which is unfolding. Here is an analogous message from the work of Hamann, with the messianic role shifted from Moses to Jesus. O 86. The abstract language of the philosophers fails, according to Hamann, to take into account the fact that God's infinite love for man is revealed precisely in His willingness to condescend to man's estate. God has humbled himself to the extent of speaking in the everyday idiom of the people by means of "little contemptible events" and "humanly foolish, indeed sinful actions . . . For Hamann does not subscribe to any form of the double-truth theory; spiritual truth does not require two forms, one for the philosopher, another for the masses. "To say that Moses wrote only for the common people is either meaningless or a ridiculous view of the matter" . . . Philosophically speaking, the "images" (German: Bilder) of natural language represent for Hamann "objects", which may be defined as uncritically perceived entities of ordinary experience, principally visual in nature. Abstract or discursive reason has the power, however, to eliminate such objects and to replace them with terms which actually stand for relations . . . "Existence [ i.e., concrete existence in a world of real objects] is realism, and must be believed; relations are idealism and rest upon connective and discriminatory procedures" . . . Metaphysics misuses "all the word-songs and figures of speech of our empirical knowledge" by transforming them into "nothing but hieroglyphs and types of ideal relations" . . . Another fundamental aspect of imagery is, of course, its strong appeal to the emotions, a quality which is lacking in the case of abstract terminology. FW: In Hamann's reference here to concrete objects of experience disappearing into abstract verbal relationships no longer in touch with their initial concrete reality, we recognize the terminology of 14th century Nominalism as articulated in those days by William of Ockham. See my essay on "Nominalism: the Here and Now, There and Then", for more about this. (b) ANALOGY VS. LOGICAL SYLLOGISMS O 87. The second characteristic of Hamann's use of reason is his preference for analogical, as opposed to purely logical, thinking. Whereas the rationalist establishes a principle, whether deductively or inductively, and thereupon proceeds to draw inferences from it, the intuitive thinker establishes a model on nonrational grounds, as, for example, instinct or faith, and thereupon proceeds to draw parallels to the model. This latter procedure accords, in Hamann's view, with the proper use of reason, despite the fact that reasoning from analogy does not yield the certainty one might desire. Thus, he writes that "reason cannot grasp anything but analogies in order to obtain a very ambiguous light" . . . Following the lead of Francis Bacon, Hamann maintains that man, in his original state, thought analogically rather than logically. This idea is clearly stated in the famous passage at the beginning of the Aesthetica In Nuce: "Poetry is the mother tongue of the human race" . . . Hamann places analogical thinking, as opposed to the later development of discursive thinking, within the framework of his general anthropology with its emphasis on man's retrograde development away from his primordial state. It is more natural for man to think in metaphors or parables, which involve analogical thinking, than to arrive at deductions based on rational principles . . . "All mortal creatures are able to see the truth and essence of things only in parables". For Hamann to metaschematize means to substitute one set of objective relationships for another, analogous set of subjective, personal, or existential relationships, in order to throw some light on their meaning. FW: Hamann here is saying what Nachman says when he says "My Torah is all behinot (Hebrew: aspects, interpretations, associations, analogies)". The notion of "man's retrograde development away from his primordial state" stems from the Platonic theory of anamnesis, "not forgetting" that primordial state by groping in the void for primordial ideas. Anamnesis entails immersing oneself in a chaotic sea of fragments and using Platonic collection or kabbalistic tsimtsum in the cognitive void of "not knowing" to discover/remember the primordial ideas by means of a series of associations, behinot. The obvious illustration in Nachman's LM 4 text is the endless string of associations, behinot, which lead Nachman from concrete particulars towards his final grand conclusions. "A" is an aspect of "B", and "B" is an aspect of "C", etc., etc. In the section which follows, for example, the string of behinot leads on and on, apparently endlessly, from (a) the lust of Nevatt to (b) fire to (c) purging via fire to (d) the fire of sin to (e) sins themselves to (f) crossing over to bundles of fragments being collected into a new idea (Platonic collection), and then on to (f) the wrath of God as fire negating all the negations of the One Without A Second, which itself leads on by means of tsimtsum to (g) nothingness, which is analogous to (h) humility as an aspect of (i) wisdom, leading to (j) the elevation of language, which itself is analogous to (k) the kingdom of God and refers by contrast to (l) the secular government, which needs to be brought back to its source by means of (m) the intervention of Moses, who is aspect of (n) Mashiach himself! All this in two pages. Note how Nachman gives Moses the Mashiach function of pulling all the fragments together, in exactly the same manner that Hamann gives that messianic function of Platonic collection to Jesus. For both Hamann and Nachman what is lost in logical precision is more than compensated for by the vast range of insightful sparks generated in the process of induction - provided, of course, that the spiritual pilgrim and the audience are receptive to this sort of pietist, Romantic, poetry. What makes this word salad "poetry" in the profound Gestalt and Aristotelian sense of committed personal action is Nachman's own biography, i.e., his self-proclaimed role of Tsaddik of the generation and messianic savior of the world. Whether we take him seriously or not, we at least know that Nachman is not just writing a book. He also is living the role he has carved out for himself in his own pained existence. FW: As Hegel in his "Aesthetics" points out, one major characteristic of Romantic art that distinguishes it from Classical art is that Romanticism allows emotional content to flood and overwhelm the forms in which it is packaged, leaving an audience gasping for breath. Hegel was less than appreciative of this form of expression, and he regarded the Absolute or God to which it all finally associates as "the night in which all cows are black". That is to say, most people, like the rationalist Hegel, prefer to let words mean what they do mean rather than have them all end up being symbols for the same thing: the Void of all-knowing and all not-knowing. Here, then, is Nachman's version of Platonic collection or tsimtsum in the void, from (a) to (n), from the lust of Nevatt to Mashiach himself! See if you can find your way through the maze, and at the same time see how many insightful associations are stimulated in your mind as you follow the creative mind of Nachman along his chosen trajectory. LM 4:6 This is the aspect of returning Malkhut to its source. For the source of Malkhut is fire, as our "Sages taught: 'why did Nevatt err? because he saw fire escape from his member (Sanhedrin 101b). And the Torah is called fire, because it is from there that Malkhut originates. As it is written (Jeremiah 23:29) "Behold, My Word is like fire," and (Proverbs 8:15), "Through me kings rule." And the essence of Torah is the Torah scholar, as our Sages taught (Makkot 222b): How foolish are those who stand up before a Torah scroll and yet do not stand before a rabbinical scholar! This is: "Every davar (thing) that was used in fire must go through fire " (Numbers 31:23). "Davar corresponds to Malkhut, which has been into the realm of impurity the heat of the evil inclination, as in "the fire of Amram" (Kiddusin 81a). ". . . must go through the fire" - its rectification is by means of fire, i.e., spoken confession before a Talmid Chakham. And this is the connotation of aveyrah (transgression): the AVeyRah letter combination OVeR (crosses) within his bones, from AyVeR to AyVeR (side to side). The word mitzvah, however, connotes joining together. When a person performs bundles of commandments, he binds together the shattered fragments of his bones, as is written (Psalms 34:21), "[God] safeguards all his bones, [not one of them is broken]." FW: Note: not one bone is broken; not one fragment of the symbolic collage is lost or damaged in the process of Platonic collection. All the antitheses, one after the other, are encompassed in the higher inductive synthesis. But there's more to come . . . LM 4:7. ["The King's wrath is a messenger of death, but a wise man can pacify it." (Proverbs 16:14)] And this is the explanation of the verse: "The King's wrath is a messenger of death." For the wrath of the Holy One is on account of Makhut , " . . . but a wise man can pacify it" - i.e., the aspect of Talmid Chakham/Moshe who will atone for [the sinner]. As it is written (Micah 7:18), "[The Lord] forgives the transgression for the remnant " - for the sake of the one who considers himself as remnants (Rosh HaShanah 17a). We find, then, that when he comes before a Torah scholar and expresses all his letter combinations in a Talmid Chakham's presence . . . The Torah scholar is an aspect of Moshe who considered himself as remnants, as is written (Numbers 12:3), "The man Moshe, however, was very humble." This is the reason he is called a wise man, as is written (Job 28:12), "Wisdom comes from Ayin (Nothingness)." Through this the wise man has the power to appease, as is written, "but a wise man can pacify it." This is why when Moshe prayed that the sin of the Golden Calf [be pardoned], he said (Exodus 32:32), "If You would, forgive their sin. But if not, please blot me out [ from the book that You have written]!" It is impossible for a person not to feel some pride when he hears himself being praised. All the more so, when a great king praises and lauds the person; then it is certainly impossible that he would not be moved to some feelings of self-importance. However, this necessitates the negation of all one's emotions and corporeality. Then, a person can hear himself being praised and not come to any pride. This was the case with Moshe Rabbeinu, who saw it written in the Torah: "God spoke to Moshe," [and] "God said to Moshe." Each day the Jewish people read in the Torah [God's] praise of Moshe. What's more, he himself related his praise to them. Yet Moshe had no feelings of haughtiness or pride from this, as is written, "The man Moshe, however, was very humble." And certainly, by means of his humility Moshe had the power to atone for the sin of the Golden Calf, as is written, ". . . but a wise man can pacify it." FW: The mashiach function that Moses or Jesus fulfils here is that of identifying with all the fragments, one after another, and then, by means of consumate humility, negating all of those fragments by negating himself. He then is the true servant, serving God as the negation of all negations. Each fragment is an extreme antithesis of the others, and the messiah manages to negate all of these negations of the One Without A Second. Also here, once again, not one bone is broken; not one fragment is lost or damaged in the process of Platonic collection. All the antitheses are encompassed in the higher synthesis by means of the Platonic messiah/poet/artist that Nachman or Hamann is embodying in his writing. What Plato labels a "poetic frenzy" of artistic interpretation, based on passionate personal involvement in a process of committed action, Nachman relates to the state of humility he sees Moses attaining in the biblical text. Nachman concludes his series of behinot by stressing the humility of Moses as the quality which qualifies him for the messiah function. LM 4:7 This was Moshe's argument: "But if not" - i.e., if You do not forgive their sin, You are demonstrating that I do not posses the humility needed to atone for the sin of the Golden Calf. This is why I requested, "please blot me out," so as not to be tripped up by pride. For I constantly see and hear the recounting of my name and praise in the Torah. Who can stand up to this - hearing his praise recounted and not become haughty - if not a very humble person? And if I am humble, You must pardon their sin, as is written, "[The Lord] forgives the transgression for the remnant . . ." This is (Deuteronomy 33:5) "There was a MeLeKh (king) in Yeshurun" - indicating that MaLKhut had risen to its source, as it is written (Psalms 37:11), "But the humble will inherit the earth." "Earth" is dina d'malkhuta (the law of the government) as is written (Job 20:27), "Earth rises up against him." FW: Moses with his messianic degree of humility has here re-elevated language (Malkhut d'kedushah, the kingdom of God) back to its primordial holistic power. This is anamnesis, "not forgetting" that the primordial idea of language as The Word has emerged from the void of nonbeing. Looking back at the entire journey of inductive logic through which Nachman just has led us, and with just a bit more analogical thinking, the parallel to Gestalt dreamwork ought to be clear. (a) First, Nachman expects you to find the inner idea of each thing by identifying with each image of the series. In Gestalt dreamwork you do that by play acting each dream image and attempt to say it with your whole body. In Nachman's poetic style Torah exegesis you, as Orthodox Jew, are expected to identify totally with each nuance since it all is God's word, right out of the Torah with chapter and verse included. How can it possibly not be the truth? (b) The second part of the process, in Gestalt dreamwork, is to commit your whole being to the project as a whole and negate your ego totally by the "rhythm of contact and withdrawal", which is the Gestalt version of tsimtsum. This death of ego is the negation of negations that translates you inductively up beyond your own existence, as you serve as a vessel for the existential message of that particular dream. The dream itself was only 1/60th of prophecy, while the dreamwork provides the other 59/60. The dreamwork is the Platonic collection or kabbalistic tsimtsum which accesses the messianic idea which was implicit from the primordial beginning of the dream itself when in the middle of the night you dreamed it. Again we have Platonic anamnesis of primordial ideas by means of tsimtsum, as the Gestalt therapy protagonist contracts his ego down to zero in order to embody the intuitive dialectical logic of induction, in order to serve as the messiah capable of redeeming his own fallen state. FW: And what is the equivalent to this "rhythm of contact and withdrawal" in a Torah lesson being given by Nachman or one of his disciples? The answer is, likewise, to commit yourself totally to the quest for truth. In your daily life you are to embodying as many Torah commandments as you can find the time and resources to accomplish, and also you are to commit your will completely to following the guidance of your Torah teachers, whether they make much sense to your rational mind or not! Along with that you are to assimilate each and every word of the mind boggling Torah lessons. You are not, God forbid, to try to understand it all using deductive logic, since most of it is inductively written and admittedly too lofty for your rational understanding. Rather, accept it all on faith as absolute truth. If you find yourself bewildered, get advice from your Torah teachers (who, unfortunately, also are forbidden to understand it), and then go talk to God out in the woods if there are any loose ends. FW: Nachman taught that the messianic soul of Moses is re-embodied to some extent in the tsaddik ha-dor, the righteous man of each generation. But, Nachman maintains, only in certain key historical figures, especially Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai and Nachman himself, is the embodiment totalized. Fritz Perls begs to differ, and encourages each of his clients to do fulfill the mashiach function himself. Fritz was Jewish, but not religious. Neither did he know Yiddish. But if someone had asked him why he gave his clients that option, and if indeed he had spoken Yiddish, perhaps he would have given the famous Yiddish retort, "Far vus nit?" (English: "Why not?") Now, my own suggestion is to meld the two approaches, that of Nachman and that of Fritz, which brings the caricature of Nachman's teachings which I just have presented back to the source that Nachman intended in the beginning. That is to say, begin with hitbod'dut, with the verbalized monologue. Do it rigorously, according to the system of Fritz, so you do get the results you need. Then, from that foundation go about dealing with the commandments and the Torah exegesis. This puts Tevye's "Fiddler On The Roof" horse back in front of Tevye's cart, with the proper Kantian stress on conscience as a liberation from the closed system of everyday habits, groupiness and chit-chat. This also puts Nachman very close to the position of Fichte, and historically exactly where he belongs as an heir to Kant's theory of the moral autonomy of the practical reason. See my essays on Fichte and Nachman for more of this. Doing hitbod'dut intelligently clarifies most of Nachman's enigmatic texts and helps balance the conflicting demands of 613 different commandments. Having discovered your own built in Moses function, you will not be flying blind and you will less vulnerable to demagoguery. This inner gyroscope was lacking when Hitler's Nazis adapted the teachings of Fichte as the basis of national socialism. They made a travesty of the teachings of Fichte. Hopefully you will not make a similar travesty of the teachings of Nachman of Breslav. (c) PARATAXIS FW: O'Flaherty makes a distinction between parataxic and hypotaxic sentence structure, a distinction which is as relevant to the work of Nachman as it is to the work of Hamann. O: The roots of the terms are "para" (by the side) + "tassein" (to place). "Parataxis" is the placing of clauses or phrases one after the other, without coordinating or subordinating connectives. On the other hand, from "hypo" (under) we get "hypotaxis", which is arranging clauses with a conjunction that subordinates one to the other. Paratactic sentences are characterized by brevity and the absence of long involved dependent clauses; the word order tends to be natural or to follow elementary logic in that the subject and predicate are expressed at or near the beginning of the sentence, with the other elements following generally in the order of their importance. Aphorisms, epigrams, etc., because of their laconic nature, are necessarily paratactic in structure. Hypotactic sentences, on the other hand, are characterized by greater length, involving, as they do, longer dependent clauses . . . Because of its frequent use of dependent clauses, hypotaxis involves the subordination of certain elements within a sentence, whereas parataxis involves their coordination. Both styles do occur in Hamann's writings . . . In his most characteristic and influential writings the aphoristic mode dominates . . . It is precisely in these works that we find him employing intuitive, as opposed to abstract, reason. FW: The following sections from Nachman's LM 4 illustrate nicely this contrast between parataxic and hypotaxic use of language. Nachman begins with an introductory fable in the style of parataxic language. PARATAXIS: TYPE 1 A SIMPLE FABLE LM 4:8. This is the meaning of what the Sages said: It is comparable to someone who was walking along a path in the utter darkness of night. He was afraid of the thorns and the ditches, of wild beasts and bandits, not knowing which path he was on. When he happened upon a lit torch he was saved from the thorns and the ditches but he was still afraid of wild beasts and bandits, not knowing which path he was on. When dawn broke, he was saved from wild beasts and bandits, yet still did not know which path he was on. What is this crossroads? Rabbi Chisda said: It is a Talmid Chakhkam and the day of death (Sotah 21a). PARATAXIS:TYPE 2 SIMPLE SENTENCES LIST FOUR ALCHEMICAL ELEMENTS FW: Next we learn of the four alchemical elements, mineral, vegetable, animal and human, which are variants of the usual water, earth, air, fire sequence. Here the presentation also is in the parataxic style, though a bit more complex. LM 4:8 It is known that all evil character traits and their derivatives stem from the four yesodot (fundamental elements), the four humors. As is brought in Mishnat Chassidim: Melancholy and its derivatives stem from the mineral life form; evil passions and their derivatives stem from the vegetable life form; idle chatter and its derivatives stem from the animal life form; pride and its derivatives stem from the human life form. Anyone who would take the path of must break all of the vices in the presence of a Talmid Chakham - i.e., spoken confession. The Torah scholar will then define and clarify a path in line with the roots of his soul. PARATAXIS: TYPE 3 COMPLEX SENTENCES, WITH BEHINOT FW: Also presented parataxically are three steps for attachment to a tzaddik, which also are a code for three stages of human action in general. Since Nachman's version will get a bit murky, I'll do the dissection as a preface, in my own inimitable Fallen, deductive, hypotaxic manner. If this were a Gestalt session, Fritz no doubt would have me examine my own need to insert prefaces and dissections into the flow of life. Anyway, concerning the tsaddik, (a) first, perceive him properly, (b) second, give him charity and (c) third, accept his advice at the moment of crucial existential choices in your life. To each of these simple instructions, Nachman adds subordinate and related ideas. (a) For the first instruction, more generally establish contact with the situation, (b) for the second instruction, undergo death of ego by giving it away charitably, and (c) for the third instruction, choose a new idea in the void of not knowing. But these corollaries are not appended to the initial three ideas deductively using hypotaxic sentence structure, the way I just have taken pains to do it. That is to say, Nachman's stress is not on making sure we "understand" it all by laying out his ideas in a series of primary and subordinate clauses. Rather, to the first three ideas he appends a series of only tangentially related ideas, parataxically by simply laying them down, one after the other. Then he leaves it up to us, the readers, to open our minds and hearts to discover the higher level encompassing experiences. For Nachman wants us inductively to "grasp" macrocosmic Platonic ideas, and not merely deductively to "understand" microcosmic concepts. LM 4 is not just a textbook of clinical psychology, it is also inductive science and Platonically inspired Romantic poetry. Hence, Nachman injects into the basic flow of the hypotaxic framework quite a bit of parataxic embellishment. Nachman begins with the three themes, in the manner in which a Beethoven or Mozart might begin a symphony with three simple themes. Then, in the manner of a fugue or stretto, more and more interlocking variations and distantly related motifs pile up as a magical information overload. Schopenhauer, a 19th century philosopher who shared this Romantic aesthetic, held that music is the highest form of art, since it embodies ideas purely without needing to incorporate naturalistic content. Nachman's prose in his stretto sections approaches the level of musical art, as kaleidoscopic ideas overload their reference to the deductive framework and leap up inductively from our Fallen microcosmic world to the liberated macrocosm of pure Platonic/Torah ideas. When Nachman does it, it works fine. Of course, when an Adolf uses a media blitz inductively to peddle an overgrown Idea of the Third Reich we may have second thoughts about "inductive science". LM 4:8 Now, there are three steps in attachment to the tzaddikim. Through these three steps everything is rectified. The three steps are as follows: The first step entails seeing the tzaddik, as in (Isaiah 30:20), "your eyes will see your teacher," This step negates the vices that stem from the two yedodot, mineral and vegetable - namely, melancholy with its derivatives, and evil passions. For the tzaddik of the generation is called "Mother" because he nurses the Jewish people with the light of his Torah. And the Torah is called "milk", as is written (Song of Songs 4:11). "Honey and milk under your tongue." We have empirical validation for this: Even when a child is sad and lethargic, if he sees his mother, he very quickly stirs toward her - i.e., toward his source. We also see clearly that when a child is absorbed in his own nonsense, even through he has a great desire for this, if he sees his mother, he throws away all of his desires and draws close to her. We find, then, that the vices stemming from the two yesodot, mineral and vegetable, are negated by gazing at the countenance of the tzaddik. This is: He was afraid of the thorns, the aspect of the vegetable life form; and the ditches, the aspect of the mineral life for. When he happened upon a lit torch - this is a Talmid Chakham, who with the light of the Torah. Through him he is saved from the vices that stem from the two yesodot, mineral and vegetable; and then he is saved form the thorns and the ditches. LM 4:8 The second step is the charity one gives to a Talmid Chakham . Through this he is saved from the vices that stem from the two yesodot, animal and human - the aspects of wild beasts and bandits, which are idle chatter and pride and their derivatives. This is because idle chatter and slanderous gossip engender poverty, as is written (Exodus 4:19), "All the men have died" - this is poverty (Nedarim 64b). Also concerning pride it is taught: Poverty is a sign of a haughty spirit (Kiddushin 49b). But by giving charity a person becomes wealthy. As the Sages taught: "Though they were united and likewise many, even so they are over and gone; I have afflicted you, but will afflict you no more" (Nahum 1:12) - he is never again made to experience the markings of poverty (Gitten 7b). And this is: When dawn broke, he was saved from wild beasts and bandits. The break of dawn is an allusion to charity, as is written (Isaiah 58 7-8), "When you see the naked, and you clothe him . . . Then your light shall burst forth like the dawn." We find, then, that through charity one is saved from the vices that stem from the two yesodot, animal and human, corresponding to wild beasts and bandits. LM 4:8 The third step is when one makes a spoken confession in a Torah scholar's presence. Through this the Talmid Chakham guides him on a proper path in line with the root of his soul. This is: When he came to a crossroads. And Sages comment, It is a Talmid Chakham and the day of death. This is the step of spoken confession before a Talmid Chakham. The day of death is an allusion to confesson, as the Sages taught: All those about to be put to death confess (Sanhedrin 43b). This is called PaRaShat DeRaKhim (a crossroads), because the Torah scholar maPhRiSh lo DeReKh (defines his path ) in line with the root of his soul. Then, he was saved from all of them. Because, before he confessed, even through he was close to the Torah scholar and had given him money, he still does not know which path he was on. For "A path may seem right to a man, but its end leads to death" (Proverbs 14:12). But when he comes to "a crossroads," which is a Talmid Chakham and the day of death - i.e., spoken confession before a Talmid Chakham - then, he was saved from all of them. PARATAXIS: TYPE 4 COMPLEX SENTENCES, WITH BEHINOT AND ALSO WITH PARALLELS OF FORM AND CONTENT FW: Later, as the style of the text approaches pure poetry, content joins form in telling the tale, which in this case is the tale of a completed action. The actor/poet Moses/messiah undergoes death of ego at the crossroads of his life, the moment of committed choice during an action. At that moment, according to Aristotle, the knower, the known and the knowing all are one. Ego is minimal in the midst of an action. The theological context of an action for Nachman here is "the word of God", and for him, like for Hamann, that means language in the sense of The Word as the Kingdom of God, Malkhut. Language and action here are parallel concepts, grounded in the dialectical framework of deduction/induction, the descending and ascending sides of the tree of life, the kabbalistic sefirot. Each counterclockwise cycle around the complete tree of life is one "beat" of the dialectic, one cycle of the rhythm of contact and withdrawal, one moment of running and returning, one moment of action. If the process works properly we have induction, intuitive reason, positive letter combinations, poetry, If the process does not work properly we are stuck in deduction, abstract aboutism, negative letter combinations, verbalizing. After completing the action, the protagonist retains a sense of what is was all about. In the context of a Gestalt Therapy session he can tell us what was the existential message of the dreamwork, what he got from the session. He can see the details of his present life situation (Elohim, the left pillar of the tree of life) in the context of the Oneness of authentic action (YHVH, the right pillar of the tree of life), and at that moment he has a sense that the One and the Many are One Without A Second. A parallel in the aesthetics of Romanticism and the work of an actor in the Brechtian theater is the notion of "the performer on top of his material" creating "live form". When, in this style of work, an actor prepares his material, he works deductively and assembles a junk collage of forms into a complex poetic image which is his "character". Then, at the moment of presentation for an audience, he relies upon his here and now reactions to images that flash in his imagination to give him macrocosmic ideas with which to illuminate that microcosmic junk collage of forms. The result, when it works properly, is "live form", a meld of content (ideas discovered inductively) and form (the junk collage which was derived deductively), which is, theologically speaking, the macrocosm in the microcosm, the One in the Many. LM 4:9 This applies each time a Torah scholar. The Talmid Chakham is an aspect of Moshe, who is an aspect of Ayin, as is written, "Wisdom comes from Ayin." And in this way you become encompassed in Ein Sof (Infinite One). This is the concept of Zarka: it is thrown back to the place from which it was taken (Tikkuney Zohar #21). This is return Malkhut to Ein Sof, which is the will in all the wills. For Malkhut corresponds to the letters of speech, with the will of God clothed in each and every letter. It was God's will that one letter have such and such a shape, and another letter have a different shape. We find, then, that [God's] wills - i.e., the forms of the letters - serve to reveal His Malkhut, And all these wills, the forms, stem from the will of Ein Sof - which has no form . And all the objects and material existence in the world originate from the letters, i.e., from Malkhut. This is because material existence is a consequence of Malkhut, of the Holy One's desire that His Malkhut be revealed in the world. Through this He created the world ex nihilo. All the wills - the forms and all material existence corresponding to Malkhut - receive their vitality from the will of Ein Sof. As is taught (Migillah 31a): "In every place that you find the greatness of the Holy One - i.e., His Malkhut wills - "There you find His humility" - i.e., the will of Ein Sof. And this is an aspect of stripping oneself of corporeality. For when a person wants to be encompassed in the will of Ein Sof, he must negate his material being. This is what is written in the Zohar (II 88b), that Moshe passed away on Shabbat, at the time of Minchah. For that is when raava d'raaven (Will of Wills) is revealed. This is the will of Ein Sof, from whom all wills receive their vitality. This was because Moshe had totally negated his material being, as is written, "After all, nachnu mah (what are we)?" (Exodus 16:7). "So Moshe, the servant of God, died there, in the land of Moav, by the kiss of God. [God] buried him in the valley in the land of Moav, opposite Beit Pe'or. No man knows his burial place to this day" (Deuteronomy 34: 5-7). This is the meaning of "[God] buried him in the valley" - it alludes to as is written (Isaiah 40:4), "Every valley shall be elevated." "In the land of Moav" - this alludes to Malkhut, for King David descended from Moav. Moshe ascended into Ein Sof, into Will of Wills, raava d'raaven. This corresponds to the will of Ein Sof, which is clothed in the wills/forms of the letters, the aspect of Malkhut. As explained, "In every place that you find His greatness" - i.e., Malkhut, the aspect of - "there you find " - i.e., the will of Ein Sof. FW: For the kabbalistic tradition, the metaphor of "running and returning" tells this story, in the sense that we first run away from ego and later return to ego. The jargon of Gestalt Therapy here overlaps that of Romanticism. Gestalt speaks of the rhythm of contact and withdrawal. During action we move from contact, from awareness of the contact boundary, to withdrawal, withdrawal from the contact boundary. Withdrawal from the contact boundary, by means of tsimtsum, puts us in the void of not knowing, the messianic now, and then we return to awareness of the contact boundary as the action comes to an end. Nachman describes running and returning by invoking the notion of "da'at" (Hebrew: knowing, knowledge). But "da'at" is a slippery term, used by many authors in many ways. Here is reference is knowing in the sense of the Gestalt process of establishing contact by means of awareness. Da'at here is awareness. Awareness establishes a bubble contactful experience, a "world" that the protagonist "knows", in the sense that Adam knows Eve during an orgasm. When the contact boundary becomes clouded by neurotic games, by self-interruptions of the life force, and the Gestalt client finds himself deductively at an impasse of polarized cloudy ideas, he needs to withdraw from that contact boundary into the realm of inductive, intuitive experience by closing his eyes and going into his body awareness and fantasies. This is the moment of withdrawal and tsimtsum, contraction of ego. And this also is "running" from his ego and the microcosm in general into the void, where hopefully new macrocosmic ideas await him. After his moment of gnostic enlightenment, then he "returns" to his ego in its new form. But he brings with him a vague trace or "reshimu" (Hebrew: remainder) of his other worldly experience. Overall, then, he runs from deduction to induction, and then he returns from induction to deduction bringing with him the results of the induction. LM 4:9 This is "opposite Beit Pe'or". As the Sages taught: Why was [the idol] called Pe'or? Because it opens its mouth wide. For when one blemishes Malkhut, [Pe'or} then has the power to open its mouth wide with negative letter combinations. But Moshe rectified the aspect of Malkhut, and as a result Pe'or could not open its mouth wide (Sotah 14a), This is "No man knows [his burial place]" - even Moshe did not know (ibid.). For he was negated in Ein Sof. All this was at his death. However, also during his lifetime [Moshe] certainly stripped away all corporeality and attached himself to the Light of Ein Sof. But then, this stripping was in an aspect of "the living creatures ran and returned". (Ezekial 1:14). This is because the Holy One desires our service, as is written (Yom Kippur Liturgy), "You desire praise from mounds of dust, from lumps of clay." Therefore, it is imperative not to remain [in this state of negation] until such a time that the Holy One Himself comes and takes one's soul. LM 4:9 This is why we see that now and then a person becomes inspired while praying and he recites several words with tremendous fervor. This is due to God's compassion for him; the Light of Ein Sof has been opened to him and shines for him. When a person sees this radiance - and even though he might not see, his mazal sees (Megillah 3a) - his soul is instantly ignited in great devotion, so that he attaches himself to the Light of Ein Sof. And to the degree that Ein Sof is revealed - commensurate with the number of words that have been opened and begun to radiate - he recites all these words with great devotion, with a surrender of self, and with a negation of all his senses. Then, during the time he is negated in Ein Sof, he is in a state of "and no man knows" so that he himself is unaware of his own existence. But this must be in the aspect of "running and returning" in order to preserve . We find then that when he is in a state of "returning" he must also disclose to his daat. For at the beginning, at the time of devotion, his daat was nullified, as in, "and no man knows". But when he is in a state of "returning", returning to his material being, then he returns to his daat. And when he returns to his daat, he knows the oneness and beneficence of Ein Sof. Then there is no difference between YHVH and Elohim, between the divine attribute of judgment and the divine attribute of compassion. For a change of will is not applicable to Ein Sof, Heaven forbid. Changes only occur in the changing of the forms. Nevertheless, by virtue of a person's attachment to Ein Sof - where there is no change of will, for there the will is uniform - afterwards an imprint of this oneness remains within him. Then later, when he is in a state of "returning", this imprint illuminates , so that he knows that all is good and all is one. This is what Moshe said to his generation: "It has been clearly demonstrated to your daat that YHVH (God) is the Elohim (Lord)". (Deuteronomy 4: 35). For Moshe corresponds to Thus it was fitting for his generation, who were attached to him, to [have] daat - i.e., to illuminate the daat with an awareness of Ein Sof/raava d/raaven, the aspect of "YHVH is the Elohim." (d) PARADOX O: An important aspect of Hamann's conception of reason as it emerges from his use of language is his acceptance of the paradox as a vehicle for the expression of spiritual truth. His reason for such a positive view of the paradox is, in the last resort, theological. Since God has condescended to reveal Himself in lowly, even contemptible form - as the Scriptures everywhere attest - the paradox possesses the highest possible legitimation. "One must view with astonishment how God accomodates Himself to all small circumstances, and prefers to reveal His government through the everyday event of human life rather than the singular and extraordinary events." The supreme paradox of Christianity is, to be sure, the incarnation in Christ, the appearance of the Creator of heaven and earth in the form of a servant. FW: To appreciate the relevance of paradox in this sense to the work of Nachman of Breslav, let us backtrack a bit now and zero in on the last section of LM 4 which we just cited under the heading of "parataxis". These six techniques of Romantic poetic language certainly overlap, and there is no reason why we may not find all six of them at work in a single passage from Nachman's "Likutei Moharan". In this last section we found an obvious parallel between the messianic function Christ serves for the Christians and the same messianic function the soul Moses serves for the Jews. As is the case for Christ in the work of Hamann, Moses for Jews is a supreme example of paradox, the apparent contradiction that the pure idea of Moses/Mashiach - Moses as symbolic code for the messianic idea - embodies on the one hand the most encompassing notion of all-reality and on the other hand the idea of absolute nothingness, total self-obliterating humility. This rudimentary example of dialectical thinking, a thesis and an antithesis encompassed in a higher synthesis, is basic to kabbalistic metaphysics. In this respect, then, the parallel between Hamann and Nachman is clear. However, in what follows, as we decode the jargon to get to the philosophical foundation, we find that this clear conceptual parallel is fogged over by the work of the official Breslaver translators. We unearth one more example of what happens when the sorcerer's apprentice, ignorant of the dialectical powers of his master, grabs his master's broom and makes a big mess the laboratory! Once again we will see the dangers of preaching dialectical religion rather than teaching dialectical religion. I repeat, a preacher aims at propagating the sect, primarily by glorifying his colleagues, while a teacher has other objectives, especially ferreting out the truth of his subject matter. Watch, now, how the translators of LM 4 muddle the dialectical message of Nachman in this passage, and shift the focus from the individual's search for God towards the direction of creating a herd of sheep following other sheep following other sheep, just as lemmings might follow other lemmings right off a cliff into the sea! Here once is LM 4:9. LM 4:9 This applies each time a Torah scholar. The Talmid Chakham is an aspect of Moshe, who is an aspect of Ayin, as is written, "Wisdom comes from Ayin." And in this way you become encompassed in Ein Sof (Infinite One). FW: Nachman begins with the pshat, the superficial code. This is step one in creating the paradox, the apparent contradiction that this Torah scholar you meet in the street is at the same time an aspect of Moses and the Jewish version of the messiah. LM 4:9 This is the concept of Zarka: it is thrown back to the place from which it was taken (Tikkuney Zohar #21). This is returning Malkhut to Ein Sof, which is the will in all the wills. For Malkhut corresponds to the letters of speech, with the will of God clothed in each and every letter. It was God's will that one letter have such and such a shape, and another letter have a different shape. We find, then, that [God's] wills - i.e., the forms of the letters - serve to reveal His Malkhut, FW: Another paradox, then, is that the all encompassing Kingdom God corresponds to the tiny individual letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and each letter has its particular form and message. LM 4:9 And all these wills, the forms, stem from the will of Ein Sof - which has no form . And all the objects and material existence in the world originate from the letters, i.e., from Malkhut. This is because material existence is a consequence of Malkhut, of the Holy One's desire that His Malkhut be revealed in the world. Through this He created the world ex nihilo. All the wills - the forms and all material existence corresponding to Malkhut - receive their vitality from the will of Ein Sof. As is taught (Migillah 31a): "In every place that you find the greatness of the Holy One - i.e., His Malkhut wills - "There you find His humility" - i.e., the will of Ein Sof. And this is an aspect of stripping oneself of corporeality. For when a person wants to be encompassed in the will of Ein Sof, he must negate his material being. FW: Here is the paradox cited by Hamann above, that the messiah (Christ or Moses) embodies the apparent contradiction that what is the All is also Nothingness, abject humility and the will of God. LM 4:9 For a change of will is not applicable to Ein Sof, Heaven forbid. Changes only occur in the changing of the forms. Nevertheless, by virtue of a person's attachment to Ein Sof - where there is no change of will, for there the will is uniform - afterwards an imprint of this oneness remains within him. Then later, when he is in a state of "returning", this imprint illuminates


18. THE ROOM (part 1 of 3) a gestalt musical monologue based on chagall's "the birthday"

THE ROOM (part 1 of 3) a gestalt musical monologue based on chagall's

part 1 (of 3) of "THE ROOM": A GESTALT MUSICAL MONOLOGUE BASED ON CHAGALL'S "THE BIRTHDAY". see the commentary: "BACON, HAMANN & NACHMAN" at my website, franklynwepner.com. in spring 1991 a young man i used to know (who surprisingly has the same name that i have) improvised this monologue while living in a small rented room in brooklyn, new york. the original tape included music which he improvised simultaneously with the text. that tape with the original music is lost, but fortunately the text which i typed up based on that tape is still here in 2012, 21 years later in israel. so we have, first of all, the interesting situation of a stodgy 70 year old israeli recreating the work of a lusty 50 year old new yorker. during those 20 years the stodgy 70 year old has written loads of essays about the same process that the lusty 50 year old was probing rather naively. and so at the risk of making a mountain out of a mole hill i am referring you to an essay i wrote recently about section 4 of nachman of breslav's "collected essays" ("likutei moharan"), entitled: "bacon, hamann & nachman". if the video is itself borders on the limits of acceptable free expression on the net - even for secular folk - likewise this essay is sure to raise a few dozen red flags among the faithful of the breslaver sect. how dare i compare their beloved nachman to the likes of gestalt therapists, renaissance scientists and christian theologians! my justification is that for those who wish to get beyond the words and get to the ideas underlying the words, my video, nachman's "likutei moharan" and the work of perls, bacon and hamann are all, in fact, saying more or less the same thing. of course, moses is not jesus, and the man/woman relationship in the video is not quite exactly the way breslavers envision the kabbalistic chochmah/binah, wisdom/understanding, relationship of the holy "sefirot" (numbers, enumeration of the divine attributes). rather, let the overall "existential message" of the gestalt therapy process i am carrying out on chagall's painting symbolize "chochmah" (wisdom, the idea, integration), which is the end result of integrating inductively, intuitively, all the different elements of the painting ("binah", understanding, fragmentation). then, imagine the all these fragmented elements (room, floor, walls, air, man, woman, etc.) need to be impregnated by "the word" which is the existential message of the "dreamwork" i am doing on the painting. and now perhaps the correspondence becomes more clear. of course, this implies that you, the audience person, use all your wits when you seek to grasp the message of the video, and not filter out half of it due to emotional prudery or intellectual laziness. after all, "b'chochmah pote'ach sh'arim", "with wisdom he opens the gates". FRANKLYN WEPNER [email protected] June 2009 LM 4: BACON, HAMANN AND NACHMAN CONTENTS (1) INTRODUCTION (2) BACON TO HAMANN TO NACHMAN (3) BACON AND PERLS (4) LM 4 (5) HAMANN ON LANGUAGE: (a) imagery ("bilder") (b) analogy (c) parataxis (d) paradox (e) multiple levels of language (f) affective terminology (6) CONCLUSION REFERENCE: "JOHANN GEORG HAMANN, BY JAMES O'FLAHERTY (1) INTRODUCTION FW: The Breslaver Hassidic movement as it is set up and operates today is an introverted sect, in contrast to the Chabad Hassidic movement which is set up and operates today as an extroverted sect. Breslavers tend to keep to themselves, while Chabadniks drive around town in Mitzvah Tanks seeking wayward Jews as potential recruits. But opposite as the two sects are in that respect, one thing they have in common is an aversion to "philosophy" in its traditional academic sense. Both sects condemn "philosophy" as "chochmot chizoniot" (external wisdom) or "avodah zorah" (strange work). even through ironically they both embody philosophy in the most profound manner possible. Breslav is largely Jewish neo-Platonism, while Chabad is largely Jewish rationalist Aristotelianism. However, since, of course, their educational curriculums contain no Philosophy 101 course. they pay the price of ignorance and intolerance as a result. The Chabad press, for example, once published Nissan Mindel's excellent "The Philosophy of Chabad", but today that book is almost impossible to find, and Chabad has no plans to republish it. The book is being supressed most likely because in that book Mindel contends that Chabad is ideologically within the tradition of Moses Maimonides' "Guide For The Perplexed", which, as everybody except Chabadniks themselves know, is ideologically within the tradition of Aristotle. Breslavers are even more anti-rational than Chabadniks, since their theory base is primarily neo-Platonic mysticism. Merely mention the word Plato at a Breslaver shul on the Sabbath, and you can be sure nobody will invite you to dinner! Or go to a Breslaver mikvah after demonstrating your philosophical insights concerning the writings of Nachman, and there is a possibility that after you emerge from the holy waters you will not find the clothes you hung up! FW: Another price that Hasidic sects pay for ignoring their intellectual roots is mistranslating the writings of their own originators. The originators, fortunately, were profound philosophers, but much of what they are philosophizing is wasted on their disciples, who are preachers of the sect rather than teachers of the Word. Preachers of a sect aim at building up the sect by glorifying their colleagues, in this case the "tzaddikim" (Hebrew: pius ones) or "talmid chachams" (Hebrew: wise students, students of wisdom) of the local congregation. Teachers, on the other hand, have a primary loyalty to the subject matter they teach, i.e., to the truth. By translating the phrase "talmid chacham" as "Torah scholar" rather than as "student of wisdom", the deeper reference of the word "chochmah" (wisdom) to the right pillar of the tree of life, or inductive logic, goes into the trash can, and we end up with the notion that anybody who sect leaders designate as "Torah scholar" is thereby empowered to serve as a spiritual guide. But preachers are not necessarily teachers, and so most talmid chacham's today are serving the needs of the sect rather than propagating the message of the sect founder. Thus, for example, Nachman's emphasis on the individual's search for God by "hitbod'dut" (being alone with God) is these days transformed into a typical cult emphasis on groupie gatherings, mob hysteria, guru adoration, nonsense "bubbeh maysehs" (Yiddish: grandmother stories), 18th century sect uniforms and scribbling the name of Nachman of Breslav on public buildings. Have you heard, for example, the bubbeh mayseh about how Nachman himself is sitting up there somewhere near God's footstool sending letters or emails to the chosen few?! What ever happened to the basic belief of Judaism that God is One, not two or three or whatever? FW: But fools step in where angels fear to tread, as the saying goes, and so this essay is all about the roots of the Breslaver Hasidism in the neo-Platonic tradition as this was modified by Francis Bacon in the scientific renaissance of the 16th century. As if this topic is not heretical enough, I will in this work find much of the support for my contentions in the writings of a Christian theologian whose writings appeared in Europe not far from the doorstep of Nachman, fifty years or so before Nachman wrote his main work, his "Collected Essays" (Hebrew: Likutei Moharan). Now, I am not at all claiming here that Nachman plagiarised Johann Georg Hamann, since it is extremely unlikely that a person growing up in the communities that Nachman did had direct contact with the work of Hamann. But the mere historical fact that the two authors published books dealing with similar topics in a similar manner in the same historical period certainly suggests that they both were tapping parallel Christian and Jewish threads of the religious world that flourished in 18th and 19th century Eastern Europe. One can muse that perhaps Nachman during his occasional trips to Lemburg for medical treatment or to dialogue with members of the Haskalah movement thriving there did come upon a Yiddish translation of something by Hamann or by one of the followers of Hamann, but to date there is little basis for such fantasies. FW: My goals in this essay are modest. I will make use of an excellent commentary upon the work of Hamann by James O'Flaherty, his "Johann Georg Hamann", Twayne Publishers, and merely demonstrate how the same six key ideas which, he maintains, underlie the work of Hamann can be used as a royal highway to quickly penetrate what appears to be in the writings of Nachman of Breslav an impenetrable hermeneutic jungle. As a prelude to my interweaving of Hamann and Nachman, I will tap a bit of the philosophical tradition which underlies both authors, in particular the work of Francis Bacon who lived in the 16th century. Why Francis Bacon? Because even though Hamann and Nachman are often cited as the epitome of anti-rationalism, yet at the heart of both authors is a sort of logic which is quite profoundly rational. We will contrast inductive logic, what Bacon calls concrete, analogical logic based upon juxtaposing ideas, with deductive logic, which is abstract, mathematical, systematic, and based upon arranging ideas in syllogisms. Once we grasp this distinction between the two types of logic, we will understand why in essays that embody reasoning of the inductive sort, Hamann and Nachman can tell us - without fibbing - to avoid like the plague "philosophy" or "reason" and rely upon faith. The two theologians simply are splitting hairs between induction (which they like) and deduction (which they do not like). They mystify us, however, by calling deduction "philosophy" and induction "kabbalah" or "Judaism or "the Word of God". But obviously any philosophy or theology worth the name must incorporate both sorts of thinking. So let's stop mixing up apples and pears and recognize both of them as nutritious fruit! The Word of God is smart enough to encompass both the left pillar of sefirot (deduction, differentiation, creation, the downward path), and the right pillar of sefirot (induction, integration, redemption, the upward path back to God). We are dealing, after all, with the dialectical tradition of mainstream Judaism, within which Chabad appeals to folks that stress the left pillar, while Breslav appeals to folks that stress the right pillar. For the Catholics analogous slots are occupied by the Dominicans (rationalists) and the Franciscans (pietists), respectively. O'Flaherty says it well: O 87. A superficial analysis of Hamann's prose may result in the conclusion that its all too frequent obscurity is rooted in sheer irrationalism. This is, however, by no means the case. Its obscurity derives for the most part from an excessive use of intuitive reason rather than from true irrationalism - quite a different matter. Having seen to what extent Hamann is committed to intuitive or analogical reasoning, while at the same time rejecting the abstractions of the Enlightenment, we can more readily understand why he alternates between praise and vilification in his references to reason. Thus, when he makes such statements as "Faith has need of reason just as much as reason needs faith", "Without language we would have no reason, without reason no religion," As soon as one knows what reason is, all conflict with revelation ceases, since Hamann is obviously referring to what he considers the legitimate use of reason." FW: Most of the essays that constitute Nachman's Likutei Moharan anthology would serve as examples of Nachman's use of intuitive reason, of induction, and I have here merely selected LM 4 arbitrarily from the list. Like the others, the overall structure of LM 4 consists of a Houdini magical demonstration of how just about anything can be seen as an aspect of anything else, without losing the encompassing subordination of particulars to emerging generalities. The longer the process of finding associations and aspects (Hebrew: "behinot") goes on, the more the series of particular items coalesces into higher and higher levels of integration and encompassing general ideas. But let's now zoom in and be specific. On the side of the particulars Nachman cites at the outset a Talmudic yarn calculated to boggle any deductively oriented mind and delight the imagination of most 5 year olds. Here is the Talmudic fable. LM 4:10 Rabbah bar bar Chanah recounted: One time we were traveling on a ship and we saw this fish in whose nostrils was sitting a mudeater. The fish died and the water tossed it about and cast it ashore. It destroyed sixty cities. Sixty cities then ate from it. Sixty cities salted its flesh. And from one eyeball they filled three hundred kegs with oil. When we returned after twelve months time, we saw them sawing planks from its bones with which to rebuild those cities. (Bava Batra 73b) FW: And on the other end of the chain of exegesis in LM 4 Nachman presents his final inductively derived generalization. LM 4:11. This (the above Talmudic story) is the explanation of the opening verse: "I am God your Lord Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery." FW: The entire essay LM 4 is a string of associations and analogies that begins with the ship, the fish, the mudeater, the cities, the oil and the bones and gradually arrives at a level of intuitive wisdom sufficiently profound to qualify as an important contribution to our grasp of the meaning of God's role in the Exodus saga. You will see, of course, that during this intuitive, inductive process of "behinot" there are very few abstract, deductive syllogisms of the sort "if A and B, therefore C". The process is mostly intuitive leaps of the sort, "this is an aspect of that, and that is an aspect of something else". My project, then, outrageous as it might appear to be at the outset, is to apply an account of the methodology of Christian theologian Johann Georg Hamann, in an effort to decode the compositional procedure which Nachman has followed in this LM 4 essay. First I will set out some simple logical rules that Francis Bacon gave us in the 16th century, and then I will present a grid of six linguistic techniques which, according to O'Flaherty, 18th century Romanticism overlaid on Bacon's framework. In a word, 16th century Bacon plus 18th century Romanticism together give us a key to decode much of the vast, profound, Scriptural and kabbalistic tapestry which is the work of either Hamann or Nachman of Breslav. I am grateful to O'Flaherty for making these connections clear to me and encourage you also to profit from the work of an excellent teacher by reading his book. Just substitute Moses for Jesus as you read and your Jewish ego will be immune to indoctrination! (2) FROM BACON TO HAMANN TO NACHMAN Here then, to start off, is a brief chapter summarizing the contribution of Francis Bacon concerning these matters. My text is simply a presentation of the succinct summary given us by Vatican priest Frederick Copleston in his "History of Philosophy", Volume III. But Hamann and Nachman of Breslav are figures of the late18th century, and so in their work a tradition of Romantic style exegesis and poetry overlays and masks the underlying rigorous logical foundation provided by Bacon. Bacon's theory of induction is the philosophical seed of which Hamann and Nachman are glorious flowerings. For what appears in their work to be the exact opposite of scientific rigor is indeed, as I shall demonstrate here, a meticulously devised associative network of the most profound logical interconnections. Let us begin, therefore, with the basic logical principles of Francis Bacon, which are spelled out quite clearly by Copleston in his presentation of the influence of the new Renaissance sciences on philosophy. C 289. As a preliminary, one may remind oneself of the two elements of scientific method, namely the observational and inductive side and the deductive and mathematical side. The first aspect of scientific method, namely observation of the empirical data as a basis for induction and for discovering causes, was stressed by Francis Bacon. C 300. [According to Bacon] the purpose of science is the extension of the dominion of the human race over nature; but this can be achieved only by a real knowledge of nature; we cannot obtain effects without an accurate knowledge of causes . . . The syllogism (deduction) consists of propositions; and propositions consist of words; and words express concepts. Thus, if the concepts are confused and if they are the result of over hasty abstraction, nothing which is built upon them is secure. Our only hope lies in true induction. . . finding the truth may proceed from sense and the perception of particulars to immediately attainable axioms and thence gradually and patiently, to more general axioms. . . this is the true way. The mind proceeds from a careful and patient examination of particulars to the interpretation of nature. . . . Induction starts with the operation of the senses; but it requires the co-operation of mind, though the mind's activity must be controlled by observation . . . Bacon rejects the syllogism on the ground that induction must take its rise in the observation of things, of particular facts or events, and must stick to them as closely as possible. The logicians wing their way at once to the most general principles and deduce conclusions syllogistically . . . In induction we proceed in the opposite direction to that in which we proceed in deduction. C 302. But to attain a certain knowledge of nature is not so easy or simple as it may sound at first hearing, for the human mind is influenced by preconceptions and prejudices which bear upon our interpretation of experience and distort our judgments. It is necessary, then, to draw attention to "the idols and false notions" which inevitably influence the human mind and render science difficult of attainment unless one is aware of them and warned against them. Hence Bacon's famous doctrine of "the idols". There are four main types, the idols of the tribe, the idols of the cave or den, the idols of the market place and the idols of the theater . . . (a) The "idols of the tribe" are those errors, the tendency to which is inherent in human nature and which hinder objective judgment. For example, man is prone to rest content with that aspect of things which strikes the senses . . ."for what a man would like to be true, to that he tends to give credence". Further the human mind is prone to indulge in abstractions, and it tends to conceive as constant what is really changing or in flux. (b) The "idols of the den" are the errors peculiar to each individual, arising from his temperament, education, reading and the special influences which have weighed with him as an individual. These factors lead him to interpret phenomena according to the viewpoint of his own den or cave. (See Plato's metaphor of the cave.) (c) The "idols of the market place" are errors due to the influence of language . . . Sometimes words are employed when there are no corresponding things. (d) The "idols of the theater" are the philosophical systems of the past, which are nothing better than stage plays representing unreal worlds of man's own creation. C 305. The best demonstration is experience. But it is necessary to make a distinction. Mere experience is not enough . . . True experience is planned, . . . proceeding by an orderly and methodically inductive process. What, then, is true induction, positively considered? Human power is directed to or consists in being able to generate a new form in a given nature. (Read: a new gestalt in a new situation, here and now.) From this it follows that human science is directed to the discovery of the forms of things. Form does not refer to the final cause; the form or formal cause of a given nature is such that "given the form, the nature infallibly follows". It is the law which constitutes a nature. . . . the primary task is to prepare a "sufficient and good natural and "experimental history" based on the facts (Read: what Hegel labels an "objective history" in contrast to our subjective illusions.) . . . These tables having been constructed, the work of induction really begins (Read: what Nachman is referring to when he says, "my Torah is entirely behinot", i.e., a string of associations and interpretations.) . . . which is not completed until a positive affirmation is arrived at. (For example, the "existential message of the dream", which emerges at the end of a three hour gestalt dreamwork session, which is what Maimonides labels the unripe fruit of prophecy now ripened into a Word of God.) (3) BACON AND PERLS FW: But before we jump into the great ocean, the turbid waters of inductive interpretations and Romantic theological poetry that is the work of Hamann and Nachman, let us stop at the banks of the ocean and examine a rather clearcut version of the same process, a contemporary example cut from the same cloth. I refer to the Gestalt Therapy lore of Frederick Perls, which while it makes no pretense of being the basis of a religious sect, probably has attracted more devotees worldwide than the opus of either Hamann or Nachman of Breslav. Perls gives the seeker after truth a rather simple task to explore. He tells me, his gestalt therapy client, to talk about what pops into my awareness and to stay in the here and now. Focusing this process on a dream raises the efficiency level, but just shooting the breeze also will yield useful results. Now, if I accept Fritz's invitation and set out on this verbal monologue, a mysterious sequence of events is likely to unfold. As I listen to what comes out of my mouth and respond to those sounds, a sort of instantaneous feedback system is generated. In fact, it is genesis in the most profound biblical sense. For lo and behold, I begin to create a world. I am operating, as says Maimonides in his "Guide For The Perplexed", "in the image of God". For I am copying the manner in which God does His creating. We need to distinguish the path of Fritz Perls from the path of Sigmund Freud in these matters. For if the therapist has me lie down while I do my dreamwork monologue, and if he hides behind me and limits much of his function to being a tape recorder documenting my output, then the setting is Freudian. But if, on the other hand, the therapist takes an active role, helping me to take responsibility for my actions and deal actively with the impediments to truth which come up along the way, then we have the Gestalt approach. From the theological point of view, the crucial element that Perls and Freud share here is that language is the medium for a truth search, and that man speaking is paralleling God creating His world. FW: Entering even further into theological analogies to psychological processes, do we not have here also the unfolding of the love affair of Adam and Eve, as I, the subject, the kabbalistic First Adam, emanate language, the object, Eve from my own being and then precede to constantly impregnate it/her with my ideas as my dreamwork monologue goes on and on? Just label me, as Nachman does, the Talmid Chacham, wise student learning as I go along, and label my verbal output "my world", and we have the makings of a kabbalistic mystical system, with chochmah (Hebrew: wisdom) impregnating binah (Hebrew: building a world) with ideas. In the neo-Platonic version of the kabbalistic tradition, all this is unfolds on the level of pure Platonic ideas, known as "sefirot". The Hebrew word "sefirah" means "number", as in the use of numbers by Pythagoras in Greek philosophy to relate theological truth. In terms of the Romanticism of the 18th century I am, furthermore, during the course of my Gestalt monologue generating "poetry", in the sense of an emotionally grounded form of linguistic action. Returning to Francis Bacon, let me repeat the previous quote and we will explore what else we may learn from it. C: Human science is directed to the discovery of the forms of things. Form does not refer to the final cause; the form or formal cause of a given nature is such that "given the form, the nature infallibly follows". It is the law which constitutes a nature. . . . The primary task is to prepare a "sufficient and good natural and "experimental history" based on the facts. . . These tables having been constructed, the work of induction really begins . . which is not completed until a positive affirmation is arrived at. FW: Let us interweave these words of Bacon with the Gestalt therapy monologue. The monologue of here and now verbal expression is part of the flow of here and now contact experiences. These experiences constitute what Bacon labels an objectively real "experimental history based on the facts", and what Hegel labels an "objective history" of real experiences. Then, "these tables having been constructed the work of induction really begins, which is not completed until a positive affirmation is arrived at". The positive affirmation that is the result of the work of induction is a new idea which is the result of "Platonic collection", i.e., gestalt formation or a figure emerging from a ground here and now. In Gestalt dreamwork, this could be, for example, the "existential message of the dream" that might occur to the protagonist after three hours of exploring his objective history in the here and now dreamwork process. The protagonist is working his way up from specific concrete contact moments, weak gestalts (Perls), low level monads (Leibniz), some would say angels (Maimonides), towards more and more encompassing strong gestalts, monadologies, some would say archangels. Maimonides labels them "cherubim", since the Hebrew root is "karov" (near), and cherubim are closer to the oneness that is God than are ordinary angels. The new idea emerging from the void of not knowing the answer is what Bacon labels "the form of things", the "law which constitutes its nature". He is referring to the distinction between matter and form, the form being the idea which is the gestalt or pattern which man imposes upon the items of his sensory and motor experience. Nachman says in LM 1:1, "The Jew must always focus on the inner intelligence/idea of every thing, and bind himself to the wisdom and inner idea that is to be found in each thing. This so that the idea which is in each thing may enlighten him, that he may draw closer to God through that thing." We already have here the logical seed upon which Nachman built his LM 4, but as a transition into the text of Nachman let us see what his contemporary Hamann has to say concerning similar matters. Hamann is a convenient bridge here, linking Francis Bacon with Nachman of Breslav. O: While it is correct to say that Hamann stands in the empirical tradition of Francis Bacon, John Locke, and Hume, the important qualification must be added that for him experience is always crystalized in language. There exists, of course, an inner correlate of the objective facts of language, the invisible essence of our soul which is conjoined with the outer correlate by an "incomprehensible bond", which he describes, invoking religious terminology, as a "sacrament". But whatever the nature of the inner correlate, it is the evidence of the objective facts of language to which Hamann appeals, and from which he draws inferences as to the nature of mind and of reality. "I concern myself with the letter and with what is visible and material" . . . In his view God is above all a speaking God, indeed an Author: "God reveals Himself; the Creator of the World is a Writer". It is always God's Word which evokes our rational powers in the first place. Hamann employs a sexual metaphor in this connection, stating that our reason must be "impregnated" by the "seed of the divine Word". FW: It is this mysterious freely associating monologue in the here and now, this mix of thinking and speaking unimpeded by the distractions of everyday cause and effect logic, which is the open sesame which for inductive "science" (from the Latin, "scire", to know) unleashes something analogous to The Word. C: Such unity as man possesses is mysterious in its origins, and derives from a source which lies outside of himself. Only through the individual positive response to the Logos can man's collective powers of faith, passion, and reason be brought into harmony. Otherwise they fall all too easily into strife with one another. For Hamann God is the One in whom all opposites coincide, and it is this principle of the coincidentia oppositorum which, embodied in the Logos and manifested above all in the "form of a servant" in which Christ appeared, which succeeds in reconciling the opposites within the human psyche. . . . "Here on this earth there is no possibility of a metamorphosis or transfiguration into the divine nature, but only the old message of rebirth". FW: Jews do not need the allusion to Jesus as "the form of a servant". In LM 4, which we are considering here, Nachman attributes to Moses the same function. LM 4:9. This is: "No man knows [the burial place of Moses] - even Moses did not know. For he was negated in Ein Sof (Hebrew: God as Endless). All this was at his death. However, also during his lifetime Moses certainly stripped away all corporeality and attached himself to the Light of Ein Sof. But then, this stripping was in an aspect of "the living creatures ran [from being an ego] and returned [to being an ego](Ezekiel 1:14). This is because the Holy One desires our service, as is written (Yom Kippur Liturgy), "You desire praise from mounds of dust, from lumps of clay." FW: Hamann, writing only a few years before Nachman, created his own theology by portraying language as a powerful creative or destructive force in the world. We need not now grope further back into the history of religion to find other predecessors of Hamann and Nachman. It is sufficient to recognize that the two authors here under scrutiny are drinking from the same fountain, with some minor variations. One of these is the question whether we are to label the holistic embodiment of language the Jesus function or the Moses function. We will ignore that battle, but now we are ready to appreciate Nachman's contribution in LM 4 to this linguistically inspired tradition of the theology of The Word. As we read, we will keep in mind (a) that YHVH and the Talmid Chakham (wise student, Torah Scholar) are standing in for the subject, the Divine Author learning as he creates His world, and (b) that Elohim is standing in for the object, the world being created, and (c) that the Kingdom of God, Malkhut d'Kedushah, is standing in for the language of the dreamwork monologue on the material level. The problem, for Nachman in particular and for Romanticism in general, is that language in its pure, primordial form of "poetry" has been co-opted by the system of deductive logic and lost its original roots in inductive logic. For Nachman, as for Hamann, it is only the complete system encompassing deduction and induction in a higher synthesis which will give us a "foretaste of the World to Come", the messianic idea, and get us out of Egyptland. This is a longing, paradoxically, on the one hand for the messianic future and on the other hand for the pre-Industrial middle ages of shtetl life. Nachman is talking primarily about a Gestalt or hitbod'dut (being alone with myself and talking to God) monologue here, even though he provides a second level of meaning for those not privy to philosophy and linguistics, and for those who need an excuse to follow Torah Scholars and other gurus blindly. For as a matter of fact, (a) hitbod'dut and (b) confessing in front of a Torah Scholar, and (c) doing a Gestalt Therapy monologue, all mean the same thing, given the manner in which the concepts are used in Breslav theology. FW: Confessing in front of a Wise Student means doing my Gestalt Therapy monologue in the manner of a feedback loop and carefully (as the "subject") paying attention myself to what comes out of my mouth (the "object"). Just substitute "God is listening" for "I am listening" or "the wise student is listening" and this will be clear. Basically, it is The Author, the Creator, the Gestalt client, who is listening to Him creating, and this feedback loop by itself re-animates the dead forms, the self-interrupting non-creative speech habits and manipulations, which man in his Fallen state tends to spew forth. In the down-to-earth jargon of Fritz Perls, instead of verbalizing my usual elephantshit in defense of my ego games, I need to emanate poetry, sacred truth from my true source. What clearly distinguishes Breslav pietism from Chabad rationalism is the emphasis on being alone before God, me being immersed in my monologue and relying on faith, rather than me being part of a vast pyramid of scholars and relying on guidance from a Jewish pope on the top of the pyramid. The Catholic parallel here is the Dominican sect versus the Franciscan sect, or more generally the Catholics versus the Protestants. Or perhaps you prefer Kant's distinction between critical judgment and aesthetic judgment. (4) LM 4 FW: Here, then, is the beginning of Nachman's LM 4, as it is published by the official Breslaver translators. Let's immerse ourselves in Nachman's poetically inspired prose for a few moments, to get a sense of the overwhelming assault to which our rational, deductive faculties is subjected in such an experience. PROLOGUE. I am God your Lord, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery. (Exodus 20:2) LM 4:1. When a person knows that everything that happens to him is for his benefit, this perception is a foretaste of the World to Come. As said, "When He is YHVH, I will praise His word; when He is Elohim, I will praise His word" (Psalms 56:11). And this perception is a foretaste of the World to Come, as our Sages taught: "On that day God shall be one and His name one" (Zechariah 14:9). They asked: Is He now not one? And our Sages answered: At present the blessing "Who is good and beneficent" is recited over good, whereas "the truthful Judge" is recited over bad. But in the Future it will be entirely "Who is good and beneficent"(Pesachim 50a). The holy name YHVH and the holy name Elohim will be totally one. LM 4:2. Now it is impossible for a person to grasp this perception except when he uplifts Malkhut d'Kedushah (Kingdom of Holiness) from its exile among the nations. For presently, malkhut and rule the nations. This is the reason . They nurse from the aspect of Malkhut, which is called Elohim, as is written (Psalms 74:122) "Elohim is my King from long ago". But when a person raises Malkhut from among the nations, it is the fulfillment of the verse (Psalms 47:8) "For Elohim is King of all the earth." LM 4:3 Yet it is impossible to return the kingdom to the Holy One, except by means of spoken confession in the presence of a Talmid Chakham (Torah scholar). Through this one rectifies the aspect of Malkhut and raises it to its source. [Take d'varim (words) with you and return to YHVH (God) (Hosea 14:3)] This is the meaning of "Take D'VaRim with you . . ." - i.e., spoken confession. This is the aspect of Malkhut, as in, "one DaBoR (spokesman) to a generation" (Sanhedrin 8a) - dabor connotes and ruler. " . . . and return to YHVH - so that they rectify and elevate the aspect of d'varim/Malkhut/Elohim to [the level of] YHVH. As mentioned above, "When He is YHVH I will praise His word; when He is Elohim, I will praise His word." This is, to know that everything that happens to him is all for his good, and to recite the blessing "Who is good and beneficent" over everything. LM 4:4 Knowing all this is called complete awareness. For the essence of awareness is the union of . This is called daat. In other words, he does not differentiate between lovingkindness and judgment, but blesses "Who is good and beneficent" over everything. This is called "YHVH is one and His Name is one". As our Sages taught: In the Future there will be total oneness and it will be entirely "Who is good and Beneficent". This is: YHVH is echod (one) [and His Name is echod]." "His Name corresponds to Elohim/Malkhut, as is written (2 Samuel 8:13) "David made a name for himself" - . Echod has the same numerical value as ahavah (love). Therefore, whether it be YHVH - which is compassion - or whether it be "His Name" - which corresponds to Elohim judgment - all is for your benefit and a result of the love which the Holy One has for you. As it is written, "For those whom God loves He rebukes (Proverbs 3:12); and "Of all the families of th earth I knew only you [Israel}]. That is why I will punish you for all your iniquities (Amos 3:2). (5) HAMANN ON LANGUAGE FW: Rather than a crystal clear Torah message graspable by deductive logic, the above word salad strikes us as a murky bowl of borsht or shabbat cholent. Therefore, we will turn now to Bacon and to Hamann to help us get our bearings in decoding Nachman's Torah offering. The allusion to goyishkeit suggested by the names "Bacon" and "Ham" need not, I hope, deter us! I stated above that aside from the philosophy of language, much of Hamann (and Nachman) is an update on the philosophy of Francis Bacon, in the context of an 18th century aesthetics of Romanticism. In support of that contention, here are six specific techniques of Romantic style poetic expression which, according to O'Flaherty, lend themselves to the purposes of intuitive (inductive) rather than abstract (deductive) reason. but to start off here is Hamann's version of Francis Bacon. O 83. In order to comprehend Hamann's understanding of reason it is necessary to distinguish between two modes of cognition, namely, the intuitive and the abstract . . . Abstract reason affects language in precisely the opposite ways from intuitive reason . . . "Human living seems to consist of a series of symbolic actions by means of which our soul is capable of revealing its invisible nature, and produces and communicates beyond itself an intuitive knowledge of its effective existence" FW: And now comes Hamann's list of the six Romantic techniques for poetic expression, which in the sequel we will illustrate using the text of Nachman's LM 4. In my essay our focus is to illustrate these six techniques. Therefore, we will not give as much attention as perhaps we should to other important aspects of Nachman's text. Since most of what Nachman has to say he says again and again, we surely will run into these other themes in the sequel. Here, then, is a preliminary listing of Hamann's six techniques of language expression. O 83. Since in Hamann's view there is no thought apart from language, it seems quite appropriate that we should look to language for the earmarks of reason. It will be seen that there are six salient features which characterize the language of intuitive reason, i.e., reason functioning within its appropriate limits. To be specific, we may say that intuitive reason manifests itself in language by the following: (a) the abundance of concrete images (Bilder); (b) the employment of analogical reasoning; (c) the frequent recourse to paradoxes; (d) the presence of multiple levels of meaning; (e) paratactic sentence structure; and (f) the presence of affective terminology. O83 FW: We will examine how Hamann explains these six poetic tools, and at the same time we will illustrate how Nachman of Breslav brings over each technique into the realm of Hasidic Torah commentary. (a) CONCRETE IMAGERY OF EXPERIENCE VS. ABSTRACT RELATIONSHIPS OF WORDS O 84. Hamann maintains that natural language is, to adopt Henri Bergson's phrase, "molded on reality". Ordinary language or "the language of nature" is for him the historically developed vernacular of a people, which has been "unimproved" by grammarians or the creators of technical jargon. It is this kind of language which can be raised to the level of poetic expression . . . Wrote Hamann, "The sphere of poetry does not lie outside of the world as a fantastic possibility conceived by the brain of a poet; it strives to be precisely the opposite, the unadorned expression of truth, and must for just that reason reject the deceptive finery of the alleged reality of the man of culture" . . . Hamann's conviction is grounded in the essential nature of both God and man. Hence, God, "the Poet at the beginning of days", always speaks to man in poetic language. "The Scriptures cannot speak with us as human beings otherwise than in parables because all our knowledge is sensory, figurative; and because understanding and reason transform the images of external things everywhere into allegories and signs of more abstract, more intellectual, more lofty concepts." FW: Analogous to Hamann's theory of poetic expression is that of today's Gestalt therapists, as laid out by Perls, Hefferline and Goodman in their text, "Gestalt Therapy". For Gestaltists poetic speech refers to contactful speech, supported by man in action, rather than man stuck at an impasse and brooding abstractly about his life. The choice is between a concrete reality and mere aboutism. If I see a fly buzzing over there and I say, "I am aware of that fly buzzing over there", that is "language molded to reality", even more so if I identify with that fly and say "I am a fly buzzing over here, hoping that my buzzing will get you interested in my ideas." By identifying with the fly, finding the inner idea of that fly as Nachman puts it in LM 1:1, I am concretely at this moment in touch with my existence. But if I am an entomologist and I say "flies are arthropods", that particular fly out there has disappeared from my life into abstract jargon. Verbalizing has replaced poetry. The fly buzzing out there had the potential to be part of my existence, say, my tragic death as one day it may buzz around my rotting corpse, while the "arthropod" of an entomologist is cut off from my existential experience by being locked into a grid of dead, abstract terminology concerning, for example, information about how many legs it has. Likewise God, the "poet at the beginning of days" is engaged in a living action of creating His world, while a geologist who lists the layers of rocks making up a particular mountain range is cut off from the real experience of creating that mountain range. How does Nachman of Breslav deal with this requirement that expression be poetic? That is to say, how do Nachman's Torah commentaries serve as a symbolic overlay for human action? First of all, he is assuming he, Nachman, the writer, and we, his readers, and also the protagonist he is describing all are spiritual pilgrims, seeking to return to God. All three personnas therefore share a common grounding in concrete here and now experience. Let us see how all this works in the continuation of Nachman's LM 4 text. LM 4:5 And a person's iniquities are on his bones, as is written (Ezekiel 32:27), "And their iniquities will be etched upon their bones". Each sin has its own combination of letters. When a person commits a particular sin, a negative letter combination is etched upon his bones. This brings the spoken aspect of the prohibition which he has transgressed into the realm of impurity. In other words, he brings the aspect of Malkhut among the nations, giving them the power to rule. For example: If he transgressed the utterance of the prohibition "You shall have no [other gods besides Me]" (Exodus 20:3), then he destroys the utterance's positive letter combination and forms a negative letter combination. This letter combination is etched upon his bones "It is your iniquities that have turned away these things (Jeremiah 5:25). And it is written, "Evil is the deathblow of the wicked" (Psalms 34:22). By means of spoken confession, however, the letters disappear from the bones into which they have been etched and are transformed into the words of confession. For speech emanates from one's bone, as is written (Psalms 35:10), "All my bones will say". He tears down the negative structure and combinations, and from [the letters] builds Makhut d'Kedushah. This is what the Sages said: During the time the Israelites traveled in the desert, Yehudah's bones rolled about [in his coffin] until Moshe said (Deuteronomy 33:7) "Hear, O God, the voice of Yehudah" (Sotah 7b). Moshe requested that the Holy One remember for Yehudah's sake the confession he had made. And this is just what happened. Thus it was specifically "his bones rolled about", as is written, "and their iniquities will be etched upon their bones." But by means of the confession they were rectified and each one went into its place. And Yehudah corresponds to Malkhut - an allusion that the aspect of Malkhut is rectified through spoken confession. This was accomplished with the aid of Moshe, who recalled the confession. For it is necessary that the confession take place in the presence of a Talmid Chakham. And every Torah scholar is an aspect of Moshe "Moshe, you said it well" (Shabbat 101b). By Moshe's mentioning the confession, it was considered as if [Yehudah] had now confessed . This caused the aspect of Malkhut to be rectified and the negative letter combination, which had been etched upon [Yehudah's ] bones to be torn down. FW: There is a real life struggle going on here in Nachman's text, involving bones, Yehuda and Moshe, as though the story has been told around a campfire or dreamed by a Gestalt client. Nachman is not merely "talking literature", but is presenting an epic human action being carried out by a protagonist, and by implication also by a reader who is struggling with the iniquities etched in his own bones. Moses first identifies with the needs of the bones of Yehudah. Then the confession, hitbod'dut, mini-Gestalt session that Moses expresses in language brings those needs of Yehudah into the midst of a committed authentic action by Moses. Moses as strong gestalt and encompassing messianic monad here fulfills the logical function of induction, Platonic collection, in relation to the bones and essences of the existence of Yehudah. The parallel to Gestalt dreamwork is very clear here. According to Perls, we must identify with each of the different images and aspects of the dream we are exploring, in order to grasp the overall existential message of the dream. We move from ordinary everyday objects, like trees and clouds and bones, more and more in the direction of encompassing ideas, encompassing essences of our existence, as we move inductively upwards towards the final encompassing existential idea and message of our work on this particular dream. And yet in this dreamwork process everything must remain concrete, articulated, eventually, in terms of the unfinished business of important childhood relationships. The inductive ascent is not at the same time a flight to abstractions. That is to say, the three personnas involved in the ongoing storytelling process are active readers. They (we) maintain their (our) identification with the story which is unfolding. Here is an analogous message from the work of Hamann, with the messianic role shifted from Moses to Jesus. O 86. The abstract language of the philosophers fails, according to Hamann, to take into account the fact that God's infinite love for man is revealed precisely in His willingness to condescend to man's estate. God has humbled himself to the extent of speaking in the everyday idiom of the people by means of "little contemptible events" and "humanly foolish, indeed sinful actions . . . For Hamann does not subscribe to any form of the double-truth theory; spiritual truth does not require two forms, one for the philosopher, another for the masses. "To say that Moses wrote only for the common people is either meaningless or a ridiculous view of the matter" . . . Philosophically speaking, the "images" (German: Bilder) of natural language represent for Hamann "objects", which may be defined as uncritically perceived entities of ordinary experience, principally visual in nature. Abstract or discursive reason has the power, however, to eliminate such objects and to replace them with terms which actually stand for relations . . . "Existence [ i.e., concrete existence in a world of real objects] is realism, and must be believed; relations are idealism and rest upon connective and discriminatory procedures" . . . Metaphysics misuses "all the word-songs and figures of speech of our empirical knowledge" by transforming them into "nothing but hieroglyphs and types of ideal relations" . . . Another fundamental aspect of imagery is, of course, its strong appeal to the emotions, a quality which is lacking in the case of abstract terminology. FW: In Hamann's reference here to concrete objects of experience disappearing into abstract verbal relationships no longer in touch with their initial concrete reality, we recognize the terminology of 14th century Nominalism as articulated in those days by William of Ockham. See my essay on "Nominalism: the Here and Now, There and Then", for more about this. (b) ANALOGY VS. LOGICAL SYLLOGISMS O 87. The second characteristic of Hamann's use of reason is his preference for analogical, as opposed to purely logical, thinking. Whereas the rationalist establishes a principle, whether deductively or inductively, and thereupon proceeds to draw inferences from it, the intuitive thinker establishes a model on nonrational grounds, as, for example, instinct or faith, and thereupon proceeds to draw parallels to the model. This latter procedure accords, in Hamann's view, with the proper use of reason, despite the fact that reasoning from analogy does not yield the certainty one might desire. Thus, he writes that "reason cannot grasp anything but analogies in order to obtain a very ambiguous light" . . . Following the lead of Francis Bacon, Hamann maintains that man, in his original state, thought analogically rather than logically. This idea is clearly stated in the famous passage at the beginning of the Aesthetica In Nuce: "Poetry is the mother tongue of the human race" . . . Hamann places analogical thinking, as opposed to the later development of discursive thinking, within the framework of his general anthropology with its emphasis on man's retrograde development away from his primordial state. It is more natural for man to think in metaphors or parables, which involve analogical thinking, than to arrive at deductions based on rational principles . . . "All mortal creatures are able to see the truth and essence of things only in parables". For Hamann to metaschematize means to substitute one set of objective relationships for another, analogous set of subjective, personal, or existential relationships, in order to throw some light on their meaning. FW: Hamann here is saying what Nachman says when he says "My Torah is all behinot (Hebrew: aspects, interpretations, associations, analogies)". The notion of "man's retrograde development away from his primordial state" stems from the Platonic theory of anamnesis, "not forgetting" that primordial state by groping in the void for primordial ideas. Anamnesis entails immersing oneself in a chaotic sea of fragments and using Platonic collection or kabbalistic tsimtsum in the cognitive void of "not knowing" to discover/remember the primordial ideas by means of a series of associations, behinot. The obvious illustration in Nachman's LM 4 text is the endless string of associations, behinot, which lead Nachman from concrete particulars towards his final grand conclusions. "A" is an aspect of "B", and "B" is an aspect of "C", etc., etc. In the section which follows, for example, the string of behinot leads on and on, apparently endlessly, from (a) the lust of Nevatt to (b) fire to (c) purging via fire to (d) the fire of sin to (e) sins themselves to (f) crossing over to bundles of fragments being collected into a new idea (Platonic collection), and then on to (f) the wrath of God as fire negating all the negations of the One Without A Second, which itself leads on by means of tsimtsum to (g) nothingness, which is analogous to (h) humility as an aspect of (i) wisdom, leading to (j) the elevation of language, which itself is analogous to (k) the kingdom of God and refers by contrast to (l) the secular government, which needs to be brought back to its source by means of (m) the intervention of Moses, who is aspect of (n) Mashiach himself! All this in two pages. Note how Nachman gives Moses the Mashiach function of pulling all the fragments together, in exactly the same manner that Hamann gives that messianic function of Platonic collection to Jesus. For both Hamann and Nachman what is lost in logical precision is more than compensated for by the vast range of insightful sparks generated in the process of induction - provided, of course, that the spiritual pilgrim and the audience are receptive to this sort of pietist, Romantic, poetry. What makes this word salad "poetry" in the profound Gestalt and Aristotelian sense of committed personal action is Nachman's own biography, i.e., his self-proclaimed role of Tsaddik of the generation and messianic savior of the world. Whether we take him seriously or not, we at least know that Nachman is not just writing a book. He also is living the role he has carved out for himself in his own pained existence. FW: As Hegel in his "Aesthetics" points out, one major characteristic of Romantic art that distinguishes it from Classical art is that Romanticism allows emotional content to flood and overwhelm the forms in which it is packaged, leaving an audience gasping for breath. Hegel was less than appreciative of this form of expression, and he regarded the Absolute or God to which it all finally associates as "the night in which all cows are black". That is to say, most people, like the rationalist Hegel, prefer to let words mean what they do mean rather than have them all end up being symbols for the same thing: the Void of all-knowing and all not-knowing. Here, then, is Nachman's version of Platonic collection or tsimtsum in the void, from (a) to (n), from the lust of Nevatt to Mashiach himself! See if you can find your way through the maze, and at the same time see how many insightful associations are stimulated in your mind as you follow the creative mind of Nachman along his chosen trajectory. LM 4:6 This is the aspect of returning Malkhut to its source. For the source of Malkhut is fire, as our "Sages taught: 'why did Nevatt err? because he saw fire escape from his member (Sanhedrin 101b). And the Torah is called fire, because it is from there that Malkhut originates. As it is written (Jeremiah 23:29) "Behold, My Word is like fire," and (Proverbs 8:15), "Through me kings rule." And the essence of Torah is the Torah scholar, as our Sages taught (Makkot 222b): How foolish are those who stand up before a Torah scroll and yet do not stand before a rabbinical scholar! This is: "Every davar (thing) that was used in fire must go through fire " (Numbers 31:23). "Davar corresponds to Malkhut, which has been into the realm of impurity the heat of the evil inclination, as in "the fire of Amram" (Kiddusin 81a). ". . . must go through the fire" - its rectification is by means of fire, i.e., spoken confession before a Talmid Chakham. And this is the connotation of aveyrah (transgression): the AVeyRah letter combination OVeR (crosses) within his bones, from AyVeR to AyVeR (side to side). The word mitzvah, however, connotes joining together. When a person performs bundles of commandments, he binds together the shattered fragments of his bones, as is written (Psalms 34:21), "[God] safeguards all his bones, [not one of them is broken]." FW: Note: not one bone is broken; not one fragment of the symbolic collage is lost or damaged in the process of Platonic collection. All the antitheses, one after the other, are encompassed in the higher inductive synthesis. But there's more to come . . . LM 4:7. ["The King's wrath is a messenger of death, but a wise man can pacify it." (Proverbs 16:14)] And this is the explanation of the verse: "The King's wrath is a messenger of death." For the wrath of the Holy One is on account of Makhut , " . . . but a wise man can pacify it" - i.e., the aspect of Talmid Chakham/Moshe who will atone for [the sinner]. As it is written (Micah 7:18), "[The Lord] forgives the transgression for the remnant " - for the sake of the one who considers himself as remnants (Rosh HaShanah 17a). We find, then, that when he comes before a Torah scholar and expresses all his letter combinations in a Talmid Chakham's presence . . . The Torah scholar is an aspect of Moshe who considered himself as remnants, as is written (Numbers 12:3), "The man Moshe, however, was very humble." This is the reason he is called a wise man, as is written (Job 28:12), "Wisdom comes from Ayin (Nothingness)." Through this the wise man has the power to appease, as is written, "but a wise man can pacify it." This is why when Moshe prayed that the sin of the Golden Calf [be pardoned], he said (Exodus 32:32), "If You would, forgive their sin. But if not, please blot me out [ from the book that You have written]!" It is impossible for a person not to feel some pride when he hears himself being praised. All the more so, when a great king praises and lauds the person; then it is certainly impossible that he would not be moved to some feelings of self-importance. However, this necessitates the negation of all one's emotions and corporeality. Then, a person can hear himself being praised and not come to any pride. This was the case with Moshe Rabbeinu, who saw it written in the Torah: "God spoke to Moshe," [and] "God said to Moshe." Each day the Jewish people read in the Torah [God's] praise of Moshe. What's more, he himself related his praise to them. Yet Moshe had no feelings of haughtiness or pride from this, as is written, "The man Moshe, however, was very humble." And certainly, by means of his humility Moshe had the power to atone for the sin of the Golden Calf, as is written, ". . . but a wise man can pacify it." FW: The mashiach function that Moses or Jesus fulfils here is that of identifying with all the fragments, one after another, and then, by means of consumate humility, negating all of those fragments by negating himself. He then is the true servant, serving God as the negation of all negations. Each fragment is an extreme antithesis of the others, and the messiah manages to negate all of these negations of the One Without A Second. Also here, once again, not one bone is broken; not one fragment is lost or damaged in the process of Platonic collection. All the antitheses are encompassed in the higher synthesis by means of the Platonic messiah/poet/artist that Nachman or Hamann is embodying in his writing. What Plato labels a "poetic frenzy" of artistic interpretation, based on passionate personal involvement in a process of committed action, Nachman relates to the state of humility he sees Moses attaining in the biblical text. Nachman concludes his series of behinot by stressing the humility of Moses as the quality which qualifies him for the messiah function. LM 4:7 This was Moshe's argument: "But if not" - i.e., if You do not forgive their sin, You are demonstrating that I do not posses the humility needed to atone for the sin of the Golden Calf. This is why I requested, "please blot me out," so as not to be tripped up by pride. For I constantly see and hear the recounting of my name and praise in the Torah. Who can stand up to this - hearing his praise recounted and not become haughty - if not a very humble person? And if I am humble, You must pardon their sin, as is written, "[The Lord] forgives the transgression for the remnant . . ." This is (Deuteronomy 33:5) "There was a MeLeKh (king) in Yeshurun" - indicating that MaLKhut had risen to its source, as it is written (Psalms 37:11), "But the humble will inherit the earth." "Earth" is dina d'malkhuta (the law of the government) as is written (Job 20:27), "Earth rises up against him." FW: Moses with his messianic degree of humility has here re-elevated language (Malkhut d'kedushah, the kingdom of God) back to its primordial holistic power. This is anamnesis, "not forgetting" that the primordial idea of language as The Word has emerged from the void of nonbeing. Looking back at the entire journey of inductive logic through which Nachman just has led us, and with just a bit more analogical thinking, the parallel to Gestalt dreamwork ought to be clear. (a) First, Nachman expects you to find the inner idea of each thing by identifying with each image of the series. In Gestalt dreamwork you do that by play acting each dream image and attempt to say it with your whole body. In Nachman's poetic style Torah exegesis you, as Orthodox Jew, are expected to identify totally with each nuance since it all is God's word, right out of the Torah with chapter and verse included. How can it possibly not be the truth? (b) The second part of the process, in Gestalt dreamwork, is to commit your whole being to the project as a whole and negate your ego totally by the "rhythm of contact and withdrawal", which is the Gestalt version of tsimtsum. This death of ego is the negation of negations that translates you inductively up beyond your own existence, as you serve as a vessel for the existential message of that particular dream. The dream itself was only 1/60th of prophecy, while the dreamwork provides the other 59/60. The dreamwork is the Platonic collection or kabbalistic tsimtsum which accesses the messianic idea which was implicit from the primordial beginning of the dream itself when in the middle of the night you dreamed it. Again we have Platonic anamnesis of primordial ideas by means of tsimtsum, as the Gestalt therapy protagonist contracts his ego down to zero in order to embody the intuitive dialectical logic of induction, in order to serve as the messiah capable of redeeming his own fallen state. FW: And what is the equivalent to this "rhythm of contact and withdrawal" in a Torah lesson being given by Nachman or one of his disciples? The answer is, likewise, to commit yourself totally to the quest for truth. In your daily life you are to embodying as many Torah commandments as you can find the time and resources to accomplish, and also you are to commit your will completely to following the guidance of your Torah teachers, whether they make much sense to your rational mind or not! Along with that you are to assimilate each and every word of the mind boggling Torah lessons. You are not, God forbid, to try to understand it all using deductive logic, since most of it is inductively written and admittedly too lofty for your rational understanding. Rather, accept it all on faith as absolute truth. If you find yourself bewildered, get advice from your Torah teachers (who, unfortunately, also are forbidden to understand it), and then go talk to God out in the woods if there are any loose ends. FW: Nachman taught that the messianic soul of Moses is re-embodied to some extent in the tsaddik ha-dor, the righteous man of each generation. But, Nachman maintains, only in certain key historical figures, especially Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai and Nachman himself, is the embodiment totalized. Fritz Perls begs to differ, and encourages each of his clients to do fulfill the mashiach function himself. Fritz was Jewish, but not religious. Neither did he know Yiddish. But if someone had asked him why he gave his clients that option, and if indeed he had spoken Yiddish, perhaps he would have given the famous Yiddish retort, "Far vus nit?" (English: "Why not?") Now, my own suggestion is to meld the two approaches, that of Nachman and that of Fritz, which brings the caricature of Nachman's teachings which I just have presented back to the source that Nachman intended in the beginning. That is to say, begin with hitbod'dut, with the verbalized monologue. Do it rigorously, according to the system of Fritz, so you do get the results you need. Then, from that foundation go about dealing with the commandments and the Torah exegesis. This puts Tevye's "Fiddler On The Roof" horse back in front of Tevye's cart, with the proper Kantian stress on conscience as a liberation from the closed system of everyday habits, groupiness and chit-chat. This also puts Nachman very close to the position of Fichte, and historically exactly where he belongs as an heir to Kant's theory of the moral autonomy of the practical reason. See my essays on Fichte and Nachman for more of this. Doing hitbod'dut intelligently clarifies most of Nachman's enigmatic texts and helps balance the conflicting demands of 613 different commandments. Having discovered your own built in Moses function, you will not be flying blind and you will less vulnerable to demagoguery. This inner gyroscope was lacking when Hitler's Nazis adapted the teachings of Fichte as the basis of national socialism. They made a travesty of the teachings of Fichte. Hopefully you will not make a similar travesty of the teachings of Nachman of Breslav. (c) PARATAXIS FW: O'Flaherty makes a distinction between parataxic and hypotaxic sentence structure, a distinction which is as relevant to the work of Nachman as it is to the work of Hamann. O: The roots of the terms are "para" (by the side) + "tassein" (to place). "Parataxis" is the placing of clauses or phrases one after the other, without coordinating or subordinating connectives. On the other hand, from "hypo" (under) we get "hypotaxis", which is arranging clauses with a conjunction that subordinates one to the other. Paratactic sentences are characterized by brevity and the absence of long involved dependent clauses; the word order tends to be natural or to follow elementary logic in that the subject and predicate are expressed at or near the beginning of the sentence, with the other elements following generally in the order of their importance. Aphorisms, epigrams, etc., because of their laconic nature, are necessarily paratactic in structure. Hypotactic sentences, on the other hand, are characterized by greater length, involving, as they do, longer dependent clauses . . . Because of its frequent use of dependent clauses, hypotaxis involves the subordination of certain elements within a sentence, whereas parataxis involves their coordination. Both styles do occur in Hamann's writings . . . In his most characteristic and influential writings the aphoristic mode dominates . . . It is precisely in these works that we find him employing intuitive, as opposed to abstract, reason. FW: The following sections from Nachman's LM 4 illustrate nicely this contrast between parataxic and hypotaxic use of language. Nachman begins with an introductory fable in the style of parataxic language. PARATAXIS: TYPE 1 A SIMPLE FABLE LM 4:8. This is the meaning of what the Sages said: It is comparable to someone who was walking along a path in the utter darkness of night. He was afraid of the thorns and the ditches, of wild beasts and bandits, not knowing which path he was on. When he happened upon a lit torch he was saved from the thorns and the ditches but he was still afraid of wild beasts and bandits, not knowing which path he was on. When dawn broke, he was saved from wild beasts and bandits, yet still did not know which path he was on. What is this crossroads? Rabbi Chisda said: It is a Talmid Chakhkam and the day of death (Sotah 21a). PARATAXIS:TYPE 2 SIMPLE SENTENCES LIST FOUR ALCHEMICAL ELEMENTS FW: Next we learn of the four alchemical elements, mineral, vegetable, animal and human, which are variants of the usual water, earth, air, fire sequence. Here the presentation also is in the parataxic style, though a bit more complex. LM 4:8 It is known that all evil character traits and their derivatives stem from the four yesodot (fundamental elements), the four humors. As is brought in Mishnat Chassidim: Melancholy and its derivatives stem from the mineral life form; evil passions and their derivatives stem from the vegetable life form; idle chatter and its derivatives stem from the animal life form; pride and its derivatives stem from the human life form. Anyone who would take the path of must break all of the vices in the presence of a Talmid Chakham - i.e., spoken confession. The Torah scholar will then define and clarify a path in line with the roots of his soul. PARATAXIS: TYPE 3 COMPLEX SENTENCES, WITH BEHINOT FW: Also presented parataxically are three steps for attachment to a tzaddik, which also are a code for three stages of human action in general. Since Nachman's version will get a bit murky, I'll do the dissection as a preface, in my own inimitable Fallen, deductive, hypotaxic manner. If this were a Gestalt session, Fritz no doubt would have me examine my own need to insert prefaces and dissections into the flow of life. Anyway, concerning the tsaddik, (a) first, perceive him properly, (b) second, give him charity and (c) third, accept his advice at the moment of crucial existential choices in your life. To each of these simple instructions, Nachman adds subordinate and related ideas. (a) For the first instruction, more generally establish contact with the situation, (b) for the second instruction, undergo death of ego by giving it away charitably, and (c) for the third instruction, choose a new idea in the void of not knowing. But these corollaries are not appended to the initial three ideas deductively using hypotaxic sentence structure, the way I just have taken pains to do it. That is to say, Nachman's stress is not on making sure we "understand" it all by laying out his ideas in a series of primary and subordinate clauses. Rather, to the first three ideas he appends a series of only tangentially related ideas, parataxically by simply laying them down, one after the other. Then he leaves it up to us, the readers, to open our minds and hearts to discover the higher level encompassing experiences. For Nachman wants us inductively to "grasp" macrocosmic Platonic ideas, and not merely deductively to "understand" microcosmic concepts. LM 4 is not just a textbook of clinical psychology, it is also inductive science and Platonically inspired Romantic poetry. Hence, Nachman injects into the basic flow of the hypotaxic framework quite a bit of parataxic embellishment. Nachman begins with the three themes, in the manner in which a Beethoven or Mozart might begin a symphony with three simple themes. Then, in the manner of a fugue or stretto, more and more interlocking variations and distantly related motifs pile up as a magical information overload. Schopenhauer, a 19th century philosopher who shared this Romantic aesthetic, held that music is the highest form of art, since it embodies ideas purely without needing to incorporate naturalistic content. Nachman's prose in his stretto sections approaches the level of musical art, as kaleidoscopic ideas overload their reference to the deductive framework and leap up inductively from our Fallen microcosmic world to the liberated macrocosm of pure Platonic/Torah ideas. When Nachman does it, it works fine. Of course, when an Adolf uses a media blitz inductively to peddle an overgrown Idea of the Third Reich we may have second thoughts about "inductive science". LM 4:8 Now, there are three steps in attachment to the tzaddikim. Through these three steps everything is rectified. The three steps are as follows: The first step entails seeing the tzaddik, as in (Isaiah 30:20), "your eyes will see your teacher," This step negates the vices that stem from the two yedodot, mineral and vegetable - namely, melancholy with its derivatives, and evil passions. For the tzaddik of the generation is called "Mother" because he nurses the Jewish people with the light of his Torah. And the Torah is called "milk", as is written (Song of Songs 4:11). "Honey and milk under your tongue." We have empirical validation for this: Even when a child is sad and lethargic, if he sees his mother, he very quickly stirs toward her - i.e., toward his source. We also see clearly that when a child is absorbed in his own nonsense, even through he has a great desire for this, if he sees his mother, he throws away all of his desires and draws close to her. We find, then, that the vices stemming from the two yesodot, mineral and vegetable, are negated by gazing at the countenance of the tzaddik. This is: He was afraid of the thorns, the aspect of the vegetable life form; and the ditches, the aspect of the mineral life for. When he happened upon a lit torch - this is a Talmid Chakham, who with the light of the Torah. Through him he is saved from the vices that stem from the two yesodot, mineral and vegetable; and then he is saved form the thorns and the ditches. LM 4:8 The second step is the charity one gives to a Talmid Chakham . Through this he is saved from the vices that stem from the two yesodot, animal and human - the aspects of wild beasts and bandits, which are idle chatter and pride and their derivatives. This is because idle chatter and slanderous gossip engender poverty, as is written (Exodus 4:19), "All the men have died" - this is poverty (Nedarim 64b). Also concerning pride it is taught: Poverty is a sign of a haughty spirit (Kiddushin 49b). But by giving charity a person becomes wealthy. As the Sages taught: "Though they were united and likewise many, even so they are over and gone; I have afflicted you, but will afflict you no more" (Nahum 1:12) - he is never again made to experience the markings of poverty (Gitten 7b). And this is: When dawn broke, he was saved from wild beasts and bandits. The break of dawn is an allusion to charity, as is written (Isaiah 58 7-8), "When you see the naked, and you clothe him . . . Then your light shall burst forth like the dawn." We find, then, that through charity one is saved from the vices that stem from the two yesodot, animal and human, corresponding to wild beasts and bandits. LM 4:8 The third step is when one makes a spoken confession in a Torah scholar's presence. Through this the Talmid Chakham guides him on a proper path in line with the root of his soul. This is: When he came to a crossroads. And Sages comment, It is a Talmid Chakham and the day of death. This is the step of spoken confession before a Talmid Chakham. The day of death is an allusion to confesson, as the Sages taught: All those about to be put to death confess (Sanhedrin 43b). This is called PaRaShat DeRaKhim (a crossroads), because the Torah scholar maPhRiSh lo DeReKh (defines his path ) in line with the root of his soul. Then, he was saved from all of them. Because, before he confessed, even through he was close to the Torah scholar and had given him money, he still does not know which path he was on. For "A path may seem right to a man, but its end leads to death" (Proverbs 14:12). But when he comes to "a crossroads," which is a Talmid Chakham and the day of death - i.e., spoken confession before a Talmid Chakham - then, he was saved from all of them. PARATAXIS: TYPE 4 COMPLEX SENTENCES, WITH BEHINOT AND ALSO WITH PARALLELS OF FORM AND CONTENT FW: Later, as the style of the text approaches pure poetry, content joins form in telling the tale, which in this case is the tale of a completed action. The actor/poet Moses/messiah undergoes death of ego at the crossroads of his life, the moment of committed choice during an action. At that moment, according to Aristotle, the knower, the known and the knowing all are one. Ego is minimal in the midst of an action. The theological context of an action for Nachman here is "the word of God", and for him, like for Hamann, that means language in the sense of The Word as the Kingdom of God, Malkhut. Language and action here are parallel concepts, grounded in the dialectical framework of deduction/induction, the descending and ascending sides of the tree of life, the kabbalistic sefirot. Each counterclockwise cycle around the complete tree of life is one "beat" of the dialectic, one cycle of the rhythm of contact and withdrawal, one moment of running and returning, one moment of action. If the process works properly we have induction, intuitive reason, positive letter combinations, poetry, If the process does not work properly we are stuck in deduction, abstract aboutism, negative letter combinations, verbalizing. After completing the action, the protagonist retains a sense of what is was all about. In the context of a Gestalt Therapy session he can tell us what was the existential message of the dreamwork, what he got from the session. He can see the details of his present life situation (Elohim, the left pillar of the tree of life) in the context of the Oneness of authentic action (YHVH, the right pillar of the tree of life), and at that moment he has a sense that the One and the Many are One Without A Second. A parallel in the aesthetics of Romanticism and the work of an actor in the Brechtian theater is the notion of "the performer on top of his material" creating "live form". When, in this style of work, an actor prepares his material, he works deductively and assembles a junk collage of forms into a complex poetic image which is his "character". Then, at the moment of presentation for an audience, he relies upon his here and now reactions to images that flash in his imagination to give him macrocosmic ideas with which to illuminate that microcosmic junk collage of forms. The result, when it works properly, is "live form", a meld of content (ideas discovered inductively) and form (the junk collage which was derived deductively), which is, theologically speaking, the macrocosm in the microcosm, the One in the Many. LM 4:9 This applies each time a Torah scholar. The Talmid Chakham is an aspect of Moshe, who is an aspect of Ayin, as is written, "Wisdom comes from Ayin." And in this way you become encompassed in Ein Sof (Infinite One). This is the concept of Zarka: it is thrown back to the place from which it was taken (Tikkuney Zohar #21). This is return Malkhut to Ein Sof, which is the will in all the wills. For Malkhut corresponds to the letters of speech, with the will of God clothed in each and every letter. It was God's will that one letter have such and such a shape, and another letter have a different shape. We find, then, that [God's] wills - i.e., the forms of the letters - serve to reveal His Malkhut, And all these wills, the forms, stem from the will of Ein Sof - which has no form . And all the objects and material existence in the world originate from the letters, i.e., from Malkhut. This is because material existence is a consequence of Malkhut, of the Holy One's desire that His Malkhut be revealed in the world. Through this He created the world ex nihilo. All the wills - the forms and all material existence corresponding to Malkhut - receive their vitality from the will of Ein Sof. As is taught (Migillah 31a): "In every place that you find the greatness of the Holy One - i.e., His Malkhut wills - "There you find His humility" - i.e., the will of Ein Sof. And this is an aspect of stripping oneself of corporeality. For when a person wants to be encompassed in the will of Ein Sof, he must negate his material being. This is what is written in the Zohar (II 88b), that Moshe passed away on Shabbat, at the time of Minchah. For that is when raava d'raaven (Will of Wills) is revealed. This is the will of Ein Sof, from whom all wills receive their vitality. This was because Moshe had totally negated his material being, as is written, "After all, nachnu mah (what are we)?" (Exodus 16:7). "So Moshe, the servant of God, died there, in the land of Moav, by the kiss of God. [God] buried him in the valley in the land of Moav, opposite Beit Pe'or. No man knows his burial place to this day" (Deuteronomy 34: 5-7). This is the meaning of "[God] buried him in the valley" - it alludes to as is written (Isaiah 40:4), "Every valley shall be elevated." "In the land of Moav" - this alludes to Malkhut, for King David descended from Moav. Moshe ascended into Ein Sof, into Will of Wills, raava d'raaven. This corresponds to the will of Ein Sof, which is clothed in the wills/forms of the letters, the aspect of Malkhut. As explained, "In every place that you find His greatness" - i.e., Malkhut, the aspect of - "there you find " - i.e., the will of Ein Sof. FW: For the kabbalistic tradition, the metaphor of "running and returning" tells this story, in the sense that we first run away from ego and later return to ego. The jargon of Gestalt Therapy here overlaps that of Romanticism. Gestalt speaks of the rhythm of contact and withdrawal. During action we move from contact, from awareness of the contact boundary, to withdrawal, withdrawal from the contact boundary. Withdrawal from the contact boundary, by means of tsimtsum, puts us in the void of not knowing, the messianic now, and then we return to awareness of the contact boundary as the action comes to an end. Nachman describes running and returning by invoking the notion of "da'at" (Hebrew: knowing, knowledge). But "da'at" is a slippery term, used by many authors in many ways. Here is reference is knowing in the sense of the Gestalt process of establishing contact by means of awareness. Da'at here is awareness. Awareness establishes a bubble contactful experience, a "world" that the protagonist "knows", in the sense that Adam knows Eve during an orgasm. When the contact boundary becomes clouded by neurotic games, by self-interruptions of the life force, and the Gestalt client finds himself deductively at an impasse of polarized cloudy ideas, he needs to withdraw from that contact boundary into the realm of inductive, intuitive experience by closing his eyes and going into his body awareness and fantasies. This is the moment of withdrawal and tsimtsum, contraction of ego. And this also is "running" from his ego and the microcosm in general into the void, where hopefully new macrocosmic ideas await him. After his moment of gnostic enlightenment, then he "returns" to his ego in its new form. But he brings with him a vague trace or "reshimu" (Hebrew: remainder) of his other worldly experience. Overall, then, he runs from deduction to induction, and then he returns from induction to deduction bringing with him the results of the induction. LM 4:9 This is "opposite Beit Pe'or". As the Sages taught: Why was [the idol] called Pe'or? Because it opens its mouth wide. For when one blemishes Malkhut, [Pe'or} then has the power to open its mouth wide with negative letter combinations. But Moshe rectified the aspect of Malkhut, and as a result Pe'or could not open its mouth wide (Sotah 14a), This is "No man knows [his burial place]" - even Moshe did not know (ibid.). For he was negated in Ein Sof. All this was at his death. However, also during his lifetime [Moshe] certainly stripped away all corporeality and attached himself to the Light of Ein Sof. But then, this stripping was in an aspect of "the living creatures ran and returned". (Ezekial 1:14). This is because the Holy One desires our service, as is written (Yom Kippur Liturgy), "You desire praise from mounds of dust, from lumps of clay." Therefore, it is imperative not to remain [in this state of negation] until such a time that the Holy One Himself comes and takes one's soul. LM 4:9 This is why we see that now and then a person becomes inspired while praying and he recites several words with tremendous fervor. This is due to God's compassion for him; the Light of Ein Sof has been opened to him and shines for him. When a person sees this radiance - and even though he might not see, his mazal sees (Megillah 3a) - his soul is instantly ignited in great devotion, so that he attaches himself to the Light of Ein Sof. And to the degree that Ein Sof is revealed - commensurate with the number of words that have been opened and begun to radiate - he recites all these words with great devotion, with a surrender of self, and with a negation of all his senses. Then, during the time he is negated in Ein Sof, he is in a state of "and no man knows" so that he himself is unaware of his own existence. But this must be in the aspect of "running and returning" in order to preserve . We find then that when he is in a state of "returning" he must also disclose to his daat. For at the beginning, at the time of devotion, his daat was nullified, as in, "and no man knows". But when he is in a state of "returning", returning to his material being, then he returns to his daat. And when he returns to his daat, he knows the oneness and beneficence of Ein Sof. Then there is no difference between YHVH and Elohim, between the divine attribute of judgment and the divine attribute of compassion. For a change of will is not applicable to Ein Sof, Heaven forbid. Changes only occur in the changing of the forms. Nevertheless, by virtue of a person's attachment to Ein Sof - where there is no change of will, for there the will is uniform - afterwards an imprint of this oneness remains within him. Then later, when he is in a state of "returning", this imprint illuminates , so that he knows that all is good and all is one. This is what Moshe said to his generation: "It has been clearly demonstrated to your daat that YHVH (God) is the Elohim (Lord)". (Deuteronomy 4: 35). For Moshe corresponds to Thus it was fitting for his generation, who were attached to him, to [have] daat - i.e., to illuminate the daat with an awareness of Ein Sof/raava d/raaven, the aspect of "YHVH is the Elohim." (d) PARADOX O: An important aspect of Hamann's conception of reason as it emerges from his use of language is his acceptance of the paradox as a vehicle for the expression of spiritual truth. His reason for such a positive view of the paradox is, in the last resort, theological. Since God has condescended to reveal Himself in lowly, even contemptible form - as the Scriptures everywhere attest - the paradox possesses the highest possible legitimation. "One must view with astonishment how God accomodates Himself to all small circumstances, and prefers to reveal His government through the everyday event of human life rather than the singular and extraordinary events." The supreme paradox of Christianity is, to be sure, the incarnation in Christ, the appearance of the Creator of heaven and earth in the form of a servant. FW: To appreciate the relevance of paradox in this sense to the work of Nachman of Breslav, let us backtrack a bit now and zero in on the last section of LM 4 which we just cited under the heading of "parataxis". These six techniques of Romantic poetic language certainly overlap, and there is no reason why we may not find all six of them at work in a single passage from Nachman's "Likutei Moharan". In this last section we found an obvious parallel between the messianic function Christ serves for the Christians and the same messianic function the soul Moses serves for the Jews. As is the case for Christ in the work of Hamann, Moses for Jews is a supreme example of paradox, the apparent contradiction that the pure idea of Moses/Mashiach - Moses as symbolic code for the messianic idea - embodies on the one hand the most encompassing notion of all-reality and on the other hand the idea of absolute nothingness, total self-obliterating humility. This rudimentary example of dialectical thinking, a thesis and an antithesis encompassed in a higher synthesis, is basic to kabbalistic metaphysics. In this respect, then, the parallel between Hamann and Nachman is clear. However, in what follows, as we decode the jargon to get to the philosophical foundation, we find that this clear conceptual parallel is fogged over by the work of the official Breslaver translators. We unearth one more example of what happens when the sorcerer's apprentice, ignorant of the dialectical powers of his master, grabs his master's broom and makes a big mess the laboratory! Once again we will see the dangers of preaching dialectical religion rather than teaching dialectical religion. I repeat, a preacher aims at propagating the sect, primarily by glorifying his colleagues, while a teacher has other objectives, especially ferreting out the truth of his subject matter. Watch, now, how the translators of LM 4 muddle the dialectical message of Nachman in this passage, and shift the focus from the individual's search for God towards the direction of creating a herd of sheep following other sheep following other sheep, just as lemmings might follow other lemmings right off a cliff into the sea! Here once is LM 4:9. LM 4:9 This applies each time a Torah scholar. The Talmid Chakham is an aspect of Moshe, who is an aspect of Ayin, as is written, "Wisdom comes from Ayin." And in this way you become encompassed in Ein Sof (Infinite One). FW: Nachman begins with the pshat, the superficial code. This is step one in creating the paradox, the apparent contradiction that this Torah scholar you meet in the street is at the same time an aspect of Moses and the Jewish version of the messiah. LM 4:9 This is the concept of Zarka: it is thrown back to the place from which it was taken (Tikkuney Zohar #21). This is returning Malkhut to Ein Sof, which is the will in all the wills. For Malkhut corresponds to the letters of speech, with the will of God clothed in each and every letter. It was God's will that one letter have such and such a shape, and another letter have a different shape. We find, then, that [God's] wills - i.e., the forms of the letters - serve to reveal His Malkhut, FW: Another paradox, then, is that the all encompassing Kingdom God corresponds to the tiny individual letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and each letter has its particular form and message. LM 4:9 And all these wills, the forms, stem from the will of Ein Sof - which has no form . And all the objects and material existence in the world originate from the letters, i.e., from Malkhut. This is because material existence is a consequence of Malkhut, of the Holy One's desire that His Malkhut be revealed in the world. Through this He created the world ex nihilo. All the wills - the forms and all material existence corresponding to Malkhut - receive their vitality from the will of Ein Sof. As is taught (Migillah 31a): "In every place that you find the greatness of the Holy One - i.e., His Malkhut wills - "There you find His humility" - i.e., the will of Ein Sof. And this is an aspect of stripping oneself of corporeality. For when a person wants to be encompassed in the will of Ein Sof, he must negate his material being. FW: Here is the paradox cited by Hamann above, that the messiah (Christ or Moses) embodies the apparent contradiction that what is the All is also Nothingness, abject humility and the will of God. LM 4:9 For a change of will is not applicable to Ein Sof, Heaven forbid. Changes only occur in the changing of the forms. Nevertheless, by virtue of a person's attachment to Ein Sof - where there is no change of will, for there the will is uniform - afterwards an imprint of this oneness remains within him. Then later, when he is in a state of "returning", this imprint illuminates


19. FRANKLYN WEPNER STORYTELLER the sword of moshiach

FRANKLYN WEPNER STORYTELLER  the sword of moshiach

reb shmuel isaac, disciple of reb nachman of breslav, relates a vision of his ascent to the palace of the messiah. original music and imagery added to a retelling of the traditional jewish story. text by permission of howard schwartz, editor of "gabriel's palace, jewish mystical tales". . Nachman's statement in this video that "the sword of Moshiach is prayer" is a typical example of the kaleidoscopic nature of his utterances in general. There is, of course, the simple meaning for simple minded people, and there are many other profounder meanings for profounder minded people. The following essay explores in depth this notion that "the sword of moshiach is prayer". The essay is a commentary on essay number 2 of Nachman's "Collected Essays" (Likutei Moharan), his main kabbalistic work. Along with all of Nachman's references I throw in a couple of references to my own healing work. Orientation Therapy is the label I give to a multimedia performing arts therapy process that I developed to work with violent adolescents. I published this report of my work with kids in a NY city school in The Drama Review, Nov 1973. The essay was called "The Theory And Practice of Orientation Therapy". Also in what follows I refer to my 35 years experience doing Gestalt Dreamwork Therapy, especially to train performers and to guide spiritual searchers in Yeshivot. FRANKLYN WEPNER NOVEMBER 2008 [email protected] LM 2: SIMPLE AS CHILD'S PLAY "TRY TO REMEMBER AND FOLLOW, FOLLOW, FOLLOW . . ." (FROM THE SONG "TRY TO REMEMBER", IN THE SHOW "THE FANTASTICS", BY TOM JONES AND HARVEY SCHMIDT) CONTENTS (1) SIMPLE AS CHILD'S PLAY (2) PATH #1: "ORIENTATION THERAPY" (3) PATH #2: GESTALT THERAPY (4) MISHPAT (5) CHARITY (6) CORRUPTION OF MISHPAT (7) PREGNANCY (8) MOSHE-MASHIACH (9) NACHMAN'S ALCHEMY (1) SIMPLE AS CHILD'S PLAY FW: Nachman says: "I am the brook." A child might say: "I am a dog. Wuf, wuf!" A Zen monk might ask: "Am I a Zen monk who thinks he is a butterfly, or am I a butterfly who thinks he is a Zen monk?" Nachman might ask: "Am I the water source limited by the banks of the brook, or am I the banks of the brook being carved out by the water source?" All of these apparently different utterances are in a profound sense saying the same thing, something so simple that only a small child or a wise man can grasp "it". In LM 1 Nachman calls it "Yaakov", the middle pillar. We have pointed out that thesis/antithesis, subject/object and chochmah/binah dichotomies are involved, and that pondering these matters leads us to label the results the "dialectical synthesis", "identity in difference" and the middle pillar of the sefirotic tree. Conceptualizing this dialectical synthesis requires us to attempt to step back from our everyday polarized X/-X world to a somehow prior state of innocence before the Fall from oneness into a state of division. Aristotle says: Actuality is prior to potentiality, and actuality is the state of action, when the knower, the known and the knowing are one. The Tanach says: "B'reishit, in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth", and Rashi reminds us that "b'reishit" is the first utterance of God - an utterance that somehow encompasses all that is to follow. Plato tells us to "try to remember, and follow, follow, follow", a process which he labels "anamnesis" (Greek: not amnesia, not forgetting) of pure, primordial ideas. Nachman tells us to try to remember the Patriarchal ideas of Abraham, Yitzchak and Jacob and to incorporate these memories into our everyday existence here and now. God, it is said, created His Torah before He created the world, and so "b'reishit" (in the beginning) implies trying to remember that primordial Torah and following it. But what is there to remember before there is a subject/object relationship between me and what I am remembering? Again we come to another Zen riddle: "show me your face before you (and your subject/object distinctions) were born". For Fichte's version of these dialectics see essay 07 on the Absolute ego. FW: "It" is all very abstruse, and yet a child grasps "it" when he plays freely. Nachman begins LM 1 with the quote from Psalms 120:1, "Ashrei T'mimei Darekh", "Happy are those whose way is naive, simple, perfect, who walk with the Torah of God". And here in LM 2 once again we find Nachman renaming this mysterious origin of all being. This time he calls it "mishpat" (Hebrew: judgment). He says that the sword of Mashiach is prayer, that Mashiach must must not deflect his sword to the right or to the left and that this is impossible to do without the attribute of mishpat, "for mishpat is the center pillar". He gives us some other clues: "In giving charity one embraces the attribute of mishpat." "The Lord is judge. He brings down one and lifts up another. He impoverishes one and enriches another". Also, "Now the main cause of foreign thoughts (during prayer) is the corruption of mishpat . . . (the foreign thoughts) are like clouds covering the eyes . . . but in the Future the concept of mishpat shall be restored." These clues help, but nevertheless we seem to be spinning our wheels and getting noplace, sliding from one vague metaphor to another, beating around the (burning) bush, as it were. We are pushing at the limits of rational language in an attempt to describe simple, undisturbed experience that eludes description in words. Does that mean we are at the mercy of mystics and demagogues in our search for truth and reality? I will leave that question unanswered, and instead present what seem to me to be two clearly observable, scientifically valid ways to "try to remember and follow, follow, follow". If I in my life experience found two, then perhaps you can find another few. Each of the paths I will propose leads, I believe, out of the darkness and to the entrance of "the Promised Land" of naivete, beyond which perhaps we must settle for the slippery metaphors. (2) PATH #1: "ORIENTATION THERAPY" FW: In 1972 I conducted an exploratory "drama therapy" workshop with four groups of boys at a "600 school" in New York City. Two of the groups were 10 year olds, one was 12 year olds and one was 14 year olds. Wright 600 School, in the warehouse district of New York City, was in those days a place for kids who had been ejected from the regular school system due to serious discipline problems, including violence, insubordination and drug abuse. I had not yet learned about Gestalt Therapy. My theory base then was in anthropology, especially a book called "The Ritual Process", by Victor Turner. This book attempts to make rational sense out of the apparently irrational rituals of "primitive" African tribes. I labeled my own process "Orientation Therapy" and published my results in an issue of "The Drama Review" in November 1973. For a complete description I refer you to that essay. Now I will merely summarize those aspects that, it seems to me, are relevant to the work of Nachman of Breslav. FW: I provided the boys with a wide range of props, rhythm instruments and taped musical stimuli. I did a theater class type physical and vocal warm up with each group, and after that I invited them to explore whatever improvisational ideas they chose. At the end of each session we sat down and I asked them to share their feelings about what had gone on that day. Sessions lasted from one to three hours, depending on the needs of the group. The limits were minimal: no nudity allowed and no physical violence to another person allowed. I made every effort to avoid punishing the boys, even if occasionally, for example, something was broken or disappeared. Workshops were held once per week with each group for 8 weeks. The results were, in my opinion, both surprising and significant. First of all, nobody was hurt, though during that same period of time a boy in the school but not in my groups was arrested for what I was told was the crime of murder. Second, there emerged a rather uniform sequence of improvisational themes in all four of the groups. The sequence, which emerged gradually over the course of the eight weeks, was: (1) drugs, (2) violence, (3) heterosexuality, (4) homosexuality, (5) normal activities such as sports, and finally (6) verbal discussions of personal problems. I stress that all this happened without me imposing any agenda on the boys, and without much use of verbal encounter or therapy techniques. In other words, they were invited to explore the void freely on their own, in a safe, permissive, supportive setting. In my analysis of the process I noted how the props were used as multivalent symbols, more or less as they are used in African tribal rituals. The same broomstick, for example, might one day serve as a cannon, the next day as a penis, and another day as a magic wand. A lady's hat might one day elicit rage and be stomped on, and another day it might elicit homosexual tendencies and be worn as a costume for a "girlie" dance. Overall, I concluded that there was a marked tendency during the eight weeks progressively to peel the onion of socially disfunctional behaviors and revert to behaviors that are more characteristic of simple, non-tormented children. These were mostly black inner city boys, and the drug stories they began with represented the peer group culture that surrounded them in the slums of New York City. This was the outer shell they needed to present socially in order to be accepted as "one of the boys". Rather than become alarmed by all the sordid mayhem I witnessed, I let it all go by as merely stages of an unfolding process. This required lots of faith on my part, on the part of the administrators, and on the part of the boys themselves. We were flying blind together, in a free fall situation. Nevertheless, as it turned out there was a river (or "brook") carrying us in its current. Were the banks shaping the river, or was the river shaping the banks? Or rather was this not one more example of the middle pillar, the middle way, a state of active passivity, as we tried our best to keep going without imposing upon ourselves any particular direction. FW: We were, I propose, "trying to remember" and following "it". And following "it" seemed to me at the time to consist of two components: a series of behaviors and an accompanying series of orientations or points of view. Each new configuration of behaviors, costumes and props I labeled a "symbolization", since the Greek root "symballein" means "to throw together". I concluded that a certain symbolization #1, for example, "robbing a bank", resulted from a previous "orientation #1", for example, wanting to demonstrate contempt for private property, and then itself led on to a new orientation #2, for example, feeling guilty. The new orientation #2 then might suggest a new symbolization #2, such as acting out being condemned by the judge to the firing squad. This sort of theorizing should sound very familiar by now. Is it not merely the same old subject/object, ego/non-ego, chochmah/binah, right pillar/left pillar stuff? The difference is that the events I documented at Wright 600 School in 1972 were not just slippery metaphors. They were objective facts. They actually happened, and by staying with the process these boys accomplished a movement of ideas in the direction of more and more "prior", "real" experiences, from a pseudo-existence based on peer group illusions toward the basics of human life. That is to say, they were moving in the direction of "adam kadmon" or "b'reishit". This was, I believe, Platonic anamnesis (literally "not amnesia", "not forgetting"). This was their attempt to "try to remember and follow, follow, follow". This was "Ya'akov" and "mishpat", simple as child's play. "Ashrei t'mimei darekh", "Happy are those whose way is that of simple naivete." (3) PATH #2: GESTALT THERAPY FW: The Orientation Therapy path I just described is merely another version of what could be labeled "meditative processes". in the sense that participants remain focused on here and now happenings and anticipate the revelation of truth or enlightenment in the "messianic now". The "chaotic breathing meditation" process popularized by the Indian guru Acharya Rajneesh is not very different. Rajneesh instructs group members to breathe deeply and rhythmically for a couple of minutes as a prelude to an individual chaotic explosion of movements and sounds lasting several minutes, followed by lying on one's back on the floor. Rajneesh maintains that "it is only pure if it is chaotic". Some other meditative, here and now techniques are concentrating on one's breathing or gazing at images of the name of God. Still another meditative process is the Gestalt Therapy system of the psychiatrist Frederick (Fritz) Perls. The Gestalt approach focuses on the types of awareness, the acting out of dreams, and work on personal relationships which for the client associate to the dreamwork. All this is explored in the here and now, hopefully leading to what Perls refers to as a "strong gestalt", an "ahah! moment", or some insight which Perls labels "the existential message of the dream". If we accept the Jewish point of view that a dream is 1/60th of prophecy, then the Gestalt client is a would be prophet and that existential message of the dream is nothing less than "the Word of God". FW: Since Gestalt dreamwork operates by free association from one dream element to another in the here and now, it is like Orientation Therapy a free fall, middle way, middle pillar, actively passive experience of following "it" with all one's resources, while at the same time not deliberately choosing a particular goal. Gestalt dreamwork once again is the path of "Ya'akov" and "mishpat". But whereas philosophical systems like that of Aristotle and religious documents such as Likutei Moharan tend to dissolve into a salad of slippery overlapping metaphors, Gestalt Therapy is a precise, relatively simple objective and scientific procedure. Perls, in fact, makes an exaggerated effort to demystify his jargon. He uses hyper-simple terminology bordering on vulgarity. Gestalt Land is populated by game playing conmen, topdogs combating underdogs, tragedy queens manipulating suckers by phoney pleas for sympathy, elephantshit (aboutism) as the opposite of staying in the here and now, "pompous ass" tyrants bullying their "piece of shit" victims, etc., etc. Gestalt Therapy directors can document sessions verbatim and later point out to clients exactly what step of the process occurred at which moment, with which fantasy image, which accompanying tone of voice and which physical movements. All this is totally objective data. Before our eyes we see pilgrims embodying philosophical and religious processes, divested of mystifying metaphors and storytelling. This is truth no less raw and unprocessed than is the sequence of themes generated by "children who hate" in Orientation Therapy workshops. The peeling of the onion in Gestalt Therapy lends itself to a precise account of the stages of the process. The word "account" in Greek is "logos", and the logos is the pathway to truth in Greek philosophy. The Gestalt logos moves, usually, from confluence (no awareness), to introjection, to projection, to retroflection, to egotism and on towards an explosion into authentic action by means of such happenings as anger, grief, joy or orgasm. The experiences are sublime and divine but the jargon is simple and down to earth. Again: "Ashrei t'mimei darekh". "Happy are those whose way is that of simple naivete". (4) MISHPAT FW: Now, within the context of objectivity, of scientific data pure and simple, which we have just established, let us return to the cryptic jargon, elusive metaphors and 19th Century Romantic style avant garde poetry of Rabbi Nachman of Breslav, and see if we can better grasp the message of Likutei Moharan 2. This is not an attempt to disparage the work of Rabbi Nachman of Breslav. It is merely an attempt to understand the message of Nachman by doing a figure/ground reversal. For Nachman Torah is reality, and life needs to be fathomed and conducted according to the requirements of Torah. Here I am maintaining that if we assume that reality is reality, and if we can fathom Likutei Moharan according to the requirements of reality then this other point of view might help us better decode Nachman's esoteric symbolism. Finally, the combination of the two points of view may yield a good mix of theory and practice that will maximize the benefits for those trying to learn Torah and carry out mitzvot in this world according to Nachman's path. I propose, then, to translate Likutei Moharan jargon into dialectical jargon, as a tool to grasp the underlying messages. Then, of course, we want to put Humpty Dumpty back together again and appreciate the poetry and piety of Nachman's style of expression. When, for example, Nachman says that LM 2:1 the basic weapon of Mashiach is prayer (and that) this weapon must be received by means of the aspect of Yosef - guarding the brit (Covenant), FW: he is saying that Yosef, like Ya'akov (Jacob), symbolizes the middle pillar, and that guarding the brit means maintaining the primordial Patriarchal "covenant" of concrete dialectical logic that moves the entire Logos or Word of God forward towards messianic fulfilment. Here the three primordial ideas, thesis/antithesis/synthesis, with Jewish labels are Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, respectively. The concrete dialectic implies that authentic action in concrete circumstances. And moral uprightness - including sexual purity - is one corollary of that agenda. In the context of dialectical thinking, the word "mishpat" (literally: judgment) has the deeper sense of "negation", making judgments and distinctions that negate and break up oneness. Mishpat implies: (1) negating (setting limits to) God's emanations in the sense of temporarily negating, contracting, the oneness of God, in order to (2) subsequently negate those negations by contracting one's own ego as an attempt to return to God. The initial negation of the One Without a Second, creation itself, is deductive style thinking, which for kabbalists is tsimtsum (contraction) type 1, while the later negation of those negations is induction, which for kabbalists is tsimtsum type 2. Mishpat, then, symbolizes the entire movement of the dialectic, first as descent on the left pillar (deduction, ramification of the idea), and then ascent on the right pillar (induction, collection of the fragments into oneness on a new higher level). Mishpat, negation in the broadest sense of the word, is the motor which moves the world around the ascending spiral of concrete dialectical logic. This circular movement in one place is what Aristotle labeled "local motion", and which he considered to be the most important sense of motion. In this sense motion is "translation" of creatures and angels (forces) up or down the spiral of dialectical logic, as the great chain of being brings the Word of God into the world and the world into the Word of God. Nachman goes on: LM 2:2 Yosef, who guarded the brit, gained the rights of the firstborn. This corresponds to the divine service of prayer, which is an aspect of the double portion [inherited by the firstborn]. For prayer is itself twofold, as it is comprised of both praise of God and requesting one's needs. This corresponds to "a double-edged sword in their hand" - i.e., two edges, a double portion. FW: Praising God in the here and now is inductive style thinking, seeing the oneness in the manyness of everyday life, while requesting one's needs from God is deductive style thinking, leaving the here and now and making detailed specifications according to which God is being asked to limit his oneness in the future in order to accommodate our wishes. Aside from the induction/deduction, left/right aspects that need to be balanced by the point of view of Ya'akov/Yosef there also are higher/lower, macrocosmic/microcosmic aspects that need to balanced. Reb Noson, Nachman's foremost disciple, likens prayer to appreciating one's firstborn child, in the sense that LM 2:2. Note 26 having witnessed the efficacy of his (first) prayers, his faith is strengthened and he prays again and unceasingly, until he sees even more births (either of children or of God's bounty). Indeed, all subsequent births are easier to come by because of his "firstborn" prayer. Consequently, the birthright is a double portion: the firstborn claims a portion in all subsequent births (from Torat Natan #10). FW: This may be a very clever reformulation of Rashi's commentary on "B'reishit" or Aristotle's theory of actuality/potentiality: that the initial act/idea underlies and guides the unfolding and eventual negation of all subsequent potentialities and ramifications of that initial act/idea. The idea of the coming Shabbat, for example, is prior to, underlies and guides all the preparations for and implementation of that coming Shabbat by a religious Jew. In the general context of dialectical thinking an entire Gestalt Therapy dreamwork session is "prayer by a firstborn" in these same two overall senses. This is in addition to the fact that a Gestalt session is primarily a monologue undertaken for the sake of "the coming solution", an implicitly religious, messianic point of view. In terms of Nachman's terminology in LM 2, a Gestalt dreamwork monologue is "prayer by a firstborn" (1) first, when the client identifies with a dream image and says, for example, "I am a frog. I jump around a lot. I would like to find more stability in my life." The frogness idea is the left pillar, mishpat, binah, limiting the right pillar, oneness, intellect, chochmah, of the client at that moment here and now. He is praising God for revealing to him his new potentiality as a frog able to jump around. Perhaps this is a new experience for him, a moment of induction as this new identity congeals out of many fragments. At the same time he is leaving the here and now and making specific demands on God. This is deduction style thinking. (2) The second sense in which playing the frog image is prayer by a firstborn is that from the beginning of the dreamwork session the final existential message of the dream that he will receive at the end of the session already underlies and guides the entire dreamwork process. Playing the frog, he is getting a double portion: revelation of his potentiality as frogness and also a premonition (1/60th) of the eventual prophecy or Word of God that will culminate the session. (5) CHARITY FW: Continuing now with the Gestalt model of dialectical logic, let us consider two other aspects of mishpat that concern Nachman in LM 2: charity and the corruption of mishpat. LM 2:4. And how does one merit the aspect of mishpat? through charity. In giving charity one embraces the attribute of mishpat . . . "You execute mishpat and charity in Ya'akov" (Psalms 99:4) For charity (is itself) a product of mishpat, as in (Psalms 75:8), "The Lord is judge, He brings down one and lifts up another". He impoverishes one and enriches another. FW: The dialectical charity one does in Gestalt Therapy is the process of tsimtsum, contraction of one's ego in order to submit to the healing process. Tsimtsum type 1, the deductive type occurs when I say "I am a frog", since for that moment I am willing to limit myself to being merely a frog in order to allow the dreamwork process to unfold. Tsimtsum type 2 occurs when I get stuck in a pair of X/-X extreme polarities and undergo the rhythm of contact and withdrawal. I close me eyes, enter my here and now body awareness, actively forget the struggle that got me stuck in this void and allow myself to daydream freely. Both tsumtsum processes, type 1 and type 2 are examples of mishpat, negation. In the first case I negate myself down to the level of a mere frog, and in the second case I negate even the frog and its opposite that got me stuck. I negate the negations in order to receive from the macrocosm new ideas down here in the microcosm. Nachman tells us in LM 2 that this fertile void which serves as the passageway from macrocosm to microcosm is the nose of Arikh Anpin, and the hasidim say to this metaphor, "amen", but the dialectical thinking of Gestalt Therapy is a more workable technical vocabulary for those who would like to be more efficient in negotiating the dialectic themselves or in helping others to do so. The Gestalt client or religious seeker needs to know that he ought to limit his ego by all means available to him, not just giving money. What if he does not have any to give? He also needs to know that by impoverishing his ego he is enriching his powers as a vessel of the Word of God, in the sense that by cooperating with the therapist and playing (like a child, with simplicity and naivete) the silly game of being a frog he is more likely to get the results he wants. Limiting his ego, his collection of weak gestalts, stillborn ideas, games he plays to manipulate himself and others, redirects his energy into identifying with the emerging new higher level ideas that can integrate his personality and allow him better to deal with his needs. (6) CORRUPTION OF MISHPAT LM 2:5. Now the main cause of foreign thoughts during prayer is the corruption of mishpat. For mishpat is an aspect of AYNin (eyes) . . . they are like clouds covering the eyes . . . but in the Future the concept of mishpat shall be restored. FW: Historically this sounds a lot like the theory of prophecy put forward by Moshe Chaim Luzzatto in "Derech HaShem" ("The Way of God") in the 18th Century. For Luzzatto the prophet's view of God's Word is only through clouded lenses, which he labels Apaklariot ("lenses"). What clouds the Aspaklariot is "achirut" (turbulence). What is the Gestalt Therapy equivalent of the achirut? Answer: self-interruption of the concrete dialectic leading towards authentic action. We already have listed the major self-interruptions: confluence, introjection, projection, retroflection and egotism. Gestalt work usually begins with work on the three primary zones of awareness: the environment (outer zone), one's body (inner zone) and one's imagination (fantasy zone). A person used to not using his eyes to see what is going on around him is said to have a "hole" where he ought to have eyes. Since he does not see, he finds it more natural to project his eyes onto others and to assume that others are looking at him and making critical judgments about him. So it seems as though Nachman here is using the notion of clouds covering the eyes as a label for poor awareness in general. And just as in Gestalt Therapy the cure is to be found in "identifying with the coming solution", the emerging existential message of the dream, so for Nachman the cure is to be found in the messianic Future by identifying with the coming of Moshe-Mashiach. (7) PREGNANCY FW: Nachman uses the notion of pregnancy for what Perls calls "the coming solution", as though the messianic idea is undergoing a process of incubation or "cooking". In fact in the Talmudic "fish" story that follows he actually declares that God bestows His compassion when He reaches a critical "energy of activation" in the biochemical sense! LM 2:7. Now, all the Torah a person studies for the purpose of observing and fulfilling - all these letters are sparks of souls, and they are clothed within the prayer. There, they are renewed in an aspect of pregnancy. As is brought in the Sefer HaGilgulim: all the souls enter Malkhut (Kingship) in the aspect of pregnancy and are renewed there . . . Prayer shines to the souls in the aspect of new insights. For she renews them in an aspect of pregnancy." FW: Here once again we have a major job of decoding, demystifying, to do if we want to come up with specific advice for a religious seeker. The word "Torah" in this context is best seen as derived from the root "TUR", "to explore, seek" rather than from the root implying "to instruct", since what is involved here is a dialectical truth search. From the Gestalt Therapy point of view "sparks of souls" are "gestalts". The philosopher Leibniz (18th Century) would label them "monads", in the sense that a gestalt or monad is a sort of spiritual "organism" or unit of life, organized around a central idea in the relation of parts to a whole. If I see a flower, the image I see is a gestalt or monad, and if I then play act that flower then I become a gestalt or monad of that flower. If I then play the forest that includes that flower, then I have ascended from a low level gestalt or monad to a higher level one, the entire phenomenological "tree" which includes the flower, the bugs in the forest and the forest going by the label of a "monadology". In Jewish terminology we have ascended from one world to another world, or from the level of an individual flower to that of a "tsibur" or collective organism. Now for Nachman the sparks of souls are "clothed within the prayer" in the sense that the gestalt or monad of a flower is encompassed by the gestalt or monad of the forest that includes the flower and all the other organisms of the forest. The prayer is a new higher level gestalt/ monad/idea. We are talking here of inductive style dialectical thinking, moving up the right pillar from the particulars, the thesis and the antithesis (X/-X) towards the new encompassing general idea, the synthesis (Y), in this case the prayer. In the Gestalt Dreamwork process the individual moments of awareness (the gestalts or monads) enter into the "kingdom" or "world" of phenomenological awareness that the client is building up around himself. Once this world begins to congeal into a more encompassing gestalt or monad, then the central idea of that new gestalt or monad (Y, the synthesis) takes over and strives to incorporate the lower order gestalts/monads into itself. The strong gestalt/monad then is on the one hand being born and gobbling up all the lower level gestalts/monads. But the other hand the component low level gestalts/monads are being reborn or illuminated by the new encompassing idea that has swallowed them up. From their point of view this is a moment of enlightenment. As Nachman puts it, "prayer shines to the souls in the aspect of new insights, for she renews them in the aspect of pregnancy". From the point of view of God overseeing the entire process as the largest gestalt or monad, this is the process of "reviving the dead", "m'chayei meitim". Dialectical thinking is in itself morally neutral, indifferent to whether it is Moses or Adolf Hitler who is the new encompassing idea, as the German people learned too late. Therefore dialectics needs to be balanced by Halachah. Nevertheless, dialectical thinking is a very useful tool to make sense of texts written in a dialectical manner, texts such as Likutei Moharan. (8) MOSHE-MASHIACH LM 2:8. The tzaddikim of each and every generation raise and erect them, as in, "Moshe erected the Tabernacle". They raise each and every part of it to its place and build the structure of the Shekhinah bit by bit until the full measure of its structure is realized. Then Mashiach, who is Moshe, will come and consummate it, by erecting it perfectly . . . When the structure of the entire Shekhinah is completed through the multitude of prayers


20. Ronald Coase and John Fountain - 6 degrees of separation part 2

  • Published: 2014-06-15T00:08:48+00:00
  • Duration: 56
  • By John Fountain
Ronald Coase and John Fountain - 6 degrees of separation part 2

So how do Nobel prize winning economist Ronald Coase and John Fountain come to be mentioned in the same breath? Believe it or not in a symposium at the University of Chicago to honour Ronald Coase! This is a 1 minute excerpt : Ronald Coase and John Fountain - 6 degrees of separation part 2. There is a part 1 as well! The conference was titled Markets, Firms and Property Rights: A Celebration of the Research of Ronald Coase  and was held at the University of Chicago Law School Friday, December 4 to Saturday, December 5, 2009. This Conference brings together a group of scholars to honor the life and research of Ronald Coase. 2009 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Coase’s seminal paper on the Federal Communications Commission. 2010 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of his paper on “The Problem of Social Cost,” and his 100th birthday. The presentations on this occasion cover specific topics on which Coase’s work has exerted profound influence, including such areas as telecommunications policy, airline regulation and development, environmental economics, economic development, organization of the firm, and general discussions of the questions of transactions costs and social rationality to which he has contributed so much. Every session of the conference is up and available on the web for free downloading and viewing (link here http://iep.gmu.edu/conference-markets-firms-and-property-rights-a-celebration-of-the-research-of-ronald-coase/ ) - it was a great conference with all the big names there to celebrate Coase and his ideas. Indeed the list of sponsors reads as a who's who of modern think tank research institutes:  the John M. Olin Program in Law and Economics at the University of Chicago Law School, the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, the Information Economy Project at George Mason University, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, the Milton Friedman Institute for Research in Economics, the George J. Stigler Center for the Study of the Economy and the State, and the China Center for Economic Research. . In the session moderated by Sam Peltzman , Charles Jackson from George Mason gave  a 20 minute presentation on how Coase's work influenced the development of a market like system of property rights in the allocation of electromagnetic spectrum in New Zealand. And in his tribute to how Coase's work materially influenced things here in New Zealand it turns out that  I played a  role. Listen here to part 1 !