Listen ""Pandit Sri Narayanacharyavirachita
Sri Raghavendra Vijaya Prathama Sarga""sung by Sri Vidyabushanaru.
Narayanacahrya, an erudite Pandit and poet of high order, the son of the sister of Shri Raghavendraswami (in his Grahasthashrama) wrote this long narrative poem, in the style of Kalidasa’s Raghuvansha or Narayana Panditacharya’s MadhwaVijaya. This poem beautifully describes the wonderful life-history of Shri Raghavendra Swamiji, one of the national saints of India. It deals with his scholarly learning, his saintly piety, philosophical acumen and his unflinching devotion to Shri Hari in all the vicissitudes of his life. Thus, this poem inspires devotion to our Guru, which is quite essential for us to enter into the kingdom of God through the realization of the greatness and supremacy of Lord Shri Hari. This realization of Shri Hari’s greatness also leads us to self realization and release from this bondage through the visualization of Shri Hari. Thus, the reading of this poem ultimately leads to the final goal and Purushartha namely Moksha or enjoyment of one’s own essential Ananda.
But, after all kavya or poetry is one of the fine arts, which have kept in view only physical joy or delight as the ultimate purpose and an earnest spiritual seeker shuns physical delight. So, it is rightly said that one should avoid such cheap entertainments in spiritual realization. Naturally, those who are bent upon the highest Purushartha or Moksha may not appreciate the efforts of Narayanacharya.But there is no scope for this sort of doubt. For good poetry conduces to the realization of spiritual delight. The Veda is poetry and takes us high into noble thoughts and deep feelings about Brahman the highest abode of Rasa or spiritual delight. Relying upon this truth, Narayanacharya ventured into this realm of gold and affords us facilities to realize the greatness and significance of Shri Raghavendra Swamiji’s life, which stands a monument to the efforts of the human soul, winning the grace of Hari and Vayu and ascending the pinnacle of saintly hood. The real greatness of his life lies in the fact that he has devoted his realized life for the benefit of mankind of mankind by the order of Shri Hari. So Narayanacharya fully confident that his attempt of writing “Raghavendra Vijaya” leads to the good of the writer and the reader, boldly proceeds to the begin the composition. But before that, he invokes the blessing of Shri Hari, so that his efforts, through his grace might be crowned with success. For, good and honest efforts are often vitiated by unexpected hindrances, which lose all strength when Hari stands at our back. So, Narayanacharya begins the poem thus by seeking the blessing of Shri Hari.
Sloka : श्रीमल्ल्क्ष्मीनृसिंहस्य श्रियं दिशतु मे नखः। स्वभक्ताभीष्टदानाय समुपात्तदशाकृतेः ॥ १ ॥Transliteration: Shree mallakshmee Nrisinhasya Shriyam Dishatu Me Nakhah| Svabhaktaabheeshta danaay Samupattadashaa kritehe || 1 ||
Translation: May the nail of Shri Lakshmee Nrisimha, who assumed ten forms to bestow the desired objects of his devotees, lead me to my prosperity. Notes: This is called Mangalaacharana, which is nothing but salutations by the poet to his accepted deity with the object of getting strength and moral courage to surmount the difficulties through his grace, so that the work on hand might be finished.The reader might find it strange that the poet seeks blessings by invoking the nail of Shri Narasimha and not Narasimha himself. There is some meaning and truth in it. The first truth is that any part of Shri Hari is the whole of Him. Shri Hari, the ultimo ate Reality of this universe is an integrated homogeneity, in which every part bristles with perfectness of the whole. So, the nail of Narasimha is the whole of tween the part and the whole as in physical reality. In order to convey this truth, the poet salutes the nail of Narasimha. The second truth is that the nail has played an important role in the Avatara work of Narasimha. He tore the belly of Hiranayakashipu with his nail and ended his wicked life.
Sloka : वस्तु स्तुतं सुरस्तोमॆरस्तु शस्तं मया स्तुतं । मस्तुहस्तं प्रस्तुताय् श्रुतिमस्तकविश्रुतम् ॥ २ ॥Transliteration : Vastu stutam surastomairastu Shastam Mayaa stutam|M astuhastam prastutaaya shruthi mastaka vishrutam || 2 ||
Translation: That praise- worthy reality, praised highly by the hosts of deities , having churned butter in his hand, whose eulogy is predominantly found in the greatest of the Upanishads that reality (Shri Krishna) when praised by me might help to finish the present work. Notes: The word ‘Mastu’ is explained by commentators as ‘something floating on milk when heated that is, cream. Or it may be ‘churned butter’ Raghavendra Swami’s Aaradhya Devata is Venu Gopal Krishna. This work being devoted to his life history should have at the beginning of the poet’s salutations toLordKrishna.Next in order comes Shri Madhwacharya for the salutations of the poet. He is reffered to here as The Moon.
Sloka : श्रीमदानन्दतीर्थेन्दुभासनं मम् मानसे । आशासे साधुशब्दार्थसरिदीशाभिवृद्धये ॥ ३ ॥Transliteration:Shree madananada Teerthendu bhasanam mama Maanase| Aashaase sadhu shabdaartha sarideeshaabhi Vridhaye || 3 ||
Translation: May I pray that in my mind the moon in the form of Shri Madhva may rise to inspire the tidal waves of the ocean of good words with their happy meanings. Notes: In this poem, we see the poet with his great power of raising beautiful images. The image of ocean rising in tides at the influence of the moon is full of significance and suggestion in this context. Words and meanings are the expressions of the inner spirit of thought or feeling of the poet. Constant practice and vast study are the sources of happy expressions which pour down at the inspiration of somebody, who can influence the mind of the poet. Just as the moon influence the ocean and agitates it into tidal waves so also Shri Madhva and his works are a great source of inspiration to the poet, under whose influence there is spontaneous out pouring of beautiful expressions with a world of suggested meaning behind them. The poet suggests that by dint of study he has stored words and their meanings; but they are all submerged in the mind. He wants Madhva to cause some stirring in the mind so that the happy words and their meanings might rush to the surface to be used in this work. Now the poet prays to Sarswathi.
Sloka :श्रीराघवेन्द्ररत्नानां रसना रंगनर्तकी । शब्दाम्बुधिशरज्योत्स्ना शरणं मम् शारदा ॥ ४ ॥Transliteration: Shree raghavendra ratnanaam rasanaranga nartake| Shabdambudhi Sharajyotsna sharanam mama Sharadaa || 4 ||
Translation: May goddesses Saraswathi afford me protection. She is the dancer on the stage of the tongue of Shree Raghavendra, who is gem (among saints) and she is autumnal moonlight to the ocean of words. Notes: Sharada is Sarswathi, who is invoked to stir up the sleeping words to activity, so that they may come out one after another for use in the composition. Another charming image of a dancing girl dancing on the tongue represents the action of words, coming one after another in an unbroken chain. Utterance of words in swift sequence takes place on the tongue. Hence, it is said to be the stage for the activity of words. Sarswathi is the presiding deity over words and their meanings. So, she is invoked to dance on the tongue of the poet pouring happy words with their meanings incessantly.
Sloka : कठिनापि कविशलाघ्या त्रिविक्रमसरस्वती । सुवर्णयॊगसंध्र्शया वरा वज्रमणिर्यथा ॥ ५ ॥Transliteration: Kathinaapi Kavishlaghyaa Trivikrama Saraswathi| Suvarna-Yoga samdrishya varaa vajramaniryatha || 5 ||
Translation: The composition (speech) of Trivikrama Panditacharya, though difficult to understand is praised by great poets as it is rendered happy and charming by the use of apt expressions, just as jewel though hard looks best, when set in gold and is praised by the learned or the well versed in jewels. Notes: Here we find a beautiful simile. This figure occurs when we express similarity between two objects. A difficult poem, yet full of poetic qualities on account of suggestive expressions, is found as much appealing to the sense of beauty as a hard jewel set in gold, which shines with extra ordinary brilliance on account of the golden setting would do. The simile has become all the more attractive as one adjective with double meaning is applicable to both the standard of comparison and the object of comparison. One difficulty seemed to crop up in the usage of expression. Usually, the gender of the standard of comparison viz. Vajramanih is the same as that of the object of comparision Trivikrama Saraswathi, which is feminine. But is mostly used in masculine gender. This would have spoiled the beauty of the simile. But on some authority in Kosha. s said to be a word used in both genders. So Mani feminine here. Hence, there is no breach of usage. The poet praises the musical qualities of narayana Panditacharya’s poetry.PART 2:
Sloka: वाणीपाणिअतलासक्त् वीणारव् विडम्बिनी नाना प्रबंध् चतुरा भाति नारायणार्यगीः ॥ ६ ॥
Transliteration:Vanee Paanitalaasakta veenarava vidambinee | Naanaa prabhandha chatura bhati Narayanaryageehi || 6 || Translation:The literary genius of Narayana Panditacharya(the composer of Madhva Vijaya) shines bright, well vered in different literary forms, successfully imitating the musical qualities of the sweet sound of Veena in the hands of Sarswathi. Now the poet expresses his appreciation of the great genius of Vyasa Teertha of Chandrika fame-
Sloka: वूंदार् वनमंदार् मकरंद् सहोदरी। विश्रुता विजयं दधादव्यासतीर्थार्य् भारती ॥ ७ ॥
Transliteration:Vrindaara vana mandaara makaranda sahodaree| Vishrutaa vijayam dadyadvyaasa teerthaarya bharatee || 7 ||Translation: May the famous words of Shri Vyasateertha ensure success (in my undertaking). For, they are similar in their sweetness to that of the celestial Kalpa Vriksha flower. Notes: “Vrindaara” means ‘god’. And in that forest (of the gods). And in that forest there is the Mandaar Vriksha or Kalpa Vriksha (famous as yielding in the desired objects of all). Now, this KalpaVriksha has flowers.These flowers have the sweer juice. The works of Shri Vyasateertha are as sweet in their ‘Rasa’as the juice of the flower of Mandaar Vriksha. This line indirectly suggests that Shri Vyasraraja is the author of Mandara manajaree.The poet continues the praise of Shri Vyasateertha-
Sloka: व्याससूत्र् पदार्थोपन्यासमाकणर्य् मान्यपि । व्यासराजस्य् भजते दासतां को न् कोविदः ॥ ८ ॥
Transliteration:Vyaasa sutra padaarthapanyasa makarnya manyapi| Vyaasa rarjasya bhajate daasataam kona kovidah || 8 || Translation: What learned man, even if he be haughty, hearing the elucidation of the terms in the aphorisms composed by Vedavyasa, will not be ready to be the disciple of Vyaasateertha?Notes : This question means, ‘every learned man accepts the discipleship of etc. ‘Here, the poet refers to ‘Brahma Sutraas’ composed by Vedavyaasa, which put forth cogent arguments to settle the seemingly contradictory meanings of different lines from Vedas. Again these Sutras are explained by Shri Madhwa in his ‘Bhashya’. On this Bhashya and commentary of Jayateertha runs the elucidation known as ‘Chandrika’ written by Vyasateertha. It is accepted by all as a standard and authoritative elucidation. This work reveals the deep scholarship, critical acumen and coherence in arguments, impartiality and generosity in the estimate of others. A learned man knows the value of Chandrika and readily accepts the superiority of Vyasateertha’s judgement and thinks it a privilege to sit at the feet of Shri Vyasateertha. Now, in the series of salutations comes the salutation to Vijayeendra Teertha-
Sloka: चतुःषाष्ठि कलाविधाजुषे विधुन्महोजुषे। जयीन्द्र् ज्योतिषे कुर्यां वन्दनानि यशोजुषे ॥ ९ ॥"
Transliteration:Chatuh Shashti kalaavidyaajushe vidyunmahojushe | Jayeendra jyotishe kuryam vandanani yoshojushe || 9 | | Translation: I shall offer my salutations to the lustrous light of Vijayeendra Teertha, who possesses proficiency in sixty-four arts, who dazzles with the brightness of lightning and who enjoys wide fame.Notes: Vijayeendra had a great rival in Appayya Dixita. But Vijayeendra eclipsed him completely by his scholarship, skill in dialectics and by his severe penances. He had the saintly halo round his head. That is why the poet describes him as Light of great brilliance or luster. In the great galaxy of saintly writers, the star of Sudheendra is being described-
Sloka: सुधीन्द्र् यॊगिनं सेवे साधुसात्कृत् संपदम्। स् गधपधनिर्माण् विधायाः प्रथमं पदम् ॥ १० ॥
Transliteration: Sudheendra yoginam seve saadhusaatkrita sampadam | Sa gadya padyanirmana vidyaayaah prathamam padam || 10 || Translation:I salute Sudheendra, the ascetic, who spent all money to help the righteous and who was quite an adept in creating literature both in the form of prose and poetry.PART 3:
Now the poet gives respects to Shri Raghavendra Swami, who is the hero of this narrative poem- Sloka: श्रीमतो राघवेन्द्रस्य् नमामि पदपंकजे । कामिताशिषकल्याण् कलना कल्पपादपी ॥ ११ ॥
Transliteration:Shreemato Raghavendrasya namaami Padapankaje | Kaamitasesha Kalyaana kalanaa kalpa Paadapau || 11 || Translation:Translation: I bow to the lotus like feet of Shree Raghavendra. These feet yield all our desired good things like the Kalpa Vriksha of the heaven.Frequent remembrance of Hari and Guru has great value in spiritual adventure.Hence, the poet again and again remembers Shri Raghavendra-
Sloka: मुहुः स्मारित् वाल्मीकिं पुनस्तं नीमि देशिकम् । यो विस्तीर्णां रामकथां स्रगधराभिः समग्रहीत् ॥ १२ ॥Transliteration: Muhuh smaarita valmikim punastam naumideshikam | Yo visteernaam Raamakathaamsragdharabhih samagraheet || 12 ||Translation: I again bow down to him (Raghavendra), who was our Guru, who reminds us of Valmeeki, by abridging the long story of Rama in afew verses of Sragdharaa metre.Notes: Shri Raghavendra composed “Raama Chaaritrya Manjari” in eleven Sragdhaara verses.This shows his great power of succinct narration of a long story in verse form. The name Vaalmeeki has some meaning and has biographical interest. Vaalmeeki is derived from the word ‘Valmeeka’,which means ‘ant hill’. This great poet sage performed long penance, during which time ant-hill grew round him. After receiving light, he came out of that ant-hill and hence he was called Vaalmeeki.The poet continues the eulogy of Shri Raghavendra-Sloka: मूकॊपि यत्प्रसादेन् मुकुन्द् शयनायते । राजराजायते रिक्तो राघवेन्द्रं तमाश्रये ॥ १३ ॥Transliteration: Muukopi yatprasaadena mukunda shayanaayate| Raajaraajayate rikto Raghavendram tamaashraye || 13 ||Translation: A dumb man becomes a Shesha, or he will have the gift of the gab and pauper becomes a Kubera by his blessing. Therefore, I take resort to him.Notes: this is a very popular verse, expressing the miraculous powers, with which Raghavendra Swami was credited. A dumb and deaf man, by his grace, may become an expert in speaking like Aadishesh, who is ever repeating the panegyric verses of Shri Narayana. Even a pennyless pauper may be made a prince by the blessings of Shri Raghavendra Swami. These are the great miracles attributed to Shri Raghavendra Swami. Mukunda Shayana is ‘Aadishesha’ being the bed of Narayana,on which he sleeps.Raaja raajan is the name of Kubera.At last, the poet pays his respect to his father-Sloka: प्रसाध्य् नरपन्चास्यं प्राप्तं वैदुष्यमद्भुतम् । येन् लक्ष्मीनृसिंहेन् तातपादम् तमाश्रये ॥ १४ ॥Transliteration: Prasaadya narapanchasyam praaptam na vaidushyamadbhutam| Yena Lakshmeenrisinhena taatap adam tamasraye || 14 ||Translation: My father was Lakshmee Nrishinha charya. By devoted services to Nrishinhadeva, he had acquired wonderful knowledge and learning. I now offer my respectful salutations to him.Notes: Lakshmee Narasimhacharya was the father of the poet and the mother, as we already know, is the sister of Shri Raghavendra Swamiji(in his Grahasthashrama).This is of great biographical interest , while narrating the life of the poet. Besides, the father repeated the Mantra of Narashinha and had his knowledge widened. Panchasya and Panchanana is alion. So, Nara Panchasya means Narashinha.He presents a personal intention in saluting the saints of high order-Sloka: प्राप्तान्य् नुतिपापॊघरसनां पावयाम्यहम् । गुर्वन्तर्यामि भगवत् स्तुति गंगाम्बुमज्जनात् ॥ १५ ॥
Transliteration: Praptaanya nuti paapaugharasanaam paavayaamyaham| Gurvantaryami Bhagavat stuti gangambu majjanaat || 15 ||Translation: Many sins have accrued to my tongue from praising others so long. Now I shall clean it by dipping it in waters of the Ganga in the form of eulogy of Bhagavaan residing in the heart of my Guru-Raghavendra.Notes: Indulging in flattery of human beings for petty benefits is considered a great sin;for it is almost selling one’s soul for temporary pleasures. So, the poet derives a personal gain by writing’Raaghavendra Vijaya’. All such sins are washed away by now praising the extraordinary qualities of Bhagavan Narayana, who is imminent in Guru Raghavendra .The truth is everybody should be praised as the abode of Lord Naryana; and we worship Bhagavan through our Guru. For our efforts of worshipping him independently are frustrated by evil spirits like kali.But our Guru is a strong fortification against the invasions of evil spirits.So,our worship of Bhagavan through our Guru bears fruit.Another truth is that praise of Bhagavan is the only specific antidote against the sins of all kinds.
The poet suppresses his feelings of vanity thus-
कलये कवनं किंचित् कवीनां सहवासतः ।पाटीर गिरि सान्निध्यान्निम्बद्रुरिव सॊरभम् ॥१६॥
Kalaye kavanam kinchitt kaveenaam sahavaasatah |Paateera giri saannidhyannimbadruriva saurabham ||16||Translation : I have learnt a little art of poetry, in the company of learned poets. A neem tree, coming in contact with sandal wood trees on the Malaya Mountain gets their sweet fragrance.
Notes: The poet renounces his entire claim to poetic merit and attributes it to the company of great poets, whom he has assiduously studied and followed. Kalidas is a poet of this type. He says he knows very little and he expects to be put to ridicule, when he writes the life of the Raghus. But Bhavabhuti is a poet, who has a very high idea of himself. He says that Saraswathi follows him as maid servant. Vanity is resented and modesty is appreciated. So, we appreciate the humble nature of the poet.
The poet now tells us that his work is peculiar as it yields both visible and invisible fruit-हृष्टं गुरु प्रसदनमहृषटं च फलं कृतेः ।यथा स्विष्टकृतो बह्मसूत्राघप्रणवस्य च ॥१७॥Drishtam Guruprasadanama drishtam chapalam kriteh|Yatha swishtakrito Brahma sutraadya pranavasya cha ||17||Translation: The writing of this work has a perceptible purpose to serve namely the satisfaction of my Guru; and it has of course the invisible purpose (of helping me in my life after death). (While others have only one purpose).Just as the sacrifice svistakrit has some enjoyable pleasure in this life as well as merit useful in the next, and the first Omkara prefixed to the first aphorism of Brahma Sutras, bears some fruit both in this world and in the next.
Notes: The present work "Raghavendra Vijaya" is very strange because it is helpful in this life and in the life to come, just as some works are useful both in this life and in the next world. The writing of ragahvendra Vijaya is useful both in this life and in the life after death, like the Svistakrid or the first Omkara of the first Sutra.
The poet now tells us that it is the blessing of Guru alone that ensures success in life.
श्रीयांसि श्रयते को वा प्रसादेन विना गुरोः ।कैवल्यमिव गोविन्द कारुणयेन विना जनः ॥१८॥Shreyamsi shrayate kovaaprasaadena vinaa Guroh |Kaivalyamiva Govinda kaarunyena vinaa janah ||18||
Translation: Just as no one gets Mukti without the grace of Govinda, so also no one realizes the highest aims in life without blessings from Guru.
Notes: In Brahma sutras, in 3-3-45 aphorism, it is discussed if man is able to get Moksha by his own efforts without the blessings from Guru and it is decided that Guru's blessings are more powerful and effective than one's own efforts, though our efforts are made effective only by the blessings of Guru.
Now the poet places the foremopst aim of Kaavya or poetry-
कविता फलमन्यत्किं गुरुणां गुणवर्णनात् ।अपवर्गं विनान्यत्किं ब्रह्मजिज्ञासने फलम् ॥१९॥
Kavitaa phalamanyatkim Guruunaam guna varnanaat |Apavargamvinaanyatkim Brahmajijnaasane Phalam ||19||Translation : What other better purpose there can be for poetry to fulfill than a full throated panegyric of our Guru? What better aim can be for discourse on Brahma than the final beatitude?
Notes: It is at the initiation of Guru that we enter into the field of poetry. It is this sense of gratitude, which impels us to declare that poetic gift is fulfilled, when we use that art to describe the noble life of the Guru. This is very well illustrated by another activity of man. Man is engaged often in reasoning is used to find out the cause from effect. The visible universe leads us to invisible Brahman. Its only purpose is to get freedom from this Samsara. So, for Brahma Jijnasaa, there can be no better purpose than Apavarga or Moksha.
His Poetry gets purity from the treament of the holy subject-
गुरुपादरजः संगाद्विमलं कवनं मम ।कलुषं वारि कतकरजसाकिं न निर्मलम् ॥२०॥
Gurupaadarajahsangaadvimalam kavanam mama |Kalusham vaari katakarajasaa kim na nirmalam ||20||
Translation : Just as muddy water has its sediment settled down at the bottom, with the contact of the dust of Kataka fruit, so also my poetry loses its turbidity( gets lucid and holy) with the contact of the dust on the feet of my Guru.
Notes: The subject matter lends dignity and beauty to poetry. The poem becomes sublime and beautiful when it delineates the noble character and describes the holy personality of the Guru.
If poetry is prostitued by describing a Villian, now ever charming it may be as a literary piece of art, it is not accepted as good poetry-रमणीयापि कविता न ह्रुध्या यधसत्परा ।निसर्गामधुरा द्रुष्टजिह्वासक्तेव शर्करा ॥२१॥Ramaneeyapi kavita na hridyaa yadyasatparaa|Nisarga madhuraa dushta jihvaasaktena sharkaraa ||21||Translation: Though poetry fulfills the demands of poesy by creating emotional surges, still it cannot appeal to the heart as its subject matter is unholy, just as Sugar though sweet by nature, when tasted by a tongue of a diseased person, is found bitter.Notes : The soul of poetry is given more importance than its expression. In politicaldisputes, in olden days, poetry was used as a weapon to attack the opposit party .In such cases, injustice was upheld and justice wascried down. this is the prostitution of poetry. In spite of good literary qualities,impartial critics wont accept such as good poetry.Again the poet tells us the importance of the subject matter in poetry-अभव्यमपि मे काव्यं सेव्यं गुरुगुणाश्रयम् ।घनाघनगातं वारि यथा लवण वारिधेः ॥२२॥Abhavyamapi me kavyam sevyam Gurugunaaashrayam |Ghanaaghana gatam vari yatha lavana varidheh ||22||Translation : Though my poetry is devoid of sublimity yet it deserves appreciation as it describes the noble qualities of my Guru,just as the water of the slaty ocean becomes acceptable when it falls down from the pouring clouds.Notes : In the previous verses it was said that the subject matter made the poem sublime and beautiful;in this verse, the other alternative that the poem is not made sublime is accepted. Even then , the poet contends that for the holy life of the Guru himself, the poem becomes respectable.Lovers of poetry should not reject my poetry which though devoid of defects has no intrinsic merits-अदोषाप्यगुणो त्युक्तिस्त्यक्तुं युक्तानमे बुधैः ।पतिव्रतागुंणोत्येव पत्या किं त्यज्यते प्रिया ॥२३॥Adoshaapyagune tyuktistyaktum yuktaa na me Budhaih |Pativrataa gunetyeva patyaakim tyajyate priyaa ||23||Translation : Thinking that my poetry has no intrinisc qualities, though it has no defects, it is not proper for the learned critics and readers to reject it. Is adevoted and beloved wife abonded by her husband on the ground that she has ni intrinisic merits with her?Notes : Here the poet makes a destinction between absence of defects and presence of Positive merits. A man may not be telling lies. Still it does not mean that he is telling the truth. Virtue is something positive and is not merely the absence of its opposite vice.So, poetry is expected to have no defects as well as to have positive virtues. But is is rarely taht we find such poetry. Human creation, after all, is found to have some virtues mixed with certain drawbacks.Critics must be generous enough to appreciate virtues, even in the midst of defects.He makes this very point clear by teh next verseअदोषं गुणावद्द्रूशयं सर्वार्थदायकम् ।परं ब्रह्मोव यात्काव्यं श्रुत्युत्क्तं तत्तु दुर्लभम्, ॥२४॥Adosham gunavaddrishyam sarvaih sarvartha daayakam |Param Brahmeva yatkavyam shrutyuktam tattu durlabham ||24||Translation : Poetry should have no(glaring) defects and should have merits, mentioned in poetics,Such poetry alone should be accepted by all as serving all purposes. But poetry, which is like Parabrahma, described in the Vedas as having no defects and having all the qualities, is rarely to be found.Notes : The poet contends that critics should make allowance for human limitations.Complete perfection is an ideal to be reached and not a real fact of life. When thus seen, sometimes the veery blemishes that surround the poetic flashes glow into merits.All that, he pleads, is that criticism should be softened with humanization.He presses this very point in the next verseकाव्ये गवेषते कशिचद्दोषमेव गुणं परः ।पिचुमंदं यथा काकं पिकशचूतलतां यथा ॥२५॥Kavye gaveshate kashchiddosha meva gunam parah |Pichumandam yatha kaakah pikashchuutala taam yatha ||25||Translation : Some ( mean critics are after errors and defects in poetry, while ( noble critics) others are after merits, just as the crow is after neem fruits, while the cuckoo is after mango fruits.Notes : It is low mentality to be always in search for draw-backs ; it is nobility of mind, which enjoy merits in others. The crow represents low mentality while the cuckoo represents nobility of out-look. PART6:It is not possible to describe fully the greatness of his Guru,says the poet in the following verseअस्म्द्गुरुणामाधिक्यं कविः को वानु वर्णयेत् ।तथापि तत्प्रसादेन भक्त्या किंचिद्वदाम्यहम् ॥२६॥Asmadguruunaamaadhikyamkavih kovaanu varnayet |Tathapitatprasaadena Bhaktyaa kinchiddvadaamyaham ||26||Translation : What poet can fully describe the greatness of my Guru? Still, by his blessings I shall describe a little with great devotion to him.Notes : Kalidasa too confesses his littleness and the greatness of those, who came dowm from the Sun. These were the Raghus, whose family history he was going to describe. He feared that he would be jerred at, as if he were attempting to cross the ocean on araft. We find similar sentiments expressed in this verse.From this verse, the poet praises Shri Raghavendra in fourteen verses-देवानामिव देवेन्द्रो यो दत्त इव योगिनाम् ।दुग्धाब्धिरिव सिन्धूनां गुरुणामिव पूर्णधिः ॥२७॥Devaanaamiva devendro yo datta iva yoginaam |Dugdhabdiriya sindhuunaam guruunaamiva puurnadheeh ||27||Translation : He is Indra among gods; He is Dattatreya among the Yogis, among the seas he is the ocean of milk and he is Shri Madhwa among Gurus.Notes : The full fledged similarity can be expressed thus- Raghavendra can be compared with Devendra.Just as Devendra as is the best of his class. So no question arises whether Raghavendra is equal in the rank with Devendra. The point of similarity is being to be best in one's class. In Geeta, Bhagvan is said to be Margasheersha among the months. In the class of months , margasheersha is the best; so also Bhagavan is the best among gods. In Geeta, we find Bhagavan lending his own Shakti or power to Margasheersha to be the best in the class. Hear the poet does not imply any such contribution on our part of Raghavendra is the best among his class as Devendra is the best in his class. Really speaking Devendra is far superior to Raghavendra in essential rank.तिगमांशुरिव तेजस्वी शीतांशुरिव शीतलः ।यः सिन्धुरिव गम्भीरो धराधरा इव स्थिरः ॥२८॥Tigmanshuriva tejaswee sheetaamshuriva sheetalah |Yah sindhuriva gambheero dharaadhara iva sthirah ||28||Translation : He is brightly shining as the sun and cool as the moon; he is solemn as the sea and steady as the mountain.Notes : The poet expresses similarity, not with implied point of similarity as in the previous verse, but with expressed point of similarity. The standard of comparision with the point of similarity makes the simile or Upamaa here. Suurya is the standard of comparision and brightness or Tejaswita is the point of similarity. शारदाया दयामेव शास्त्राणां परिशीलने ।विविध ग्रन्थ करणे यः साहाय्यं समाश्रितः ॥२९॥Shaaradaayaa dayaameva shaastranaam parisheelane |Vividha granthakarane yah saha yyam samaashritah ||29||Translation : He got the help and blessings of Saraswatee in the study of the Shaastraas and in writing many works.Notes : In addition to his personal efforts, Raghavendra sought the blessings of Sarasvatee. She does not help idlers. It is the accepted principle of Shri Madhva that three things are essential for progress in life, native or innate capacity(yogyatta),self-effort(sva-prayatna) and then the blessings of Shri Hari(Hareranugraha). Raghavendra Sweami was a staunch follower of Madhva. So, after self-efforts in order that they should be fruitful, he sought the blessings of Saraswathi.वेदव्रजावनोधुक्तं विध्यादेवी विलोक्य यम् ।व्यस्मरद्वहुरुपेण त्पस्यन्तं समीरणम् ॥३०॥Vedavrajaavanodyuktam vidyaa devee vilokyayam|Vyasmaradbahu rupena tapasyantam sameeranam ||30||Translation : the goddess of learning , seeing him engaged in preserving the Vedaas( by writing elucidations) remebered Vayudev who, taking many Avataras was performing penance.Notes : Next to Shri Madhva, who made many Avatars to preserve and continue Vedic study Raghavendra took great trouble to write elucidations on the Vedas and Upanishads. So, the goddess of learning thought that Shri Madhva himself had come back to continue the study of the Vedas but the work on the Vedas is not available;PART 7:कलि काल कला लून मूल जाल कला लता ।यद्वागमृतसेकेन पुनस्संजात पल्लवा ॥३१॥ Kali kaala kalaa luuna muula jaala kalaa lataa |Yadvagamrita sekena punassanjaata pallava ||31|| Translation : The creeper of Vedis learing, which had its web of roots cut by the influence of kali age, had sprouted again with tender leaves being sprinkled over by the nectar like speech of Shri Raghavendra. Notes : Kali is said to have evil influence and affects the intentions of men. They leave off Vedic study so that the tradition is lost in the long run. When Raghavendra took up the work of the revival of Vedic studies, all people took to Vedic studies under his benign influence and the tradition was revived by his elucidations. All this is expressed in a sustained metaphor of a creeper. ललाटरेखा दम्भेन बिरुदाक्षर शलिनः ।जयस्तम्भायिता यस्य प्रतिधीराः पराजिताः ॥३२॥ Lalaata rekhaa dambhena birudakshara shaalinah |Jayasthambhayitaa yasya pratidheeraah paraajitaah ||32|| Translation : His adverseries being defeated by him in dialectical bouts, became themselves his victory column bearing his titles in th form of lines on their foreheads. Notes : His opponents were defeated by him. In anxiety and humilition they raised their foreheads,which immediately formed lines. it was a custom in those days to erect a Jayastambha or victory-column to commemorate the victory, one has won over others.Then, this column would bear the titles of the winner. Here, the poet is highly imaginative and tells us that when Raghavendra defeated many Pundits in polemical discussions by superior intelligence and study there was no other Jayasthambha than the Pandits themselves. These human columns bore the titles of Raghavendra on their foreheads in the form of lines. It was as it were written, " We are defeated by the Guru" on the foreheads. the simple meaning is the adverseries were stupefied at the easy victory won by Raghavendra over them. श्रोतृणां श्रवणान्यासन्यद्वागामृत सेवया ।नित्यानि तदयोगयत्वान्न तथा हीन्द्रियान्तरम् ॥३३॥ Shrotranaam shravanaanyaasam yadvagamrita sevayaa |Nityaani tadayogyatvaanna tathaa heendriyaantaram ||33|| Translation : The ears of the hearers had become indestructible(perhaps) by driniking in the nectar of his speech and the other senses being in capable ( to hear his words) were otherwise( indestructible). Notes : This is a statement made according to the belief of other system like Nyaya. They believe that teh auditory sense alone is Nitya or eternal by nature being made of Aakaasha(which is Nitya or eternal). But other senses like sight and others are not eternal by nature. But this natural fact is supposed to have some poetic reason. The ear everyday had the nectar in the form of his discourse, which poured into his ears daily. the poet supposses this to be the cause of his ear's eternal nature. For, nectar renders everything deathless by its touch, while other senses like eyes and nose and others being unaable to hear his nectar like discourses remianed destructible. the poet makes this poetic supposition or Utpreksha. but we must note that in our Siddhaanta all physical senses are destructible. प्रतीप विद्वत्पाथोधिमथनोत्सव चुन्चुना ।वादमन्दरशोलेन येनावापि यशोमृतम् ॥३४॥ Prateepa vidvatpaathodhi mathanotsuva chanchunaa |Vaada mandarashailena yenaavaapi yashomritam ||34|| Translation : Nectar-like fame was won, by him who was famous ( or skilful) in the art of the celebration of churning the ocean of opponent Pandits, with himself as the churning mountain of Mandara( as the churning handle) in the polemical discussions. Notes : Formerly gods and demons churned the ocean with the churning handle of Mandaara mountain and as a result of churning got nectar. Now, Raghavendra churned the ocean of opponent Pandits in polemical discussion. He tired them out in the bouts of dialectics just as there was nectar as the result of the churning of gods and demons, here Raghavendra got fame out of these discussions.Pratipa is a very interesting word as it is formed of Prathi and Appu it means originally against water of current. Then, it means opponents, " Pothidhi" means ocean like "Varidhi"( Paathas - water Dhi- collection) ."Chachu" famous or skilful. The simple meaning is that he conquerred his opponents in Vaada and got fame-| हिरणय गर्भ मूर्तिस्थ पुरुषस्येव यध्यशः ।ततो बहिः प्रसृमरं राजते रौप्य सम्पुटम् ॥३५॥ Hiranya garbha murtistha purushashaiva yadyashah |Tato bahih prasrimaram raajate roupya samputam ||35|| Translation : His fame, like that of Naaraayana , who is abiding in the body of Hiranya garbha or Brahma(four faced) has spread in and out of Brahmanda like a silver casket round the Shaligraama. Notes : Just as the silver casket covers beautifully the Sakligrama, so also his fame spread in and out of Brahmanda.
गुरुराधः स्वसिद्धान्त प्रतिष्ठापन पंडितम् ।
श्रुत्वायं व्यासनिकटे निश्चिंत इव वर्तते ॥३६॥
Gururaadyah svasidhaanta pratishataapana panditam |
Shrutvaayam vyasnikate nischinta iva vartate ||36||
Translation : The original propounder of Dwaita Sidhanta Shri Madhwacharya is now residing with Vedavyasa at Badari, free from anxiety, as he found Raghavendra an able advocate of his system.
Notes : Shri Madhva was anxious if he would get an able supporter of his system among the laymen and Pandits. he thought himself blessed, when he found a Pandit protagonist for his newly started system(though originally as old as time itself).
गोपायति दृढं यसिमन्नवनी देवता कुलम् ।
शयानः शोष शय्यायां निद्रातीव ह्ररिश्चिरम् ॥३७॥
Gopaayati dridham yasminnavanee devataa kulam |
Shayaanah shesha shayyaayaam nidraateeya Harischiram ||37||
Translation : When Raghavendra has imposed upon himself the responsible task (of Shri Hari) of protecting the Brahmins, Lord Hari (with his burden of responsibility made light ) has been sleeping soundly (in Svetadveepa) on his snake-bed)for a long time).
Notes : It is the bounden duty of Narayana to protect the Brahmins on the Earth. but when he found a good Substitute to do his duty he enjoys as it were a long and sound sleep.
Now the poet tells that Raghavendra bestows wealth upon you just when you remember him-
पदे पदे प्रपन्नानां संपदः स्मृति संभवाः ।
परीभावप्रदे यस्मिन् शैले शोते तु शंकरः ॥३८॥
Pade pade prapannaanaam sampadah smriti sambhavaah |
pareebhaava prade yesmin shaile shetenu shankarah ||38||
Translation : Perhaps Shankara takes to sleeping on the Himavat mountain, when Raghavendra proves himself to be a source of humiliation to Shankara. For Raghavendra bestows wealt often and often, immediately you remember him ( while Shankara bestows only once).
Notes : Shankara is known to grant boons omly once to those who perform penance for a long period of time. While Raghavendra granted boons as many times as you rememberes him. This put Shankara to shame and he avoided public contact and retired to the cold mountains of Himalaya to save his face. A man put to shame avoids publicity and retires public haunt and seeks solitude. thus the greatness of Raghavendra guru is being established beyond doubt.
व्याखयां प्रखयाप्य व्रिखयातौ संखयावत्सु यदीरिताम् ।
सुरलोके सुरगुरुः पाताले फणिनां पतिः ॥३९॥
Vyaakhyaam prakhyaapya vikhyaatau samkhyaavatsu yadeeritaam |
suraloke suraguruh paataale phaninaam patih ||39||
Translation : In the celestial heaven, Brahaspati and in the nether world, Shesha ( the lord of Serpents) are known as learned persons among Pandits, only because they both could explain the works of Raghavendra.
Notes : Raghavendra's works were the acid tests to know depth of study of Pandits. this was not only o rule in this world ; but it was a rule in all the three wolds. They were considered to be standars worksto test the study and intelligence of the Pandits.
Now the poet describes his erudition, charity, tenderness of heart, which are qute extra-ordinary with him-
चित्ते चेन्मृदुता शिरीषसद्रिशो हैय्यंगावीनं शिला ।
गाम्भीर्यं यादि यस्य सोन्धुरुदधीः शास्त्रोषु चेत् पांडिती ॥
आचार्या विबुधेशितुः कलयते विध्यर्थितामादरात् ।
औदार्यं यदि कल्प पादप मुखाः सम्भावयन्तेर्थिताम् ॥४०॥
Chitte chenmriduta shireeshsadrishe haiyyanaga veenam shila-
gaambheeryam yadi yashya sondhurudadhih shaastreshu chet paanditee |
Aachaaryo vibudheshutuh kalayate vidyaarthi taamaadaraat |
Audaaryam yadi kalpa paadapa mukhaah sambhaavayanterthitaam ||40||
Translation : Before his heart, which was as tender as Shireesha flower even (easily melting) butter was a hard stone. In point off sublimity, before him even the ocean dwindled into a small well. In point of learning, even the preceptor of Indra seeks with effort to behis student. In point of charity, even Kalpavriksha and others( well known for their generosity) came to beg of him.
Notes : In this verse, the thing that is compared, Upameya, is said to excel Upamaana the standard of comparision. His tender heart is Upameya and its softness is said to be greater than the softness of butter, which is Upamaana standard of comparision. This figure is known as Vyatireka in which Upameya excels Upamaana.
Now the poet concludes-
तस्मान्म्हामहिम्नेस्मै मनः स्पृहयते मम ।
तद्गौरवेण मत्काव्यमंगी कुर्वन्तु सज्जनाः ॥४१॥
Tasmaanmahaa mahimnesmai manah sprihayate mama |
Tadgauravena matkavya mangeekurvantu sajjanaah ||41||
Translation : Hence,a s he is wndowed with extra-ordinary greatness, my mind eagerly yearns for him. Men with good tastes, should appreciate my poetry to give respect to him.
Notes : From verse 27 to this it is one kulaka complex sentence with so many adjective clauses begining with यः who यस्य whose येन by whom and others. For the sake of easy understanding, I have split this big complex sentence and treated each verse as an independent sentence. But the readers are expected to take these sentences forming one idea of teh extra-ordinary greatness of Raghavendra.
All these adjective clauses suggest a reason for the poet to expect generous treatment at the hands of the lovers of poetry. The burden of his soft repeated request is that a poem is hounoured and appreciated for the noble qualities of the hero of thepoem. Really speaking, this is a lame excuse. For no one calls it good poetry only because it deals witha noble subject. Good treatment of the subject also is expected . The poet only expresses his modesty and pleads that he has no merit and it is only the Guru that lends all charm to his work.
The canto first now ends in a शर्दुल विक्रीडितम्-
श्रीमत् कशयपवंशवार्धिशशिनः षड् दर्शनी वल्लभ ।
श्रीलक्ष्मीनरसिंह वित्तविदुषः श्रीवेंकटाम्बामणौ ।
जातेनार्य दया सुधामय गिरा नारायणेनोदिते ।
काव्ये चारुणि राघवेन्द्र विजये सर्गो जयत्यादिम ॥४२॥
Shreemat kaashyapa vanshavaardhi shashinah shaddarshanee vallabha |
Shree Lakshmee Narasimha vittavidushaa shreevankataambaamanou |
jaatenaarya dayaa sudhaamaya giraa Naarayanenodite |
Kaavye chaaruni Raghavendra vijaye sargo jayatyaadimah ||42||
Translation : The first canto of the interesting poem Raghavendra Vijaya successfully comes to an end. This poem was written by Narayana, the son of Lakshmi Naarayanaacharya well known as the master of six systems of philosophy and the moon to the ocean of the Kashyapa family, and of the mother Venkatambamani, the poet had won mastery over sweet and graceful expression by teh blessings of his father.
Notes : Thus, ends the first canto Raghavendra vijaya ,written by Narayanacharya, who is as it were the sacred mark, Tilaka on the forehead great poets. We get here some history about the poet himself . He was the son of Lakshmi Narasimhacharya and Venkataamaba. Lakshmi narasimhacharya was teh husband of Venkataamaba, the sister of raghavendra in his Grihasthashrama.
This first chapter opens with salutationsa nd devotional eulogy of Shri Raghavendra invoking his blessings for the interrupted finishing of the work undertaken. He claims no poetical gifts and attributes his success to the gracious blessings of Shri Raghavendra. the poem in this canto is mostly written in Anustup Vritta or metre. At the end, there is the change in metre and this is a conversion in Indian poetry.
Source: Smt Gowri (http://www.raghavendramutt.org/articles/ragahvendra-vijaya)
|| Sri Krishnarpanamasthu ||
of , which is