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He was also known as Biggie Smalls (after a character in the 1975 film Let's Do It Again), Big Poppa, and The Black Frank White (after the main character of the 1990 film King of New York).[1] Wallace was raised in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. When Wallace released his debut album Ready to Die in 1994, he became a central figure in the East Coast hip-hop scene and increased New York's visibility at a time when West Coast artists were more common in the mainstream.[2] The following year, Wallace led his childhood friends to chart success through his protégé group, Junior M.A.F.I.A. While recording his second album, Wallace was heavily involved in the East Coast/West Coast hip-hop feud, dominating the scene at the time. On March 9, 1997, Wallace was killed by an unknown assailant in a drive-by shooting in Los Angeles. His double-disc set Life After Death, released 15 days later, hit #1 on the U.S. album charts and was certified Diamond in 2000 (one of the few hip hop albums to receive this certification).[3] Wallace was noted for his "loose, easy flow",[4] dark semi-autobiographical lyrics and storytelling abilities. Since his death, a further two albums have been released. MTV ranked him at #3 on their list of The Greatest MCs (Rappers) of All Time.[5] He has certified sales of 17 million units in the United States.[6] Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Rapping career 2.1 Ready to Die and marriage 2.2 Junior M.A.F.I.A. and coastal feud 2.3 Arrests, Shakur's death and second child 2.4 Life After Death and car accident 3 March 1997 shooting and death 3.1 Murder case 3.2 Lawsuits 3.2.1 Wrongful Death 3.2.2 Defamation 4 Posthumous career 5 Legacy 5.1 Style 5.2 Themes and lyrical content 5.3 Biopic 6 Discography 6.1 Studio albums 6.2 Posthumous albums 6.3 Collaboration albums 6.4 Compilation albums 7 Awards and nominations 7.1 Billboard Music Awards 7.2 Grammy Awards 7.3 MTV Video Music Awards 7.4 Soul Train Music Awards 7.5 The Source Awards 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Early life Born in St. Mary's Hospital, despite later claiming to be raised in the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, Wallace grew up in neighboring Clinton Hill.[7] Wallace was the only child of Voletta Wallace, a Jamaican preschool teacher, and George Latore, a welder and small-time Jamaican politician.[8] His father left the family when Wallace was two years old, leaving his mother to work two jobs while raising him. At the Queen of All Saints Middle School, Wallace excelled in class, winning several awards as an English student. He was nicknamed "Big" because of his size before he turned 10.[9] At the age of 12, he began selling drugs. His mother, often away at work, did not know that her son was selling drugs until Wallace was an adult.[10] At his request, Wallace transferred out of the private Roman Catholic Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School to attend the state-funded George Westinghouse Career and Technical Education High School. Jay-Z and Busta Rhymes were also students at that school. According to his mother, Wallace was still a good student, but developed a "smart-ass" attitude at the new school.[8] At seventeen, Wallace dropped out of high school and became further involved in crime. In 1989, he was arrested on weapons charges in Brooklyn and sentenced to five years' probation. In 1990, he was arrested on a violation of his probation.[11] A year later, Wallace was arrested in North Carolina for dealing crack cocaine. He spent nine months behind bars until he made bail.[10] Rapping career Wallace began rapping when he was a teenager. He would entertain people on the streets as well as perform with local groups, the Old Gold Brothers and the Techniques.[2] After being released from prison, Wallace made a demo tape under the name Biggie Smalls, a reference to his childhood nickname and to his stature; he stood at 6' 3" (1.91 m) and weighed as much as 300 to 380 pounds according to differing accounts.[12] The tape was reportedly made with no serious intent of getting a recording deal, but was promoted by New York-based DJ Mister Cee, who had previously worked with Big Daddy Kane, and was heard by the editor of The Source.[11] In March 1992, Wallace featured in The Source's Unsigned Hype column, dedicated to aspiring rappers, and was invited to produce a recording with other unsigned artists in a move that was reportedly uncommon at the time.[13] The demo tape was heard by Uptown Records A&R and record producer, Sean Combs, who arranged for a meeting with Wallace. He was signed to Uptown immediately and made an appearance on label mates, Heavy D & the Boyz' "A Buncha Niggas" (from the album Blue Funk).[2][14] Soon after signing his recording contract, Combs was fired from Uptown and started a new label.[15] Wallace followed and in mid-1992, signed to Combs' new imprint label, Bad Boy Records. On August 8, 1993, Wallace's longtime girlfriend gave birth to his first child, T'yanna.[16] Wallace continued selling drugs after the birth to support his daughter financially. Once Combs discovered this, he was made to quit.[2] Wallace gained exposure later in the year on a remix to Mary J. Blige's single "Real Love", under the pseudonym The Notorious B.I.G., the name he would record under for the remainder of his career, after finding the original moniker "Biggie Smalls" was already in use.[17] "Real Love" peaked at #7 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and was followed by a remix of Blige's "What's the 411?". He continued this success, to a lesser extent, on remixes with Neneh Cherry ("Buddy X") and reggae artist Super Cat ("Dolly My Baby", also featuring Combs) in 1993. In April 1993, his solo track, "Party and Bullshit", appeared on the Who's the Man? soundtrack.[16] In July 1994, he appeared alongside LL Cool J and Busta Rhymes on a remix to label mate Craig Mack's "Flava in Ya Ear", reaching #9 on the Hot 100. Ready to Die and marriage On August 4, 1994, Wallace married singer Faith Evans after they met at a Bad Boy photoshoot.[16][18] Four days later, Wallace had his first pop chart success as a solo artist with double A-side, "Juicy/Unbelievable", which reached #27 as the lead single to his debut album. Ready to Die was released on September 13, 1994, and reached #13 on the Billboard 200 chart,[19] eventually being certified four times Platinum.[20] The album, released at a time when West Coast hip hop was prominent in the U.S. charts, according to Rolling Stone, "almost single-handedly... shifted the focus back to East Coast rap".[21] It gained strong reviews on release and has received much praise in retrospect.[21][22] In addition to "Juicy", the record produced two hit singles; the Platinum-selling "Big Poppa", which reached #1 on the U.S. rap chart,[4] and "One More Chance" featuring Faith Evans, a loosely related remix of an album track and its best selling single. Junior M.A.F.I.A. and coastal feud Early image of Wallace (left) and Tupac Shakur. Photograph is taken from the documentary film Biggie & Tupac, directed by Nick Broomfield In August 1995, Wallace's protegé group, Junior M.A.F.I.A. ("Junior Masters At Finding Intelligent Attitudes"), released their debut album Conspiracy. The group consisting of his friends from childhood and included rappers such as Lil' Kim and Lil' Cease, who went on to have solo careers.[23] The record went Gold and its singles, "Player's Anthem" and "Get Money" both featuring Wallace, went Gold and Platinum. Wallace continued to work with R&B artists, collaborating with Bad Boy groups 112 (on "Only You") and Total (on "Can't You See"), with both reaching the top 20 of the Hot 100. By the end of the year, Wallace was the top-selling male solo artist and rapper on the U.S. pop and R&B charts.[2] In July 1995, he appeared on the cover of The Source with the caption "The King of New York Takes Over". At the Source Awards in August 1995, he was named Best New Artist (Solo), Lyricist of the Year, Live Performer of the Year, and his debut Album of the Year.[24] At the Billboard Awards, he was Rap Artist of the Year.[11] In his year of success, Wallace became involved in a rivalry between the East and West Coast hip-hop scenes with Tupac Shakur, his former associate. In an interview with Vibe magazine in April 1995, while serving time in Clinton Correctional Facility, Shakur accused Uptown Records' founder Andre Harrell, Sean Combs, and Wallace of having prior knowledge of a robbery that resulted in him being shot repeatedly and losing thousands of dollars worth of jewelry on the night of November 30, 1994. Though Wallace and his entourage were in the same Manhattan-based recording studio at the time of the occurrence, they denied the accusation.[25] “ It just happened to be a coincidence that he was in the studio. He just, he couldn't really say who really had something to do with it at the time. So he just kinda' leaned the blame on me.[26] ” Following release from prison, Shakur signed to Death Row Records on October 15, 1995. Bad Boy Records and Death Row, now business rivals, became involved in an intense quarrel.[27] Arrests, Shakur's death and second child Wallace began recording his second record album in September 1995. The album, recorded in New York, Trinidad and Los Angeles, was interrupted during its 18 months of creation by injury, legal wranglings and the highly publicized hip hop dispute in which he was involved.[28] During this time, he also worked with pop singer Michael Jackson for the HIStory album.[29] On March 23, 1996, Wallace was arrested outside a Manhattan nightclub for chasing and threatening to kill two autograph seekers, smashing the windows of their taxicab and then pulling one of the fans out and punching them.[11] He pleaded guilty to second-degree harassment and was sentenced to 100 hours of community service. In mid-1996, he was arrested at his home in Teaneck, New Jersey, for drug and weapons possession charges.[11] In June 1996, Shakur released "Hit 'Em Up", a diss song in which he explicitly claimed to have had sex with Wallace's wife (at the time estranged) and that Wallace copied his style and image. Wallace referred to the first claim about his wife's pregnancy on Jay-Z's "Brooklyn's Finest" where he raps: "If Faye (Faith Evans, his wife at the time) have twins, she'd probably have two 'Pacs. Geddit? 2Pac's?". However, Wallace did not directly respond to the record during his lifetime, stating in a 1997 radio interview that it was "not [his] style" to respond.[26] Shakur was shot multiple times in a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, on September 7, 1996, and died six days later of complications from the gunshot wounds. Rumors of Wallace's involvement with Shakur's murder were reported almost immediately, and later in a two-part article by investigative reporter Chuck Philips in the Los Angeles Times in September 2002.[30] Wallace denied the allegation claiming he was in a New York recording studio at the time.[25] The Times later determined the article written by Philips "relied heavily on information that The Times no longer believes to be credible", including false FBI reports, and the paper published a retraction. Following his death, an anti-violence hip hop summit was held.[2] On October 29, 1996, Faith Evans gave birth to Wallace's son, Christopher "C.J." Wallace, Jr.[16] The following month Junior M.A.F.I.A. member Lil' Kim released her debut album, Hard Core, under Wallace's direction while the two were involved in an apparent love affair.[2] Life After Death and car accident During the recording sessions for his second record, tentatively named "Life After Death... 'Til Death Do Us Part", later shortened to Life After Death, Wallace was involved in a car accident that shattered his left leg and confined him to a wheelchair.[2] The injury forced him to use a cane.[25] In January 1997, Wallace was ordered to pay US$41,000 in damages following an incident involving a friend of a concert promoter who claimed Wallace and his entourage beat him up following a dispute in May 1995.[31] He faced criminal assault charges for the incident which remain unresolved, but all robbery charges were dropped.[11] Following the events of the previous year, Wallace spoke of a desire to focus on his "peace of mind". "My mom... my son... my daughter... my family... my friends are what matters to me now".[32] March 1997 shooting and death Composite sketch of the suspect in the shooting. Wallace traveled to California in February 1997 to promote his upcoming album and record a music video for its lead single, "Hypnotize". On March 5, 1997 he gave a radio interview with The Dog House on KYLD in San Francisco. In the interview he stated that he had hired security since he feared for his safety; this was because he was a celebrity figure in general, not because he was a rapper.[33] Life After Death was scheduled for release on March 25, 1997. On January 8, 1997, Biggie Smalls and Sean "Puffy" Combs made a video "What's Beef" which was directed by Dave Meyers. On March 8, 1997, he presented an award to Toni Braxton at the 11th Annual Soul Train Music Awards in Los Angeles and was booed by some of the audience.[25] After the ceremony, Wallace attended an after party hosted by Vibe magazine and Qwest Records at the Petersen Automotive Museum in Los Angeles.[25] Other guests included Faith Evans, Aaliyah, Sean Combs, and members of the Bloods and Crips gangs.[9] On March 9, 1997, at around 12:30 a.m., Wallace left with his entourage in two GMC Suburbans to return to his hotel after the Fire Department closed the party early because of overcrowding.[34] Wallace traveled in the front passenger seat alongside his associates, Damion "D-Roc" Butler, Junior M.A.F.I.A. member Lil' Cease and driver, Gregory "G-Money" Young. Combs traveled in the other vehicle with three bodyguards. The two trucks were trailed by a Chevrolet Blazer carrying Bad Boy's director of security.[9] By 12:45 a.m., the streets were crowded with people leaving the event. Wallace's truck stopped at a red light 50 yards (46 m) from the museum. A black Chevrolet Impala SS pulled up alongside Wallace's truck. The driver of the Impala, an African American male dressed in a blue suit and bow tie, rolled down his window, drew a 9 mm blue-steel pistol and fired at the GMC Suburban; four bullets hit Wallace in the chest.[9] Wallace's entourage rushed him to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, but he was pronounced dead at 1:15 a.m. Murder case Wallace's murder remains unsolved and there are many theories regarding the identities and motives of the murderers. Immediately after the shooting, reports surfaced linking the Shakur and Wallace murders, because of the similarities in the drive-by shootings.[35] In 2002, Randall Sullivan released LAbyrinth, a book compiling information regarding the murders of Wallace and Shakur based on evidence provided by retired LAPD detective, Russell Poole.[9][36] Sullivan accused Marion "Suge" Knight, co-founder of Death Row Records and an alleged Bloods affiliate, of conspiring with David Mack, an LAPD officer and alleged Death Row security employee, to kill Wallace and make Shakur and his death appear the result of a fictitious bi-coastal rap rivalry.[37][38] Sullivan believed that one of Mack's associates, Amir Muhammad (also known as Harry Billups), was the hitman based on evidence provided by an informant, and due to his close resemblance to the facial composite.[37][38] Filmmaker Nick Broomfield released an investigative documentary, Biggie & Tupac, based mainly on the evidence used in the book.[36] An article published in Rolling Stone by Sullivan in December 2005 accused the LAPD of not fully investigating links with Death Row Records based on evidence from Poole. Sullivan claimed that Sean Combs "failed to fully cooperate with the investigation" and according to Poole, encouraged Bad Boy staff to do the same.[9] The accuracy of the article was later refuted in a letter by the Assistant Managing Editor of the LA Times accusing Sullivan of using "shoddy tactics." Sullivan, in response, quoted the lead attorney of the Wallace estate calling the newspaper "a co-conspirator in the cover-up."[39] The criminal investigation was re-opened in July 2006 in the hopes that new evidence might help the City defend the civil lawsuits brought by the Wallace family.[40][41] In January 2011, the case was reinvigorated as a result of new information reported by Anderson Cooper's AC360 "Cold Case" show and blog[42] that it was being re-investigated by a law enforcement task force composed of the LAPD, the L.A. County District Attorney's Office, and the FBI.[43] In April, the FBI released redacted documents about their investigation into the shooting, revealing that the bullets were rare 9mm Gecko ammunition manufactured in Germany. The documents reported that LAPD officers monitoring the party Wallace was attending were also employed as security personnel for Knight; the documents also speculated that the Genovese crime family was withholding evidence about Wallace's death.[44] Basketball player Shaquille O'Neal was a close friend of Wallace's and on the night of Wallace's death, he was supposed to meet him at an after party. O'Neal has reportedly struggled with guilt about Wallace's death since that night.[45] Lawsuits Wrongful Death In March 2005, the relatives of Wallace filed a wrongful death claim against the city of Los Angeles based on the evidence championed by Russell Poole.[38] They claimed the LAPD had sufficient evidence to arrest the assailant, but failed to use it. David Mack and Amir Muhammad (a.k.a. Harry Billups) were originally named as defendants in the civil suit, but were dropped shortly before the trial began after the LAPD and FBI dismissed them as suspects.[38] The case came for trial before a jury on June 21, 2005. Several days into the trial, the plaintiffs' attorney disclosed to the Court and opposing counsel that he had received a telephone call from someone claiming to be a LAPD officer and provided detailed information about the existence of evidence concerning the Wallace murder. The court directed the city to conduct a thorough investigation, which uncovered previously undisclosed evidence, much of which was in the desk or cabinet of Det. Steven Katz, the lead detective in the Wallace murder investigation. The documents centered around interviews by numerous police officers of an incarcerated informant, who had been Rafael Perez's cellmate for some extended period of time. He reported that Perez had told him about his and Mack's involvement with Death Row Records and their activities at the Peterson Automotive Museum the night of Wallace's murder. As a result of the newly discovered evidence, the judge declared a mistrial and awarded the Wallace family its attorneys' fees.[46] On April 16, 2007, relatives of Wallace filed a second wrongful death lawsuit against the city of Los Angeles. The suit also named two LAPD officers in the center of the investigation into the Rampart scandal, Rafael Perez and Nino Durden. According to the claim, Perez, an alleged affiliate of Death Row Records, admitted to LAPD officials that he and Mack (who was not named in the lawsuit) "conspired to murder, and participated in the murder of Christopher Wallace". The Wallace family said the LAPD "consciously concealed Rafael Perez's involvement in the murder of ... Wallace".[47] United States District Judge Florence-Marie Cooper granted summary judgment to the city of Los Angeles on December 17, 2007, finding that the Wallace family had not complied with a California law that required the Wallace family to give notice of its claim to the State within six months of Wallace's death.[48] The Wallace family refiled the suit, dropping the state law claims on May 27, 2008.[49] The city never answered the amended complaint, and with the agreement of both sides, the suit was voluntarily dismissed on April 5, 2010 without prejudice.[50] Defamation On January 19, 2007, Tyruss Himes (better known as Big Syke), a friend of Shakur who was implicated in the murder by television channel KTTV and XXL magazine in 2005, had a defamation lawsuit regarding the accusations thrown out of court.[51] Posthumous career Fifteen days after his death, Wallace's double-disc second album was released as planned with the shortened title of Life After Death and hit #1 on the Billboard 200 charts, after making a premature appearance at #176 due to street-date violations. The record album featured a much wider range of guests and producers than its predecessor.[52] It gained strong reviews and in 2000 was certified Diamond, the highest RIAA certification awarded to a solo hip hop album. Its lead single, "Hypnotize", was the last music video recording in which Wallace would participate. His biggest chart success was with its follow-up "Mo Money Mo Problems", featuring Sean Combs (under the rap alias "Puff Daddy") and Mase. Both singles reached #1 in the Hot 100, making Wallace the first artist to achieve this feat posthumously.[2] The third single, "Sky's The Limit", featuring the band 112, was noted for its use of children in the music video, directed by Spike Jonze, who were used to portray Wallace and his contemporaries, including Sean Combs, Lil' Kim, and Busta Rhymes. Wallace was named Artist of the Year and "Hypnotize" Single of the Year by Spin magazine in December 1997.[53] In mid-1997, Combs released his debut album, No Way Out, which featured Wallace on five songs, notably on the third single "Victory". The most prominent single from the record album was "I'll Be Missing You", featuring Combs, Faith Evans and 112, which was dedicated to Wallace's memory. At the 1998 Grammy Awards, Life After Death and its first two singles received nominations in the rap category. The album award was won by Combs' No Way Out and "I'll Be Missing You" won the award in the category of Best Rap Performance By A Duo Or Group in which "Mo Money Mo Problems" was nominated.[54] Wallace had founded a hip hop supergroup called The Commission, which consisted of Jay-Z, Lil' Cease, Combs, Charli Baltimore and himself. The Commission was mentioned by Wallace in the lyrics of "What's Beef" on Life After Death and "Victory" from No Way Out but never completed an album. A song on Duets: The Final Chapter titled "Whatchu Want (The Commission)" featuring Jay-Z was based on the group. In December 1999, Bad Boy released Born Again. The record consisted of previously unreleased material mixed with guest appearances including many artists Wallace had never collaborated with in his lifetime. It gained some positive reviews but received criticism for its unlikely pairings; The Source describing it as "compiling some of the most awkward collaborations of his career".[55] Nevertheless, the album sold 3 million copies. Over the course of time, Wallace's vocals would appear on hit songs such as "Foolish" by Ashanti and "Realest Niggas" in 2002, and the song "Runnin' (Dying to Live)" with Shakur the following year. He also appeared on Michael Jackson's 2001 album, Invincible. In 2005, Duets: The Final Chapter continued the pattern started on Born Again and was criticized for the lack of significant vocals by Wallace on some of its songs.[56][57] Its lead single "Nasty Girl" became Wallace's first UK #1 single. Combs and Voletta Wallace have stated the album will be the last release primarily featuring new material.[58] Legacy Wallace is celebrated as one of the greatest rap artists and is described by Allmusic as "the savior of East Coast hip-hop".[2] The Source and Blender named Wallace the greatest rapper of all time.[59] In 2003, when XXL magazine asked several hip hop artists to list their five favorite MCs, Wallace's name appeared on more rappers' lists than anyone else. In 2006, he was ranked at #3 in MTV's The Greatest MC's of All Time.[5] Since his death, Wallace's lyrics have been sampled and quoted by a variety of hip hop, R&B and pop artists including Jay-Z, 50 Cent, Alicia Keys, Fat Joe, Nelly, Ja Rule, Eminem, Lil Wayne, Game, Clinton Sparks, Michael Jackson and Usher. On August 28, 2005, at the 2005 MTV Video Music Awards, Sean Combs (then using the rap alias "P. Diddy") and Snoop Dogg paid tribute to Wallace: an orchestra played while the vocals from "Juicy" and "Warning" played on the arena speakers.[60] In September 2005, VH1 had its second annual "Hip Hop Honors", with a tribute to Wallace headlining the show.[61] Wallace had begun to promote a clothing line called Brooklyn Mint, which was to produce plus-sized clothing but fell dormant after he died. In 2004, his managers, Mark Pitts and Wayne Barrow, launched the clothing line, with help from Jay-Z, selling T-shirts with images of Wallace on them. A portion of the proceeds go to the Christopher Wallace Foundation and to Jay-Z's Shawn Carter Scholarship Foundation.[62] In 2005, Voletta Wallace hired branding and licensing agency Wicked Cow Entertainment to guide the Estate's licensing efforts.[63] Wallace-branded products on the market include action figures, blankets, and cell phone content.[64] The Christopher Wallace Memorial Foundation holds an annual black-tie dinner ("B.I.G. Night Out") to raise funds for children's school equipment and supplies and to honor the memory of the late rapper. For this particular event, because it is a children's schools' charity, "B.I.G." is also said to stand for "Books Instead of Guns".[65] Style "Only You (Remix)" Wallace, accompanied by ad libs from Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs, uses onomatopoeic vocables and multi-syllabic rhymes on his 1995 collaboration with R&B group, 112. "Niggas Bleed" Wallace tells vivid stories about his everyday life as a criminal in Brooklyn (from Life After Death). Problems listening to these files? See media help. Wallace mostly rapped on his songs in a deep tone described by Rolling Stone as a "thick, jaunty grumble",[66] which went deeper on Life After Death.[67] He was often accompanied on songs with ad libs from Sean "Puffy" Combs. On The Source's Unsigned Hype, they described his style as "cool, nasal, and filtered, to bless his own material". Allmusic describe Wallace as having "a loose, easy flow" with "a talent for piling multiple rhymes on top of one another in quick succession".[4] Time magazine wrote Wallace rapped with an ability to "make multi-syllabic rhymes sound... smooth",[22] while Krims describes Wallace's rhythmic style as "effusive".[68] Before starting a verse, Wallace sometimes used onomatopoeic vocables to "warm up" (for example "uhhh" at the beginning of "Hypnotize" and "Big Poppa" and "whaat" after certain rhymes in songs such as "My Downfall").[69] Lateef of Latyrx notes that Wallace had, “intense and complex flows”,[70] Fredro Starr of Onyx says, “Biggie was a master of the flow”,[71] and Bishop Lamont states that Wallace mastered “all the hemispheres of the music”.[72] “Notorious B.I.G. also often used the single-line rhyme scheme to add variety and interest to his flow”.[70] Big Daddy Kane suggests that Wallace didn’t need a large vocabulary to impress listeners – “he just put his words together a slick way and it worked real good for him”.[73] Wallace was known to compose lyrics in his head, rather than write them down on paper, in a similar way to Jay-Z.[74][75] Wallace would occasionally vary from his usual style. On "Playa Hater" from his second album, he sang in a slow-falsetto.[76] On his collaboration with Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, "Notorious Thugs", he modified his style to match the rapid rhyme flow of the group. Themes and lyrical content Wallace's lyrical topics and themes included mafioso tales ("Niggas Bleed"), his drug dealing past ("10 Crack Commandments"), materialistic bragging ("Hypnotize"), as well as humor ("Just Playing (Dreams)"),[77] and romance ("Me & My Bitch").[77] Rolling Stone named Wallace in 2004 as "one of the few young male songwriters in any pop style writing credible love songs".[67] Guerilla Black, in the book How to Rap, describes how Wallace was able to both “glorify the upper echelon”[78] and “[make] you feel his struggle”.[79] According to Touré of The New York Times in 1994, Wallace's lyrics "[mixed] autobiographical details about crime and violence with emotional honesty".[10] Marriott of The New York Times (in 1997) believed his lyrics were not strictly autobiographical and wrote he "had a knack for exaggeration that increased sales".[11] Wallace described his debut as "a big pie, with each slice indicating a different point in my life involving bitches and niggaz... from the beginning to the end".[80] Ready to Die is described by Rolling Stone as a contrast of "bleak" street visions and being "full of high-spirited fun, bringing the pleasure principle back to hip-hop".[67] Allmusic write of "a sense of doom" in some of his songs and the NY Times note some being "laced with paranoia";[4][81] Wallace described himself as feeling "broke and depressed" when he made his debut.[81] The final song on the album, "Suicidal Thoughts", featured Wallace contemplating suicide and concluded with him committing the act. On Life After Death, Wallace's lyrics went "deeper".[67] Krims explains how upbeat, dance-oriented tracks (which featured less heavily on his debut) alternate with "reality rap" songs on the record and suggests that he was "going pimp" through some of the lyrical topics of the former.[68] XXL magazine wrote that Wallace "revamped his image" through the portrayal of himself between the albums, going from "midlevel hustler" on his debut to "drug lord".[82] Allmusic wrote that the success of Ready to Die is "mostly due to Wallace's skill as a storyteller";[4] In 1994, Rolling Stone described Wallace's ability in this technique as painting "a sonic picture so vibrant that you're transported right to the scene".[21] On Life After Death Wallace notably demonstrated this skill on "I Got a Story to Tell" telling a story as a rap for the first half of the song and then as a story "for his boys" in conversation form.[76] After the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, Christopher began to see life more on the positive side rather then the negative when he realized that he could have died when the explosion occurred. Instead of dying , Christopher only suffered minor scratches when he was performing his own remix of the song "Real Love" a few blocks away on the street. Christopher also refers to this event in his song "Juicy" when he mentions blowing up like the world trade.[83] Biopic Notorious is a 2009 biographical film about Wallace and his life that starred rapper Jamal "Gravy" Woolard as Wallace. The film was directed by George Tillman, Jr. and distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures. Producers included Sean "Diddy" Combs, Wallace's former managers Wayne Barrow and Mark Pitts, as well as Voletta Wallace.[75] On January 16, 2009, the movie's debut at the Grand 18 theater in Greensboro, North Carolina was postponed after a man was shot in the parking lot before the show.[84] Ultimately, the film grossed over $43,000,000 worldwide. In early October 2007, open casting calls for the role of Wallace began.[85] Actors, rappers and unknowns all tried out. Beanie Sigel auditioned[86] for the role, but was not picked. Sean Kingston claimed that he would play the role of Wallace, but producers denied he would be in the film.[87] Eventually it was announced that rapper Jamal "Gravy" Woolard was cast as Wallace[88] while Wallace's son, Christopher Wallace, Jr. was cast to play Wallace as a child.[89] Other cast members include Angela Bassett as Voletta Wallace, Derek Luke as Sean Combs, Antonique Smith as Faith Evans, Naturi Naughton formerly of 3LW as Lil' Kim, and Anthony Mackie as Tupac Shakur.[90] Bad Boy released a soundtrack album to the film on January 13, 2009; the album contains hit singles of B.I.G. such as "Hypnotize", "Juicy", and "Warning" as well as rarities.[91] Discography Main article: The Notorious B.I.G. discography Studio albums 1994: Ready to Die 1997: Life After Death Posthumous albums 1997: Life After Death 1999: Born Again 2005: Duets: The Final Chapter Collaboration albums 1995: Conspiracy (with Junior M.A.F.I.A.) Compilation albums 2007: Greatest Hits 2009: Notorious: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Awards and nominations The Notorious B.I.G. awards and nominations [hide]Awards and nominations Award Wins Nominations Billboard Music Awards 2 2 Grammy Awards 0 4 MTV Video Music Awards 1 2 Soul Train Music Awards 1 3 Totals Awards won 4 Nominations 11 Wallace received two nominations from the Billboard Music Awards in 1995, including Rap Artist of the Year and Rap Single of the Year. The song "Mo Money Mo Problems" received several nominations in 1998, including Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group at the Grammy Awards; Best Rap Video at the MTV Video Music Awards; and Best R&B/Soul Album and Best R&B/Soul or Rap Music Video at the Soul Train Music Awards. Overall, Wallace has received four awards from eleven nominations; one award and six nominations were received posthumously. Billboard Music Awards The Billboard Music Awards is sponsored by Billboard magazine and held annually in December.[92][93] Year Nominated work Award Result 1995 The Notorious B.I.G. Rap Artist of the Year Won "One More Chance" Rap Single of the Year Won Grammy Awards The Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States.[92][94][95] Year Nominated work Award Result 1996 "Big Poppa" Best Rap Solo Performance Nominated 1998 "Hypnotize" Best Rap Solo Performance Nominated "Mo Money Mo Problems" (with Mase and Puff Daddy) Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group Nominated Life After Death Best Rap Album Nominated MTV Video Music Awards The MTV Video Music Awards is an annual awards ceremony established in 1984 by MTV.[92][96][97] Year Nominated work Award Result 1997 "Hypnotize" Best Rap Video Won 1998 "Mo Money Mo Problems" (with Mase and Puff Daddy) Best Rap Video Nominated Soul Train Music Awards The Soul Train Music Awards is an annual awards show that honors black musicians and entertainers.[92][98] Year Nominated work Award Result 1998 Life After Death Best R&B/Soul Album, Male Won "Mo Money Mo Problems" (with Mase and Puff Daddy) Best R&B/Soul Album Nominated Best R&B/Soul or Rap Music Video Nominated The Source Awards The Source Awards were awarded by hip hop magazine The Source. Year Nominated work Award Result 1995 The Notorious B.I.G. New Artist of the Year, Solo Won Ready to Die Album of the Year Won The Notorious B.I.G. Lyricist of the Year Won The Notorious B.I.G. Live Performer of the Year Won References ^ Notorious B.I.G.: In His Own Words, And Those of His Friends (March 7, 2007). MTV News. Accessed 2007-03-11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Huey, Steve. "Notorious B.I.G. > Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2006-10-07. ^ "Top 100 Albums". RIAA. May 4, 2006. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-07. ^ a b c d e Huey, Steve. "Ready to Die > Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved 2006-10-07. ^ a b The Greatest MCs of All Time MTV. Accessed 2006-12-26. ^ Top selling artists. RIAA. Accessed 2010-10-10. ^ Franklin, Marcus (January 17, 2009). Much change in Biggie Smalls' neighborhood[dead link]. Associated Press via Insider. Retrieved 2010-10-10. ^ a b Coker, Cheo H. (March 8, 2005). "Excerpt: Unbelievable – The Life, Death, and Afterlife of The Notorious B.I.G.". Vibe. Archived from the original on February 16, 2009. ^ a b c d e f Sullivan, Randall (December 5, 2005). "The Unsolved Mystery of the Notorious B.I.G.". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Retrieved 2006-10-07. ^ a b c Touré "Biggie Smalls; Rap's Man of the Moment" The New York Times, 1994-12-18. Accessed 2008-03-26. ^ a b c d e f g Marriott, Michel (March 17, 1997). "The Short Life of a Rap Star, Shadowed by Many Troubles" The New York Times. Accessed 2008-03-26. ^ "Police May Release Sketch of Biggie Gunman" (March 11, 1997). MTV News. Retrieved 2006-12-23. ^ "Notorious BIG Photos > Biography". Atlantic Records. Retrieved 2006-11-30.[dead link] ^ Swihart, Stanton. "Blue Funk > Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved 2006-10-06. ^ Duncan, Andrea et al. The Making of Ready to Die:Family Business. XXL magazine, 2006-03-09. Accessed 2007-03-18 ^ a b c d Biggie Duets – The Final Chapter (Timeline). Accessed 2006-12-28 ^ Scott, Cathy (2000). The Murder of Biggie Smalls. New York City: St. Martin's Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-312-26620-0. ^ Chappell, Kevin (April 1999). After Biggie: Faith Evans has a new love, a new baby, a new career – singer. Ebony. Accessed 2008-10-15. ^ "Artist Chart History". Billboard.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2006-10-07. ^ "RIAA searchable database". RIAA. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-07. ^ a b c Ready to Die (Explicit) Tower Records (Muze data). Accessed 2006-12-10. ^ a b Tyrangiel, Josh (November 13, 2006). "The All-TIME Albums" Time. Accessed 2006-12-10. ^ Lane, Hai, Lydia Junior M.A.F.I.A. Biography Allmusic. Accessed 2007-02-18. ^ "The Source Hip-Hop Music Awards 1995". The 411 online. Retrieved 2006-10-07. ^ a b c d e Bruno, Anthony The Murders of gangsta rappers Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. Court TV Crime Library. Accessed 2007-01-24. ^ a b MTV Bands – Archive – N MTV. Accessed 2006-12-23. ^ Carney, Thomas "Live from Death Row" PBS. Accessed 2006-12-09. ^ Caramanica, Jon et al. (April 2003). "The Making of Life After Death: Many Men". XXL magazine. Retrieved 2007-01-06. ^ The Notorious B.I.G. – Bio. Billboard. Accessed 2010-10-29. ^ "Paper investigates rapper murder" (September 6, 2002). BBC News. Accessed 2007-01-26. ^ "Notorious B.I.G. Loses Lawsuit" MTV News, 1997-01-27. Accessed 2006-12-23. ^ Brown, Jake (May 24, 2004). Ready to Die: The Story of Biggie Smalls Notorious B.I.G.. Colossus Books. p. 122. ISBN 0-9749779-3-4. ^ "Biggie Told Interviewer He Worried About Safety". MTV News. March 12, 1997. Retrieved 2008-05-06. ^ Purdum, Todd S. (March 10, 1997). "Rapper Is Shot to Death in Echo of Killing 6 Months Ago". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-23. ^ Las Vegas Sun, "Rap slaying similar to Shakur's," by Cathy Scott, March 10, 1997 ^ a b Fuchs, Cynthia (September 6, 2002). "Biggie and Tupac review" PopMatters. Accessed 2007-01-02. ^ a b Serpick, Evan (April 12, 2002). "Review: Rappers' deaths probed in 'LAbyrinth'" Entertainment Weekly. Accessed 2007-01-02. ^ a b c d Philips, Chuck "Slain rapper's family keeps pushing suit" Los Angeles Times, February 7, 2007. Accessed 2007-04-14. ^ Duvoisin, Marc and Sullivan, Randall (January 12, 2006). "L.A. Times Responds to Biggie Story"[dead link] Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2007-02-05. Archived August 17, 2007 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ^ Philips, Chuck (July 31, 2006). "LAPD Renews Search for Rapper's Killer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-01-20. ^ "LAPD launching new Notorious BIG task force". Associated Press. August 3, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-29. ^ "An AC360° Cold Case: Mystery still surrounds rappers' deaths," January 6, 2011 ^ Rowlands, Ted (2011-01-06). "Update: Investigation heats up in shooting of rapper Biggie Smalls". CNN. Retrieved 2011-01-07. ^ FBI releases documents on Notorious B.I.G.'s murder; what did they find?, EW.com, 7 April 2011 ^ Coman, Nick. "Biggie Smalls' Death Recalled 14 Years Later by Celtics Center Shaquille O'Neal". NESN. Retrieved 2011-03-11. ^ Estate of Wallace v. City of Los Angeles, 229 F.R.D. 163 (C.D. Cal. 2005);Reid, Shaheem (July 5, 2005). "Notorious B.I.G. Wrongful-Death Case Declared A Mistrial" MTV News. Accessed 2007-02-14. ^ Finn, Natalie (April 18, 2007). "An Extra B.I.G. Suit". E! Online. Retrieved 2009-08-02. ^ Estate of Christopher G.L. Wallace v. City of Los Angeles, et al., 2:07-cv-02956-FMC-RZx, slip op. at 15 (C.D. Cal. Dec. 17, 2007) (Cooper, J.). ^ Complaint, Estate of Christopher G.L. Wallace v. City of Los Angeles, et al., 2:07-cv-02956-FMC-RZx (C.D. Cal. May 27, 2008). ^ Estate of Christopher G.L. Wallace v. City of Los Angeles, et al., 2:07-cv-02956-FMC-RZx, slip op. at 4 (C.D. Cal. Apr. 5, 2009) (Nguyen, J.); Biggie Smalls wrongful death lawsuit dismissed (April 20, 2010). music.yahoo.com. Accessed 2010-10-10. ^ "Lawsuit involving rapper death dismissed". Yahoo! Music. Associated Press. January 20, 2007. Retrieved 2009-08-02. ^ Birchmeier, Jason Life After Death review Allmusic. Accessed 2007-01-08. ^ "B.I.G. Gets Props from Spin"[dead link] Rolling Stone, December 7, 1997. Accessed 2006-12-26. Archived August 17, 2007 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ^ 1998 Grammy Awards – Rap music winners[dead link] CNN. Accessed 2007-01-27. Archived December 5, 2007 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ^ Born Again Tower Records (Muze data). Accessed 2006-12-10. ^ Duets: The Final Chapter Music Review[dead link] (January 12, 2006). Rolling Stone. Accessed 2006-12-10. Archived July 16, 2007 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ^ Duets: The Final Chapter > Overview Allmusic. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. ^ Egere-Cooper, Matilda (January 26, 2006). "Notorious B.I.G.: an album too far?" The Independent. Retrieved 2006-12-26. ^ Music Profiles – The Notorious B.I.G. BBC. Accessed 2007-01-27. ^ Moss, Corey (August 25, 2005). "Green Day Clean Up, Kelly Clarkson Gets Wet, 50 Rips Into Fat Joe At VMAs" MTV News. Retrieved 2007-02-17. ^ "VH1 to give Notorious B.I.G. Hip Hop Honors" ( June 25, 2005). Associated Press. Accessed 2006-02-17. ^ Strong, Nolan (February 8, 2005). "B.I.G.'s Brooklyn Mint Clothing Line Debuts, Jay-Z Gets Down". AllHipHop. Retrieved 2007-09-07. ^ The Licensing Letter (July 17, 2006), Properties Available for Licensing, EPM ^ Wolfe, Roman (June 22, 2006). "Limited Action Figures of B.I.G., Public Enemy Coming This Fall". AllHipHop. Retrieved 2007-09-07. ^ Reid, Shaheem; Calloway, Sway (March 21, 2003). "Biggie, Jam Master Jay, Left Eye and Their Mothers Honored at B.I.G. Night Out". MTV News. Retrieved 2006-08-01. ^ Life After Death review[dead link] Rolling Stone, December 7, 1997. Accessed 2007-01-07 Archived August 17, 2007 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ^ a b c d Notorious B.I.G.:Biography[dead link] Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2006-12-26 Archived February 16, 2006 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ^ a b Krims, Adam (2000). Rap Music and the Poetics of Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-521-63447-4. ^ Smith, William E. (2005). Hip-hop as Performance and Ritual: Biography and Ethnography in Underground Hip Hop. Trafford Publishing. p. 163. ISBN 1-4120-5394-3. ^ a b Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 100. ^ Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 112. ^ Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. x. ^ Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 53. ^ Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 144. ^ a b Andrea Duncan (March 9, 2006). The Making of Ready to Die: Family Business XXL. Accessed 2008-03-18. ^ a b Christgau, Robert Life After Death review Consumer Guide Reviews. Accessed 2007-01-07. ^ a b Notorious B.I.G.: Still the Illest MTV. Accessed 2006-12-26. ^ Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 14. ^ Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 44. ^ Brown, Jake (May 24, 2004). Ready to Die: The Story of Biggie Smalls Notorious B.I.G.. Colossus Books. p. 66. ISBN 0-9749779-3-4. ^ a b Pareles, Jon (March 10, 1997). "Rapping, Living and Dying a Gangsta Life" The New York Times. Accessed 2008-03-26. ^ Ex, Kris (November 6, 2006). "The History of Cocaine Rap:All White". XXL magazine. Accessed 2007-02-10. ^ Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2006-12-26 ^ Shooting erupts at Notorious movie (January 17, 2009). Greensboro News & Record. Accessed 2009-10-13. ^ Melena Ryzik (October 8, 2007) Dreaming Big About Acting Big The New York Times. Accessed 2007-11-28. ^ Beanie Sigel Auditions for Role of Biggie Smalls in New Biopic (October 3, 2007). XXL. Accessed 2007-11-28. ^ Sean Kingston: Big, But Not B.I.G. (August 30, 2007). Vibe. Accessed 2007-11-28. ^ Brooklyn Rapper Gravy to Play Biggie in Upcoming Biopic (March 6, 2008). XXL. Accessed 2007-11-28. ^ Wallace, Voletta, "Christopher Wallace Jr.". Interview Magazine. Accessed 2010-11-24. ^ Gravy for Biggie (March 6, 2008). Joblo.com. Accessed 2008-03-06. ^ Reid, Shaheem (December 3, 2008). "'Notorious' Soundtrack Details Revealed: Features Jay-Z, Jadakiss, Faith Evans, Biggie's Son". MTV News. Retrieved 2008-12-27. ^ a b c d "The Notorious B.I.G.". Rock on the Net. Retrieved 2008-10-18. ^ Waxman, Sharon (March 10, 1997). "`Gangsta' Rap Singer Slain in L.A.". The Washington Post. ^ "Grammy Awards". The Washington Post. February 25, 1996. ^ Harrington, Richard (January 7, 1998). "Grammy's Nods". The Washington Post. ^ "1997 Video Music Awards". MTV. Retrieved 2008-10-18. ^ "1998 Video Music Awards". MTV. Retrieved 2008-10-18. ^ "Janet, Puffy Performing At Soul Train Awards". Rolling Stone. February 27, 1998. Retrieved 2008-10-18. Further reading Coker, Cheo Hodari (2004). Unbelievable: The Life, Death, and Afterlife of the Notorious B.I.G.. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-609-80835-4. Wallace, Voletta; McKenzie, Tremell and Evans, Faith (foreword) (2005). Biggie: Voletta Wallace Remembers Her Son, Christopher Wallace, aka Notorious B.I.G.. Atria. ISBN 0-7434-7020-6. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: The Notorious B.I.G. Official website BiggieDuets.com The Notorious B.I.G. Official Biggie Duets album website. B.I.G. Action Figure Notorious B.I.G. official first ever action figure. Notorious Movie "Notorious" Movie Official Site biggiesmalls-rapphenomenon.com Biggie Smalls - Rap Phenomenon DVD documentary official site FBI file on Christopher Wallace NotoriousOnline.org – NotoriousOnline.org is a Non-profit website in memory of the late great Notorious BIG a.k.a. Biggie Smalls. The Notorious B.I.G. at MTV [show] v t e The Notorious B.I.G. [show] v t e Bad Boy Records Rampart scandal[hide] Notable accused officers Victims Coverup and investigation Gang involvement Other elements Nino Durden Kevin Gaines Brian Liddy David Mack Rafael Pérez Frank Lyga Javier Ovando The Notorious B.I.G. Brian S. Bentley Bernard Parks Russell Poole 18th Street gang Bloods Death Row Records Suge Knight Community Resources Against Street Hoodlums Los Angeles Police Department LAPD Rampart Division This is a featured article. Click here for more information. View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Categories: Rampart scandal 1972 births 1997 deaths 1997 murders in the United States American drug traffickers American murder victims American rappers of Jamaican descent Atlantic Records artists Bad Boy Records artists Deaths by firearm in California Murdered rappers People from Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn People from Teaneck, New Jersey People murdered in California Pseudonymous rappers Rappers from New York City Unsolved murders in the United States Log in / create account Article Talk Read View source View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages العربية Azərbaycanca Български Bosanski Česky Dansk Deutsch Eesti Ελληνικά Español فارسی Français Frysk Gaeilge Galego 한국어 Hrvatski Italiano עברית ქართული Kiswahili Latina Latviešu Nederlands 日本語 ‪Norsk (bokmål)‬ Polski Português Română Русский Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски Suomi Svenska தமிழ் ไทย Türkçe Українська Yorùbá 中文 This page was last modified on 12 March 2012 at 16:31. 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2. Booger McFarland on the National Anthem and Rays Call Up Jake Bauers

Booger McFarland on the National Anthem and Rays Call Up Jake Bauers

The Rays lose for the 6th straight time but they are finally calling up prized prospect Jake Bauers to make his major league debut. Plus Rick clarifies why he thinks Jameis Winston will be suspended and it has nothing to do with whether he is guilty or not and Booger McFarland gives his thoughts on steak and the National Anthem.

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3. Boddghahzd Ebbizode Wunn - Shep, Unintended Stonedness, Invasion Day And The National Anthem

  • Published: 2018-08-03T11:03:33Z
  • By Bigg Rigg
Boddghahzd Ebbizode Wunn - Shep, Unintended Stonedness, Invasion Day And The National Anthem

Welcome to Boddghahzd Ebbizode Wunn - Shep, Unintended Stonedness, Invasion Day And The National Anthem. More to come soon.

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4. National Anthem

National Anthem

My take on the National Anthem this Memorial Day

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5. Tool Of The Day: Butchering The National Anthem - Ryan Parker - 16/05/16

Tool Of The Day: Butchering The National Anthem - Ryan Parker - 16/05/16

For more Derringer audio go to: http://bit.ly/13R4vwr

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6. Tim Holbert of American Veterans Center - How You can take part in the National Memorial Day Parade

Tim Holbert of American Veterans Center - How You can take part in the National Memorial Day Parade

Tim Holbert of American Veterans Center on how people can take part in or observe the National Memorial Day Parade even if they can't come to Washington, DC. Breitbart News Daily airs Weekdays 6am to 9am ET on SiriusXM Patriot 125. Hosted by Breitbart News Executive Chairman Stephen K. Bannon "Breitbart News Daily" will feature interviews with major newsmakers, listener phone calls and interaction, Also Breitbart reporters throughout the country and around the world will report on breaking stories and events of the day.

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8. Jessye Norman~ Where is your Heart ?

  • Published: 2013-03-31T09:01:31Z
  • By pc1980
Jessye Norman~ Where is your Heart ?

Jessye Mae Norman (born September 15, 1945) is an American opera singer.Norman is a contemporary opera singer and recitalist, and is a successful performer of classical music.A dramatic soprano, Norman is associated in particular with the Wagnerian repertoire, and with the roles of Sieglinde, Ariadne, Alceste, and Leonore. Norman was born in Augusta, Georgia to Silas Norman, an insurance salesman, and Janie King-Norman, a school teacher.[4] She was one of five children in a family of amateur musicians; her mother and grandmother were both pianists, her father a singer in a local choir. Norman's mother insisted that she start piano lessons at an early age.[2] Norman attended Charles T. Walker Elementary School, A.R. Johnson Junior High School, and Lucy C. Laney Senior High School, all in downtown Augusta. Norman proved to be a talented singer as a young child, singing gospel songs at Mount Calvary Baptist Church at the age of four.[4] At the age of nine, Norman heard opera for the first time on the radio and was immediately an opera fan.[5] She started listening to recordings of Marian Anderson and Leontyne Price whom Norman credits as being inspiring figures in her career.[4] At the age of 16, Norman entered the Marian Anderson Vocal Competition in Philadelphia which, although she did not win, led to an offer of a full scholarship at Howard University, in Washington, D.C.[6] While at Howard, Norman sang in the university chorus and as a professional soloist at the Lincoln Temple United Church of Christ, while studying voice with Carolyn Grant. In 1965, along with 32 other female students and 4 female faculty, she became a founding member of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Alpha Iota. In 1966, she won the National Society of Arts and Letters singing competition.[7] After graduating in 1967 with a degree in music, she began graduate-level studies at the Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore and later at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, from which she earned a Masters Degree in 1968. During this time Norman studied voice with Elizabeth Mannion and Pierre Bernac.[5] [edit]Early career (1969–1979) After graduating, Norman, like many young musicians at the time, moved to Europe to establish herself. In 1969 she won the ARD International Music Competition in Munich and landed a three-year contract with the Deutsche Oper Berlin. She made her operatic début that same year as Elisabeth in Richard Wagner's Tannhäuser at the Deutsche Oper Berlin. Critics at the time described Norman as having "the greatest voice since the German soprano Lotte Lehmann."[8] In subsequent years Norman performed with various German and Italian opera companies appearing often as princesses or other noble figures. Norman was exceptional at portraying a commanding and noble bearing. This ability was partly due to her uncommon height and size, but more so as a result of her unique, rich, and powerful voice. Norman's range was uncommonly wide, encompassing all female voice registers from contralto to high dramatic soprano.[4] In 1970 she made her Italian début in Florence in Handel's Deborah. In 1971, Norman made her début at the Maggio Musicale in Florence appearing as Sélica in Meyerbeer's L'Africaine. That year she also sang the role of Countess Almaviva in Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro at the Berlin Festival and recorded the role that same year with the BBC Orchestra under the direction of Colin Davis. The recording was a finalist for the Montreux International Record Award competition and brought Norman much exposure to music listeners in Europe and the United States.[6] In 1972, Norman debuted at La Scala, where she sang the title role in Verdi's Aida and at London's Royal Opera at Covent Garden, where she sang the role of Cassandra in Berlioz's Les Troyens. Norman appeared as Aida again in a concert version that same year in her first well-publicized American performance at the Hollywood Bowl. This was followed by an all-Wagner concert at the Tanglewood Festival in Lenox, Massachusetts, and a recital tour of the country, after which Norman went back to Europe for several engagements.[6] Norman returned to the US briefly to make her first-ever New York City recital where she appeared as part of the "Great Performers" series at Alice Tully Hall in Lincoln Center in 1973.[6] In 1975 Norman moved to London and had no staged opera appearances for the next five years. While she gave as the reason for her withdrawal the need to fully develop her voice, others felt that this was a period of concern for her weight and thus her stage image.[unreliable source?][9] However, Norman remained internationally active as a recitalist and soloist in works such as Mendelssohn's Elijah and Franck's Les Béatitudes. Norman returned to North America again in 1976 and 1977 to make an extensive concert tour, but it was not until many years later that she would make her US Opera début or appear frequently in the United States. Only after Norman had established herself in Europe's leading opera houses and festivals—including the Edinburgh Festival, Salzburg Festival, Aix-en-Provence Festival, and the Stuttgart Opera—did Norman set out to establish herself in the United States. Norman toured Europe throughout the 1970s, giving recitals of works by Schubert, Mahler, Wagner, Brahms, Satie, Messiaen, and several contemporary American composers, to great critical acclaim.[10] [edit]Mid-career (1980–89) In October 1980 Norman returned to the operatic stage in the title role of Richard Strauss's Ariadne auf Naxos at the Hamburg State Opera in Germany. Norman made her United States opera début in 1982 with the Opera Company of Philadelphia, appearing in Stravinsky's Oedipus Rex as Jocasta and in Purcell's Dido and Aeneas as Dido.[8] Norman followed these with her début at the Metropolitan Opera in 1983, appearing in Berlioz's Les Troyens as both Cassandra and Dido, a production which marked the company's 100th anniversary season. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "By the mid-1980s she was one of the most popular and highly regarded dramatic soprano singers in the world."[10] She was invited to sing at the second inauguration of U.S. President Ronald Reagan on January 21, 1985, an invitation which she debated accepting, as an African American and a Democrat (as well as a nuclear disarmament activist). In the end, she did accept and sang the folk song "Simple Gifts". In 1986, Norman sang at Elizabeth II's sixtieth birthday celebration.[1] That same year Norman appeared as a soloist in Strauss's Four Last Songs with the Berlin Philharmonic during its tour of the USA.[11] In 1987, Norman joined the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and Herbert von Karajan in possibly the greatest rendition of the Liebestod from "Tristan und Isolde" by Wagner in a historical concert (filmed and recorded audio by Deutsche Grammophone) at the Salzburg Festival. The concert was then repeated some weeks later in Berlin, with Karajan and the Berlin Philharmonic. Over the years Norman has not been afraid to expand her talent into less familiar areas. In 1988 she sang a concert performance of Poulenc's one-act opera La Voix Humaine ("The Human Voice"), based on Jean Cocteau's 1930 play of the same name.[12] During the 1980s and early 1990s, Norman produced numerous award-winning recordings, and many of her performances were televised. In addition to opera, many of Norman's recordings and performances during this time focused upon art songs, lieder, oratorios, and orchestral works. Her interpretation of Strauss's Four Last Songs is especially acclaimed. Its slowness is controversial, but the tonal qualities of her voice are ideal for these final works of the Romantic German lieder tradition.[4] Norman is also known for the Gurre-Lieder of Arnold Schoenberg and for Schoenberg's one-woman opera Erwartung.[4] In 1989 Norman appeared at the Metropolitan Opera for a performance of Erwartung that marked the company's first single-character production. This opera was presented in a double bill with Bartók's Bluebeard's Castle with Norman playing the role of Judith. Both operas were broadcast nationally. That same year, Norman was the featured soloist with Zubin Mehta and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in its opening concert of its 148th season, which was telecast live to the nation by PBS.[11] Norman also performed at the Hong Kong Cultural Center opening and gave a recital at Taiwan's National Concert Hall.[2] Also in 1989, Norman was invited to sing the French national anthem, La Marseillaise, to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution on July 14. Her rendition was delivered at the Place de la Concorde in Paris, in a costume designed by Azzedine Alaïa as part of an elaborate pageant orchestrated by avant-garde designer Jean-Paul Goude.[6] [edit]Later career (1990–present) Since the early 1990s Norman has lived in Croton-on-Hudson, New York in a secluded estate known as "The White Gates" which she purchased from television personality Allen Funt. In 1990, Norman performed at Tchaikovsky's 150th Birthday Gala in Leningrad and she made her Lyric Opera of Chicago début in the title role of Gluck's Alceste. In 1991 Norman sang for the 700th Celebration Party of Swiss National Day.[2] That same year, she performed in a concert recorded live with Lawrence Foster and the Lyon Opera Orchestra amid the tantalizing acoustics at Paris's Notre Dame cathedral.[6] In 1992 Norman sang Jocasta in Stravinsky's Oedipus rex at the opening operatic production at the new Saito Kinen Festival in the Japanese Alps near Matsumoto.[11] In 1993, Norman sang the title role in the Metropolitan Opera's production of Ariadne auf Naxos. In 1994, Norman sang at the funeral of former first lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. In September 1995, she was again the featured soloist with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, this time under Kurt Masur's direction, in a gala concert telecast live to the nation by PBS making the opening of the orchestra's 153rd season. In 1996 Norman gave a highly lauded performance as the title character in the Metropolitan Opera's premier production of Janáček's The Makropulos Case. Starting in the mid-1990s, Norman began to move away from soprano stage-roles migrating heavily toward mezzo soprano roles.[6] In January 1997, Norman performed at the second inauguration of U.S. President Bill Clinton.[2] Jessye Norman's 1998–1999 performances included a recital at Carnegie Hall in New York City, which had an unusual program incorporating sacred music of Duke Ellington, scored for jazz combo, string quartet and piano, and featuring the Alvin Ailey Repertory Dance Ensemble. Other performances during the season included Das Lied von der Erde, with Seiji Ozawa and the Boston Symphony Orchestra, a television special for Christmas filmed in her home town of Augusta, Georgia, as well as a spring recital tour, which included performances in Tel Aviv. The following season also brought performances of the sacred music of Duke Ellington to London and Vienna, together with a summer European tour, which included performances at the Salzburg Festival.[11] In 1999 Norman collaborated with choreographer-dancer Bill T. Jones in a project for New York City's Lincoln Center, called "How! Do! We! Do!" In 2000, Norman later released an album, I Was Born in Love with You, featuring the songs of Michel Legrand. The recording, reviewed as a jazz crossover project, featured Legrand on piano, Ron Carter on bass, and Grady Tate on drums. In February and March 2001, Norman was featured at Carnegie Hall in a three-part concert series. With James Levine as her pianist, the concerts were a significant arts event, replete with an 80-page program booklet featuring a newly commissioned watercolor portrait of Norman by David Hockney. In 2002, Norman performed at the opening of Singapore's Esplanade Theatres on the bay.[2] On June 28, 2001, she and light lyric-coloratura soprano Kathleen Battle, performed Vangelis' Mythodea at the Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens, Greece. On March 11, 2002, Norman performed "America the Beautiful" at a memorial service unveiling two monumental columns of light at the site of the former World Trade Center, as a memorial for the victims of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York City.[6] In 2002 she returned to Augusta to announce that she would fund a pilot school of the arts for children in Richmond County. Classes commenced at St. John United Methodist Church in the fall of 2003. In November 2004, a documentary of Miss Norman's life and work to date, was created. This film, directed by André Heller, with Othmar Schmiderer as director of photography and produced by DOR-Film of Vienna, chronicles the music, the social and political issues, the inspiration and dreams that have combined to make this singer unique in her profession.[13] In 2006, Norman collaborated with the modern dance choreographer, Trey McIntyre, for a special performance during the summer at the Vail, Colorado Dance Festival.[2] In 2004, Norman was invited to serve as a mentor for the Rolex Mentor and Protégé Arts Initiative, an international philanthropic programme that pairs masters in their disciplines with emerging talents for a year of one-to-one creative exchange. Out of a very gifted field of candidates, Norman chose young Canadian mezzo-soprano Susan Platts as her protégée. Other music mentors for the initiative include Sir Colin Davis (2002), Pinchas Zukerman (2006), Youssou N'Dour (2008), Brian Eno (2010) and Gilberto Gil (2012). In March 2009, Ms. Norman curated Honor!, a celebration of the African American cultural legacy. The festival honors the courageous African American trailblazers and artists of the past with concerts, recitals, lectures, panel discussions, and exhibitions hosted by Carnegie Hall, the Apollo Theater, The Cathedral of St. John the Divine, and other sites around New York City. After more than thirty years on stage, Norman no longer performs ensemble opera, concentrating instead on recitals and concerts.[1] In addition to her busy performance schedule, Jessye Norman serves on the Boards of Directors for Carnegie Hall, the New York Public Library, the New York Botanical Garden, City-Meals-on-Wheels in New York City, Dance Theatre of Harlem, National Music Foundation, and Elton John AIDS Foundation. She is a member of the board as well as a National spokesperson for the S.L.E. Lupus Foundation, and spokesperson for Partnership for the Homeless. And in her home town of Augusta, Georgia, she serves on the Board of Trustees of Paine College and the Augusta Opera Association.[11] In March 2013, The Apollo Theater and Manhattan School of Music will present Ask Your Mama, featuring Norman, a 90-minute sonic tapestry and multimedia show of music, film, and spoken word by EmmyAward- winning composer Laura Karpman based on Langston Hughes’s “Ask Your Mama: 12 Moods for Jazz” that bursts the boundaries of time, place, and verbal expression to trace the currents and tributaries of cultural diasporas. [edit]The Jessye Norman School of the Arts The Mission of the Jessye Norman School of the Arts is to provide talented and interested youth, who may be economically disadvantaged, with a broad-ranged, professional quality fine arts education. It is the goal of the School of the Arts to nurture and develop young citizens to respect and appreciate art in its myriad forms and to recognize the role and value of the arts in their own lives and in society. The Jessye Norman School of the Arts is an after school program designed to develop and nurture the artistic and creative talents of students. The School of the Arts serves the cultural and educational needs of these traditionally under served youth by providing: Free fine arts instruction Academic tutoring An opportunity for advanced level study in dance, drama, music and art Exposure to professionals working within the arts fields Information on possible career in the arts Knowledge of technical aspects of presentation and performance. [edit]Opera roles These are notable opera roles that Norman has performed.[dead link][unreliable source?][14] Aïda, Aïda (Verdi) Alceste, Alceste (Gluck) Ariadne, Ariadne auf Naxos (Richard Strauss) Armida, Armida (Haydn) Carmen, Carmen (Bizet) Cassandre, Les Troyens (Berlioz) Countess Almaviva, The Marriage of Figaro (Mozart) Dido, Dido and Aeneas (Purcell) Donna Elvira, Don Giovanni (Mozart) Elisabeth, Tannhäuser (Wagner) Elle, La voix humaine (Poulenc) Elsa, Lohengrin (Wagner) Emilia Marty, The Makropulos Affair (Janáček) Giulietta, The Tales of Hoffman (Offenbach) Hélène, La belle Hélène (Offenbach) Idamante, Idomeneo (Mozart) Isolde, Tristan und Isolde (Wagner) (Act II in Concert) Jocasta, Oedipus rex (Stravinsky) Judith, Bluebeard's Castle (Bartók) Kundry, Parsifal (Wagner) Giulietta di Kelbar, Un giorno di regno (Verdi) Leonore, Fidelio (Beethoven) Madame Lidoine, Dialogues of the Carmelites (Poulenc) Marguerite, La damnation de Faust (Berlioz) Medora, Il Corsaro (Verdi) Pénélope, Pénélope (Fauré) Phedra, Hippolyte et Aricie (Rameau) Rosina, La vera costanza (Haydn) Salome, Salome (Richard Strauss) Salome, Hérodiade (Massenet) Santuzza, Cavalleria rusticana (Pietro Mascagni) Sélica, L'Africaine (Meyerbeer) Sieglinde, Die Walküre (Wagner) Third Norn, Götterdämmerung (Wagner) Woman, Erwartung (Schoenberg) [edit]Oratorio and orchestral parts performed These are among the notable oratorio and orchestral parts that Norman has performed.[6] (Beethoven), Missa solemnis (Beethoven), Symphony No. 9 in D minor, soloist (Alban Berg), "Der Wein" (Alban Berg), Sieben frühe Lieder, Altenberg Lieder, Jugendlieder (Berlioz), Les Nuits d'été (Berlioz), La mort de Cléopâtre, Cléopâtre (Berlioz), Romeo et Juliette, Juliette (Brahms), Lieder (Brahms), A German Requiem (Brahms), Alto Rhapsody (Bruckner), Te Deum [and] Helgoland [and] 150 Psalm (Chausson), Poème de l'amour et de la mer, op. 19 (Chausson), Chanson perpétuelle, op. 37 (Debussy), L'Enfant prodigue [and] La damoiselle élue (Henri Duparc), Mélodies (César Franck), Les Béatitudes (oratorio) (Haendel), Deborah, Deborah (Mahler), Das Lied von der Erde (Mahler), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (Mahler), Songs of a Wayfarer. (Mahler), Kindertotenlieder. (Mahler), Symphony No. 2 "Resurrection", soloist (Mahler), Symphony No. 3, soloist (Mozart), Die Gaertnerin aus Liebe (Francis Poulenc), Mélodies (Ravel), Shéhérazade (Ravel), Deux mélodies hébraïques (Ravel), Chansons madécasses (Erik Satie), Mélodies (Arnold Schoenberg), Brettl-Lieder (Arnold Schoenberg), Erwartung (Arnold Schoenberg), Gurrelieder (Franz Schubert), Lieder (Franz Schubert), Erlkönig (Robert Schumann), Frauenliebe und Leben, op. 42 (Robert Schumann), Liederkreis, op. 39 (Richard Strauss), Four Last Songs (Philips, 1983). (Richard Strauss), Lieder with piano (Michael Tippett), A Child of Our Time (Wagner), Wesendonck Lieder (Verdi), Requiem (Hugo Wolf), Lieder [edit]Concert and recital work Throughout her career, Norman has spent much of her time giving recitals and concerts and continues to do so today. In addition to her operatic recitals, Norman has given regular recitals encompassing the classical German repertory as well as contemporary masterpieces, such as Schoenberg's Gurre-Lieder and the French moderns, which she invariably performed in the original tongue.[11] This combination of scholarship and artistry contributed to her consistently successful career as one of the most versatile concert and operatic singers of her time. Often cited for her innovative programming and fervent advocacy of contemporary music, she has earned the recognition of "one of those once-in-a-generation singers who isn’t simply following in the footsteps of others, but is staking out her own niche in the history of singing."[11] Norman frequently collaborates with the world's best symphony orchestras, chamber ensembles, and other classical solo artists in her recital work. She has performed with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, New York Philharmonic, London Philharmonic, Israel Philharmonic, Orchestre de Paris, Stockholm Philharmonic, Vienna Philharmonic, and Berlin Philharmonic to name a few.[11] Norman premiered the song cycle woman.life.song by composer Judith Weir, a work commissioned for her by Carnegie Hall, with texts by Toni Morrison, Maya Angelou and Clarissa Pinkola Estés;[1] performed a selection of sacred music of Duke Ellington; recorded a jazz album, Jessye Norman Sings Michel Legrand; and was the soprano co-lead in Vangelis' project Mythodea.Norman commended herself in Mussorgsky's songs, which she performed in Moscow in the original Russian.[4] Other of Norman's diverse projects have included her 1984 album, With a Song in My Heart, which contains numbers from films and musical comedies, and a 1990 performance of American spirituals with soprano Kathleen Battle at Carnegie Hall.[6] [edit]Voice type Norman is most often referred to as a dramatic soprano but unlike most dramatic sopranos, Norman has become known for roles more traditionally sung by other types of voices. From her student days Norman had been selective about her repertoire, heeding her own instincts and interests more than the advice of her teachers or requests of her management. In the beginning of her career, this tendency put her at odds with the Deutsche Opera and compelled her to seek out musical works on her own that she felt were more suitable to her vocal skills. Norman told John Gruen of the New York Times, "As for my voice, it cannot be categorized—and I like it that way, because I sing things that would be considered in the dramatic, mezzo or spinto range. I like so many different kinds of music that I've never allowed myself the limitations of one particular range."[6] Some vocal critics assert that Norman is not a dramatic soprano but has in fact a rare soprano voice type known as a Falcon. The Falcon voice is closer to a mezzo soprano timbre, but closer to a dramatic soprano tessitura. Falcon roles specifically refers to pants roles written to be sung by sopranos instead of mezzos, as was written for Falcon. The roles are thus often sung by lyric mezzos.expand This mix of sound is why many fans, conductors, and critics immediately refer to her as a soprano or a mezzo with complete assurance and fair accuracy. Norman, however, refuses to place any labels on her voice. At the age of twenty-three, when asked by an interviewer in Germany, how she would characterize her voice, she replied that, "pigeonholes are only comfortable for pigeons."[15] Over the years Norman's technical expertise has been among her most critically praised attributes. In a review of one of her recitals at New York City's Carnegie Hall, New York Times contributor Allen Hughes wrote that Norman "has one of the most opulent voices before the public today, and, as discriminating listeners are aware, her performances are backed by extraordinary preparation, both musical and otherwise." Another Carnegie Hall appearance prompted these words from New York Times contributor Bernard Holland: "If one added up all the things that Jessye Norman does well as a singer, the total would assuredly exceed that of any other soprano before the public. At Miss Norman's recital ... tones were produced, colors manipulated, words projected and interpretive points made—all with fanatic finesse."[6] [edit]Honors and awards National Society of Arts and Letters singing competition (1966)[7] First prize at the ARD International Music Competition in Munich (1968)[2] Gramophone Award for her recording of Strauss' Four Last Songs (1982)[2] Musical America magazine's Musician of the Year.[16] Honorary doctorate from Howard University (1982)[17] Honorary doctorate from the Boston Conservatory of Music and the University of the South (1984)[17] Grammy Award for Best Classical Vocal Soloist Performance for "Ravel: Songs of Maurice Ravel" (1984)[2] Commandeur de l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France, 1984)[unreliable source?][dead link][unreliable source?][dead link][unreliable source?][dead link][18] France's National Museum of Natural History named an orchid for her (1984)[18] Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording for "Wagner: Lohengrin" (1988)[2] Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording for "Wagner: Die Walkuere" (1989)[2] Légion d'honneur (France, 1989)[18] Honorary Ambassador to the United Nations by UN Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (1990)[18] Honorary Doctor in Music from Juilliard School of Music (1990)[19] Norman's home town, Augusta, Georgia, dedicated Riverwalk Augusta's amphitheater, named in her honor (1991)[20] Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class (1995)[21] Norman was a featured performer during the opening ceremonies of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia[1] Winner of the 1997 Radcliffe Medal, presented annually by the Radcliffe College Alumnae Association to honor individuals whose lives and work have had a significant impact on society.[18] Norman was honored by New York's Associated Black Charities at the 11th Annual Black History Makers Awards Dinner for her contributions to the arts and to African American culture (March 1997)[22] Kennedy Center Honors (youngest recipient in the Honors' 20-year existence) (December 1997)[11] Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording for "Bartók: Bluebeard's Castle" (1998)[2] Honorary doctorate from Harvard University(1998)[17] Georgia Music Hall of Fame (1999)[1] Eleanor Roosevelt Val-Kill Medal for her work in the fight against lupus, breast cancer, AIDS, and hunger (2000)[1] Outstanding Alumnae by Howard University (2000)[2] Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award (2006)[2] On September 22, 2006 the city of Pasadena, California, named September 22 "Jessye Norman Day" after she gave a performance at Blair IB Magnet High School.[23] National Medal of Arts (2009)[24] She is a lifelong member of the Girl Scouts of the USA Member of the Royal Academy of Music[2] Awarded France's Grand Prix du Disque for albums of lieder by Wagner, Schumann, Mahler and Schubert.[25] Won Amsterdam's Edison Award; and recording honors in Belgium, Spain, and Germany. She was winner of an Ace Award from the National Cable Television Association for "Jessye Norman at Notre Dame."[25] 2010 National Medal of Arts presented by President by President Barack Obama in a ceremony at The White House in February 2010. 2011 Honorary Doctorate Degrees from The Manhattan School of Music and Northwestern University in June 2011. Jessye Norman has received honorary doctorates from more than 30 colleges, universities, and conservatories including Jesus College, Cambridge, the Manhattan School of Music, University of Michigan, Yale University, Northwestern University and Brandeis University.[26]

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9. National Anthem memorial day tribute to fallen and vetran and still serving soldiers

National Anthem memorial day tribute to fallen and vetran and still serving soldiers

view.dialogs.share.soundcloud.description

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10. July 4, 2012

July 4, 2012

CERN announces new discovery consistent with Higgs Boson | Dr. Michio Kaku discusses the basics of the Higgs Boson particle and what makes CERN's announcement so significant | Does the National Anthem reflect the country today? | George Washington letter on religious liberty found in a Maryland warehouse | A Rwandan-American's take on Independence Day | FDA approves an over-the-counter HIV test | The AIDS Memorial Quilt celebrates its 25th anniversary | Summer in the Parks series: finding the American identity.

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12. Finch Files Poltz Anthem 7 - 9-14

Finch Files Poltz Anthem 7 - 9-14

This is a story about the time the San Francisco Giants asked musician Steve Poltz to perform the National Anthem on Memorial Day. And then it got weird.

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13. The Greatest Sportsmen - Episode 10 - The Underdogs

The Greatest Sportsmen - Episode 10 - The Underdogs

In today's episode we discuss the NFL's new policy regarding the National Anthem, the best underdog teams, the NBA and NHL playoffs, as well as our Top 5 tv shows. Comment below your favorite underdog teams and top 5 tv shows. Enjoy your Memorial Day and be safe!

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14. Peace Be Still

Peace Be Still

for nearly 30 years, Kelly Wright has been reporting on major news events. a familiar face to millions of fox news viewers, Kelly is the co-anchor of America’s News Headquarters Weekends and former co-host of Fox and Friends Weekend. Kelly’s experiences in news have placed him on the front lines in Iraq, in Africa, London and Paris, and Washington DC. A two-time Emmy Award winner(capitol region), Kelly offers a unique perspective to his craft. Beyond his anchoring and reporting, Kelly is an ordained minister and gospel recording artist. He encourages people through his passionate preaching of the Good News in a bad-news world. As a singer, he has headlined at the legendary cotton club, at the Apollo Theater, performed on programs featuring Shirley Caesar, Cissy Houston, the late James Brown, Jonathan Butler, Vicki Winans, Mississippi Mass Choir and more. He has been featured on the Huckabee Show on several occasions, as well as appearing on TBN, performing the National Anthem for the Marine Corps Leatherneck Ball in New York, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery, and Pentagon for Memorial Day Services. his new project, Songs Of Inspiration, is a collection of songs near and dear to Kelly’s heart, with lyrics that have resonated throughout his life.

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15. June 29th, 2016 | Show Replay

June 29th, 2016 | Show Replay

On today's show, we talked to a secret celebrity guest, discussed what two things Chunky did the day before that had him having an identity crisis, and heard a woman who sung the national anthem in the Lincoln Memorial bring people to tears!

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16. The Three Gasbags - Episode 10

The Three Gasbags - Episode 10

The Three Gasbags talk about the new NFL rule regarding protesting during the national anthem. Plus, debate over Andre Drummond shooting threes and what are the best yard games to play on a holiday weekend? Also, don't forget the real meaning behind Memorial Day.

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17. The C.O.W.S Compensatory Call-In 05/26/18

The C.O.W.S Compensatory Call-In 05/26/18

The Context of White Supremacy hosts the weekly Compensatory Call-In. We encourage non-white listeners to dial in with their codified concepts, new terms, observations, research findings, workplace problems or triumphs, and/or suggestions on how best to Replace White Supremacy With Justice ASAP. We’ll use these sessions to hone our use of words as tools to reveal truth, neutralize White people. We’ll examine news reports from the past seven days and – hopefully – promote a constructive dialog.  #ANTIBLACKNESS On the heels of Bill Cosby's criminal conviction for sexual assault, and R. Kelly being muted and sued for accusations of being a sexual predator, Driving Miss Daisy's Morgan Freeman is the latest target of the #MeToo campaign, with multiple females accusing him of sexually inappropriate behavior. Fresh in time for the so called Memorial Day holiday, Suspected Racists who preside over the National Football League prohibited kneeling or any form of "disrespect" during the playing of the national anthem. Speaking of spectacle, across the pond the "royal wedding" prompted many to insist this high profile "interracial marriage" signals the end of White Supremacy. Prudent observers noted the nuptials coincided with the opening of the Grenfell Tower fire inquiry, which will investigate the cause of the inferno and assess culpability for the 2017 blaze that killed more than 70 people, many of them non-white. #RacismIsNotAPrivilege INVEST in The COWS – http://paypal.me/GusTRenegade CALL IN NUMBER: 641.715.3640 CODE 564943# The C.O.W.S. on ITunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-c.o.w.s./id572466171?mt=2 The C.O.W.S. on YouTube: www.youtube.com/channel/UCFBssQLBhsYf3oKiES4p1zA

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18. Yom HaShoah Siren, Yiskor, Kaddish and HaTikva

Yom HaShoah Siren, Yiskor, Kaddish and HaTikva

Originally recorded on Yom Hashoah May 11th 2011 as part of the Adam In The Morning English language radio show in Israel, this features the last few seconds of the sirens that sound all over Israel for 1 minute at 10am on Israel's Holocaust memorial day called 'Yom HaShoah' . The siren is followed by Yiskor- the Jewish memorial prayer for victims of the Holocaust, then by Kaddish- the mourners prayer, and finally by HaTikva, the national anthem of the State of Israel

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19. Is Hillary Out Of The Race?

Is Hillary Out Of The Race?

After Hillary faints at the 9/11 Memorial in New York questions are raised again about her health and medical situation. If Hillary drops out, who would replace her? Could Bernie be back in the running? Several NFL players take and knee and refuse to stand for the National Anthem on opening day, Jim shares his solution on how to deal with these unpatriotic players. Wells Fargo is fined $185 million dollars and Congress has issued more subpoenas regarding Hillary's e mail server.

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20. Jesus Loves Me

Jesus Loves Me

for nearly 30 years, Kelly Wright has been reporting on major news events. a familiar face to millions of fox news viewers, Kelly is the co-anchor of America’s News Headquarters Weekends and former co-host of Fox and Friends Weekend. Kelly’s experiences in news have placed him on the front lines in Iraq, in Africa, London and Paris, and Washington DC. A two-time Emmy Award winner(capitol region), Kelly offers a unique perspective to his craft. Beyond his anchoring and reporting, Kelly is an ordained minister and gospel recording artist. He encourages people through his passionate preaching of the Good News in a bad-news world. As a singer, he has headlined at the legendary cotton club, at the Apollo Theater, performed on programs featuring Shirley Caesar, Cissy Houston, the late James Brown, Jonathan Butler, Vicki Winans, Mississippi Mass Choir and more. He has been featured on the Huckabee Show on several occasions, as well as appearing on TBN, performing the National Anthem for the Marine Corps Leatherneck Ball in New York, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery, and Pentagon for Memorial Day Services. his new project, Songs Of Inspiration, is a collection of songs near and dear to Kelly’s heart, with lyrics that have resonated throughout his life.

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